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-

( )

2000

..
531
.
: . /
., 1991. 32 .

-
( ), 2000

I.

1.
q1 , q 2 , q3 ,

,
. -
, .. r = r ( q1 , q 2 , q3 ).

- r ,
. , ,
, .
ei ,

,
,

1 r
.
r qi
qi

ei =

V =

3
dr 3 r
=
q i = H i q i ei ,
dt i =1 qi
i =1

(1.1)

x y z
r
+
+
.
Hi =
=
q
q
q
qi

i i i

(1.2)

(1.1) (
!)

Vqi qi

Vq
i

1 V 2
= V ei =
.
H i qi 2

(1.3)

Hi

dS i = H i dqi ,

dSi i-
i- .
,
dS2 = dx2+ dy2+ dz2,
(1.5)

3
3
y
z
x
dqi , dy =
dqi , dz =
dqi . .
i =1 qi
i =1 qi
i =1 qi
3

dx =

dx, dy, dz (1.5),


3

dS 2 = H i dqi +
i =1

H ik =

i , k =1

ik

dqi dqk ,

(1.6)

y y
z z
x x
+
+
.
qi qk qi qk qi q k

, ,
, (1.4), ..


.
, .. i k

1
HiHk

ei ek =

x x
y y
z z

= 0 , (1.7)
+
+

q
q
q
q
q
q
i k
i
k
i
k
3

Hik = 0

dS 2 = H i dqi .
2

i =1

V=

H
i =1

2
i

q i .

(1.8)

Wq = W ei =
i

1
Hi

d V 2 V 2
dt q 2 q 2 .

i
i

(1.9)

(1.9),
qi
.
, qi qi ,
: -
- .
,
, .
,

,
.
1.1.

r , , z (. 1).
. ,

6
3

V 2 = H i q i .
2

i =1

,
.
dSr = dr , H r = 1 ,
z

dS = rd , H = r ,

dS z = dz , H z = 1 .
,

V 2 = r 2 + r 2 2 + z 2 .


(1.9),

Wr = r r ,
Wz = z.

W = 2r + r,

. 1

z = const
Wr

2.


,
.
,
( , n, b - ),
.

V = V

Wb = 0.

dV
V2
, Wn =
W =
dt

(1.10)

- .

1.2. W Wn
, ,

gt 2
x = t , y = t
2

= const

.
=
const

V = xi + y j.
2
2
2
x = , y = gt , V = + ( gt ) .
g ( gt )
W =
.
2
2 + ( gt )
,

W 2 = W + Wn .
W = xi + yj.

Wn

x = 0 , y = g , W = g .
g 2 2
2
2
2
.
Wn = W W = 2
2
+ ( gt )

V6
= 2 2
g
2

3
1 2
2 2
=
+ ( gt ) .
g

II.

:

Vi = V0 + i ,
(2.1)
Wi = W0 + i + i ,
(2.2)
V0 W0 - ,

- , i - ,
(. 2).

W = i
= i

.

. 2

.

, , .
( ).
.

1.

,
,
0, .

. (2.1) , 0
( )
, VP = 0.
.
, (2.1)

VA = ,

..
,
.

- .

,
.
,
, .
,

,
.
,
(2.2)
Wi = WO + i 2 i .
(2.3)

.
2.1. (. 3)
1

,

O B
K
C
A

1
M

22
,
4
.
3

N
.3

10

2-3, 4.

M N 4 , ,
,
OA AN .

r1 = r3 = 2r , r2 = r4 = r.

.
(2.1). .
4, ,
: V A = 6r.

4 4 ,
.
4. .
, ,
3 4. 1 2
2-3.
2-3, , VC = 3r ,
, ,
VC = 2 r , 2 -
2-3.
2 = 3 ( 2
), ,

Vk = 2 BK = 9r .
,
2-3 4 . ,
4.

,
V A VK (. 4).

VK
VA
=
.
KP KP KA

11

= 3r.
4 : 4 = VK KP = 3 ( 4

KP


). ,
M N : VM = 4 PM = 3r
( VM V A ),

VN = 3 5r (VN PN )

(2.1):

VM = V A 4 AM = 3r , VN = V4 + 4 AM

vk

VN = 36 2 r 2 + 9 2 r 2 =

vA

= 3 5r.

vM
A

V A 4 AN ,

VN
K
N
. 4


M N
(2.2),
.

:

W A = 6r , W An = 6 2 r.


