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GP Comprehension Skills

Disclaimer: These notes are based on my opinion on how the questions should be tackled. Do take it with a pinch of salt, and practice to see how they are applied. Answer in your own words means that the answer comes from the keywords in the paragraph If answer in your own words is not present, then you need to infer from the passage o You should ask yourself what is the authors stand, why he is doing this, and why does her feel about ___ If a question is worth 2 marks, look for 2-4 lifted sentences and rephrase them The parts of a question are located in the same paragraph and so not usually overlap For questions that ask you to explain a word/ phrase, you need to define (literal meaning) the word/ parts of the phrase and then explain the context and what it implies. There is a need to answer the question in the context when asked to explain phrases or infer meaning Take note of the perspective the question wants you to answer in o Consumer o Firms o Government o Victim Look out for qualifiers to determine a change in stand or voice When answering questions, dont rephrase the lifted sentence, instead infer what it means and answer the question For irony questions: o Start with the expectations o Use instead to show contrast with reality o Do not use the same vocab for both parts. DO NOT: It is wise but it is not wise... It is significant but it is not significant For metaphor questions: o Use just as to show similarity between concepts o Start with original meaning o Relate to the meaning of the metaphor If asked a how does A (e.g. a specific town) differ from B (e.g. another town) question o No need give both sides o Use Unlike B, A is If the question was two parts, the first part asks the big picture, the second part is more specific. For questions that ask what, no need to explain the answer, just state.

Summary Skills
Watch out for questions that defines with paragraph range with an and instead of to

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Under the point banding marking system, the summary should have 16 points in the summary to rephrase

AQ Skills
A good AQ refers to ideas in the passage, has a clear stand, and uses own explanations and examples o Even if the question only states examples from your society, you can also bring in your own experience. For How far questions, you need to talk about both sides in the intro and rest of the AQ The preamble tells the writers view. If both writers agree, do not say which writer you agree with more o Always address the point in the preamble in the AQ o If no preamble is given, you need to look out for the writers main points/ idea of each paragraph Refer to the summary and the questions before it to get the writers main arguments Weigh the limitations of the two sides of the stand, and choose the side with less limitations in the argument The intro should o Be 2-4 sentences long o Show both sides of the argument, using qualifiers o Show understanding of the question by paraphrasing the requirements (R1) o Specify the society to be Singapore if need be o Unpack the keywords by explaining their meaning o Have a little foreshadow o End off by clearly stating the stand and answering the question The paragraphs should be optimistic if possible. Structure: o Negative point o Why the situation is not so bad Limitation of drawback Over generalization of situation Safeguards that are in place and are successful o Positive point Every paragraph must clearly answer the question To start a paragraph for evaluation marks o I concede o I acknowledge o It is a fact that o It is undeniable o I think it is an over generalization to Every sentence must either be an example, explanation, or evaluation For the topic sentence of a paragraph, you need to give the main idea, use keywords, and put forth your stand.

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For an AQ paragraph, state your point/opinion, then quote, then explain your opinion, then give an examples to evaluate the question o When stating the point, make it clear by giving the area it applies in o To agree with the writer, use I concur The view is accurate o If possible, do a higher order paragraph, where you say how it might (not) apply in some cases, but generally ____ o Use short quotes when quoting, not entire sentences o Try to explain the meaning of the quotation with a short sentence o Instead of quoting, you can sum up the main idea and then put the line reference o Examples should not be identical to those used in the passage, but needs to be in the field of the authors argument o Example should be short, about 1 sentence, and link to how they are an example of the argument They show The problem is evident in o You can extrapolate your example to apply to the general society, but backup claim with general evidence They are only the tip of the iceberg They are one of many people To find quotes to apply, look for whether they o Apply to the situation Give examples to back this up o Are an exaggeration Either up play or downplay the effects or consequences Omit certain viewpoints Impact on consumers? Less educated? Rich? Governments? Economy? Social stability? Overly optimistic or pessimistic Eradication of mankind Total peace on Earth o Use absolutes Easily counter with examples To evaluate the view, give your own opinion and use o It seems to me o I find it rather o I believe that o It is overly optimistic/ pessimistic o I personal feel You need to counter the counter argument, and you can use o Government policy o Public regulation Singlish can be used with apostrophes and the meaning in brackets o kiasu (afraid to lose out) Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming

o kiasi (afraid to die) o boh chap (Indifferent) At the end of the paragraph, answer the question and restate point of argument At the end of the AQ, conclude who you agree with more, or your stand, but you still must concede the other side Try to have an insightful statement, like o What might happen/ consequences in the future o Unintended consequences o Personal wishes o Idealistic, but still a good aim to strive for Marking points o R1 Stand o R2 Quote from both passages o R3 Own ideas and examples o Ex Explain choice of point/ argument o Ev Evaluate your point o Eg Give different examples

Vocab Skills
The answer should reflect the degree of the word Inherent = intrinsic = innate = inborn Reason = logical = rational Asserts = claims = insists Accountable = responsible Morals = ethics = principles Survival = self-preservations

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GP Essay Skills
Disclaimer: These notes are based on my opinion on how the questions should be tackled. Do take it with a pinch of salt, and practice to see how they are applied. Key words to look out for o Aspect of time o Need for limitation of topic o Need for other issues/ aspects o Need to weigh sides When tackling multi-requirement questions, tackle all requirements in the same paragraph. o Can focus on one requirement in a paragraph, but make a link with the other requirements o Mention the keywords of the requirements as a link Essays should try to be multi-disciplinary, making links to areas such as o Environment o Science o Diseases/ medicine o Poverty o Economic o Social o Education Jargons like externalities should not be used o More common business terms like comparative advantage may be used at your own risk. Tired clichs should not be used o Singapore is a small red dot o Since time immemorial US, UK, UN, media are all plural, hence the world the should be used o The UN o The US Discuss, comment, consider does not mean you need an absolute stand, but instead should talk about the various perspectives o There is no counter-counter argument, as it is just a different situation under different conditions (another perspective) To what extent, How far means that you should state the degree, not the presence of the opposite effect. o If they ask for negative impact, the thesis and concluding statement should say big or small impact. The focus should not be on whether it is positive, although you can have on paragraph on it o The higher order paragraph should not be used, rather a more argumentative essay should be used (1 point per paragraph) Why is the underlying assumption true When is it less true

