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14 1981 .

N 144


II-23-81*
( . , .
25.07.1984 N 120, 11.12.1985 N 218,
29.12.1986 N 69, 08.07.1988 N 132,
12.07.1989 N 121)

1 1982
.
, . .. ,
"" "" .
27751-88 "
. "
3972-83 " . .
".
:
II-B.3-72 " . ";
II-B.3-72 " . ",
:
N 150 12 1975 .;
N 94 24 1976 .;
N 211 31 1978 .;
N 250 27 1978 .;
N 2 25 1980 .;
N 104 14 1980 .;
N 130 31 1981 .;
II-.9-62 " 1 .
" ( "
");
II-.9-62 " 1 .
", 10 1975 .;
"
" ( 376-67).
II-23-81* ,
N 120 25 1984 ., N 218 11 1985 ., N 69 29 1986 ., N
132 8 1988 ., N 121 12 1989 .
. 9*.
, , , , ,
, .
- .. , .. ( ), - .
. .. , . . .. ( ), .

.. ("" ), . .. (
"" ).
1 1987 . 1 1990 .
1.
1.1.
.
,
.
,
(, ,
, ,
, ,
, ),
,
(, , , )
, ,
,
.
1.2.

.

.
, , ,
.
.
1.3*. :
-
;
;
, ,
;
(
; , ;
, ,
);
;
,
, ;
, ,
;

( , ,
, , .);
, , ,
;
;

1.4.
, ,
,
, .
1.5*. , 345
375, ,
,
() ()
.

27772-88.
1.6*.
27751-88 " .
" 3972-83 " .
. ".
1.7.
.
, ,
.

.
,
.
1.8. , ,
.
,
, (
, )
.
-
,
.
1.9. ,
.
, ,
5%.
2.
2.1*. ,
.
. 50*.
, I1 , I 2 , II 2 , II3 ,
,
II 4 . 50*, 245 275
2.
14-14431-88.
2.2*. :
9467-75*; 2246-70*;
9087-81*; 8050-85.



Run , ,
,
.
2.3*. ( ..)
15, 25, 35 45,
II III 977-75*,
15, 20, 25 30, 1412-85.
2.4*. ,
1759.0-87*, 1759.4-87* 1759.5-87*,
, 18123-82*.
. 57* 15589-70*, 15591-70*,
7796-70*, 7798-70*, - 780570*.
5915-70*: 4.6, 4.8,
5.6 5.8 - 4; 6.6 8.8 -
5 6; 10.9 -
8.
: 11371-78*, 10906-78*
6402-70*.
2.5*.
24379.0-80, 24379.1-80*.
(U-) , U
: 092-8 1021-8
19281-73*
60 30 /2 (3 /2) I1 ; 092-6
1021-6 19281-73* I 2 , II 2 II3 ; 32
380-71* ( 1990 . 32-1 535-88) .
2.6*. U- :
32 20 - 4 1759.5-87*;
092 1021 - 5
1759.5-87*. , .
U- 48
5915-70*, 48 - 10605-72*.
2.7*. 22353-77*, 2235677* 14-4-1345-85; - 22354-77* 22355-77*.
2.8*. , ,
,
:
3062-80*; 3063-80*, 3064-80*;
3066-80*; 3067-74*; 3068-74*;
3081-80*; 7669-80*; 14954-80*;
3090-73*; 18900-73*; 18901-73*;
18902-73*; 7675-73*; 7676-73*;
, ,
7372-79*.
2.9. ,
, . 3.

3.
3.1*. ,
, . 1*.
1*

,
R
R = R /

y
y
yn
m

R
R = R /

u
u
un
m

R
R = 0,58R /

s
s
yn
m

(
R
R = R /
)


un
m


R
R
= 0,5R /
()

lp lp
un
m

(
R
R
= 0,025R /

cd cd
un
m
)

"
, ", N 12,
2008, " ( 60 )"
.

R
R
= 0,5R /
( 60 )

th th
un
m
, . 1*:
- ,
m
. 3.2*.

3.2*. ,
. 2*.
2*

27772-88 ( 590, 590);

1,025
14-1-3023-80 ( , , )

27772-88 ( 590, 590);

1,050
380-71** ( ,

14-1-3023-80); 19281-73*
[

380 (39 /2) ,


14-1-3023-80]; 10705-80*;

10706-76*

19281-73* [
1,100
380 (39 /2) ,
14-1-3023-80]; 8731-87;
14-3-567-76

, ,
. 51*, -
. 51, .
, ,
.
,
. 1*, Ryn Run
14-1-3023-80, 380-71** ( 1990 .
535-88) 19281-73*.
,
. 52*.
3.3.
. 53 54.
3.4.
, . 3.
3

.
R
R
= R
-

wy
wy
y
, -
R
R
= R

wu
wu
u


R
R
= 0,85R
,

wy
wy
y

R
R
= R

ws
ws
s

()

R

wf

wun

R
= 0,55------

wf

wm


R
R
= 0,45R

wz

wz

un

. 1. , ,
R

wun
, 9467-75*.
2. ,
, R
. 4*
wun
.
3.
wm

: 1,25 - R

wun
490

(5000 /2);
1,35 - R
590
wun
(6000 /2) .

4*

2246-70*) (

26271-84)

R
,
( 9087-81*) ( 8050-85)

wun

(/2)
(

10157-79*)

-08, -08

410 (4200)

-08

450 (4600)

-10

-082
-8, -3 490 (5000)

-10, -102
-082 <*>
590 (6000)

-082,

-102,
685 (7000)
-081

-082

-------------------------------<*>

-082 R

wun
590 (6000 /2)
k <= 8
f
440 (4500 /2) .



.

. 56.
3.5.
, . 5*.

5*

4.6; 5.6; 6.6 4.8; 5.8


8.8; 10.9

440 (4500 /2)

R
R
= 0,38R
R
= 0,4R
R
= 0,4R

bs
bs
bun bs
bun bs
bun

R
R
= 0,42R
R
= 0,4R
R
= 0,5R

bt
bt
bun bt
bun bt
bun

:
R

R
)

bp

un

R
= (0,6 + 410---)R

bp
E
un

un

R
= (0,6 + 340---)R

bp
E
un
.
40 "",
R
R


bs
bt
10.9, R

bp
.
14-4-1345-85
.

. 58*,
, , - . 59*.
3.6*.

Rba = 0,5 R

, (1)

U-

Rbv = 0, 45Run

Rba

Rbv

, . 2.5*,

. (2)

. 60*.
3.7.

Rbh = 0, 7 Rbun

. 61*.

Rbun

Rbh

, (3)

- ,

3.8.
,

Rdh

Rdh = 0, 63Run

. (4)

3.9. ()
,
,

m = 1,6.
4*.
:

n ,
;

u = 1,3 ,
R

u ;

c b ,
. 6* 35*, ,
, . 4*.
6*

1.
0,9
, , ,

, ,
.. ,

2.

0,95

3. ( )
0,8

(,
)

>= 60

4.
0,95
< 1,0

5. , , , ,
0,9

6.

) (

0,95
)

0,95
) , ,
1,05
(
)

440 (4500 /2),


,

7. , ,

1,1

440 (4500 /2),

-
( ),

8. ,

440
(4500 /2) ,

( ),

9.


( )
:

, :

. 9*,

. 9*, ,

. 9*, , ,

)
, (

. 9, ), -
-

) -
. 9*,

10. , -
(

),
, . 9 -
, . 9*, , -

, ,

11.

285 (2900 /2),

, , :

) 40

) . 40 60

)
"
60 " 80

. 1.

1,1
1,05

0,9
0,9
0,8
0,75

0,7
0,75

1,2
1,15
1,1
< 1

.
2. ,
. 1 6, ; 1 7; 1 8; 2 7; 2 8, ; 3 6,
,
.
3. , . 3; 4; 6, ,
; 7; 8; 9 10, . 5 6, (
),
.
4. , ,
= 1.

5.

- -
5.1. ,
N, . 5.2,
N
Ry c
An

. (5)


, ,

(5) (6). c (6) . 4*


.
5.2.

Ru / u > Ry

,
,
N Ru c

u
An

. (6)

5.3. ,
N,
N
Ry c
A

. (7)

:
0 < 2,5

= 1 0, 073 5,53

; (8)

2,5 < 4,5

= 1, 47 13, 0

Ry

E

0,371 27,3 y
E
E

Ry

Ry

+ 0, 0275 5,53
E

; (9)

> 4,5

332
( 51 )
2

. (10)

. 72.
5.4*.
, . 5.3.

i ef
. 6.1 - 6.7.

. 15.10* .
5.5. -
x < 3 y

, x y - ,
x-x y-y (. 1), ,
. 5.6 5.8*.
(7)
-

N
Ry c
c y A

, (11)

- , .

5.3;
- ,
2

c=
1+ +

= ax / h

J
bi

8J
J
+ 0,156 t 2 y2
2
J yh
Ah

16 2

, (12)

- .

(1 )

Jx + Jy
Ah

+ 2;

Jt =

1
biti3
3
;

- ;

ti

- ,

, . 1, ,
:
J
39 + 2
=
2
2
J yh
(6 + )

Jt
1 t
=
2
3 h
Ah

4 (3 + )
( 2 + )( 6 + )

, (13)

J
J y h2

Jt
Ah 2

=b/h

. 1. -
- , , -
5.6. ,
, (
) (8) - (10)
ef

. ef

ef , . 7.

. 2.

. 3.

.

1 , 2 3
40.
(. 1, , )

, .

80 ef
. , 120,
, .
5.7. , ..,
, ,
( )
:
.................................... 40i
"
"
.................................... 80i

i
,
, - .

.
5.8*. (, )


Q fic = 7,15 106 ( 2330 E / Ry ) N /

Q fic

, (23)*

N - ;

- ,
.

fic :
()
(), , ,
;
() -
(), , ;

, ,
Q

, 0,8 fic .
5.9. (. 3)
:
F, ,
F = Qs l / b

M1

; (24)

, ,
M 1 = Qs l / 2

, (25)

s - , .
5.10. .
(. 4)

N ad

N ad = N

Ad
A , (26)

N - ;
- ;
Ad

- ;
- ,
= al 2 / ( a 3 + 2b3 )

, (27)

a, l b - , . 4.

. 4.

5.11. ,
, ,
, (23)*.

5.12. ( ,
),
,
M
Ry c
Wn ,min

. (28)

QS
Rs c
Jt

. (29)

(29)
,
= a / (a d )

, (30)

a - ;
d - .
5.13.
, , ,

loc
loc =

F
Ry c
tlef

, (31)

F - ();
lef

- ,
; . 5.
lef = b + 2t f
t

, (32)

f - , (. 5, ),
,
(. 5, ).

. 5.

- ; -
5.14*. , (28),
:
x2 x y + y2 + 3 xy2 1,15 Ry c
xy Rs c
x =

, (33)

M
y
Jn

- ,

;
y

- , , loc ,
(31);
xy
- , (29) (30).

x y , (33) , xy
.
5.15. ,
. 5.12 5.14*,
M
Ry c
bWc

, (34)

c - ;
b
- , . 7*.
l

b ef
(
, );

l

lef

= l ( l - )

: ef = l
( l - );

.

5.16*. :
) ,
( ,
, ,
..);
l

) ef b,
, . 8*
,
0,75 .
8*

l
/b,

ef

( 1 <= h/b < 6 15 <= b/t <= 35)


l
___

ef
b
b b
/ E
--- = [0,35 + 0,0032-- + (0,76 - 0,02--)--] \
/ -- (35)
b
t
t h
\ /
R

\/
y


l
___

ef
b
b b
/ E
--- = [0,57 + 0,0032-- + (0,92 - 0,02--)--] \
/ -- (36)
b
t
t h
\ /
R

\/
y

l
___
- ef
b
b b
/ E
--- = [0,41 + 0,0032-- + (0,73 - 0,016--)--] \
/ -- (37)

b
t
t h
\ /
R

\/
y

, .
b t -
h - ()
. 1.

8*:
;
.


l /b,
ef
. 8*, 1,2.
2. b/t < 15 . 8*
b/t = 15.


.
:
(23)*,
= lef / i

( i -
), N

N = ( Af + 0, 25 Aw ) Ry

; (37, )


q fic = 3Q fic / l

q fic

, (37, )

- ;

Q fic

- , (23)*,
= 1, N - (37, ).
5.17. , ,

M
Mx
y y x Ry c , (38)
J xn
J xn
x y - .
, (38),
(29) (33) .
. 5.16*, ,
, .
5.18*.
530 (5400 /2), , .
5.19* - 5.21, 7.5 7.24
:
0,9 Rs

( )
M
Ry c
c1Wn ,min

; (39)


( )
My
Mx
+
Ry c
cxWxn ,min c yWyn ,min

M,
c1
cx

Mx

My

0,5 Rs

; (40)

- ;

- , (42) (43);

cy

- , . 66.