, ..

d d
0 ,
=
dt
dt

, .

4
4 t = 3 t ,

0 -

( ()

( ))

4 = 3 . ,

= 3r , WM = WN = 9 2 r .

WM = W N

12

M N
(. . 5),

WM =

(W

WM

) + (W

An

+ WM

= 3r 2 + 25 4 ,
__
WA
__
Wan

__
W
M

__
WN

__

WM

__

WN
. 5

WN =

(W

WN

) + (W

An

+ WN

= 3r 5 2 + 13 4 + 16 2 .
2. ,
,

, .
,
(2.1)
(2.2)

VM = OM ,

(2.5)

13

WM = OM + OM = WM + WM .

(2.6)
,

.

. ,

WM

WM

(.
).
2.2. r
,
.
R,
: V = at.
.
,
, (. 6).

. r = 0 ,
..

Z
__
_ _
,

k j
.
C
O_

i
M
y

x
,


. 6

, . ,

.

14

VC = OC = PC ,


PC
.
,

VC
V
at
R2 + r 2 =
=
R2 + r 2 .
PC Rr
Rr


OZ,

VC at
= .
OC R

.
= O , O - .

d d
=
O + ,
dt
dt

(..

d O
= O ).
dt

. , , = const ,
= , ,
,
.

1 =

d a R + r
=
(Rr )
dt

2 = =

at 2
Rr

.

(2.6).
(. . 6)

15

i
j
k
at
a
a

=
W = OM =
(Rr )
r
R
r sin R r cos
a
= i a(cos 1) + j (at 2 cos + r sin ) +
R
a
+ k (at 2 + r sin ),
r

W = OM =
2 2

at atR atr

at

= j + k
cos
R r
R

r
2 2
a 2t 2
a t
(i r sin + jR k r cos ) 2 + 2 =
R
r
2 2

at
= 2 i (R 2 + r 2 )sin j 2rR sin 2 k 2 R 2 sin 2 .
2
2
rR
=0

, , ,

WA = j

(WA

a 2t 2
a 2t 2

+k
, W A = 0,
R
r

).
.

WA

III.
,
,

2
,
x3 3 _ _
i2

i3

O_
.

i1

1
O1
O1 2 3 ,

x2

O1 x1 x2 x3 .
x1
. 7

,
,

Va

Va = Ve + Vr ,
, Vr

(3.1)
-

, Ve - .

3

OM : OM = j l j ,

j =1

17
3

Vr =  j l j .

(3.3)

j =1


,
, ..

Ve = VO + e OM ,

(3.3)

e - .
,
,
, ,
.

:

Wa

Wa = Wr + We + Wk ,

(3.4)

Wr = j l j

(3.5)

j =1

We = WO + e OM + e e OM ,

(3.6)

(2.2),
.
Wk

Wk = 2 e Vr .

(3.6) (3.7) e
.

(3.7)

18

3.1.
R V.

.
,
, .
.
.
. Vr = V .
,
VO = 0, e = t =R Ve = tR cos .

Vr

( ), Ve
(
),

Va = V 2 r + V 2 e = V 2 + 2 t 2 R 2 cos 2 .

,
__
W
e
__
WK

__
Wr n

__
W
e

(3.4).

.
Wr = 0 ,

Wrn = Vr / r = V 2 / R
2

. 8

( r


).

19

(3.6).

WO = 0 ,

We = e OM = R cos,

We = e e OM = 2 t 2 R cos .

Wk = 2tv sin .
.8.
,
:

Wa =

(W

+ Wrn cos + (Wrn sin ) + We Wk


2

v2
v4

2 2
t R cos + cos + 2 sin 2 +
=
R
R

+ (R cos + 2tv sin ) .


2

IV.



, ,

(3.3)
(3.4).

:
a = e + r ,
(4.1)

a = e + r + e r .

(4.2)

20


.
,
(. 9).

n-1
n
2
1

....

. 9


(
ir = i ).
, ,
,
,
:

ir ri = (i +1)r ri +1

)ri = ( i +1 )ri +1 ,

+ , -
.
4.1. 2.1,
.
. N M 4
.
.
:
1.
, .
2. ,
.

21

(3.1) (3.4) ,

M N.
1. M (N)
OM = 7 r
,

(ON =

37r

e = , e = . ,
veM = vO + e OM = e OM ,
veM = 7r , veN = 37r ,

WeM = WO + e OM + e e OM = WeM + WeM ,

WeM = 7r , WeM = 7 2 r ,

WeN = 37r , WeN = 37 2 r.

M (N)
4,
4 r

4r

4r .

1 = 0, 2 = 3 , 4 . ( ).
,
.
:

1r = , 2 r = 2 ,
3r = 3 , 4 r = 4 .

22

. ,

.

( )r = ( )r = r ,
( )r = r = ( )r
1

2r 2

3r 3

= 4 r r4 ,

4 r = 4 . - ,
4 r .

__

We
_
VeM

__ __

Wr n We

. 10

__
Wk

_
VrM
__
Wr

e r ,

a = e + r .

(4.2)

,
a e , :

4 r = 4 .

WrM , WrN .

VrM , VrN
VrM = VrN = 4r .

__
WK

__

WrN
O

. 11

__

WeN
__

WrN

__

WrN
_
VrN

_
VeN
__
WK

Wr

23

Wr , Wrn - Wr :

Wr = WrM = WrN = 4r , Wrn = WrM = WrN = 16 2 r


Wr Wrn

Wr Wr

( ,

,
,
(. (2.2)).
:

WKM = WKN = 2 4r = 8 2 r .

M N . 10 11.

,

VaM = VeM VrM = 3r ,


2

6
4

VaN =
VeN +
VeN VrN = 3 5r ,
37
37

WaM =

(W

We WrN

) + (W
2

Wr

= 3r 2 + 25 4 ,
2

WaN =

1
6


We WK + We
+ Wr +

37
37

We 6We

+

Wr =
37

37

= 3r 13 4 + 5 2 + 16 2 .

24

2.
, e = 0, e = 0.

Ve = V A = 6r , We = W A , (W A = 6r , W An = 6 2 r ) .

M (N)
r .

vr = 4 AM , Wr = Wr + Wr .



(. (4.1)
(4.2)).
,

_
VeM

__
Wa
_
VA

__
W
rN

__
W
rM

_M
VrN

__
__
Wr n
_
W
rN
_
VrN
VrN

VrM = VrN = 3r ,

__
W
rM

WrM = WrN = 3r ,

. 12

WrN = WrN = 9 2 r ,

WKM = WKN = 0.

,
M N
(. . 12)

VM = V A VrM = 3r , VN = V A + VrN = 3 5r ,
2

WM =

(W

WN =

(W

) + (W

Wr

+ Wr

) + (W

= 3r 2 + 25 4 ,

An

+ Wr

An

+ Wr

= 3r 13 4 + 5 2 + 16 2 .

25

4.2. 2.2
.
.
, , ,
,

OZ.
,
__

a

__
:

__

e = Vc / R = at / R.
e , r :

at
R2 + r 2 ,
A
rR
. 13
r = e ctg = at / r
13). e = a / R , r = a / r ,

a =

(c. .

.
(4.2):

a 2t 2
a
a
a = e + r + e r = i
j +k
r
R
rR


.
(..6)

26

i
0

We = e OM =

j
0

k
a/R

r sin R r cos
ia + j
We

Wr

ar
sin ,
R

a 2t 2
a 2t 2
= e e OM = i 2 r sin j
,
R
R
i
j
k
= r CM = 0
a/r
0
=
r sin
0
r cos

= i a cos + k a sin ,

Wr = r r CM = r CM =

a 2t 2
(i sin k cos ),
=
r
WK = 2 e vr = 2

k
at / R =

at cos 0 at sin
= j

2a 2 t 2
cos .
R

V.


.
.

,
,
,
.

. ,

__
, .. ,
.
O_

A
i

.

.

Vi = i

, .

. 14

mO (F ) = r F = OA F ,

OA - -,

F .
:

mO ( ) = OA = OA .

(5.1)

28

AO -
, ..



. ,

.


,

B

( -
__
)
1
.
5.1.
_
Ri

A
D

,
..
1

. 15
(
), 2
, (
). .
. (3.1)
.

Ve = 2 Ri ,
Vr = 1 Ri . Ve Vr (3.1),
Vai = (1 + 2 ) Ri .
= 1 + 2 . Vai = Ri .

29

,
, ,

. , ,
,
,
.
5.2. 1
1-1. 1-1
2-2 2 .

:
1
) 1 2
2
__

__

2
2

1
. 16

; )

2
1 > 2 ; ) 1
2
1 = 2 .

1-1
, 1-1 .
,
,
- ,
, .

,
,
1 2 .
).

1 2 .

30

VN = VNr + VNe = 1 BN + 2 AN .

(5.2)
(5.2)
,
,
,

VC = 0.

2 AC = 1 BC ,
AC / BC = 1 / 2 .

, ,

__
1

__
2

AM = AC + CM ,
BM = BC + CM , (5.2)

VM = (1 + 2 ) CM

. 17

= 1 + 2 ,

VM = CM .
,
,
, 1 2 ,
1-1 2-2 ,
.

__
__

2 1

A
C B
1 2 .
__
__
-

__

__

-
. 18

31

,
. ,
, 1 2 (. . 18)

1 , 2 .
(.
5.1),
.
,

= 1 + 2 .

). ,
, , 1 2
,

= 1 + 2 .

( ) ,

1 2 ,
,

.
). 1 2 .
1

(3.1) ,

AB = AM + MB ,

1 = 2 ,

VaM = 1 BM + 2 AM = 1 BA .
,
, ..
. ,
.
,
,
V .

32

,
,
.

.

__
__
.

,
A
B


__


' = ' = .
'

V = AB

. 19

(
), '
. ,
, ,
:
' =
, ,

__

1
2

A
__

1
2

1
. 20

.M

V = AB.

,
,

,

, ,

,

33

,
,
.
5.3.
, 1 1-1,
.
2 2-2. 1-1 2-2 .
.

(3.1)

VM = 1 AM + 2 BM ,

BM = BA + AM , V A = 2 BA,

VM = V A + (1 + 2 ) AM = V A + AM .
,



,
,

= 1 + 2 .
,
.

1

2 ' = 2 2 ' = 2 ,

1 . , ,
1 2 . 1
2 ' = 1 + 2 ,

34

2 '

2 . ,


:

V = 2 'BA ,

2 .

,
,
2 , 2 ' ..
,
.
(.
5.1 - 5.3) ,
,
,
.
,
.

.

1 , 2 ,..., k

V1 , V2 ,..., Vm .


. ,

.

1 ,..., n , .
,
.

35

i ( i ' = i )

OAi i , i ,

i .

i ' ,
n

i =1

i =1

= i ' = i .

(5.3)

.
OAi i

i =1

i =1

VO = OAi i = Ai O.

(5.4)

VO
.

VO

VO ' = VO + O' O .

(5.5)
,
.

(V

= V A + AB

),

= i

i =1

,
.

:
, ,

36
n

= i

i =1

VO

= OA i .
i =1


,
, ..

VP = ,

(5.6)

.

; ,
,

VP .

, .
(5.6).

VP = Vn + PO ,

VO + PO
=,

(5.7)

, OXYZ,
:

Vx y z + z y
x
=

Vz x y + y x
z

V y z x + x z
y

=
(5.8)

37

VP =

VO
,

(5.9)

(5.5) ,
. ,


,

= i ,

VP = (VO ) / .
.
,

= 0, VO 0 ,

,

(. 5.2 ).
VO
,
(. 5.1, 5.2 ), )).
.
,

= 0,

0
0
0

VO 0 VO 0
VO 0 VO = 0
VO = 0

=0

VO 0

=0

VO = 0

VO = 0 ,

38


.
5.4. 1 1
VO
,

(
). 1

O .
__

0 1.
X
A
.
O1
1
.

O
1
.
Y
.
. 21

. ,
OXYZ (
OZ ).

= ( O ,0, ) , VO = VO (VO ,0,0 ) .


VO

, -

= 2 + O

39

V = VO O / 2 + O

VO y

z=

z O + x y O
=
0

x, y = 2 O 2
O
+ O
Z

_
V3
_

3
O
_
V2

_
V1
_

i = (i = 1,3)

. 22

5.5.

,
22.

Vi = V i = 1,3 . a.
. ,

x = 0, Vx = 2V + a / 2 ,
y = 0, V y = 2V a / 2,
z = 2 , Vz = 2V a / 2.

40

x = (V + a ) / , y = (2V + a ) / 2 .

= 2
a

V = 2V
.
2

I. .

1. 3
2.

...
II.
1. ...
2. ,

.
III. ..

6
8
8
12
16

IV.

19

V.

27

41

..
_______________________________________________
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1. . . . . 2,0. .-.. 2,0.
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141700, . ., . , ., 9