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For Should intro, you should start by conceding the other side, while using vocab and qualifies to avoid contradiction. Then state your argument that answers the question, followed by the explanation to support your choice (foreshadow) o Requires an absolute stand o The higher order paragraph should not be used, rather a more argumentative essay should be used (1 point per paragraph) What is your view, means that you should look at both perspectives of why it is true or not, and include your opinion Best and The, means you should talk about how the issue has flaws and there are better alternatives Only, means you should talk about how other issues are present More harm than good, means you need to concede that the issue has both qualities, and weight which is more severe o Use a higher order structure ___ more important than ___, means that you need to have three viewpoints, agree, disagree and both equal. Always has two main ideas o When and why does ____ happen o And exceptions to the rule, thus not always o It also has a sense of time so theres a need to talk about the future. The terms overly, too much, overrated implies that the claim is unreasonable and unattainable. Hence they need to be challenged Too much can also suggest that the activity is harmful, as it compromises other activities o Consider if the reliance is the new normal The terms too reliant, over dependent implies that if ___ was removed, countries will flounder, as they have a crutch mentality Your intro should usually be positive, or at least neutral. No negative intro Intro should include keywords define abstract or ambivalent terms, preferably rephrased; provide a thesis statement which includes both sides, showing the point of view with qualifiers o Thesis statement should use exact keywords, while use vocab for topic sentences If you disagree with an absolute keyword, dont use it in the essay. o Qualify your synonyms instead Try to not use negative or positive unless its a key word. o Use harmful, beneficial Watch out for implications or consequences of chosen stand o Are you suggesting to stop advancement o Are you suggesting to not resolve the matter Some questions have a fixed stand, especially those that use absolutes like eliminated o Poverty, hunger, gender inequality, prejudice and discrimination can never be eliminated, as remnants will still remain Poverty and hunger caused by uneven distribution of food/ resources and lack of political will

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Gender inequality, prejudice and discrimination are caused by entrenched stereotypes, and peoples mind sets cannot be forced to change. Metaphor and figurative language helps (Compare your example/ situation to another) Main types of answer structure o Higher order (Usually for questions that requires a stand) Counter argument Why it is bad Counter-counter argument Why not so bad Argument Why it can be good o Perspective (Usually for questions that do not require stand) Just give perspectives of various sides Consumers, women, elderly, conservatives, liberals etc. o Alternating (Usually for questions with absolutes) Argument of other side/ opposing stand What it seems Argument of your stand Why is may not happen/ be true Paragraph structure: Give a main idea, elaborate, and support with more than one example from different categories If main ideas cannot be thought of, use categories like SEEPS o Social, Environmental, Economical, Political, Scientific Never start or end a paragraph with an example. Start with thesis statement and end with rehash of thesis statement Your thesis statement should have o Both sides of the argument o Qualifiers for both sides o Foreshadow the essay o Answer the question using their keywords It is not fair to say It is not true that Qualify your statements with: o Largely o Mostly o In most areas o According to conventional wisdom o Generally o In most cases o There is concern regarding ____, however I do not think that it is fair to o There is evidence that o There is merit in the argument that o It is true that ____, but it is more true that o I do concede that o I do acknowledge ____, but it cannot be denied that o The general perception is

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Critics/ detractors argue Only use when it is a controversial topic. Else use the general perception is o It is not always true o It is not necessarily true o In some countries o In rich, developed countries o In poor, conservative countries o To varying extent in different countries o It is highly effective o It has limited success o Seems to suggest o Gives the impression o Too myopic o Few and far between o Events are an anomaly/ aberration o Indeed, there are When you change to counter argument or counter-counter argument, use qualifiers like o However o On the other hand o Nevertheless When doing counter argument, show that its not your opinion, with: o Other people o Some people o Optimists/ pessimists argue/ believe that o Proponents of After the counter argument, you need to show that its not a big deal as o It is an isolated case o There are other areas to consider Your first point should tackle the underlying assumption o The general assumption is ___, because o Because of ____, society largely believes that Use while to show contradiction against tradition o While most people o While common sense o While tradition dictates Common counter-counter examples include safeguards like o Education to discern the cons o Laws and regulation o Awareness campaigns Do not use hypothetical scenarios or examples o Do not use if Do not use absolute words o Like all o

Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming

Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming

GP talking points
For impact on world, you can talk about: o Industrialisation o Mass production o Trade o Globalisation o Environmental damage o Genetically modified food Allergens Super weeds For rebellion, you can talk about: o Governments Ghandi (Fight for independence) Jim crow laws (segregation of blacks) o Tradition President Lincoln (free slaves) Nelson Mandela (fight against apartheid policy (segregation of white and black Africians)) o Science Galileo (revolve around sun vs churchs revolve around earth) Einstein (Theory of relativity vs Newtons perception of fixed time and space) o Parents Arranged marriage o Convention Hippies (protest against the American-Vietnam war) For cartoons, you can talk about o Earning money Key part of the entertainment industry o Medical uses Teach mentally handicap Laughter is the best medicine and help to speed up recovery o Political uses Influence publics opinions and thoughts Hitlers Anti-Jew campaigns in the print media o Social commentary Chew on IT in The Straits Times o Education Inform about policy changes Raise awareness of AIDS in India Pass on moral values o Entertainment Stress-relief o Religious uses Spread religious morals to kids For parents, you can talk about