( M = 0;

Mx

Q
Rs c
th
. (41)

=0

My

= 0)

(39) (40)
cx

cy

c1

:
c1m = 0,5 (1 + c )

cxm = 0,5 (1 + cx )

c ym = 0,5 (1 + c y )

c1

0,5 Rs c1 = c

0,5 Rs < 0,9 Rs

(42)

c1 = 1, 05 c

, (43)

1 ( / Rs )
Q
=
2
=
1 ( / Rs )
th ;
2

; (44)

- , . 66;
t h - ;
- , = 0,7 ,
; = 0 ;
c1

- , .
. 5.20, 7.5, 7.24
c

13.1 , x y (39) (40)


, . 66, 1,0.

, (30).
5.19*.

M Q;
.
530
(5400 /2), ,
, ,
.
5.20. ,
, ,
. 5.16*, ,
lef / b

, . 8*,
c
c
= [1 - 0,7( 1 - 1)/(c - 1)], 1 < 1 <= c.
,
, . 5.16*, .

5.21. , ,
. 7.10, 7.12
7.13, .
5.22.
, ,
, 20%, ,
. 5.20, 5.21, 7.5 7.24
(39) .

M = M max

, (45)

max - ,
;
- ,

= 0,5 1 +

M ef

M max

; (46)

ef - , :
)
M1
M ef = max

1 + a / l
M ef = 0,5M 2

; (47)

, (48)

max ,
;
M1

- ,
;
M2

- ,
;
- ,
l - ;

M1

, ;
M

= 0,5M 3

) ef
M 3 - , ;

) ef
(47).
Q (44)
M

max . max - , .
5.23. ,
0,5Rs
. 5.22,

(40)
. 5.22.

,
5.24*. - -
m

(49) ef <=
20, ,
.
5.25*. -, -, - 530
(5400 /2),
N / ( An Ry ) > 0,1
0,5Rs
,

An Ry c

My
Mx
+
1
+
c
W
R
c
W
R

x
xn
y
c
y
yn
y
c
,min
,min

, (49)

y
x

-
N,
;

n,

cx

cy

- , . 5.

N / ( An Ry ) 0,1

, (49)
. 7.5 7.24.

My
N Mx
y
x Ry c

An J xn
J yn

, (50)

-
.
5.26. - -
(
), (-
).
5.27*. - -
( . 5.28* 5.33 )
, ,
N
Ry c
e A

. (51)

(51) e :
) . 74
mef ,
mef = m

, (52)

- , . 73;

m=

eA
Wc

- ( - ; c -
);
) ,
, ,

. 75 ef ( ef . 7)
m,
m=e

Aa
J , (53)

- , ,
, .
e = M/N M N
. 5.29.
- -

. 15*.
m > 20

ef

m > 20,
.
5.28*. - ,
530 (5400 /2) (
10 11 . 73), (51),

R
N
M

u c
u
An Wnt

, (54)

W
nt ,

= 1 N 2 ( 2 EA)

. (55)

5.29. N

.
:
-
;
-
;
, - ,
, ;
,
, - ,
;

- ,
, , - ,
. 9.
9

-
M
-
,
______

______
-
< 4

>= 4
M

max

______

m <= 3

M = M = M
- ------ (M
- M )
M = M

2
max
4
max
1
1

m - 3

m - 3
3 < m <= 20 M = M + ----- (M
- M )
M = M + ----- (M
- M )

2
17
max
2

1
17
max
1
, 9:
M
- ;
max
M -
1
, 0,5M
;
max
m - ,
m = M
A/(NW ).
max

. M >= 0,5M
.
max

- ,
m

, ef . 76.
5.30. -

(J

> Jy )

, ,
N
c y A

Ry c

, (56)

- , . 5.31;
y

- , . 5.3 .
5.31. (56) :

mx 5

c=

1 + mx

, (57)

- , . 10;

c=

mx 10

1
1 + mx y / b

, (58)

- , . 5.15 . 7*

; b = 1,0;

5 < mx < 10

c = c5 ( 2 0, 2mx ) + c10 ( 0, 2mx 1)

c5

mx

(57)

= 5, a

, (59)
c10

- (58)

mx

= 10.

10
m

x
x
:
- ,
, -
( );
, -
( , ).
y > c = 3,14 E / Ry

:
- ;
- ,

cmax = 2 / 1 + +

(1 )

2
16 M x

Nh

, (60)

= 4 /

= 2 + 0,156

bi

ti

= ( J x + J y ) / ( Ah 2 )

Jt 2
y
Ah 2

J t = 0, 433 bi ti3

- , ;

h - ;

, (173) . 6.
5.32. - ,
J < Jx
e 0

( y
y
), x > y (51),
-

N
Ry c
x A

, (61)

- , . 5.3 .

y
x
.
5.33. - ,
, ,
(51) -
(7).

. ,

y-y (. 7), :
3;

N ad = M / 2b

N ad = M / b

- 1

- 2; 3 ,
N

= 1,16M / b

-, ad
( b -
).
-
-
(
), . 5.36 .
5.34. ,
,
(J x > J y )

exy A

Ry c

, (62)

exy = ey 0, 6 3 c + 0, 4 4 c

ey

. 5.27* m

y y , c - . 5.31.

= m

y
ef , y


8 . 73.

mef , y < mx

(62)

(51) (56), y = 0.
:
mx = ex

A
Wcx

my = ey

A
Wcy

, (63)

cx cy -
- -.

x > y

, (62)

(51),

ey

= 0.

(J x > J y )

x 25%.
5.35. ,
- (. 6),
, ,
:
- , ,
e

. 5.27*, y = 0;
- - (51) (56),

Mx

(. . 5.33),

My

( y ,
).
(51) . 6.13 ,
(56) - .

. 6.

5.36. -
. 5.9 5.10
, : Q

.

Q fic

, . 5.8*

, ,
- , , .

5.37. ,
, -
.
,
,
.
0,3,
- 0,03.
5.38. ()
( ,
/ 2 )
F
Rlp c
1, 25rl

, (64)

F - () ;
r l - ;
Rlp

- ,
. 3.1* .
5.39.
F
Rcd c
ndl
, (65)

n - ;
d l - ;
Rcd

-
, . 3.1* .
6.


l

6.1. ef ,
, . 11.
11

ef

1. :

) ,

l
0,8l
. 1,

)
l

l
0,9l
-

2. ,

):

) ,

l
. 2,

) -
l

l
0,9l

1

, . 11 (. 7):
l - (
) ;
l - ,
1
( , ,
,

, .).

. 7.

- ; - ;
- ; - ;
-
6.2.
N1

N2

N1

>

N2

lef

), (. 7, , ; . 8)


N
lef = l1 0, 75 + 0, 25 2
N1

. (66)

. 8.

- ; - ( )

N1

6.3*. ef ,
(. 7, ), :
-
l

( ef = l);
: - . 12; (

lef

= 1 ).
12

ef

0,7l

l
-

1
:


0,7l

l
1,4l

0,7l

, 12 (. 7, ):
l - ;
l - .
1

6.4. i :

, l 0,9l ( l -
(i = i

min
) -
;
-

(
).

i = ix

i = iy

6.5*. ef i
.
13*.
13*

ef

. 9*, , ,

min

. 9*, , ,

1,14l

i i

x
y
:

. 9*, , ,

d d

min

. 9*, ,

d dc

min

. 9*,

min
:

. 9*,

0,8l

min

. 9*,

0,65l

min
, 13* (. 9*):
l
- , 14*;
dc
- ,
d
. 15*.
. 1.

. 9*, , ,
.
2. . 9*,


.
3. l

. 9*,

ef
.

. 9*.
, , - ;
, , -
14*

dc

1,3l
0,8L

. 9*,
1,3ld

1,6l
L
. 9*, :

d
1 < n <= 3
(1,75 - 0,15n)l (1,9 - 0,1n)l L

d
d
d
n > 3

1,3l

1,6l
L

l
l

d
(

..).

, 14*:
L - . 9*, , ;
d
J
l
m,min d
n = --------,
J
l
d,min m

J
J

m,min
d,min
.

15*

l

n
----,

d
i

min

60 . 60 160 . 160

( ), -

min
, 2
1,14 0,54 + 36 ---- 0,765

min
. 6 1,04 0,56 + 28,8 ---- 0,74

min
-1,12 0,64 + 28,8 ---- 0,82
n

l
, 15*:
n - . . 14*;
l - ,
: l
- . 9*, ,
d
. 14* ( - . 9*, , ).

; l
dc

. 1.

n 2 6
d
.
2.
, -
0,5(1 + );
d
- = 1,0.
d
3. . 9*, , ,
.
( ),
,
d
n " 2".



"
d
", l
. 13*
ef
0,5(1 + ).
d
d

ef i
:
- . 13*;

. 9*, , , : -

imin

; -

,
, ;
. 9*, , , -

ld

imin

ld

Ld

ix

ef i
"
".
l

6.6. ef i
(, . 21) . 16.
16

ef

i
l
i

ef

ef

i
l , l i
(. 21, )
m

min d
c min

m1

i
l , l i

m

y
d
c min
(. 21, )

1,12l
i

m1
x

, . 16:
i - ,
x
.


6.7.
. 17.

lef


17

ef

1. . 2 3

l
2. ( )
0,85l


3. ,

) ( ),
, l/i
:
min
90

. 90 120

"
120 " 150 (

. 150 200 (

) l/i
:

min

90

. 90 120

"
120 " 150 (

. 150 200 (

l
0,9l
0,75l
0,7l

l
0,95l
0,85l
0,8l

, . 17:
l - (
).

i
:
- ,
(

i = ix

i = iy

);

(i = imin )

()
l

6.8. ef ()

lef = l

, (67)

l - , ;
- .
6.9*.
.
.
6, . 71, .
6.10*.
:
.
17, ;

1 + 0, 46 ( p + n ) + 0,18 pn
0 + 0, 93( p + n) + 0, 71 pn

. (70, )
17,

(70, ) p n :
p=

:
:

J i lc
lJ c

n=

J s lc
lJ c

p = 0,5(p + p ); n = n + n ;
1
2
1
2
"

"
= 0,5 ( + ); n = 0,5 (n + n );
1
2
1
2
"

"
p = p + p ; n = 0,5 (n + n ),
1
2
1
2

1 ; 2 ; 1 ; 2 . 17, .
(69) (70, , , )
p = 0 n
=0(

Ji = 0

J =0

J =

J =

s
), p = 50 n = 50 ( i
s
).
/ > 6 ( - , -
) ,
.
. (),
( ) ,
.




ef = J c N i / ( N c J i )

, (71)*

- , .
17, ;
Jc

c -
;

i -
(
J

); i ,
.

ef , (71)*, 0,7.
6.11*.
. 6.

:

;
,
,
;
( )
,
,
, ;

. 18.

l2 / l1 0, 6

N1 / N 2 3

18

J /J ,

2 1

. 0,1

. 0,05

0,3

0,1

2,5

3,0

3,0
,
2,0

2,0

3,0

,
1,6

2,0

2,5

,
1,2

1,5

2,0

, 18:
l ; J ; N - ,
1...1...1

;
l ; J ; N - , .
2
2
2

6.12. .
6.13. ( )

( , ;
..).
, .
6.14.
:
- (
), ,
;
( ) -
,
, .

6.15*. ,
. 19*.
19*

1. , ,

) ,
180 - 60

50

120
,

. 50

2. , . 1 7:

) ,
210 - 60

) 220 - 40

3. ,
220
(
. 1)

4.
180 - 60
5. ( ,
210 - 60
..), ,

( )

6. , . 5,

200
, -
,
, . 7

7. -
150
,
,

, 19*:
N
= ------------ - , 0,5
R
y

( ).


6.16*.
. 20*.

20*

- -
, - (. . 4)
-

1.

250
400

250
(

) -

2.
350
400

300
, -

. 1

3.

150

4.

300
300

200

( )

5.

400
400

300
6*. ,

250

7.

350

. 6 8

8.
150

), -

. 1. ,
,
.
2.

, .
3. ,
,
,


40i.
4.
7 ( )
8 25546-82.
5. ,
,
,

.

7.



7.1. :
, ;
;

(
).
(),
,
. :
a - ;
hef

- (. 10),
, -
, ,
, - ,
(. 11) - ;
t - .

. 10.
- ; - ;
-

. 11.
7.2*.

( , loc ).

, loc

b .

,
"", :
=

M
y
Jx

; (72)

Q
th , (73)

h - ;
M Q -
; , M Q
, ;
,
.
loc

. 5.13 13.34* ( f 1 = 1,1) .


, ,
:
loc .
,
(74)
0, 9 c

< 3,8
w
c w 3,8 .
7.3. ,
w =

hef

Ry

(33)
:
3,5 -
;
3,2 - , ;
2,5 - .

. 7.10, 7.12 7.13 .
7.4*. ,
,

6
( loc = 0) w

( / cr ) + ( / cr )
2

, (74)

- , . 6* ;
cr =

ccr Ry

w2

; (75)

cp = 10,3 10 +

0, 76 Rs
. (76)
2 ef2

(75) cr :
- . 21 :
21

<= 0,8 1,0 2,0


4,0
6,0 10,0 >= 30

30,0 31,5 33,3 34,6 34,8 35,1 35,5


cr

bf

tf

bf t f

hef t

, (77)

- ;

- , . 22;

ccr

= 35,2.
22

0,8
. ,

= 0,8.

ef =

(76)

d
t

Ry
E

,
h

d - ( ef a);

- .
7.5.

0,9 Rs
,
( loc = 0)
Af / Aw 0, 25

2, 2 < w 6


M Ry c hef2 t ( Af / Aw + )

, (78)

= 0, 24 0,15 ( / Rs ) 8,5 103 ( w 2, 2 )


2

c . 6*, - (73).
7.6*. ,
(. 12),
( 0 )

loc

+ loc

cr loc ,cr


+ c
cr

, (79)

c - . 6* ;
; loc ; - . 7.2*;
cr
- (76).

. 12. ,
(1)
- F ;
- ,

cr

a / hef 0,8

loc ,cr

(79) :

)
cr
- (75);
loc ,cr =

c1 Ry

a2

, (80)

c1

- , . 23
a / hef

, (77),
- . 23, ;
a =

a
Ry / E
t
.

23

c a/h ,

1
ef

<= 0,5 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 >= 2,0

<= 1 11,5 12,4 14,8 18,0 22,1 27,1 32,6 38,9 45,6
2 12,0 13,0 16,1 20,4 25,7 32,1 39,2 46,5 55,7
4 12,3 13,3 16,6 21,6 28,1 36,3 45,2 54,9 65,1
6 12,4 13,5 16,8 22,1 29,1 38,3 48,7 59,4 70,4
10 12,4 13,6 16,9 22,5 30,0 39,7 51,0 63,3 76,5
>= 30 12,5 13,7 17,0 22,9 31,0 41,6 53,8 68,2 83,6

23,

a/h
0,5 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2,0
ef

c
13,7 15,9 20,8 28,4 38,7 51,0 64,2 79,8 94,9
1

, loc
b
t
(77) f f
;
a / hef > 0,8
/
)
loc
, . 24,

cr

cr =

-
c2

loc ,cr

c2 Ry

w2

, (81)

- , . 25;

- (80),

a / hef > 2

a = 2hef

a / hef > 0,8

)
loc ,cr / , . 24:
cr
- (75);
loc ,cr

- (80), 0,5
(80) . 23.

24


/ a/h ,

loc
ef

0,8 0,9 1,0 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 >= 2,0

<= 1 0 0,1460,1830,2670,3590,4450,5400,618

2 0 0,1090,1690,2770,4060,5430,6520,799

4 0 0,0720,1290,2810,4790,7110,9301,132

6 0 0,0660,1270,2880,5360,8741,1921,468

10 0 0,0590,1220,2960,5741,0021,5392,154
>= 30 0 0,0470,1120,3000,6331,2832,2493,939

- 0 0,1210,1840,3780,6431,1311,6142,347

25

/h
<= 0,8
0,9 1,0 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 >= 2,0
ef

c . 21, 37,0 39,2 45,2 52,8 62,0 72,6 84,7


2 .. c = c

2
cr

cr .
7.7. ,
h

, 1
() (. 13), ,
, :
) 3, ,

/ cr1 + loc / loc ,cr1 + ( / cr1 ) c


2

, (82)

c . 6* , , loc -
. 7.2*.

. 13. ,

- F ;
- , ; 1 -
; 2 - ; 3 -
; 4 -

cr1 loc ,cr1 :

loc = 0

cr1 =

4, 76 Ry
1 h1 / hef 12

, (83)

1 =

loc 0

h1
t

Ry
E

1 = a / h1 2
cr1 =

1,19 Ry
1 h1 / hef 12

loc ,cr1 = (1, 24 + 0, 4761 )

; (84)
Ry

a2

, (85)

2
1
;
1

Ry
.
E

= 1 +

a =

a
t

(86)

a / h1 > 2

a = 2h1 cr1
, cr1 loc ,cr1
;

(76)
;
) 4, ,
(1 2h1 / hef )
2
loc 2
+

+
c
cr 2
loc ,cr 2 cr 2

, (87)

cr 2 =

( 0,5 h / h )
1

loc ,cr 2

Ry

5, 43

ef

w2

; (88)

- (80) . 23 = 0,8,
a/h

a /( h h )

ef
ef
1

;
cr 2
- (76)
;
loc 2 = 0, 4 loc
- (. 13, );
loc 2 = loc
- (. 13, ).

c . 6* .
7.8. 3
(. 14).

. 14. ,
(1), (2),
(3)
(4) ,
(5)

3 (82) - (86),
a

1 , 1 -
(. 14); 4
. 7.7, .
7.9. (
) . 7.4*, 7.6* - 7.8
:
, , (75)
(81) . 25

hef


a / hef > 0,8
0
() .
loc

loc /
;
, . 7.6*, 7.6*, ,
, ,
:
h1
) (83), (84) (87)

) (88)

h1 / hef

( 0,5 h / h )
1

ef

t
=

,
t

2hef

1 h1

hef

- ( "")

.
()
(90).
7.10. ,

w 3,2
2,2 - .

w > 3, 2

2hef

3, 2

2, 5hef

w
.

3hef

, . 7.4*, 7.6* - 7.9


. 5.16*, 5.16*, ,
l /b

ef
,
. 8* , .

.
, ,
bh

-
2bh Ry / E

hef / 24 + 50

ts

hef / 30 + 40

.

, .

, , ,
, .
7.11.
J

s :
-
J s = 3hef t 3

; (89)

- . 26 .
26

h /h


1 ef

sl

sl,min

sl,max

2 3

3
0,20
(2,5 - 0,5a/h ) a t /h
1,5h t

7h t

ef
ef
ef

ef

2 3

3
0,25
(1,5 - 0,4a/h ) a t /h
1,5h t

3,5h t

ef
ef
ef

ef

0,30

1,5h t

ef

J

sl
.

h /h
1
ef


,
.

. 7.10.
7.12.
,
.
0, 65t E / Ry


.
.
(. 15)
.
: (. 15, )
1,5t; (. 15, ) -

Rp

Rp

<= 1,5t

Ry

>

. 15.
- ; -


.
7.13. ,
, ,
,
.
0, 65t E / Ry


.
.
-, -
-
h /t

7.14*. ef
-
(m = 0), - - . 16* (m >
0), , . 7.16*, ,
uw E / Ry

, uw . 27*.
27*



______

______

______

uw

m = 0
______
______
______2

< 2,0
= 1,30 + 0,15

uw

______
______
______

>= 2,0
= 1,20 + 0,35 ,

uw

2,3

, ______
______
< 1,0
= 1,2

uw

______
______
______

>= 1,0
= 1,0 + 0,2 ,

uw

1,6


, ______
______

< 0,8
= 1,0

uw

______
______
______

>= 0,8
= 0,85 + 0,19 ,

uw

1,6

m >= 1,0
,______
______
______2
< 2,0
= 1,30 + 0,15

uw
1

______
______
______

>= 2,0
= 1,20 + 0,35 ,

uw
1

3,1
, 27*:
______
- ,
;
______
-

,

1
.
. 1.
(, ).
2. m > 0

uw
, .
______
3.
0 < m < 1,0


uw
, m = 0 m = 1,0.

. 16*. -

7.15. . 28.
7.16*. - -
(. 16*), (56),
h

ef t
= ( 1 ) /
( - ,

"" e , exy c ;
1
- )
, :

0,5 - . 7.14* ;
" 1 -

hef
t

= 1, 4 ( 2 1)

= 4,35

( 2 1) E

2 + 2 + 4 2

3,8

E
Ry

, (90)

Q
th

(
-
);
0,5 < < 1 - ,
= 0,5 = 1.
7.17*. - -
, (
h /t

), . 7.16* ef

0,75.
7.18*. -, - -
0,8 4

1 b f / hef 2

bf
E
= ( 0, 40 + 0, 07 ) 1 + 0, 25 2

t
hef
Ry

hef

bf

, (91)*

- ;

hef

- .
< 0,8

> 4 (91)*
= 0,8

= 4 .
,
h /t

ef

Rym /
=
=
( m
m e , = N / A ), 1,25.

7.19*. - ,

,

hef

hef / t

, . 7.14*,

J sl / ( hef t 3 ) 6

= 1 + 0, 4

J sl
J
1 0,1 sl 3
3
hef t
hef t

, (92)

sl - .
- -
J sl 6hef t 3


,
,


. 7.14* 7.16*.

, .
.
h

ef
.

. 7.10 .
h /t

7.20*. , ef

, . 7.14* ( -
),
hred

hred

Ared

hred 1


,
):

:

Ared = A ( hef hred ) t

Ared = A 2 ( hef hred ) t 2 ( hef 1 hred 1 ) t1

Ared = A 2 ( hef hred ) t

hred

:
-
hred = t uw E / Ry

, (92, )

uw - , . 27*;
-

hred = t uw w 1 ( uw k )
uw

Ry

, (92, )

uw - , .
27* m = 0;
w =
w =

hef

Ry

hef 1

Ry

t1

- ,

;
,

hred 1


= 3,5
k = 1, 2 + 0,15 ( > 3,5
)
k = 2,9 + 0, 2 0, 7w

> 2, 3

( w

, . 27*;

w = 2, 3

); -

- - (92, ),

1
uw . 27*, k
.

(7), (51), (61) (62)
.

7.21*.

hef / t 2,3 E / Ry

, (2,5 - 3) ef
; .

. 7.10 .
() -, -,
-
b

7.22*. () ef
: - (
) (); -
; (. 11) -
().
7.23*. -, - -
0,8 4
b

() ef t ,
. 29*.
29*

(

)

ef

--
t

b
__
ef
______
/E
--- = (0,36 + 0,10 )\
/ - t
\ / R

\/
y

b
__

ef
______
/E
--- = (0,54 + 0,15 )\
/ - t
\ / R

\/
y


b
__
( ef
______
/E
)
--- = (0,40 + 0,07 )\
/ - t
\ / R

\/
y

-b
__
ef
______
/E
--- = (0,50 + 0,18 )\
/ --

t
\ / R

\/
y

-b
__

ef
______
/E

--- = (0,43 + 0,08 )\


/ - t
\ / R

\/
y

b
__

ef
______
/E
--- = (0,85 + 0,19 )\
/ - t
\ / R

\/
y

< 0,8
> 4 . 29*

= 0,8

= 4 .

7.24.
t , . 30.

bef


30

ef

--

b
__

ef
/E

--- = 0,5 \
/ -

t
\ / R

\/
y

b
__

ef
/E

--- = 0,75 \
/ -

t
\ / R

\/
y

b /t = 0,11 h /t ,

ef
ef w

____
<1>

0,5 \/E/R

b /t = 0,16 h /t ,

ef
ef w

____

0,75 \/E/R

b
ef

-------------------------------____
<1> h /t <= 2,7 \ /E/R

ef w
\/
y
/t :

___
b /t = 0,3 \ /E/R ;
ef
\/
y

____
/t = 0,45 \ /E/R .
ef
\/
y
, . 30:
h
- ;
ef
t - .
w

7.25.

0,3bef

aef

, ,

, (. 11),

0, 2bef

- ,

2aef Ry / E

,
.
7.26*. -
b /t

ef
. 27*
.
- -
b /t

ef
:
m <= 0,3 - - ;
2 + 0, 04m bef / t = E / Ry
m >= 1,0
;
> 2 + 0, 04m
m >= 1,0
bef / t = ( 0, 4 + 0, 3 ) (1 0, 01m )

E
Ry

0,3 < m < 1


bef / t

b /t

ef

,
m = 0,3 m = 1.
7.27*. -, - , -
,


Rym /
, 1,25.
:

bef / t

-, - - : m

, e , exy , c ,
; = N / A ;

M
M
= x y y x
Jx
Jy

m = 1

M
W b

8.

8.1. ( ),
,
x2 x y + y2 + 3 xy2 Ry c

, (93)

x y -
;
c
- ,
.

, c .
8.2. (. 17),
, ,
:
1 2
r1

1 =

r1

r2

p
t

; (94)

F
2 rt cos

, (95)

- ;

r2

-
;
p - ;
t - ;
F - z-z ,
abc (. 17);
r - , . 17.

. 17.
8.3. ,
, :

1 =

pr
2t = pr ; (96)
2


1 = 2 =

pr
2t ; (97)


1 =

pr
2t cos

2 =

pr
t cos

, (98)

p - ;
r - (. 18);

- z-z (. 18).

. 18.
8.4. ,
( ).

8.5.
, ,
1 c cr1

cr1

, (99)

- ;

y
- ,
cEt/r ( r ; t - ).
0 < r/t <= 300

= 0,97 0, 00025 + 0,95

Ry r

E t

. (100)

c . 31.