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Expected to inculcate values in children Great burden on single parents Effectiveness of parenting skills affected by external influences Lack of time Out of control factors Generation gap Conservative culture to not talk about certain topics For children, you can talk about o Rebel for the fun of it Hippy movement in America For discrimination, you can talk about o Hindering progress (in life, jobs, etc.) Discrimination against women o Systematic discrimination Indias Caste system Brahmin caste highest, Dalit caste (Pariahs) lowest Example of tradition hindering progress o Apartheid system Four groups in South Africa Natives Whites (Afrikaners) Coloured Asians Non-white had segregated housing, education, medical care and inferior service Results in uprising, protests and trade embargo o Affirmative action Positive discrimination to elderly (Cheaper bus fare), handicapped (Parking lots), children (reduced responsibility), minority races (political representation). o Protestants against Catholics in Northern Ireland Bias towards protestants (housing, jobs) o Blacks against Whites in America US civil rights movement Rose Parks refusing to give up seat Martin Luther King fight for rights o Gender Bias against pregnant women due to additional cost incurred Bias against female Wal-Mart workers, who are paid less and have less advancement opportunities Bias towards women for jobs with soft skills, like public relations, customer relation officer, nursing or child care Patriarchal society in less developed countries Women are sold for money and food 43% of Afghan marriages involve under 18 girls Women denied the right to drive and take public transport in Saudi Arabia Resolutions o o o Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming

UN Declaration of Human Rights Ethnic integration policy in Singapore Presidential Council for Minority Rights (PCMR) in Singapore Bias towards women for child custody 91% of child custody cases are awarded to women, despite their financial instability For Embryonic stem cell, you can talk about o Uses Regenerative medicine Tissue replacement Capacity to improve Quality of Life Stopping is akin to condemning future generations o Drawbacks Can cause tumours Controversy over use of human embryos violates the sanctity of life o Resolutions Adult stem cells Induced-pluripotent cells Regulation on use of embryos Limited funding for embryo research Moratorium (temporary ban) on reproductive cloning Cause innovation for alternative methods Cause black market for such services For euthanasia, you can talk about o Trade-off between QOL and prolonging life o Pro-choice argument Less pain Dignified death Less financial burden If one has a right to live, he has a right to die o Pro-life argument Form of murder Violates sanctity of life Devalues human life Prevent abuse by unfilial children and corrupt doctors No clear definition of terminal illness For power of the individual, you can talk about o Rosa Parks Defiance to give up bus seat sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott which was a keystone in the Blacks civil rights movement o Martin Luther King Civil rights activist for the blacks Nobel Peace Prize for his work to end racial segregation and discrimination o Mark Zuckerberg Revolutionised the social media

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Bill Gates Played a key role in developing the personal computer o Grameen Bank Microcredit firm that spearheaded microcredit for less developed countries o Lybian coup People banded together to fight oppression and change the country o Innovations by scientists For conflict, you can talk about o Scope Politics Art o Pros Unification of the United States of America through the American Civil War Rights for blacks through non-violent protests like civil disobedience Inspired great works of art Pablo Picasso: Spanish civil war Van Gogh: Inner conflict Les miserable: French civil war o Cons Loss of lives Protestors Bystanders Collateral damage of property o Transcending conflicts World Organisations United Nations Association of Southeast Asian Nations Fighting against a common enemy Collaboration efforts Sending food aid Sharing for technology Holding join operations For helping the poor, you can talk about o Tied aid Conditions for aid, like buying allegiance May be necessary to prevent aid abuse o Government corruption Prevent aid from reaching the poor in need For censorship, you can talk about o Scope Conventional media Internet Inflammatory remarks made by Campus Crusade against Thailand Movies o

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Public censor of others Self-regulation o Possible Newspaper self-censor inflammatory reports Responsible newspaper act in US Wikileaks o Impossibility People still managed to leak out videos of the Arab Spring revolution o Acceptable Child porn Information of rape victims Military secrets o Unacceptable Growth of freedom of speech Interconnectedness needed for globalisation and functioning of economy For Expensive art, you can talk about o Scope Visual arts Design Performing arts Movie Dance Band Music Culture Dance Available to the masses o Cost High ticket prices High museum upkeep Cheap street performances Jazz Hip-hop For Genetically modified food, you can talk about o Health concerns Accumulation of toxins from consumption of GMF over time Allergic reactions o Help towards third world countries Increased yield Get more income from sales Can spend on education and other amenities Increased nutritional value Makes the country self-sufficient in food GDP increase More resources Can spend resources on other sectors like healthcare o Why it is not a solution to global poverty Expensive to buy seeds yearly Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming

Only benefits rich farmers For Genetic engineering, you can talk about o Saviour siblings Children treated as consumer goods o Designer babies Babies treated as consumer goods Threat of a caste system Genetic divide and discrimination o Reproductive cloning Playing God o Therapeutic cloning Acceptable For Environmental tradeoff, you can talk about o Need for DC to conserve environment Through the Industrial Revolution, DCs have a headstart over LDC in exploiting their own resources, allowing them to be more economically developed However, this rapid usage of resources threatens the sustainability for future generations Thus arising the need to balance environmental conservation and economic development o Resentment of LDC against DC for environmental policies DCs, during the Industrial Revolution, rose to wealth due to their polluting industries, exploiting their resources more efficiently than LDC Thus, current LDC argue that they too should be able to have such polluting industries so allow them to gain wealth like the DC However, the counter argument is that new green technologies allow LDC to gain wealth without heavy reliance on polluting industries China has been building eco-cities, with reduced coal usage, while still rising as an Asian powerhouse o Obstacles to LDC pursuing environmental protection LDCs have to focus on economic growth to tackle poverty, like high unemployment, low healthcare. High population growth. They: Clear forests for agriculture Clear land for building accommodation for the high population growth Mine resources to fuel growth Have poor waste management due to lack of focus. No need to ratify Kyoto Protocol o Successes in preserving environment Montreal Protocol Aimed to ban CFC and HCFC usage Supported by 196 states By 2005, production and consumption of ozone depleting substances by 95% Fighting deforestation in the Amazon forest Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming

Actions by Brazilian government and World Wildlife Fund Rate of deforestation reduced by 76.8% between 2004 and 2010 Record low rate of deforestation of 6000 square kilometre in 2010 Fighting global warming EUs carbon trading system to reduce carbon footprint Eco-cities Tianjin City in China, with the help of Singapore City of Melbourne in Australia LDC can leap frog dirtier technologies Green technologies are now available for LDC to generate sustainable, clean energy China Three Gorges Dam to generate hydroelectricity India has the worlds largest wind power industry DC have been investing a lot of resources into alternative sources of energy International pressure for LDC to be more green, as they join in environmental summits For Should LDC do tourism, you can talk about o Assumptions When LDC develop tourism, they neglect other areas Tourism can only be done after basic needs are met Tourism causes price hikes that makes it unaffordable for the poor Limited trickle-down effect to the poor from the increased income o Yes Tourism development and basic need provision is not mutually exclusive Voluntourism Diversify the economy to promote growth Poor countries usually have natural resources, like caves, cultures, temples, lakes, and should capitalize on these to promote incomes Ecotourism For Impact of tourism on environment, you can talk about o Land clearance for tourism Infrastructure construction like airport, hotels and theme parks Resources like logs for construction. Lakes and water sources drained to fuel golf courses, laundry services o Tourists not responsibly managed Huge food wastage at buffets Pilfering of souvenirs from the environment Coral Exotic plants Litter on sightseeing trails coca cola trails, Rubbish trails Measures taken Leave nothing but footprints, take nothing but pictures to reduce environmental damage Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming

Guides keep watch and remind tourists not to litter or damage the environment For Technology is the solution, you can talk about o Technology needs a skilled operator, cannot instantly adapt to situation like a human o Problems are complex and require more than one solution. o Creation of jobs as there is a shift from the primary to secondary sector Less unemployment Greater income for the people GDP increase More stable incomes than agriculture, less dependent on factors like weather o Diseases We are able to cure previously incurable diseases Huntingtons disease through gene therapy We have currently have promising developments that can develop potential cures to todays incurable diseases Designer drugs However, prevention is better than cure o Crime Causes white collar crime Fraud Internet scams Encourages vices Pornography Drugs Helps combat crime Tracing back to hacker source Helps against violent crimes Combat terrorism Better airport screening o Environment Green technology SingTel goes paperless billing Safer mining/ oil extraction methods Largely successful in minimising impact, but cannot solve Early warning system Good evacuation plans, like nation-wide warning system Earthquake proof buildings Systems to cut off electricity and gas supply during disaster Fairly accurate weather prediction with satellite technology o Medical Cure previously incurable diseases Help alleviate suffering of current incurable diseases, so that victims can have an acceptable standard of living Has promises of finding a solution of hereditary diseases However, prevention is better than cure o Cannot tackle heart-ware like Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming

Hunger Increased food production does not solve distribution problems Corruption Poverty For Education is the solution, you can talk about o Teaching farmers sustainable farming methods Prevents over-farming Maintains arable land Income is sustainable o Trade skills for LDC Sewing Pottery Handicraft For Goals of education, you can talk about o Holistic development of an individual Cultural Political awareness Respect for the past Intellectual Critical thinking Power of innovation Creativity Literacy Trade skills Physical Healthy lifestyle Character Moral values are essential Part and parcel of any civilisation For Education creating empty students, you can talk about o No fulfilment No passion for studies as students feel like robots, as they only pursue grades o No moral fibre CIP is done in self-interest, for CIP hours for students portfolio Students are not taught character o Become self-centred Become very academically driven, acting in self interest Do not give up seats on buses For Political will is the solution, you can talk about o Laws Prevent certain activities o Incentives WIS to encourage work Tax rebates for charitable activities For Government control, you can talk about o Why it is needed

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For economic, social and political stability Laws, policies and censorship to maintain racial harmony, reduce discrimination and prevent crimes Singapores Film Act of 1981 Prevent showing of films that threatens racial and political stability Direct direction of growth Allows progression to high-tier industries Singapores 5-year plan to develop bio-medical hub Move from command economy to capitalist economy Modern Chinas growth to be an Asian powerhouse o Why it is not needed Excessive control Dictatorship Dictator tries to maintain power Passes laws that may not be beneficial for the country Harms economic progress and standard of living Infringes human rights Right to freedom of speech For Government power, you can talk about o How they have power Able to control the direction of the economy Singapore focuses more on R&D, with the government funded projects to build Biopolis, spending about $570 million in total o How they have limited power Recent events give that impression Overthrow of President Mubarak in Egypt Arab Springs revolution where the people in various countries like Syria stood up against the governments oppression Government failed to stop the spread of the video of the self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi, which sparked the Arab Springs Rise of democratic ideals People fight for freedom of speech and for individual rights They voice their opinion and pressure the government to take certain actions Pressure groups like animal rights and environmentalists For Genetic screening, you can talk about o Genetic cosmetics Benefits rich who can afford such designer babies services These designer babies get a head start in life Further widens income gap Leads to less genetic variation Reduces humanities adaptability to new viruses or diseases o Genetic profiling