31

r/t 100 200 300 400 600 800 1000 1500 2500

c 0,22 0,18 0,16 0,14 0,11 0,09 0,08 0,07 0,06


,
3/ 2
0, 07 E ( t / r )


, cr1
(1,1 0,1 1 / 1 )

) , 1 - (
).
8.6. , -
= Ry / E 0, 65
,

r / t 3,14 E / Ry

. (101)


. 5 .
, r/t
, (101).
8.7. ,
b 2 / ( rt ) 20

, ,
( b -
, )
:

0,8Ry

b
E
1,9
t

; (102)

= Ry
R
b
37 / 1 + 500 y
t
E

0,8 R < < Ry

. (103)

b/t

b 2 / ( rt ) > 20

. 8.5.
8.8*.
p,
,
2 c cr 2

, (104)


cr 2

2 = pr / t

- ;

- , :
0,5 <= l/r <= 10
cr 2 = 0,55 E ( r / l )( t / r )

3/ 2

; (105)

l/r >= 20
cr 2 = 0,17 E ( t / r )

; (106)

10 < l/r < 20 cr 2 .


l - .
, , s
>= 0,5r , (104) - (106)
s l.

. 5.3 N = prs

lef = 1,8r

0, 65t E / Ry

= Ry / E

,
,

6,5.

, .
8.9.
, , . 8.5 8.8*,

1

+ 2 c
cr1 cr 2

, (107)

cr1 . 8.5, cr 2 -
. 8.8*.

8.10.
<= 60, N (. 19)
N c N cr

Ncr

, (108)

- ,
N cr = 6, 28rmt cr1 cos 2

t - ;

, (109)

cr1

- , . 8.5

rm

,
rm =

0,9r2 + 0,1r1
cos

. (110)

. 19.

8.11.
p, ,

2 c cr 2

, (111)

= prm / t
2
- ;
cr 2
- ,

cr 2 = 0,55E ( rm / h )( t / rm ) , (112)
3/ 2

h - ( );
rm

- , (110).
8.12. ,
, . 8.10 8.11,

+ 2 c
N cr cr 2

, (113)

cr cr 2 (109) (112).
8.13. ( ) r/t
<= 750 p, ,

c cr

= pr / 2t - ;

, (114)

cr = 0,1Et / r

- ,
r - .

Ry



8.14.

.
8.15.

.
8.16. ,
,
.

:
;
;
,
;
.
8.17.
, . 8.16,
.
8.18.
, .
8.19. ,
, . 8.18
(
1,2).
9.
9.1. ( ,
, ,
.),
,
105 , ,

,
, .

.
, , ,
- , ,
.
,
.
9.2*.
max Rv v

, (115)

v - , . 32*
,
. 83*;
- , n :
n < 3,9 106

:
1 2
2

n
n
0,5 6 + 1, 75
6
10
10

= 0, 064

; (116)

3 - 8
2

n
n
0, 64 6 + 2, 2
6
10
10

= 0, 07

n 3,9 106 = 0, 77

; (117)

- , . 33
= min / max


; max min
,

, e , b .
"".
32*


R
-
v

R , (/2)

un

420 . 420 (4300). 440 (4500). 520 (5300). 580 (5900)


(4300) 440 (4500) 520 (5300) 580 (5900) 635 (6500)

1
120 (1220) 128 (1300) 132 (1350) 136 (1390) 145 (1480)
2
100 (1020) 106 (1080) 108 (1100) 110 (1120) 116 (1180)

90 (920)
4


75 (765)
5

"
60 (610)
6

"
45 (460)
7

"
36 (370)
8

"
27 (275)

33



max

2,5

-1 <= <= 0

= -------

v
1,5 -

2,0

0 < <= 0,8

= -------

v
1,2 -

1,0

0,8 < < 1

= -----

v
1 -

-1 <= <= 1

= -----

v
1 -

Rv v
(115)

R /
u u .
9.3. ,
5

10 ,
,
,
.
10.

- - ,
,
I1 , I2 , II2 , II3 , II4 II5 ,

max Ru / u

, (118)

max

- ,

b ;

- , . 84.
, ,
,
, . 5 .
11.

11.1*.

N
Rwy c
tlw

, (119)

t - ;
lw

- , , 2t,
.
,
R
R /
. 5.2, (119) wy wy u .

. 2,
.
11.2*.
() (. 20):

. 20.

1 - ; 2 -

( 1)
N / ( f k f lw ) Rwf wf c

; (120)

( 2)
N / ( z k f lw ) Rwz wz c

lw

, (121)

- , 10 ;

z - , :
530 (5400 /2) - . 34*; 530
(5400 /2) ,
= 0, 7
=1
z
;
f
wf
wz

- , 1 ,
, I , I , II II ,
wf = 0,85
R
wun = 410 (4200

/2) wz - .

34*

d,

3 - 8 9 - 12 14 - 1618

1,1

0,7
d = 3 - 5
f

1,15

1,0

1,1
0,9

0,7

1,15
1,05

1,0

0,9
0,8
0,7
-
f

d = 1,4 - 2

1,05

1,0

,
0,9 0,8
0,7
-
f

1,05
1,0

z

; -

0,7
,
f

1,0

,
z
d < 1,4

.
.

, ,
285 (2900 /2)
. 3.4 ,
R

wf wz ,
- 1,1
R /

wz , wz z f ;
285 (2900 /2)
,
Rwz < Rwf Rwz z / f


, . 55*.

11.3*.
, ,
:

M
Rwf wf c
Wf

; (122)


M
Rwz wz c
Wz

Wf

, (123)

- ;

Wz

- , .

:

M
J fx + J fy

x 2 + y 2 Rwf wf c

; (124)


M
J zx + J zy
J

x 2 + y 2 Rwz wz c

, (125)

fx fy -
;
J zx

zy - , ;
- ,
, .
11.4. ,
,

(33), x , y ,
xy
R
y = wy
x = wx
y :

-
;
xy = wxy
R = Rwy
- ; y
.
11.5.

f Rwf wf c

z Rwz wz c

, (126)

f z -
, ,
.


11.6. N,
,
.
11.7*.
:

Nb

, ,

Nb = Rbs b Ans

; (127)


N b = Rbp b d t

; (128)


Nb = Rbt Abn

. (129)

, (127) - (129):
Rbs

, bp , bt - ;
d - ;
A = d 2 / 4 - ;
Abn

- ;
. 1 22356-77*;

Abn

t - , ;
ns

- ;
- , .

35*.
35*

1.
:

1,0
,

0,9

2.

a = 1,5d b = 2d
,
(/2):
285 (2900)
. 285 (2900) 380 (3900)
, . 35*:
a -

;
b - , ;
d - .

0,8
0,75

. 1. ,
. 1 2,
.
2.

a b,
. 2 . 39,

b
.

c
. 11.8.
11.8. n N

n

N
c N min

, (130)

min - ,
. 11.7* .
11.9. ,
,
.
11.10. , ,
.
,
, .
11.11.
,
10%.

, ,
50%.

11.12.
,

.
.
Q

11.13*. bh ,
, ,

Qbh =

Rbh b Abn

, (131)*

bh - ;

- , . 36*;
h
- , . 36*;
Abn

- , . 62*;

- , n ,
, :
0,8 n < 5;
0,9 5 <= n < 10;
1,0 n >= 10.
36*

() -
-
h

-
,
-

= 3 - 6;
= 1;

= 5 - 6
= 1 - 4

1. - M
0,58
1,35

1,12
- " 0,58
1,20

1,02

2. , " M
0,50
1,35

1,12
( - " 0,50
1,20

1,02
-

3. -" M
0,50
1,35

1,12
-" 0,50
1,20

1,02

4.
" M
0,42
1,35

1,12
- " 0,42
1,20

1,02

5. " M
0,35
1,35

1,17
- " 0,35
1,25

1,06

6.
" M
0,25
1,70

1,30
" 0,25
1,50

1,20
. 1.

M
, -
.
2.

,
.

N
Qbh k c

, (132)*

k - .

P = Rbh Abn

11.14. ,
, , ,
, .
:
-

An 0,85 A

An

, -

Ac = 1,18 An

An < 0,85 A


11.15. (
..) .
- - ,
,

,
.

11.16. ,
, . 37*.
37*

:

T/(2 k ) <= R ;
(133)

f f
wf
wf

T/(2 k ) <= R
(134)

z f
wz
wz

-
T/( k ) <= R ;
(135)

f f
wf
wf

T/( k ) <= R
(136)

z f
wz
wz

aT <= Q k
(137)*

bh


_______
\ / 2
2

\/ T + V /(2 k ) <= R ; (138)

f f
wf
wf

_______

\ / 2
2

\/ T + V /(2 k ) <= R ; (139)

z f
wz
wz

_____________

\ / 2
2 2

a \/ T + V <= Q k
(140)*

bh

, . 37*:
QS
T = -- - ,
J
Q, S -
;
F
f
V = ------- -
F (
l
ef
,
), - ,
f


, l
ef
,
. 5.13 13.34* ;
- ,
, ,
= 0,4,
= 1;
a - ;
Q

,
bh
(131)*;
k - .



.

, ,
(138) - (140)* . 37*
.
, ,
.
11.17.

,
.
,
.
: .
, , . 53-1022004, 20.04.2004 N -2596/9.

12.

12.1*. :
,
,

( , , ,
..);

- ,
- ;

,

-;

- (
) -;
(
..);
,
, ,
( , , ..),
;
, .
12.2.
,
, ,
(
, ,
) ( ,
, ,
, .).
12.3.

:
,
, ;


;
,
, .
,

.
12.4*.
.
,
, 15150-69*.

12.5. ,
( , ),

, .
,

,
.

12.6. :

;

.
12.7. 8713-79*,
11533-75, 14771-76*, 23518-79, 5264-80 11534-75.
12.8.
:
)
;
)
. 38*;

kf
kf

1,2t, t -
,

) 4
;

85 k

kf

40

f f
( f - ,
)
. 34*), ,
;
) 5
;
) , , 1:1.

, , ,
. 12.8, , . 12.8, ;
) , ,
I I II
II
1 , 2 , 2 3 ,

.

38*

k , ,

(/2)
t,

4 -6 - 11 -17 -23 -33 -41

5 10 16 22 32 40 80

430 (4400) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

;
. 430 (4400) 5 6 7 8 9 10 12

530 (5400)

- 430 (4400) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

-
- . 430 (4400) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

530 (5400)

380 (3900) 5 6 7 8 9 10 12

-
4 5 6 7 8 9 10

. 1.
530 (5400 /2),
80
.
2. 4
1
40 . 2 -
40 .

12.9*. ,
. 7.2*, 7.3, 13.12*, 13.26 4
k

, f ,
. 38*.
:
I;
(
);
I1 , I 2 , II2 II3 .
12.10.
, , .
12.11. , ,
.

.
12.12. ,
, - , .
12.13. , ,
,
4.

12.14.

.

12.15*. ,

,

.

, 380 (3900 /2).
12.16. .
12.17. ,
, ,
.
12.18*. 11371-78*,

22355-77*. 22353-77*
,
3 , ,
440 (4500 /2), 4 ,
.
, ,
, , 5 ,
,
,
.
12.19*. ( )
. 39.
39

1.

2,5d <*>
)

8d 12t

) ,

16d 24t
"

12d 18t
2. :
)

2d
) , :

1,5d
"
"

1,2d
)

4d 8t
)
1,3d

-------------------------------<*>
380 (3900 /2)
3d.
, . 39:
d - ;

t - .
.
380
(3900 /2)



. 11.7* 15.14*.

, ,
; .

a + 1,5d, -
A

, d - . n
,
( "").
, ,
, .
12.20*. , (
)
(
).
13.
<1>
--------------------------------

<1> .

13.1*.
, .
. 40* .
13.2 - 13.4 . 41* .

13.5.
. 42.
42

( )

, I , I , , I , I , , I , I ,
I , I , II 1
2
I , I , II 1
2
I , I , II 1
2
1
2
2II II 1
2
2II II 1
2
2II II


II
2
3
II
2
3
II
2
3

230

160

150

110

90

60


200

140

120

90

75

50

-
130

100

50

40

.

: - 40 - 50
- 25 - 30 , ,
I , I , II II ,
1
2
2
3
.

5% . 42 ,

,
.

13.6. , ,
.
( 5 ), - ,
.
,
1,5% .

.

.
13.7. 36
, .

, 1/200
.
13.8.
. , -
,
: 1/10 - ,
, I1 , I 2 , II 2 II3 ; 1/15 -

I1 , I 2 , II2 II3 .

.
;
.
13.9*.
= 6t - 20 , 80 ( t , ).
, ,
50 .

, ,
20 .
13.10. ,

. 1,
I1 , I 2 , II2 II3 . 7 .
83*.

13.11.
, .

4 .
13.12*. -
. 12.9* , ,
,
30k

f
.
()
13.13. ,
,
,
15 .
, I1 , I 2 , II 2 II3 ,

.
13.14. ,
, ,
. 30
.
, - .

13.15.
.
13.16. 12
.
13.17.

.
, ,
.
13.18.

. 144
.
, ,
.

.



.
,
I1 , I 2 , II2 II3 , , , (
) .
13.19*.

6 - 8 25546-82; ;
- 10 ,
18 -
.


6 - 8 25546-82 -
.
13.20.

.
13.21.
,
.
, ,
.
13.22.
.
13.23. (,
- ..)
.