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Listing of all the genetic traits like susceptibility to addiction Leads to genetic labelling as inferior and hence genetic discrimination Marginalisation of people with inferior genes Less education and employment opportunities o Threat of misdiagnosis Relatively new technology that has not been well-tested Can cause unnecessary emotional duress Can lead to mistreatment o Allows detection of genetic defects Like Huntingtons disease, leukaemia Allows time for mental preparation of parents regarding their unborn child Allows time for treatment to be scheduled In In-vitro Fertilisation Allows for selection of embryos without genetic defects Allows for Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) Allows for creation of saviour siblings Siblings whos cells and organs are compatible for transplant into the other sibling o Safeguards Information to be used only to inform and not abuse Information for medical treatment purposes only Strict, well-maintained confidentially laws For Womens Rights, you can talk about o Entrenched stereotypes Patriarchal societies Women seen as child-bearing objects In developed countries, society accords to them more rights Women are weaker than men Despite being breadwinners, women are still expected to take care of the house o Entrenched cultural values Women dare not voice out problems Preference for males Can perform physical labour better More financially successful to care for parents Seen as financial assets o Presence of subtle discrimination Earn less than men despite same employment rights US women only earn 77 cents to a male dollar in 2008 Have less advancement opportunities o Growing rights through legal reforms Singapores womens charter 1961 Laws Anti-workplace discrimination o More women in power Hillary Clinton 67th US Sectary of State Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming

Aung San Suu Kyi Banazir Bhutto 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan Margret Thatcher Prime minister of the UK, 1979-1990 Most aggressive politician in the UK parliament during her term Not afraid to pass controversial policies to improve the UK For Animal rights, you can talk about o Animals should have rights as All life is sacred Buddhism As a more developed species, it is our responsibility to not abuse other species There are growing alternatives to animal products Synthetic leather Mock meat o Animals should have limited rights as They are part of the natural order of the food chain Darwin theory of natural selection They are meant to be exploited by superior humans, for us to use them for our self-preservation It is impractical for animal use to be banned Animal meat is a large part of the diet to certain cultures Western fast-food chains mainly have meat in their products KFC McDonalds For advancements in medical treatment, it is imperative for animal tests, to ensure that it is safe for human applications For Income divide, you can talk about o Consequences Inequality can cause social tensions the undermine governments and lead to populist policies that may harm the country When electricity tariffs and bus fare increases, the poor suffer more. o Statistics In Asian economies, wealthiest 5% are accounting for 20% of the total expenditure Number of people living below the poverty line decreased by 430 million between 2005 and 2010 For Best of times, worse of times, you can talk about o Politically Era of peace Disputes are largely resolved through sit-down talks Nuclear disputes Environmental disputes Many countries have weapons of mass destructions Threat of Mutually Assured Destruction still present

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Economically Unprecedented global corporation UN, ASEAN, EU Alleviated poverty Number of people living below the poverty line decreased by 430 million between 2005 and 2010 More people have access to education, employment and basic amenities Can work their way out of poverty trap Unprecedented global trade Access to a wider range of goods and services International markets highly vulnerability Economic collapse in one country triggers collapses in other countries Europe debt crisis US growing debts 14 Trillion in debt No one is immune to the international financial flu o Socially Greatest level of equality in history Less discrimination `Refer to earlier points Greater womens rights Refer to earlier points o Environmentally More efforts to stop ruthless exploitation of the environment Rate of deforestation of Amazon forest reduced by 76.8% between 2004 and 2010 Global corporation to maintain environment World wildlife fund UNCLOS Toll of economic development reaches new heights Destabilisation of weather patterns Earlier, longer, colder winters Later, shorter monsoon season More floods and droughts Mining scaring Oil disasters BP oil spill in 2010, largest marine oil spill disaster o Scientific progress We are able to cure previously incurable diseases Huntingtons disease through gene therapy We have currently have promising developments that can develop potential cures to todays incurable diseases Designer drugs However, there is the problem of ethics Refer to earlier points For Gender equality unrealistic, you can talk about o Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming

Things being done Womens charter Education Leglisation o Equal rights and opportunities do not translate into a level playing field Presence of subtle discrimination Invisible glass ceiling for females Cannot rise up the corporate ladder Females underrepresented in politics in general o Entrenched stereotypes Still treated as mens property in conservative LDC Sons are still more valued, as girls are seen as liabilities to be married off o Women in politics Condoleezza rice 66th US Secretary of state Tried to advise against US invastion of Iraq. But failed o Discrimination against men There is the prevalent assumption that women are weaker and deserve more protection Comes at the expense of men Men have a hard time going into women-dominated jobs o Sports Innate biological differences Men are stronger and more athletic than women o Evaluations Society should not hanker over equality, but embrace and difference and find ways to complement them It is still a desirable aim despite it being unattainable For Mankinds problems, you can talk about o Hunger Green Revolution India has managed to increase food production to the extent that they have surplus food for stockpiling Since 2002, there is sufficient food to feed every person on Earth However, political will is needed to distribute food, or NGO Else black markets will form Food needs to be subsidies by NGO and government in starving countries Government can provide machinery and seeds Possible though collectivisation o Poverty Industrialisation creates jobs Provides higher, more stable income than agriculture Increase in factor mobility as infrastructure is built Government support needed o Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming

Provide retraining Workfare Training Support Scheme to combat structural unemployment Teaches transferable skills that increase job opportunities Set minimum wage law of reduce worker exploitation Build sufficient infrastructure to support growth of industries Tackle inflationary prices Provide subsidies for low income families like tax rebates Have a progressive tax structure For Potential of youth, you can talk about o Making mistakes Though their mistakes, they still have time to learn and have a second chance They mature through life experiences o Can rise is sports Sportsmanship teaches moral values like integrity and perservence For Punishment is the solution to crime, you can talk about o Functions of punishment Retribution An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, a life for a life To see justice done Rehabilitation Get convicts to reflect and repent so that they will not repeat their crimes Deterrence Make the cost of getting caught for doing a crime great Protection of society To seal away dangerous individuals that would harm others in society o Alternatives Political will To create educational programs to change the heart and minds of criminals so that they will not repeat their wrong-doings Reform the police system to reduce corruption Raise pay and consequences to deter bribes Combat poverty to reduce the number of those forced by circumstance to resort to crime Rehabilitation schemes Provide convicts a second chance in life, by helping them get a job, so that they are less tempted to return to crime Yellow ribbon project Help convicts to reintegrate into society as they face the social stigma that we pressurise them to return to crime For Sports being unsporting, you can talk about o What is sportsmanship

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Fair play Gracious in defeat Integrity Giving the utmost to push the boundaries of human limits o Why it is seen as unsporting Sportsman stoop to unscrupulous means in their bid for glory in the competitive world of sport Cheating with drugs Floyd Landiss doping case at the 2006 Tour De France where he too performance enhancing drugs Sore losers Malaysian fans shine lasers into the eyes of the Singaporean goal keeper in an attempt to distract him from saving the goal Match fixing Renault Formula 1 team at the 2008 Singapore Grand prix staged a crash by Nelson Piquet Jr to let the main driver, Fernando Alonso Bribery of referees o Why it is still sporting Not all sports are competitive, hence there is less pressure to resort to unsportsmanship behaviour For Heritage trade-off, you can talk about o Definition of heritage Identity of nation Essential for nations survival, else everyone will not help the nation in times of need War Brain drain o Reasons trade-off Governments are pursing growth to remain competitive on the world stage, harming both physical and non-physical heritage Resources are exploited for economic growth Coral reefs damaged from tourism and pollution Amazon Rainforest used to provide timber for housing and export Monuments are damaged by tourist traffic Underused heritage is not economically efficient Old shop houses Singapore kampong villages o Possible to co-exist While culture is prostituted, it can still generate money for its preservation The village rituals have lost their meaning, as they are constantly performed for the entertainment of the tourist Convent of the Holy Infant Jesus(CHIJMES) grounds were slated for redevelopment, but now it is used for functions and events to prevent the church from being torn down Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming

For limits on science, you can talk about o There should not be limits Scientific imperative to explore the unknown There should be no limits to discovery For the betterment of mankind o Why there should be limits It is an idealistic aim Science can be abused Effects Dystopian society Destruction of mankind Biological weapons Chemical weapons Nuclear weapons Possible limits Watchdogs Treaty on the Non- proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Signed by 190 parties 5 out of the 9 nuclear-armed states are included Disarmament treaty Unintended side effects Debacles Genetically modified food Health risks Disasters Chernobyl Mistakes Gene Therapy to cure SCID Increased risk of developing cancer Possible limits Labelling on GMF Total ban of GMF European Union Regular checks to ensure compliance to standards Thorough clinical trials to ensure safety Scientific development is outpacing ethics Limits should be in place to prevent humanity from going down the slippery ethical slope Embryonic stem cells Violate sanctity of life Reproductive cloning Commercialise babies Possible limits Limited funding Moratorium until society works out the legal and social issues Progress should depend on affordability of the project to the country

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Money could be channelled for economic development Millions of dollars was spent on searching for the Higgs Boson, which could have been used to combat malaria For pace of life, you can talk about o Cause of fast pace of life Hectic , competitive world People must put in long working hours Multi-tasking Lack time for relaxation Education systems places much stress on students with extra lessons and co-circular activities A student needs time to digest the lessons taught and integrate the concepts into their understanding Their calendar is packed with camps, remedial, enrichment lessons and tuition o Reasons to slow down the pace of life People need to slow down and smell the roses and enjoy life Some time should be spent on building relationships and bonds Its the life in your years, not the years in your life People should try to carve out a life worth living, instead of being a robot Overwork leads to increased susceptibility to illness and an early grave o Areas where the pace of life needs to be increased Fight against poverty and corruption Reactions to pandemics Research into cures and vaccinations Slowing down is akin to dooming future generations o Optimal speed of life depends on State of development LDC need to increase their efficiency, and work harder for economic growth to catch up with DC People under corrupt governments need to increase government pressure to speed up reforms In DC, their GDP are quite high, which gives an adequate SOL. Hence the focus should be on pursing a good QOL instead. o However, sometimes even when we desire a slower pace of life, it is difficult to do so. People have aspirations and goals that require much time, effort and money to fulfil. Hence they need to work hard to achieve their dreams For countries like Singapore that lacks resources, we need to keep on innovating, improving and adapting in order to survive. Hence we cannot afford to become complacent. For maths has little use, you can talk about o Many fields of maths Pure mathematics Algebra Calculus Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming

Geometry and topology Applied mathematics Probability and statistical maths Computational mathematics Game theory Mathematical physics o Purpose of maths It is to explore the abstract theoretical world Most layman do not need a working knowledge of maths in their daily lives, due to the aid of computers Some professions require sufficient maths knowledge Statisticians, economists, civil planners need to know statictical maths The theoretical work done today may not have a use, but may be useful in the future For tourists getting the local experience, you can talk about o What both tourist and locals experience Food Monuments/ places of interest o What they dont see They see clean and green Singapore, but dont see the effort of cleaners They see Singapores harmonious multi-racial community, but dont see the tensions Cook curry day They dont stay long, and cannot experience a typical daily life Void deck culture The old, poor people living in 1 room flats Singlish Kiasu mentality For dependence on oil, you can talk about o Over dependence on oil Withdrawal symptoms if oil flow is cut off People cannot get used to lack of transportation, less electricity available Global economic collapse if oil stopped flowing How countries have no choice but to pay higher prices if OPEC reduces supply o Measures taken to reduce oil dependence Green cities in Norway, where the percentage of energy from clean sources outweighs oil Hydroelectricity, thermal electricity, solar energy, wind energy For control over fate, you can talk about o People generally determine their own lives We have the right and ability to determine parts of our live that are within our control People have to see and seize the opportunity to direct their lives