13.24. ,
, .
,
,
30% .
13.25. , ,
(, ),
.
13.26.
, , :

;
. 5.16*,
;
,
,
.

.

, . 5.18* - 5.23 ,
.
13.27.
10 .
, ,
40 .
13.28. 2 - 4 , ,
.

, .

13.29.
. 5.17 .
13.30*. ( ,
, 7
8 25546-82)
(33),
1,15 1,3.
13.31.
. 5.15.
13.32.
. 7 .
13.33*. . 9
, = 0, 77

7 ( ) 8 25546-82 = 1,1 -
.
7 (
) 8 25546-82
. 13.34* . 13.35*.

,
.
13.34*.
400 (4100 /2) :

2
+ loc , x ) ( x + loc , x ) loc , y + loc
, y + 3 ( xy + loc , xy ) R y
2

x + loc , x R y
loc , y + fy Ry

; (142)
; (143)

xy + loc , xy + f , xy Rs

, (144)

; (141)

F
M
Q
; xy = ; loc , y = f 1 ;
Wxn
ht
tlef

loc , x = 0, 25 loc , y ; loc , xy = 0,3 loc , y ;

2M t t

fy =
; f , xy = 0, 25 fy ;

Jf

x =

(145)*

- , 1,15 1,3 .
(145)*:
M, Q -
;
f1
-
, ;
F - ;
lef

- ,
lef = c 3 J1 f / t

, (146)

- , 3,25,
- 4,5;
J1 f

-
,
;
Mt

- ,
M t = Fe + 0, 75Qt hr

, (147)

- , 15 ;
Qt

- ,
,
;
hr

- ;

J f = Jt +
tf

b f t 3f
3

- ,

bf

- () .
(141) - (145)* "".
13.35*.

0, 5 x2 + 0,36 xy2 + 0, 4 loc , y + 0,5 fy Rv

Rv

, (148)

- ,

Rv

= 75 (765

/2) 95 (930 /2) - (


R

); v = 65 (665 /2) 89 (875 /2) -


( ).
(148) . 13.34*
, .
7
( ) 8 25546-82
.
13.36.
, ,
, .
13.37*.
. 7.10,
90 .
.
; 7 (
) 8 25546-82 ,
.
1 - 5 25546-82

. 13.28.
13.38. ()

, .

13.39.
.
13.40. ,
, .
13.41. ,
, .
13.42.
, .

, .
13.43. , ,
. 5 ,
.
13.44.
:
;
, .;
, ;
;
, .
13.45.
, ,
. , ,
.


13.46*.
, ,
.

:
, ,
( ),
, ;

( ,
..);


;
,
, ;
,
;
.
14.


14.1 - 14.3 . 43 .
14.4*.
,
.
345 (3500
/2).

y ,min = Ryn

= Ryn + 100
y ,max
(1000 /2).
, ,
.

14.5. , , ,
. .
14.6. , ,
.
, ,
.
.
14.7.
.
14.8.
, ,

.
- .
:
;
; - ;
.
14.9. ,
,
. , ,
, .
14.10.
.
14.11.
. 16. ,
=1
.
,
14.12. , ,
.
15*.
,


15.1*. ()
() () ,
, . 50* ( 390, 390,
440, 590, 590) . 51, .
15.2*. ,
100 , ,
100 - , .
15.3. 35 45
II III 977-75*.
15.4*.
, . 4* 11, . 44*, .
15.14* . 4* .
44*

1.

0,95
) "

0,9
2.

,
(. 21):

) ,

0,9

) ,

0,75

3.
:

) , - :

0,75
0,9
0,8
0,9

.
.

. 21.
- ; - ,
,
,
, . 5.2 .
15.5. . 7
:
,

= 2l / b ; (149)

,

= 2, 5l / b

; (150)

(. 9)*
= 21h / bi

. (151)

, (149) - (151):

1 = 1, 25 ( bs / bi ) 2, 75 ( bs / bi ) + 3,5
2

- ;
l - ;
b - ;
h - ;
bs

i -
.
15.6. - -
, , .
5 .
,
, m
:
,
m = 3, 48 M / ( Nb )

; (152)

,
m = 3 M / ( Nb )

, (153)

b - ;

- , 1,2 1,0 -
.
15.7. - -
. 5.27*
1,2.
15.8. -
M,
. -

M = Mq +

N
( fq + f0 )

, (154)

q
- ,

;
= 1 0,1Nl 2 / ( EJ )
; J - ,
;
l - ;
N - ;

fq

- ,
;
f 0 = l / 750

- ;

- , . 15.6.

15.9. Q - -
, ,

Q = Qmax +

3,14 N
( fq + f0 )
l

, (155)

max - .
(155) , (154).
15.10*.
, , .
- (7)

m d ,
1,0.
. 9* ( . 9*,
)

m d
:
3,5
> 3,5
= 3,5

(

) :
0, 55 c / b 0, 66

N md / N m 0, 7

m = 1 + c / b 0,55 + ( 0, 2 0, 05 ) N md / N m

; (156)*

N / N ( 2,33c / b 0,58 )
0, 4 c / b < 0,55 md m

m = 0, 95 + 0,1c / b + 0,34 0, 62c / b + ( 0, 2 0, 05 ) N md / N m

; (156, )

( ,
, , 0,54 0,60),
, :
0, 55 c / b 0, 66

N md / N m < 0, 7

d = 1,18 0,36c / b + (1,8c / b 0,86 ) N md / N m

; (157)*

N / N ( 2,33c / b 0,58 )
0, 4 c / b < 0,55 md m

d = 1 0, 04c / b + ( 0,36 0, 41c / b ) N md / N m

. (157, )

. 9*, , , (156, )
(157, ) 0,45 <= c/b < 0,55.


. 9*, , ( )
N / N 0, 7

md m
m d
:
= d = 1, 0
m
;
m = d = 1 + 0,12 N md / N m

.

, ,
= d = 1, 0
.
m

, (156)* - (157, ) m d :
c - ,
;
b - ;
- ;
Nm

- ;

N md

- ,
, ,
N

N m ; md ,
, - , .
15.11*.
160.
15.12.
, . 45.
45


-
( )
-


( -


h)

1.
1/120 1/200 1/70

60

2.
1/100 1/200 1/70

60

3. - 1/150 1/50
"
( )
-

4.
1/140 1/200 1/70
"
-

60

5. - 1/100 1/200 1/70 1/200 1/70

6. , 1/70


7. - 1/100

8.

1/300 1/250

. 1.

.
2. . 7 8 ,

15.13.
15 ,
.
15.14*. ( )
6
380 (3900 /2)
1,35d ( d - )
,
.

b (128) 0,65.
, (
, , ,
),
2d.
15.15. , ,
, , .
15.16.
.
,

.
16.
()
500
16.1. :

;

;
.
16.2*. , ,
. 50* ( 390, 590, 590) . 51, .
16.3.
,
()
(),
325 (33 ).
1. -
, ,
.
25%
.


,
.
,
,
.
: .
21437-75 19.06.1996 N 399 1
1997 21437-95.
16.4.
9-1,5 21437-75*.
16.5. . 64.

.
16.6. ()
,
,
m
:

) m = 2,5;
) , 2:

16 25 m = 2,8;

35 - 95 m = 2,5;

120 m = 2,2;

) m = 2,0.
16.7.
, . 4* 11, . 46.
46

0,90
:

1,10

0,90

3 - 5

0,80

6 - 8

0,90
9

0,95

0,75

0,55
, ,

0,90
,


0,65

0,65
:

0,80

0,90

16.8. ,
. 47, ,
.
47

( )

1/100

1/300

16.9.
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()
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, .
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;
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1,3 .
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16.16. 250
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1/250 .
16.17*.

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,
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1,2 .
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.
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180-75,
181-75, 182-75 ( ).
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(1 - 2,5 ) (4 - 40 )
.
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s d

P
m

d - , , ;
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- , 0,00041 , , 0,0013 - ,

s.
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() .
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.
16.27. , , ,
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16 6713-75* -
.
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48

1. ,

0,70

0,95
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2. ,
1,10

1,5
,

3. -
0,55

0,7

4.


0,80

0,9

0,65

0,75
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0,85

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17.5.
:
,
;

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17.6.
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17.7.
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.
18.

18.1*. ,
, , ,
430 (4400 /2).
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, ,
6 w 13

(. 22),

( M / M u ) + ( Q / Qu )
4

, (158)

M Q - ;
Mu

- ,
Af 0,85
1
M u = Ry th 2 +
1
; (159)
w w
th

Qu

- ,


Qu = Rs th cr + 3,3 1 cr
2
Rs 1 +
Rs

. (160)

. 22.
(159) (160) :
t h - ;
Af

cr

- ;

- ,
. 7.4*;

- ,

0, 03 = 0, 05 + 5 0,15 ; (161)
0, 03 < 0,1
=

Wmin

= 0,11 + 3 0, 40

. (162)

8Wmin 2
( h + a2 )
th 2 a 2
,

- ,
0,5t E / Ry


( , );
a - .
18.3. ,
. 7.10, ,
N,

N = 3,3Rs th 1 cr
Rs

1 + 2

, (163)

. 18.2*.
N ,
.
l = h (1 )
, 0,7h.
ef
,
- ,
.

0, 65t E / Ry

.

18.4.
. 7.12.
1,3t E / Ry



. 18.3.
18.5. . 5.16*,

).

lef 0, 21b f E / Ry

bf

18.6.
0,38 E / Ry

18.7*.
0, 75 Ry

loc

, (31),
l

, ef (146).

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= 1, 2 0, 033w
-

= 1, 2 0, 033w h / l
-

.
7 10

w

18.9*. . 18.1*

5 ,
, . 22,
.

Af 1, 4
1
M Ry th 2 +
1
th w w

, (163, )

- ,
= 1 5, 6 Af h / ( Awl )

.
t f 0,3wt
0, 025 Af h / ( Awl ) 0,1

.
19.

19.1*.
, , 530 (5400
/2).
.
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49

(. 23)

Mh
Q a

Mh
Q a
Q s
1
1

2
2
3
1--- + ------- <= R 3--- + ------- <= R ---- <= R
J
2W
y1

J
2W
y2
tah
s

x
1,max

x
2,max

Md
Q a
R
Md
Q a
R
1
1
u1

2
2
u2

2--- + ------- <= --------- 4--- + ------- <= ---------


J
2W

J
2W

x
1,min
u
x
2,min
u

, . 49:
M - ;
Q Q - ,
1
2
J
J
1
2
Q = Q ------- Q = Q -------,
1
J + J
2
J + J
1
2
1
2
Q - ;
J J -
1
2
, ;
Q


3
( + s - 0,5a) (. 23);
J -
x
x-x;
W
W
-

1,max
1,min
;
W
W
- , ;
2,max
2,min
R , R , R , R
-

y1
u1
y2
u2
.

. 23.
19.3. . 5.15,

.
. 5.16*.
h / t > 40

( t -
19.4. ef
) .
7.12, >= 250 (. 23).
hef
t

> 2,5

E
Ry


19.5.
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. 7.10.
,
.
.
= 1, 4
.
7.18* , (91)*

l / h 12

ef
19.6.
( l - )
0,95.

20*.

20.1*.
. 3.1*.

Ryn

un :
,


- , ;
,

,
, -
.
:
, 1932 ., ,
= 1, 2
;
215 (2200 /2), m
m = 1,1
, 1932 1982 .,
m = 1,15
380 (3850 /2)

380 (3850 /2);
, 1982 ., - . 2 . 49,

a1

.
49,

-
, (/2)
-

2, 3
092

R
B
180 (1800) 220 (2200)

rs C
160 (1600)

R
B, C 120 (1200) 150 (1500)
( )
rt

R
B

R
= 2R

rp

rp
y

R
= 1,7R

rp
y
. 1. ,
,
.
,
,

.
2.

0,8.
.

49, a1

14-1-3023-80, 23570-79

1,025

380-71*, 14637-79*; 19281-73*

1,050
19282-73* [

380 (39 /2) 142];

14-1-1217-75

19281-73* 19282-73* [
1,100
380 (39 /2),
142]

14-1-1308-75, 14-1-1772-76

1,150

yn
un

,

,
10 . 8, .
20.2.
.
,
,
.
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20.4.

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30 3, 40
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.
20.5. ,
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.
:
R = Run wm = 1, 25 f = 0, 7
= 1, 0
;
;
z
,
wun
= 0,8
c
;


1972 .,

Rwy = 0,85 Ry

- 1972 .

Rwy = 0,55 Ry


, .
20.6. ,
, , . 3.5;
,
4.6
4.8 .
20.7. .
49, .

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2.
20.8. ,
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20.9. ,
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, , .
,
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:
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, ,
.
, ,
.
20.15.

.
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, ,
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,
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, (163, )

y - ,
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- , :
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1 ;

Ry
R
y

Rya
I Rya

1 ,
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k1 =

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Atot

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( ).
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= 0,8
.
c
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,
,
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.
c
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. 12.8, 12.13, 12.19*, 13.5, 13.6, 13.9*, 13.14,
13.16, 13.19*, 13.25, 13.27, 13.46*, 15.11*, 15.13, 16.15* - 16.18, 16.23 , :
;

;
.
20.9, 20.11* 20.15;

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1


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I , II II

4
2
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3
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1. ,

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;

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..].
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285

345

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+)
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;

();
;
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255

275

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390

+)
390

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5 - 15 ,

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6 - 10 ,

. 1

162

+
14-3-567-76

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4.

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; ; ; ;
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245

+
255

+
27772-88

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+
285

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2.
2
4
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(,
, )
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380-71**
( 1990 . 535-88)

19281-73*.
5 . 5
.
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1
5 235 27772-88.
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.
4.

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5. -
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440, 590, 590, 162.
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700 .
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60 ,
,
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1
2
2
3
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8731-87,

20 30 /2
(3 /2);
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II
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2
2
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9 35 /2 (3,5 /2)
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.
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(,
,
)
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27772-88.
14-1-3023-80, 380-71*, 19281-73*
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51, .

51*

,
,
27772-88

<2>,

<3>,
<1>,
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(/2),

R
R
R

yn

un
yn

un

235
2 20 235 (24)360 (37)235 (24)360 (37)230 (2350)350 (3600)230 (2350)350 (3600)
. 20 "
40 225 (23)360 (37)225 (23)360 (37)220 (2250)350 (3600)220 (2250)350 (3600)
" 40 " 100 215 (22)360 (37)

210 (2150)350 (3600)

" 100
195 (20)360 (37)

190 (1950)350 (3600)

245
2 20 245 (25)370 (38)245 (25)370 (38)240 (2450)360 (3700)240 (2450)360 (3700)
. 20 " 30

235 (24)370 (38)

230 (2350)360 (3700)

255
2 3,9255 (26)380 (39)

250 (2550)370 (3800)

"
4 " 10 245 (25)380 (39)255 (26)380 (39)240 (2450)370 (3800)250 (2550)370 (3800)
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" 20 " 40 235 (24)370 (38)235 (24)370 (38)230 (2350)360 (3700)230 (2350)360 (3700)

275
2 10 275 (28)380 (39)275 (28)390 (40)270 (2750)370 (3800)270 (2750)380 (3900)
. 10 " 20 265 (27)370 (38)275 (28)380 (39)260 (2650)360 (3700)270 (2750)370 (3800)

285
2 3,9285 (29)390 (40)

280 (2850)380 (3900)

"
4 " 10 275 (28)390 (40)285 (29)400 (41)270 (2750)380 (3900)280 (2850)390 (4000)
. 10 " 20 265 (27)380 (39)275 (28)390 (40)260 (2650)370 (3800)270 (2750)380 (3900)

345
2 10 345 (35)490 (50)345 (35)490 (50)335 (3400)480 (4900)335 (3400)480 (4900)
. 10 " 20 325 (33)470 (48)325 (33)470 (48)315 (3200)460 (4700)315 (3200)460 (4700)

"
20 " 40 305 (31)460 (47)305 (31)460 (47)300 (3050)450 (4600)300 (3050)450 (4600)
"
40 " 60 285 (29)450 (46)

280 (2850)440 (4500)

"
60 " 80 275 (28)440 (45)

270 (2750)430 (4400)

"
80 " 160 265 (27)430 (44)

260 (2650)420 (4300)

345
4 10 345 (35)470 (48)345 (35)470 (48)335 (3400)460 (4700)335 (3400)460 (4700)

375
2 10 375 (38)510 (52)375 (38)510 (52)365 (3700)500 (5100)365 (3700)500 (5100)
. 10 " 20 355 (36)490 (50)355 (36)490 (50)345 (3500)480 (4900)345 (3500)480 (4900)
"
20 " 40 335 (34)480 (49)335 (34)480 (49)325 (3300)470 (4800)325 (3300)470 (4800)

390
4 50 390 (40)540 (55)

380 (3850)530 (5400)

390
4 30 390 (40)540 (55)

380 (3850)530 (5400)

440
4 30 440 (45)590 (60)

430 (4400)575 (5850)

. 30 " 50 410 (42)570 (58)

400 (4100)555 (5650)

590 10 36 540 (55)635 (65)

515 (5250)605 (6150)

590 16 40 540 (55)635 (65)

515 (5250)605 (6150)

------------------------------<1>
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<2>
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<3>

,
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(50 /2).
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(. . 5 . 50*)
,
.

51,
,


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(/2)

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yn

un

3,
10 225 (23,0)370 (38,0)215 (2200)350 (3550)
3,10705-80*

3,
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3 10706-76*

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14-3-567-76

------------------------------<1>

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27772-88

235
32
380-71*
32-1
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23570-79

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380-71**
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30 )

36-1
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23570-79

255
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40 , - . 30 ),
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23570-79

275
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285
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345, 345 092


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20 ),

15 (
10 , - 20 )

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14-1-4323-88

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14-1-3023-80
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390
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14637-79*

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14-1-1217-75

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14-1-4323-88

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10 )

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390
152
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440
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590
122
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122
14-1-1772-76
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, .

52*

, ,

, (/2)

,


(/2)

)
()

360 (37)

327 (3340)

164 (1660)

8 (80)
365 (37)

332 (3360)

166 (1680)

8 (80)
370 (38)

336 (3460)

168 (1730)

8 (80)
380 (39)

346 (3550)

173 (1780)

9 (90)
390 (40)

355 (3640)

178 (1820)

9 (90)
400 (41)

364 (3720)

182 (1860)

10 (100)
430 (44)

391 (4000)

196 (2000)

10 (100)
440 (45)

400 (4090)

200 (2050)

10 (100)
450 (46)

409 (4180)

205 (2090)

10 (100)
460 (47)

418 (4270)

209 (2140)

10 (100)
470 (48)

427 (4360)

214 (2180)

11 (110)
480 (49)

436 (4450)

218 (2230)

11 (110)
490 (50)

445 (4550)

223 (2280)

11 (110)
500 (51)

455 (4640)

228 (2320)

11 (110)
510 (52)

464 (4730)

232 (2370)

12 (120)
520 (53)

473 (4820)

237 (2410)

12 (120)
530 (54)

473 (4820)

237 (2410)

12 (120)
540 (55)

482 (4910)

241 (2460)

12 (120)
570 (58)

504 (5130)

252 (2570)

13 (130)
590 (60)

522 (5310)

261 (2660)

13 (130)
635 (65)

578 (5870)

289 (2940)

14 (140)
.

. 3 = 1,1.
m

53


,
- (/2),

15 25 35 45

,
R
150 180 210 250

u
(1500)(1800)(2100)(2500)

90 110 130 150

s
(900)(1100)(1300)(1500)

R
230 270 320 370
( )

p
(2300)(2700)(3200)(3700)

R
110 130 160 180
()
lp
(1100)(1300)(1600)(1800)

6
7
8
10
(

cd
(60) (70) (80) (100)

54


,
- (/2),

15 20 25 30

55
65
85 100

t
(550) (650) (850)(1000)

R
160 200 230 250

c
(1600)(2000)(2300)(2500)

40
50
65
75

s
(400) (500) (650) (750)


R
240 300 340 370
( )

p
(2400)(3000)(3400)(3700)

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,

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(
( 2246-70*)

9087-81*)

2, 3 4 - 235, 245, 255,-348-,-08,


-082
42,

275, 285, 20, -60
-08

46
,
3, 3,

I , 3

I , II 345, 345,
-47,
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50
2
2
375, 375,
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II
390, 390,
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3
390, 440,
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162, 092

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1 - 235, 245, 255,-348- -08,


-082
42,
; 2,275, 285, 20,
-08

46
3 4 - 3, 3,

I ,3

I , II 345, 345,
-47,
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50
2
2
375, 375,
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II
092
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<1>-10 <2>

390, 390,
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50
390, 440,
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162
-348- -08 <2>,

<1>-10 <2>

345
-348- -081
-082 50 <3>

590, 590,
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590

-10
-08, 70

-082

-------------------------------<1>

-348-


I , I , II II 32 1
2
2
3
.

<2> -43.
<3> 03-18 -11.
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14-1-1148-75, -082 - 14-1-3665-83.
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, ,
.

56


R
, R ,
wun

wf


(/2) (/2)
(

9467-75)

42, 42

-08, -08
410 (4200) 180 (1850)
46, 46

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450 (4600) 200 (2050)
50, 50

-10, -082,
490 (5000) 215 (2200)

-082, -8,

-3

60

-082 <*>,
590 (6000) 240 (2450)

-082 <*>,

-10, -102

70

-102,
685 (7000) 280 (2850)

-082

85

835 (8500) 340 (3450)


-------------------------------<*> k <= 8
f
440 (4500 /2) .

57*

1759.4-87*

(. 1)

(. 10)

, 4.6; 5.6 . 1
. 1
I , I , II II
4.8; 5.8

1
2
2
3
6.6
"
35
<**>
8.8

35; 38

10.9

40

I , I , II II 4.6; 5.6 . 1 4 . 1
1
2
2
3
4.8 <*>; . 1

5.8 <*>

8.8
. 3 7 35; 38

4.8; 5.8 . 1
. 1

8.8

35; 38

10.9

40

,
, 4.6; 5.6 . 1 4
. 1
I , I , II II
6.6

35
1
2
2
3
8.8

35; 38
<**>

4.8; 5.8 . 1
. 1

I , II II
4.6; 5.6 . 1 4
. 1
2
2
3

8.8
. 3 7
35; 38

4.8; 5.8 . 1
. 1

8.8

35; 38

I
8.8
. 3 7
35; 38
1

4.6; 5.6 . 1 4
. 1

4.8 <*>; . 1

5.8 <*>

8.8

35; 38
-------------------------------<*>
t =
650 .
<**> ,
I , I , II II ,

1
2
2
3
.
. 1.

I , I ,
1
2

II II ,
2
3
15590-70*
7795-70* ,
.
2. 6.6; 8.8; 10.9
1759.4-87* .
3. 4.8 5.8
, .
4. 22356-77* 40
""


, 10.9.

58*

, (/2),
-

4.6 4.8 5.6 5.8 6.6 8.8 10.9

R
150 160 190 200 230 320 400

bs (1500)(1600)(1900)(2000)(2300)(3200)(4000)


R
170 160 210 200 250 400 500

bt (1700)(1600)(2100)(2000)(2500)(4000)(5000)
.

,
. 3
5 (50 /2).

59*
,

, (/2),

,

,

,
(/2)

360 (37)

475 (4800)

430 (4350)
365 (37)

485 (4900)

440 (4450)
370 (38)

495 (5100)

450 (4600)
380 (39)

515 (5300)

465 (4800)
390 (40)

535 (5500)

485 (5000)
400 (41)

560 (5750)

505 (5200)
430 (44)

625 (6400)

565 (5800)
440 (45)

650 (6650)

585 (6000)
450 (46)

675 (6900)

605 (6200)
460 (47)

695 (7150)

625 (6400)
470 (48)

720 (7350)

645 (6600)
480 (49)

745 (7600)

670 (6850)
490 (50)

770 (7850)

690 (7050)
500 (51)

795 (8150)

710 (7250)
510 (52)

825 (8400)

735 (7500)
520 (53)

850 (8650)

760 (7750)
530 (54)

875 (8950)

780 (7950)
540 (55)

905 (9200)

805 (8200)
570 (58)

990 (10050)

880 (8950)
590 (60)

1045 (10600)

930 (9450)
.

. 3

5
(50 /2).

60*

, (/2),
,

32

092

1021
380-71** 19281-73* 19281-73*

( 1990 .

535-88)

12, 16, 20
185 (1900)

235 (2400)

240 (2450)
24, 30
185 (1900)

230 (2350)

235 (2400)
36, 42, 48, 56 185 (1900)

225 (2300)

225 (2300)
64, 72, 80
185 (1900)

220 (2250)

215 (2200)
90, 100
185 (1900)

215 (2200)

215 (2200)
110, 125, 140 185 (1900)

215 (2200)

.

. 3


5
(50 /2).

61*

22356-77*




d,

4543-71* R
,

bun

/2 (/2)

16 27
40 ""

1100 (110)

303,

1350 (135)
302

30
40 ""

950 (95)

303, 352

1200 (120)

36
40 ""

750 (75)

303

1100 (110)

42
40 ""

650 (65)

303

1000 (100)

48
40 ""

600 (60)

303

900 (90)

62*
180-75,
181-75 182-75


d, 16 18 20 22 24 27 30 36 42 48

<*>
<*>
<*>

A , 2 2,012,54 3,14 3,80 4,52 5,72 7,0610,1713,8518,09


b

A , 21,571,92 2,45 3,03 3,52 4,59 5,60 8,1611,2014,72


bn

-------------------------------<*> .

3

63

, /3:

7850

7200

-4

0,12 10
-1

, (/2):

5
6

2,06 10 (2,1 10 )
:

5
6
15
0,83 10 (0,85 10 )

5
6
20, 25, 30
0,98 10 (1,0 10 )

5
6
1,96 10 (2,0 10 )
:

5
6

1,67 10 (1,7 10 )

5
6

1,47 10 (1,5 10 )

5
6

1,27 10 (1,3 10 )

5
6
0,78 10 (0,81 10 )
G, (/2)

0,3
() v

60%
.

64

,
, 2 (/2)

-1

-4
, ;
0,630 10
0,23 10
839-80*
16 - 800
6

(0,642 10 )

-4

; 4 - 800 1,300 10
0,17 10
839-80*

(1,326 10 )
- , ;

839-80* ,

, :

-4
6 - 6,25
10 0,825 10
0,192 10

(0,841 10 )

-4
0,65

95
1,460 10
0,139 10

(1,489 10 )

-4
4,29 - 4,39
120 0,890 10
0,183 10

(0,907 10 )

-4
7,71 - 8,04
150 0,770 10
0,198 10

(0,785 10 )

-4
1,46
185 1,140 10
0,155 10

(1,163 10 )

-4
12,22

330
0,665 10
0,212 10

(0,678 10 )

-4
18,2 - 18,5
400 500 0,665 10
0,212 10

(0,678 10 )

3822-79*

, :

-4
1,6 - 4
2,0 - 12,5 1,870 10
0,127 10

(1,906 10 )

28,2

5
1,900 10

6
(1,937 10 )

-4
0,124 10

839-80* 3822-79*.

4*

,

(6)
,
, ,
a >= 1,5d b >= 2d ( d ) 380 (3900 /2)

= 1

An1

An

An1
+ 2
An

, (164)*

- ;

;
1

2 - , . 65
0,5b 1,2d ( b , d - ).

65
1 2

1
2

1,82

1,49

1,20

0,87
1

0,195

0,37

0,48

0,61
2

n , n1 d
d.

2d >= a >= 1,35d (6)


c = 1, 74

An1
+ 0, 05
An

, (165)

= 1 a = 2d; = 0,85 a = 1,5d = 0,65 = 1,35d.

, .
5 . 6*, .

5


66
c ( cx ) , c y , n

6
-,
- -



n=

J 2l1
J1l2

1 =

(. 24)

l2
l1

F +F
= 1 2
F2

J1
J2

J1

J2

l1

l2

):

, , - . 67;
, , - . 68.

. 24.
67
1


n

1
1

0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2,0 2,5 5,010,020,0

0
2,02,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0
0,2 2,02,012,022,032,042,052,062,062,072,082,092,102,122,142,152,172,212,402,763,38
0,4 2,02,042,082,112,132,182,212,252,282,322,352,422,482,542,602,662,80 - - 0,6 2,02,112,202,282,362,442,522,592,662,732,802,933,053,173,283,39 - - - 0,8 2,02,252,422,562,702,832,963,073,173,273,363,553,74 - - - - - - 1,0 2,02,502,732,943,133,293,443,593,743,874,00 - - - - - - - - 1,5 3,03,433,774,074,354,614,865,05 - - - - - - - - - - - 2,0 4,04,444,905,295,676,03 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2,5 5,05,556,086,567,00 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

3,0 6,06,657,257,82 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

68
1
,


n

1
1

0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2,0 2,5 5,010,020,0

0
2,01,921,861,801,761,701,671,641,601,571,551,501,461,431,401,371,321,181,101,05
0,2 2,01,931,871,821,761,711,681,641,621,591,561,521,481,451,411,391,331,201,11 0,4 2,01,941,881,831,771,751,721,691,661,621,611,571,531,501,481,451,40 - - 0,6 2,01,951,911,861,831,791,771,761,721,711,691,661,631,611,59 - - - - 0,8 2,01,971,941,921,901,881,871,861,851,831,821,801,79 - - - - - - 1,0 2,02,002,002,002,002,002,002,002,002,002,00 - - - - - - - - 1,5 2,02,122,252,332,382,432,482,52 - - - - - - - - - - - 2,0 2,02,452,662,812,913,00 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2,5 2,52,943,173,343,50 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3,0 3,03,433,703,934,12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

, - ,

1
122 + 112 ( 1)
1 =

11

12

, (166)

F1 = 0

F =0

- 2
.
12
11

:
- - . 69;
, , - . 70.
69
12 11
-

J


l /l
2
12
11
2 1
--
J 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2,0
1


12

0,041,021,842,252,592,853,083,243,423,704,004,555,255,806,557,20
0,060,911,471,932,262,572,742,903,053,243,453,884,434,905,435,94
0,080,861,311,732,052,312,492,682,853,003,143,533,934,374,855,28
0,1 0,831,211,571,952,142,332,462,602,762,913,283,614,034,434,85
0,2 0,790,981,231,461,671,852,022,152,282,402,672,883,113,423,71
0,3 0,780,901,091,271,441,601,741,861,982,112,352,512,762,993,25
0,4 0,780,881,021,171,321,451,581,691,811,922,142,312,512,682,88
0,5 0,780,860,991,101,221,351,471,571,671,761,962,152,342,502,76
1,0 0,780,850,920,991,061,131,201,271,341,411,541,681,821,97 2,1


11

0,040,670,670,831,251,431,551,651,701,751,781,841,871,881,901,92
0,060,670,670,811,071,271,411,511,601,641,701,781,821,841,871,88
0,080,670,670,750,981,191,321,431,511,581,631,721,771,811,821,84
0,1 0,670,670,730,931,111,251,361,451,521,571,661,721,771,801,82
0,2 0,670,670,690,750,891,021,121,211,291,361,461,541,601,651,69
0,3 0,670,670,670,710,800,900,991,081,151,221,331,411,481,541,59
0,4 0,670,670,670,690,750,840,921,001,071,131,241,331,401,471,51
0,5 0,670,670,670,690,730,810,870,941,011,071,171,261,331,391,44
1,0 0,670,670,670,680,710,740,780,820,870,910,991,071,131,191,24

70
12 11
,


J


l /l
2
12
11
2 1
--
J 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2,0
1


12

0,040,781,021,531,732,012,212,382,542,652,853,243,704,204,765,23
0,060,700,861,231,471,731,932,082,232,382,492,813,173,503,924,30
0,080,680,791,051,311,541,741,912,052,202,312,552,803,113,453,73
0,1 0,670,761,001,201,421,611,781,922,042,202,402,602,863,183,41
0,2 0,640,700,790,931,071,231,411,501,601,721,922,112,282,452,64
0,3 0,620,680,740,850,951,061,181,281,391,481,671,821,962,122,20
0,4 0,600,660,710,780,870,991,071,161,261,341,501,651,791,942,08
0,5 0,590,650,700,770,820,930,991,081,171,231,391,531,661,791,92
1,0 0,550,600,650,700,750,800,850,900,951,001,101,201,301,401,50


11

0,040,660,680,750,941,081,241,371,471,551,641,721,781,811,851,89
0,060,650,670,680,760,941,101,251,351,441,501,611,691,741,791,82
0,080,640,660,670,680,841,001,121,251,341,411,531,621,681,751,79
0,1 0,640,650,650,650,780,921,051,151,251,331,451,551,621,681,71
0,2 0,620,640,650,650,660,730,830,921,011,091,231,331,411,481,54
0,3 0,600,630,640,650,660,670,730,810,890,941,091,201,281,351,41
0,4 0,580,630,630,640,640,660,680,750,820,881,011,101,191,261,32
0,5 0,570,610,630,640,640,650,680,720,770,830,941,041,121,191,25
1,0 0,550,580,600,610,620,630,650,670,700,730,800,880,931,011,05

2 = 1 / 1 3

. (167)

1
(. 25) , . 71,

1m2 1 + ( 2 m2 2 + m2 3 ) (1 + 2 ) J1 / J1m
2

1 =

m1

m 2

,(168)

m 3

- , . 71
= F / F = F2 / F3 2 = l2 / l1
. 26; 1 1 3 ; 2
;
;
F1

1 + 1 + 2

, 2 , 3 - ,
;
J1m

J1m =

J1l1 + J 2l2
l1 + l2

; (169)

l1

l2

J 2m

l2

l3

J 2m =

J1

J 2l2 + J 3l3
l2 + l3

; (170)

, 2 , 3 1 , 2 , 3 - ,
.

. 25.

. 26. ( . 71)
- F ;
- , ; - , .
71
m1 , m 2 , m3

m1

m2

m3

. 26,
. 26, . 26,

= 2,0
= 2,0

m1
m2

m3
1

( - . 67

1
___

l
/J

3
/ 1m

= ------- \
/ ---)

1
l + l
\ /
J

1
2
\/
3

=
=

=

m1
1 m2
1
m3
1

( - . 68
( - . 68

1
___

l
/J

= 0)

3
/ 1m

1
= ------- \
/ ---)

1
l + l
\ /
J

1
2
\/
3


=
=

=
m1
11 m2
11
m3
12

(
- . 69)
(
- . 69)
12

11


=
=

=
m1
11 m2
11
m3
12

(
- . 70)
(
- . 70)
12

11



2 = 1 / 2

l2

, (171)

3 = 1 / 3 3

l3

, (172)

2 =

3 =

J1 ( F2 + F3 )

l2
l1

J 2 ( F1 + F2 + F3 )

l3
l1

J1 F3
J 3 ( F1 + F2 + F3 )

.
71,

72

-

R , (/2)

y

200 240 280 320 360 400 440 480 520 560 600 640
(2050)(2450)(2850)(3250)(3650)(4100)(4500)(4900)(5300)(5700)(6100)(6550)

10
988 987 985 984 983 982 981 980 979 978 977 977
20
967 962 959 955 952 949 946 943 941 938 936 934
30
939 931 924 917 911 905 900 895 891 887 883 879
40
906 894 883 873 863 854 846 839 832 825 820 814
50
869 852 836 822 809 796 785 775 764 746 729 712
60
827 805 785 766 749 721 696 672 650 628 608 588
70
782 754 724 687 654 623 595 568 542 518 494 470
80
734 686 641 602 566 532 501 471 442 414 386 359
90
665 612 565 522 483 447 413 380 349 326 305 287
100
599 542 493 448 408 369 335 309 286 267 250 235
110
537 478 427 381 338 306 280 258 239 223 209 197
120
479 419 366 321 287 260 237 219 203 190 178 167
130
425 364 313 276 247 223 204 189 175 163 153 145
140
376 315 272 240 215 195 178 164 153 143 134 126
150
328 276 239 211 189 171 157 145 134 126 118 111
160
290 244 212 187 167 152 139 129 120 112 105 099
170
259 218 189 167 150 136 125 115 107 100 094 089
180
233 196 170 150 135 123 112 104 097 091 085 081
190
210 177 154 136 122 111 102 094 088 082 077 073
200
191 161 140 124 111 101 093 086 080 075 071 067
210
174 147 128 113 102 093 085 079 074 069 065 062
220
160 135 118 104 094 086 077 073 068 064 060 057
.
1000 .

73

74

e
- (-)
,

______

m
=

ef
____
= \ /R /E0,1 0,250,5 0,751,01,251,51,752,02,53,03,54,0
\/ y

0,5
967 922 850 782 722669 620577 538469417370337

1,0
925 854 778 711 653600 563520 484427382341307
1,5
875 804 716 647 593548 507470 439388347312283
2,0
813 742 653 587 536496 457425 397352315286260
2,5
742 672 587 526 480442 410383 357317287262238
3,0
667 597 520 465 425395 365342 320287260238217
3,5
587 522 455 408 375350 325303 287258233216198
4,0
505 447 394 356 330309 289270 256232212197181
4,5
418 382 342 310 288272 257242 229208192178165
5,0
354 326 295 273 253239 225215 205188175162150
5,5
302 280 256 240 224212 200192 184170158148138
6,0
258 244 223 210 198190 178172 166153145137128
6,5
223 213 196 185 176170 160155 149140132125117
7,0
194 186 173 163 157152 145141 136127121115108
8,0
152 146 138 133 128121 117115 113106100095091
9,0
122 117 112 107 103100 098096 093088085082079
10,0
100 097 093 091 090085 081080 079075072070069
11,0
083 079 077 076 075073 071069 068063062061060
12,0
069 067 064 063 062060 059059 058055054053052
13,0
062 061 054 053 052051 051050 049049048048047
14,0
052 049 049 048 048047 047046 045044043043042

. 74

______

m
=

ef
____
= \ /R /E4,04,55,05,56,06,57,08,09,010 12 14 17 20
\/ y

0,5
337307280260237222210183164150125106090077
1,0
307283259240225209196175157142121103086074
1,5
283262240223207195182163148134114099082070
2,0
260240222206193182170153138125107094079067
2,5
238220204190178168158144130118101090076065
3,0
217202187175166156147135123112097086073063
3,5
198183172162153145137125115106092082069060
4,0
181168158149140135127118108098088078066057
4,5
165155146137130125118110101093083075064055
5,0
150143135126120117111103095088079072062053
5,5
138132124117112108104095089084075069060051
6,0
128120115109104100096089084079072066057049
6,5
117112106101097094089083080074068062054047
7,0
108102098094091087083078074070064059052045
8,0
091087083081078076074068065062057053047041
9,0
079075072069066065064061058055051048043038
10,0
069065062060059058057055052049046043039035
11,0
060057055053052051050048046044040038035032
12,0
052051050049048047046044042040037035032029
13,0
047045044043042041041039038037035033030027
14,0
042041040040039039038037036036034032029026
. 1.

1000 .
2. .

75


e
- (-)
,

______

=
0,1 0,250,5 0,751,01,251,51,752,02,53,03,54,0
ef

____

= \ /R /E

ef \/ y

0,5
908 800 666 571 500444 400364 333286250222200
1,0
872 762 640 553 483431 387351 328280243218197
1,5
830 727 600 517 454407 367336 311271240211190
2,0
774 673 556 479 423381 346318 293255228202183
2,5
708 608 507 439 391354 322297 274238215192175
3,0
637 545 455 399 356324 296275 255222201182165
3,5
562 480 402 355 320294 270251 235206187170155
4,0
484 422 357 317 288264 246228 215191173160145
4,5
415 365 315 281 258237 223207 196176160149136
5,0
350 315 277 250 230212 201186 178161149138127
5,5
300 273 245 223 203192 182172 163147137128118
6,0
255 237 216 198 183174 165156 149135126119109
6,5
221 208 190 178 165157 149142 137124117109102
7,0
192 184 168 160 150141 135130 125114108101095
8,0
148 142 136 130 123118 113108 105097091085082
9,0
117 114 110 107 102098 094090 087082079075072
10,0
097 094 091 090 087084 080076 073070067064062
11,0
082 078 077 076 073071 068066 064060058056054
12,0
068 066 064 063 061060 058057 056054053050049
13,0
060 059 054 053 052051 050049 049048047046045
14,0
050 049 048 047 046046 045044 043043042042041

. 75

______

ef

____4,04,55,05,56,06,57,08,09,010 12 14 17 20
= \ /R /E

ef \/ y

0,5
200182167154143133125111100091077067056048
1,0
197180165151142131121109098090077066055046
1,5
190178163149137128119108096088077065053045
2,0
183170156143132125117106095086076064052045
2,5
175162148136127120113103093083074062051044
3,0
165153138130121116110100091081071061051043
3,5
155143130123115110106096088078069059050042
4,0
145133124118110105100093084076067057049041

4,5
5,0
5,5
6,0
6,5
7,0
8,0
9,0
10,0
11,0
12,0
13,0
14,0

136124116110105100096089079073065055048040
127117108104100095092086076071062054047039
118110102098095091087081074068059052046039
109103097093090085083077070065056051045038
102097092088085080077072066061054050044037
095091087083079076074068063058051047043036
082079077073070067065060055052048044041035
072069067064062059056053050048045042039035
062060058056054052050047045043041038036033
054053052050048046044043042041038035032030
049048047045043042040039038037034032030028
045044044042041040038037036035032030028026
041041040039039038037036035034031029027025

. 1.

1000 .
2. .

76
m

ef
-

M
______ m
m
,
2
ef
ef1
= --

1
0,1 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 3,0 4,0 5,0 7,0 10,020,0

1 0,100,300,681,121,602,623,554,556,509,4019,40

2 0,100,170,390,681,031,802,753,725,658,6018,50

3 0,100,100,220,360,551,171,952,774,607,4017,20

4 0,100,100,100,180,300,571,031,783,355,9015,40

5 0,100,100,100,100,150,230,480,952,184,4013,40

6 0,100,100,100,100,100,150,180,401,253,0011,40

7 0,100,100,100,100,100,100,100,100,501,70 9,50

1 0,100,310,681,121,602,623,554,556,509,4019,40

2 0,100,220,460,731,051,882,753,725,658,6018,50

3 0,100,170,380,580,801,332,002,774,607,4017,20

4 0,100,140,320,490,661,051,522,223,505,9015,40

5 0,100,100,260,410,570,951,381,802,954,7013,40

6 0,100,160,280,400,520,951,251,602,504,0011,50

7 0,100,220,320,420,550,951,101,352,203,5010,80

1 0,100,320,701,121,602,623,554,556,509,4019,40

2 0,100,280,600,901,281,962,753,725,658,4018,50

3 0,100,270,550,841,151,752,433,174,807,4017,20

4 0,100,260,520,781,101,602,202,834,006,3015,40

5 0,100,250,520,781,101,552,102,783,855,9014,50

6 0,100,280,520,781,101,552,002,703,805,6013,80

7 0,100,320,520,781,101,551,902,603,755,5013,00

1 0,100,400,801,231,682,623,554,556,509,4019,40

2 0,100,400,781,201,602,303,154,105,858,6018,50

3 0,100,400,771,171,552,303,103,905,558,1318,00

4 0,100,400,751,131,552,303,053,805,307,6017,50


5 0,100,400,751,101,552,303,003,805,307,6017,00

6 0,100,400,751,101,502,303,003,805,307,6016,50

7 0,100,400,751,101,402,303,003,805,307,6016,00

1
A

m
= -- -
ef1
N
W

cmax

1. (. 27)

cmax = 2 / 1 + B +

(1 B )

2
ex
16

x h

cmax

, (173)

x = ( h1 J1 h2 J 2 ) / ( J y h ) ;
ex =

Mx
N - -,
ex

( . 27
h - ;
=

"");

J
8 J1 J 2
+ 0,156 t 2 y2
2
Jy
Ah

B = 1+

2 ex
h

= 4 /

;
.

. 27.

1 2 -
-;
= ( J x + J y ) / ( Ah 2 ) + x2
Jt

- , , . 79 80.
cmax

2.
,
Jt

J2 = 0

b2 = 0

t2 = 0

(. 27)

7*

1*.

b 1
J h
1 = y
J x lef

Ry

, (174)

. 77 78*
, :
)
= 1,54

lef

J t lef

Jy h

, (175)

- , .

5.15;
h - ;
Jt

- ;
) , ,

l t
= 8 ef 1
hb
f

at 3
1 + 3
b f t1

, (176)

:
:
t - ;
bf

1 - ;
h - ;
a - , 0,5h;
:
t - ;
bf

- ;

t1

- ;
h - ;
a -
.

77

-


-
0,1 <= <= 40

40 < <= 400


-5
2

- = 1,75 + 0,09 = 3,3 + 0,053 - 4,5 10


-5
2

= 5,05 + 0,09 = 6,6 + 0,053 - 4,5 10

-5
2
= 1,6 + 0,08 = 3,15 + 0,04 - 2,7 10
-

-5
2

= 3,8 + 0,08 = 5,35 + 0,04 - 2,7 10

-5
2
,
= 2,25 + 0,07 = 3,6 + 0,04 - 3,5 10
-


-
= 1,75

= 1,75

-
= 1,14

= 1,14

1

= 1,6

= 1,6

= 1,14

= 1,14
-


= 1,3

= 1,3



1
.

78*

4 <= <= 28

4 < <= 100

- = 1,0 + 0,16 = 4,0 + 0,05


= 6,2 + 0,08 = 7,0 + 0,05

_____

= 1,42 \/

, ,

, = 1,75
1
( . . 77).
1

b (34) :
0,85 b 1
> 0,85 b = 0, 68 + 0, 211
1
; 1
, 1,0.
2. (. 28)

b 1 2
:
1 =

2 =

h2
lef

h1

J y 2hh1 E
J x lef2 Ry

; (177)

J y 2hh2 E
J x lef2 Ry

, (178)

- ;

- , ;
- , (175);
- ,

= D B + B2 + C

. (179)

. 28.

D, C B (179) . 79 80.
79
D C

n <= 0,9

n = 1

3,265
0,330
0,0826

2,247
0,481
0,1202

4,315
0,101
0,0253
, 79:
J
1
n = -------; = n(1 - n)(9,87 + ),
J + J
1
1
2
J (J + J ) l
t 1
2
ef 2
= 0,385----------- (---) ,
1
J J
h
1 2

J J -
1
2
;
- (175),

3
J = ------SUM b t ,
t
3
i i
b
t -
,
i
i
; = 1,25 -
; = 1,20 - .

80

- 1

- 1

1 -

1 -

, 80:
= n + 0,734 ; = n + 1,145 ;
b
b
b 2
1
1
1
= {0,47 - 0,035(--)[1 + -- - 0,072(--) ]} (2n - 1),
h
h
h
b - ;
1
n - , 79.

0,9 < n < 1,0


, (179)
n = 0,9 n = 1.

( 0,8 + 0, 004 )
.
< 40
5 lef / b2 25
2


n > 0,7

(1, 025 0, 015l

ef

/ b2 )

0,95.

lef / b2 > 25

b (34) . 81,
1,0.
81
b

<= 0,85
=

=
2

b
1

b
2

n
1 - n
> 0,85 = [0,21 + 0,68(--- + -----)] = 0,68 + 0,21
2
b
1

b
2

1
2

3*. b
;

(175), 1 0,7.

Jx

Jy

Jt

(174) (175) .
82
J

t
8239-72*


J , 4

J , 4

10

2,28

27

13,6
12

2,88

27a

16,7
14

3,59

30

17,4
16

4,46

30a

20,3
18

5,60

33

23,8
18

6,54

36

31,4
20

6,92

40

40,6
20

7,94

45

54,7
22

8,60

50

75,4
22

9,77

55

100
24

11,1

60

135
24

12,8

8


83*

84

-
285
. 285 (2900 /2)

- (2900 /2) 380 (3900 /2)


,
, II II (I , I ,
I , II

I
5 4
4
2
2
2

<3>
II

II II )

2
3

N 1 . 83*
10 1,00
1,00

1,00

0,75

20 0,90
0,80


30 0,85



<1>

N 3 4

10 1,00
1,00

1,00

1,00
. 83*

20 1,00
0,95

1,00

<2>

N 6 7

10 1,00
0,95

1,00

0,90
. 83*

20 0,90
0,80

0,90

0,90

30 0,85
0,75

0,60

N 16

10 1,00
1,00

1,00

1,00
. 83*

20 1,00
0,95

1,00

0,80

30 1,00
0,87

0,90

N 18

10 1,00
1,00

1,00

1,00
. 83*

20 0,95
0,85

1,00

0,90

30 0,90
0,80

0,90

0,60

N 21,

10 1,00
0,95

1,00

0,70
. 83*

20 0,90
0,75

30 0,85



-------------------------------<1> = 1,00.
<2> = 1,00.
<3> . 2.1*.

8,

1.
:
,
;
,
(
) 1497-84*;
9454-78* ,
50*,
.
1- 2- . 50*,
12 ,
:

10243-75*;
5639-82*.

, ,
.
2.
.
( ,
), (
, , ..) .
50
60 .
(, , ..),
250 .
,
. 85,
7564-73*.
85
,

3

2 (10 <*>)
1
2 (10 <*>)

2 <**>
3 <**>
6 <**>

2
-------------------------------<*>


.
<**>
.


, .
R

3*. yn un

Rn = n S

n =

, (180)

1 n
i
n i =1

= 1, 65 1 +

S=

0,91 1,5
+
n
n

- , ;

1
2
( i n )

n 1 i =1

- ;

- i- ;
n - ( 10).
S / n > 0,1

,
, .

9*

- ;
Abn
Ad

- ;
- ;

Af

- ();

An

- ;

Aw

- ;

Awf

- ;

Awz

- ;
E - ;
F - ;
G - ;
Jb

- ;

Jm

Js

- ;

- , ;

J sl
Jt

Jd

- ;
- , ;

Jx

Jy

- x-x

y-y;
J xn

Mx

; yn - , ;
M - , ;
; y - - -;
N - ;
N ad

- ;

N bm

- ;
Q - , ;
Q fic

- ;

Qs

- , ,
;
Rba

- ;

Rbh

- ;

Rbp

Rbs

- ;
- ;

Rbt

- ;

Rbun

- ,

;
Rbv

- U- ;

Rcd

- (
);
Rdh

- ;

Rlp

-
() ;
Rp

- (
);
Rs

- ;

Rth

- ;

Ru

- , ,
;
Run

- ,

Rwf

- () ;

Rwu

- , ,
;
Rwun
Rws

- ;

- ;

Rwy

- ,
;
Rwz

- ()
;
Ry

- , ,
;
Ryn

- ,
;
S -
;
Wx Wy

;
- -;

Wxn Wyn

;
-
- -;
b - ;
bef

- ;

bf

- ();

bh

- , ;
c

; x ; y -
-, -;
- ;
h - ;
hef

- ;

hw

- ;
i - ;
imin
ix

- ;
iy

- - -;

kf

- ;
l - , ;
lc
ld
lef

lm
ls

- , , ;
- ;
- , ;
- ;
- ;

lw

- ;
l

lx

; y - ,
- -;
m -

( m = eA / Wc )

mef

-
r - ;
t - ;
tf

(m

ef

= m )

- ();

tw

- ;
f z

-
;
b
- ;
c
- ;
n
- ;
m
- ;
u
- ;

- ;
- ( = lef / i ) ;
= Ry / E
-
;
ef
- ;
ef
- ef = ef Ry / E ;

Ry / E
w =
t

uw

- ;

; y - ,
- -;
v - ();
loc
- ;
x y
;
- , - -;
xy

- ;

( x , y )

- ;

- -
;
e
- .