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Bill Gates Steve Jobs Mark Zuckerberg The success of nations is largely due to the hard work of the locals and government Singapore government diversifying the economy, making policies that benefited the nation rather than populist policies o For some people, their success is largely due to luck Celebrities being born with good looks, and luck that they were discovered Britney spears For organising major games, you can talk about o Economics Counties tend to spend over budget in preparation of major events The Athens Olympics 2004 caused the government to greatly overspend Initial forecast of 4.5 billion euro Actually spent 8.954 billion euro Only 1.752 billion euro was received from sales of tickets and advertisements, 7.202 billion came out from the states pockets However, this was due to improper planning, as countries can make a profit, if they budget their spending wisely Los Angeles Olympics 1984, earned a profit of US$250 million Seoul Olympics 1988, earned a profit of US$300 million Record profit for a government-run Olympiad The over budget spending can also be justified by the long term benefits from tourism o Social During preparation of event locations, there is much disruption to lives during building construction. There is also demolition of slums and relocation of squatters Furthermore, some Olympic infrastructure become white elephants The infrastructure built for the Athens Olympics were not reused There was a lot of red tape that discouraged private firms from requisitioning its use. However, the big picture overshadows these short term costs The cleaning and building of new infrastruction are of great benefit to the locals Governments with forsight and political will have opened the infrastructure for private re-use or as a public attraction Sydney Olympic villages were turned into residential homes Singapore used existing NUS dormitory to house athletes during the 2010 Youth Olympics Games Singapore used existing roads for the F1 night race o Security Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming

The host country is open to external threats Munich Olympics 1972 witnessed the massacre of 11 Israeli athletes, by a terrorist group, Black September British football hooligans However, these incidents are few and far between, and it depends on the precautionary measures taken by hosts cities London Olympics 2012 had the biggest military build-up in London since WWII 18200 troops, which is 8700 more than what they sent to Afghanistan British Commandos, the Royal Marines, are also deployed HMS Ocean, the largest ship in the Royal Navy, will be docked in the Thames Beijing Olympics 2008 was successful despite threats from the Free Tibet Movement During the European Cup, alcohol was banned to reduce the occurrence of aggressive fans

Politics Governments may sanction the use of performance enhancing drugs for their athletes to win the competition Government may use the games to make a political point During the 1980 Moscow Olympics, the US boycotted the event by not letting US athletes participate in it. In retaliation, the Soviet Union boycotted the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics, involving 14 Eastern Bloc (aka Communist Bloc which includes former communist states of Eastern and Central Europe) For Attention to criminals and victims, you can talk about o Victims Need more When the perpetrator is not found, more media coverage should be given to enlist the help of the public For traumatising crimes, like surviving a massacre, the government should take steps to provide counselling. Extend the coverage of treatment of prisoners to the victims Enough Rape and scandal victims want their privacy Gag orders from the court for the safety of the family o Criminals Publicity May hurt the criminals family and friends Public has the right to know about the life and motive of the criminal Rehabilitation Counselling services Re-education Punishments o Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming

Resources spent on debates on rights of criminals Retribution by capital punishment against sanctity of life and compassion. For Research into expensive treatment, you can talk about o No Creates inequality between rich and poor Rich can afford care and medicine to maintain health, live longer, earn more, become richer Money could be spend on other poor man diseases Tuberculosis Malaria Malnutrition o Yes Scientific imperative to discover new ways to treat illnesses for the benefit of mankind Trickle-down effect, where in time the cost of treatment will drop Patients expire, making it available to all Competitors will improve the technology to lower costs to out-compete others Paracetamol Government can provide financial assistance or insurance can cover partial costs of treatment Medical spin-offs, to get useful side effects Viagra was initially meant to treat pulmonary hypertension For The pen is mightier than the sword, you can talk about o Sword more powerful Ambitious rulers break treaties Hitler Stalin Censorship by the government on the written word Book burning o Written language Books against communism were censored and burned in communist countries, as the government feared the power of the written ideas within Shows the power of the written word The written word can motivate and galvanise people to take up the sword Mein Kampf by Hitler sparked the Holocaust Das Kapital by Karl Marx sparked communist revolution Martin Luther King Juniors I have a dream speech sparked non-violent movement for equal rights The written word can last though times, outliving wars, constantly influencing peoples beliefs, and landscapes Holy texts Bible The Vedas (Hindu)

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Confuciuss Five classics Classic of poetry Book of documents Book of rites Classic of changes Spring and Autumn annals Charles Darwins On the Origin of Species For importance of history, you can talk about o Sense of belonging to nation Essential for countrys survival o To learn from pat mistakes to shape the future o Tool to shape the young Expose them to hardship of forefathers o To assimilate new immigrants For risk taking, you can talk about o To get better returns Nothing ventured nothing gained Famous entrepreneurs like Bill Gates who founded Microsoft, had to take a gamble on his investment, risking it on his vision to design a computer that is suitable for everyone, allowing it to be the global brand it is today. o To stretch the human potential The risk astronauts take leads to advancements in manned space flight Athletes also risk their health when they push themselves to try and go past their limits The risk they take during training has constantly redefined the human limits Usain Blot is the worlds fastest man with a 100 meter sprint timing of 9.58 seconds. He currently holds the record for 2 other track events, which are the 150 meter sprint, 200 meter sprint, and has sustained multiple injuries during his career o For the collective good Scientists risk life and limb when conducting research, that could lead to improvements for mankind Marie Curie, the first women to win a Nobel Prize in physics for her work in radiology, which eventually claimed her life as she died of anemia (when the body cannot produce new blood cells essential for survival). Her work paved the way for works with and safety when handling radioactive materials o But needs to be a calculated risk, instead of being reckless Substance abuse and unprotected sex are unnecessary risks teenagers should not take Criminal risk or extreme sports just for the adrenaline rush should not be promoted Skydiving o Needs to be accompanied by responsibility and accountability Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming

The risk of gambling can cause broken families, a mountain of debt Singapore has the National Council on Problem Gambling to combat this unnecessary risks

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GP vocab
1. Entrenched privilege a. The large amount of resources available to someone, as they are born into a rich family 2. Slippery ethical slope a. Easy for science to lose its ethics 3. Moral regression a. Decrease in morals 4. Debilitating a. Progressively weaker b. QOL decrease 5. Degenerative a. Progressively worse b. Condition worsens 6. Moratorium a. Ban for a limited period of time 7. Unscrupulous a. Underhanded, ulterior motive 8. Ubiquitous a. Existing everywhere 9. Leap the species barrier a. Diseases transferring from animals to humans 10. Morally repugnant a. Seen as morally wrong by society 11. Scientific imperative a. To find out more about the unknown, to unravel mysteries b. A powerful reason for any scientific research 12. Sentient a. Capable of thought and has a conscious 13. Vocal minority a. A small but influential group 14. Sine qua non a. An indispensable condition 15. Folly of youth

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GP fact sheet
Science and technology
1. Genetically modified food a. Golden Rice contains the gene that produces beta-carotene, a precursor of Vitamin A b. Bt (Bacillus thuringinesis) corn, containing the gene coding for the Bt delta endotoxin, has resistance against European corn borers i. Affects the growth of the Monarch caterpillars 2. Important people a. Stephen Hawking i. Works in the field of Theoretical Physics Discovered Hawking radiation, the radiation from black holes Wrote a ground breaking book on cosmology, A Brief History of Time o Best seller that sold more than 10 million copies ii. Awards Honorary fellow of the Royal Society of Arts Recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2009 o High civilian honour in the US Lifetime member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences o The scientific academy of the Vatican iii. Has a motor neuron disease, and uses a speech generating device due to nearly total paralysis b. Isaac Newton i. Was a physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and other stuff Laid down the three laws of motion o First law In the absence of a net force, an object at rest will remain at rest, while an object in motion will continue in motion in a straight line at a constant speed o Second law = The net force on a body is its mass times its acceleration o Third law For every force, there is an equal and opposite force He introduced universal gravitation Developed Newtons law of cooling Worked with Gottfried Leibniz to develop differential and integral calculus

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c. Albert Einstein i. Works in the field of Theoretical Physics Developed the special and general theory of relativity His mass-energy equivalence formula is widely known Had works on the Brownian motion, photoelectric effect Over 300 scientific papers and over 150 non-scientific works ii. Awards Novel Prize in Physics in 1921 for photoelectric effect work d. Claudius Galen i. Father of anatomy

Society
1. Famous people a. Gandhi i. Led India to independence from the British, through non-violent civil disobedience, on 15 August 1947 b. Rosa Parks i. Act of civil disobedience in 1955, as she refused to give up her seat to a white man. ii. Catalyst of the Civil Rights movement c. Martin Luther King Junior i. A prominent figure in the African-American Civil Rights movement ii. Led the Montgomery Bus Boycott Meant to protest the policy of racial segregation on public transport From 4 December 1955, to 20 December 1956 (381 days) Blacks boycotted all form of public transport Organized carpools, took non-motorized transport instead d. President Lincoln i. 16th president of the US ii. Led America through the American Civil War iii. Worked towards slavery by issuing the Emancipation Proclamation during the Civil War in 1863 iv. Abolished slavery by helping to push the Thirteenth Amendment to the United Sates Constitution through Congress in December 1968 e. Nelson Mandela i. President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999 ii. Fought against the apartheid system in South Africa Racial segregation in South Africa, with white superiority Native, White, Coloured and Asian Official abolishment of the Apartheid was in 1990 with the repeal of the remaining Apartheid laws However, the end is widely regarded as arising from the 1994 democratic general elections, with the African National Council (ANC) winning 62.56% of the votes, and Mandela as president Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming

2. Reformed laws a. Jim Crow Laws i. Racial segregation of the blacks in the US. From 1876 to 1965 Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, religious and national minorities and women Voting Rights Act of 1965 outlawed the disenfranchisement (losing the right to vote) of African-American in the US

Politics Environment
1. Energy a. Coal i. Around 7 billion tonnes of coal is used yearly ii. Since 2000, global coal consumptions has grown faster than any other fuel iii. China, USA, India, Russia and Japan are the largest coal uses, accounting for 77% of total global coal use. iv. Asia accounts for over 65% of global coal consumption, mainly due to China and India b. Oil i. Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi
Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela.

The 12 countries aim to eliminate harmful, unnecessary fluctuations in oil prices, while keeping oil prices high

ii. Oil disasters Deepwater Horizon oil spill by BP in 2010 The Deepwater Horizon drilling rig exploded on April 20, 2010 11 workers killed, 16 others injured It was capped on 15 July 2010 An estimated 53,000 barrels per day leaked from the oil well before it was capped A total of about 4.9 million barrels Affect marine wildlife, fishing and tourism 210 kilometre square kill zone around the well In late November 2010, large portions of the gulf were closed off to shrimping, due to oil contamination By July 2011, Large stretches of coastlines, about 800 kilometres, in Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida were stilled contaminated by the oil spill and closed off to tourists

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In April 2012, scientists discovered many mutated wildlife ranging from shrimps to fishes Eyeless shrimps Crabs with soft shells instead of hard Clawless crabs Fish with lesions c. Clean energy i. Microalgae, Project OMEGA (Offshore Membrane Enclosures for Growing Algae) Uses wastewater from cities Produces at least 40 times more biofuel than soy, at around 2000-5000 barrels per acre pre year Grows off the coast of a city Does not compete for limited land Has minimal impact on the environment Plastic can be reused for farming Can also be used to grow aquaculture at the same time

Art

Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming