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Japan Style / architecture + interiors + design Jopen Style cffers a rare glimpse into 20 of the finest Japanese style homes to be found today in Japan. Lavish photographs capture traditional design prin ciples, practical solutions and playful details that make Japanese architecture timeless, This book explains how Japanese design achieves the timeless and expensive quality of space using simple natural ‘elements. This quirtessertially Japanese style is ilustrated here by a 100-year-old rural minka, a tiny townhouse in Kyoto. 2 sprawiing mension, and ‘2 modem concrete cottage, This book offers insights for both the expert and layrnan as wells surprising alternatives that are relevent to the design of modem: homes anywhere in the world an) C4 03g 643/645 Aw apan Style architecture + interiors + design intreévcton by Geeta Mehta tex by Kime Tada ard Geeta Mehta pPhetogrphs by Noboru Murata TUTTLE scan: The Stainless Steel Cat Fetes Eaors (48 th ec crt 130 Jo Serge. #0601709, Seco 1257 copys © 2005 ere Eaters 40 ae Fetes © 2005 Perse aos (IL Fret Co-ortr: Kor Pata Dette by Tek Pienrg 16 enton Ore, e602) 73 Bs (0D 73. lo@urtegtitrgcer ete Becks Pe 1.130 Jon Sng Ree #FOGOIS Segpece 368357 Te (6) e280 153 5) ‘curesperpuncemag Tile Pdiirg stan rg 3, Te (C3) 5437 0171; fa 81¢C3) 5487 0735 ra tate siexOpetcem 7 fa Cocks dons }Febga acre Kora Bok i, ars 1240 Frat cover The ons won pre ce ion pce a en how este pe pe Cergesttraricly, Reece ae cen bel bt deca a oot rc ho tes, elareen feted enero samen re, be gprs nce ce oe eo ple ‘ramictaes naar aS wet cher ar The core one Oe ec iin Wo Th pg Ut or ure tpi ce he The pgeFartre—aich ati cep alee, tres ca ee 009 060706 65432 TUTTLE PUBLISHING® prec ir ‘What is Japanese about a Japanese House? 8. ‘An Old Farmhouse Gears up for the Future (38. AvTea Master's Dream Lives On (20 A Home in Snow Country 146. Summer Style in a Kyoto Machiya 38 ‘A Sukiya-style Setting for an Art Gallery 160 Exuberant Spontaneity in an Interior in Osaka | 52 ‘An Old Parlor with an Old Tree 170 House of Ikebana 68. ‘The Evolution ofa Modern Home 178 A Kagétstyle Teahouse to Sooththe Soul 76 | \AGottege Shaped by Old Memories 184 ‘ACelebration of Lacquer Craft 8B) 1). Lis ‘A Room for Viewing ight and Shadows of Life 190. Coming Home oan OW Madhya. 98 A ute to Masters of Modernism | 196 ‘Antiques Find a New Home in an Old Mi A Mew of Mount Acarna 204 DERE NS Reb 5 Mt ‘A House with @ Cosmopolitan Interior” What is Japanese about a Japanese House? surprising intellectual leap in housing design took place in Japan during the 14th century. This was an idea so powerful that t resonated for the next 600 years, and stil retains enough influence in Japan as shown in the houses in this book. This intelectual leap sought to “eliminate the inessential,” and seek the beauty in unembelished humble things. It sought spaciousness in deliberately small spaces, ard a feeling of eternity in fragile and temporary materials. ‘A house's interior was not to be just protected from rature, but to be integrated with nature in harmony, Inertial Zen Budchist priests in the Muromachi and Momoyama Periods articulated this ideal so well that thought leaders in mary fiekds followed it, and the entire Japanese society aspired to it. What resulted were homes that speak to the sout and seem to hold time stil. They provide a quiet simple base {orn which to deal with the worl. ‘Around the time that European and English homes ‘were becoming crammed with exotic bric-a-brac collected from the newly estabished colonies, Japanese Zen priests ‘were sweeping away even the furiture from their homes. Out also went any overt decorations. What wes left was 2 simple flexible space that could be used according to the needs of the hour: At night the bedrolls were taken from deep shire cupboards, and during the day they were ‘alam a erly are the alan of Zerit icons nese Interrs. This fects achieved by ay of vere and hertaones races Pec with ronal colors. Exterior wal panel ae rp reer ove Bre Femoved mes room m et the sumer beat an pen ew maa “asopenasaent™ replaced, making space for meals, work. play and enter- taining. This “lightness” was in part a response to Japan's frequent earthquakes, and in part to the Buddhist teachings about the transient nature ofall things. is interesting to note that this ephemeraliy is not reflected in the architec- tural tradition in Inia, China or Korea. the three countries from where Buddhism arrived in Japan. Wood is the preferred building material in Japan. The country’s Shinto roots have inculcated a deep understancing of and respect for nature Japanese carperters have perfected techniques of drawing out the intrinsic beauty of wood. Craftsmen often fel, smell and sometimes even taste wood before purchasing it Although stone is avaiable in abundance in mountainous Japan, it was traditionally used for the foun cations of temples, castles and, toa lnited extent, for homes and warehouses. Even brick buildings, when fst but n Ginza around 1870, stayed untenanted for along time, because people preferred to Ive in well ventilated wooden buildings. Tadtional Jpanese builders designed houses from the inside out, the way modem architects professed to do untl about tivo decades ago. & house's exterior evolved from its plen, rather then being forced into pre-conceived symmetrical forms. Bruno Taut, 2 German architect trained at Bauhaus, and who came to japan in 1933, claimed that “Japanese architecture has always been modern,” The Bauhaus mantras of "form follows function” an “less is more,” as well 2s the “modern’ ideas of modular grids, pretabrication and standardization had long been part of Japanese building tracitions, (coven yok coher cabea a — symbole nero emu Fioor-plan of Zan Yu So—the organic organization of a Japanese house ‘Around the time when Leonardo da Vine was devel coping 2 system of dimersicns that scaled the hurnan body for use in architecture, Japanese crafsmen standardized the cdmensions of ttami mat to 90. IEG centimeters, which ‘was considered adequate for a Japanese person to sleep on. Every dimension ina japanese house relies to the module ofa ttari mat For example, the height of fisua doors is vsually 180 centimeters. The width ofa structural pos is usually one-tenth or one-fith f 90 centimeters, ad the post's bevel is one-severth or one-tenth of ts wieth, Thus, 25 in da Vincis mode, the proportions and scale cf a trad tional Japanese house can be considered to fiw from the dimensions ofthe human body. The houses shown in this book are a wonderful rervinder that there are other alternatives to "big is beaut- and that eternity is not about permanent materials Living inthe “condensed” world —Japar's population is half the size ofthe US, but it occupies land area about 30 times smaller—the Japanese have developed a unique Understanding of space. An ikebana arrangement charges the area in and around itself and that space becomes an integral part of the design. The arrangement would net be early a elective without this empty space. One of the mest famous bulking in Japan isthe Taien tea hut built by ‘Sen no Rilyu, the famous | 6th century tea raster. This masterpiece of Japanese architecture measures a mere ‘one-and-three-quarters of a tatami mat, or apprenimately three square meters. This tiny house gives an example (f how sal houses do not have to take the form ofthe proverbial “rabbit hutches,” but can be beautiful ane! open like the Kamikazawa home (pages 178-183) and the house ‘owmed by Toru Baba and Keiko Asou (pages 98-107) Afler all, how much space does a man need? Traditional Japanese houses have a special relationship with nature, In extreme cases, the best part of @ lot was siven over to the garden, and the house designed on the land left ver: Entre sho walls can be pushed aside, creating an intimate unity wit the garden. The ergowa comer modulates the relationship between the house's interior and exterior In summer it belongs to the outdoors, wile in winter and at night itis closed of to form part of the interior space as shown in the Zan Yu So villa (page 20-37). “The wood ered ene coma reas he rbot besten she inmanor an erie fa room The scr ster he ete ge the lrg are eevee Cr te Cay soda the verde Recaes pr Of = [arden wie aight carg sty weather the stereo ce fo ‘en the enor sce. Theso wooden str sats are afewure mary ewe ess pan ot have As pointed out by architect Antonin Raymond, who came 10 Japan to work with Frank Lloyd Wright, “The Japanese house is surprisingly free, At night and in the winter, ove can shut out the world and the interior becomes a box divided up into rooms, Then in the summer, one opens up all the storm doors, the sliding screens and siding doors and the house becomes as free as a tent through whieh air gently passes.” Made of wood, mud and straw, the tradi- ‘tonal house is also environmentally friendly and recyclable. Even old tatami mats can be shredded and composted, ‘Another facet of the japanese house, and indeed of Japanese ile, is the dichotomy between the private and the public, In natrow but deep townhouses like Kondaya Genbei (pages 38-51), public dealings were confined to the house's street side, while the rooms beyond were reserved for domestic life. The Japanese word for depth is ol, so a wife is referred to 2s cku-son, “the lady who inhabits a house's depths.” How far into the home a guest penetrates depends Con his relationship with the family. A house has a “public face,” which may or may not convey arything about the ‘Above: Speier sures ad sycen scram oth few bce rt payed na oom Lafe"The wrasturing best of rine arvheuse cores or ara materi suchas unbewn seta a! acre lng method parfected eer hinerads ef yous re employed to ree a ng at ce Iegeaty sale ad empty reyete hidden interior, Powerful feudal lords often chose to live in the simple, understated Sukiya-style spaces, while visitors ‘would only see the ornate staterooms, However, the pri- vate areas allowed for litle privacy, since mere paper screens Cr thin walls separated the rooms from each other. This fact has probably contributed to the deeply ingrained sociable manners in Japanese people, especially women, ‘Types of Japanese Houses and Interiors This book focuses on several types of houses and interiors Yerramoto's mirka (pages 108-119) is a good example of Japan's rustic farmhouses, which were functional and built cof sturdy local materials, Such a house can be generally divided into two distinct zones. The entrance area (about ‘one-third of the space) is called a dora, and has a packed earthen floor. A family would cock, produce refs and in very cold climates, also tether farm animals here at night “The fermhouse's second zone usualy stands on a wooden plinth and includes the living area and bedrooms, The large hearth atthe heart of the main room was the hub of fry activity in such homes, the beauty of which is detived from rustic materials such as unhewn timbers and from the integrity of ancient building techniques. The heavy roof with deep eaves on these farmhouses, which often constitutes two-thirds ofthe elevation, makes them appear comfortably rooted in their surroundings. Frank Lloyd Wright corsidered the minka an appropriate symibol of domestic stability, and they became one of the several Japanese ideas that infu enced his residential designs. Most of the houses in this book were builtin an urban context. The larger homes, such as the Tgai house (Pages 120-131), are located in the countryside, but have 2 strong emphasis on formality, and are builtin the Shoin or Sukiya-Shoin style like their urban counterparts. Elements of these houses have evolved from the rigid Shinde style that was borrowed and adapted from China during the eighth century. This style consisted of a central chamber reserved for the master ofthe house, with corridors, sraller rooms for the family and pavilions that fanked this roorn, all arranged arcund a srrall pond or a garden. During the Muromachi Petiod (1336-1572), the Shinden style evolved into the Japanese Shoin style, used for the reception rooms Of the aristocracy and the samurai dlasses, but which was banned in the homes of common people during the Edo. Period (1600-1867), This style includes four distinct ele- ‘ments that have been formalized over time: the decorative alcove (tokoroma) for hanging scroll and other objects; staggered shelves (chigaidone) located next the tokcnen decorative doors known as chodaigamae; and a built-in desk ‘Thi brge country house ar sgn ve seen Fare hough the preter ‘ence Bal with ftir materi re colors, the hese pales enforebly ‘he gaden that ems o mim ha grea utdors ca 6 pes, The thor of cocnsence wi eature, poten vee (suke shein) that usually juts out into the engawa, flanked by sholt paper screens, Al these features started out as pieces of loose furniture, but were built in over time, in keeping vith the Japanese preference for clean, uninterrupted spaces, Tatami mats usually cover the entire floor in these formal rooms, As the tea ceremony increased in popularity during the Muromachi, Momoyama and Edo Periods, the ideal of the humble tea hut began to exercise a strong influence on Jepanese housing design. Ostentatious Shoin-style interiors gave way to the more relaxed Sukiya-Shoin style in all but the most formal residences. Sukiya style tured all the rules ‘of the rigid Shoin syle inside out, and proviced abundant ‘opportunities for personal expression, It sought beauty in the passage of time, es seen in the decay of delicate natural materials in an interior and the growth of mass on tree ‘runs and siones ina garden. While the rest of the workd searched for the most durable and erate building materials, paris elite were scouring their forests for fragie-looking Pieces of wood that would underscore the imperfection of things. The moth-eaten woed selected by Baizan Nakamura for his cabinet doors (pages 172-173) is an example of this ‘rend, The ideal of woi-sabi, translated loosely by Frank Loyd Wright as “rustcity and simplicity that borders on loveliness,” was considered the epitome of sophistication For interiors. Sukiya style also favored asymmetrical arrange rents, while avoiding repetition and symmetry. Posts on ‘walls were arranged so as not to dive a wal space into equal pants. A variety of woods were used for different pats ofthe same structure to add interest. However, such diversity results ina satisfying whole because of the dsc pline of herizental and vertical ines and muted soft colors The goal sto please rather than impress the visitor. The owners ofthese houses participated in the selection of rraterils and playful design details such as doorknabs and nal covers Sukiya-Shoin rooms are often complemented by tea huts in their gardens, twas not unusual for architects ane! designers to make fulscle paper models (oleshiezv) ofa tea hut to perfect its designs before the actual construction process began. ‘Above: These salle ceremony ara underscore the aero otal 2 Iapmese dos. A etare tro wks refered wo sche or hs bea) ‘umd over cna star pec desig fr th purpose. The fat coop (Ghee an cet fan teow fe Dune he Moya ard Ed Feri, of power often ved wih acheter cafing es sere eee, Rig: Jpgsneze and med Wes lernersf the terior complet th ede se bet sare vo ha best ol sinphty These wal ene Jet scorpley ororble Five of the houses in this book were not built with traditional materials and techniques, but have nonetheless been included because they express the dynamics cf Jepan- ese space and sensibilities. Athough traditional houses are creasing in number, traditional spatial concepts inform the work of many contemporary architects in Jepan. Wile rest Japanese now Ive in apartments or moder homes that are usually srall but comfortable, they maintain deep pride and love for their tractional architecture. With growing awareness ‘of the many wonderful buildings already lost tothe recent development frerzy, there is row renewed interes in saving ‘radtona srucres, Several horres in this book were moved 10 new locations for preservation—a very encouraging sign. | hope that this book wil strengthen this trend The houses featured inthis book are important not jut forthe Japanese but ako for all of us. They invite us to rethink the wisdom of cur unsustarable festyes. Contry to Le Corbusier's adage of moder architecture, atrad- tional Japanese house isnot simply a machine to vein," but a home forthe soul “The foas en Jpsrene desig not n sures, ut on he quay of tho ret spoe, Te modem gare fous cheese fee oleae ger spe wth moder rel art, A Tea Master's Dream Lives On Sedo or the “Way of Tea’ seeks to extend the meditative simplicity of the tea ceremony or chanoyu into al aspects of lfe, The ideal ofa rind in complete harmony with nature and free from the turmeil cof worldly afairs has blossomed in Japan since Zen Buddhism arrived here from India and China in the 13th century. From the Mell Era (1868-1912) to the early Showa Period (1926-1989). many influential people in poltical and fancial cirdes becarre particulary strong proponents of chanoyu, 2s they searched for balance in their secular and sprit lives. This helped the ideals of chanoyu strongly influence many {ans in Japan inckiding architecture, painting, pottery, poetry, caligraphy and flewer arrangement. In architecture, chonoyt has generated a special style called the Suklya style, known for its minimalism, sitrplity, rustcty, understatement and @ restrained playfulness. The Takarnatsu house was built in 1917 inthe Sukya style by Teichi Takamatsu, a renowned votary of chanoyu in Nagoya district located between Telyo and Kyoto, The secone-generation head of a wealthy family that owns substantial real estate, he brought his profound love of chenoyu to the buikdng of his house. After his son inherited the family business and his father's beloved residence, this house became the setting for many dramas in the financial scene of Japan for the next several decades This historic legacy nearly came to an end when the house was slated for destruction in 1985. Fortunately, Teruyuki Yamazaki, a businessman with a deep understanding of Japanese architecture, helped save this invaluable Sukiya-style house by purchasing it as 2 guest house for his company. The ew owner was moved by the fect thatthe Takamatsu house was nearly as old as his machine tool exporting company, Yamazaki Mazak Corp.. which was founded in 1919, and hed witnessed the same: historic developments. Yamazaki relocated the Takamatsu house—which was relatively easy to do, since traditional Jap anese homes are made of silful wood joineny—to a scenic part ofthe Aich Prefecture on a generous {6.700 square meter plot with a good view ofthe Kiso River: It has now been renarved Zan Yu So, which literally means, “avila to enjoy oneself for a while." The rebuilding of the Takamatsu house ‘was completed in 1990 after five years of reconstruction, involving just afew changes necessitated lve to its move. Besides the grand reception room of this house. which has 20 tatami mats, there are several ten-mat rooms, each one with a diferent theme and an elaborate interior All the rooms ‘offer picture perfect views of the lovely garden, which abo has a special tearoom connected to the house via a passage. In keeping with the true Sukiya aesthetics of understatement, this large house has an air of modest elegance rather than showy pride. Is natural simplicity and a sense of stillness ‘are stil spiritually uptiting, in keeping with what the orginal ower might have intended init Ba 1) A rm eam a u86 ‘hove: An atrangaere of open shes (te) ‘dow storage compares Guo) nt Fees adoring the teeraa sparc he ‘era Shamsspector akc The sl stand an the ting ae (nar tn) tems cecorsted by ence ver own as make his chu ssn th lacquer and ne specks of gan vers pane In zeera liners ana prepared wooden sce. (Oppose: The grand reception oom Kaku nse dcerated Show se. Te mtr cen ‘fe vas engraly raed after the Dulin wg dee (ee sn tha oom of Zan rat ‘She he, abun desk rete acer sof window have beer career nets lor dcr seen neh roar, The cep {olan aethr rae of th fal Sen bola lee pt for preserving ren oa thot hd bean af rom Trea dhe fourth “Tuga Shogun te ore eras The fava Apt ws ptr by Tay Karo (12021674), renowned pater of Karo chook which fed the Sheps with ar fc ptr oat long 20 yea, ‘Roo: The tka seve x eroem ed “anyuts Score by target eho) ‘sth five Chane carers ih opener prom ‘ari, On the et ofthe tke eos ‘ral that oprates the eroom en the oss rearce, The pst at he ed fh af wo (led rebecca pl and ss yal athe corer pet inthe loam aleve (oboe) elected with grea care 3 ey set ‘he uae nod ote earoor gle The gure eras wo the areola i pc, brad very oral, 60 carrrers Tigh eh can The anal rear or ar. ‘hepumt ener he tree on harks and bron wat oak tha anv thar were ps band coring in wth hai md pore fred The sc cure of ety mat, he teroo trevaad bcs sor draught srr [fparse paper (ven) psd tthe weep ‘an ofthe wale aba) eo pretct get brenes eth md ptr on the ale LASS SSS — SS SS pitt tt J Pe ORSS ‘Abo: Uren si the ea caren ae race ‘ef bartoo. A let ar he whe (ec brs sr ee ree ea atcha i te eae wah de hee water The fat sep, called cs, ‘edt measure the porderd ren tthe tea bow. The fe toothy (rae) are sed by shes tect panes ec cg ea carn “The poss cen trvg ier own lar Sone ‘wth epanese paper rps 2 pect backed rade the alr of ho Keno when they ake forthetesceenery Lf A uel hook i proved ona post the sera chon (sy) Sor Fn thea ceth. ‘Opposite: Thi with 2 apbead fren ‘orate and arin wich cows hen ins oral are. Every etd thug hough rd nme a bed a pont, Te Noor la Sk covered witha bare mat one erp of (a ateron to doa ‘Above: Th vera (ego) modes he aes ‘aenean the rer a ur sons, allowing su ahs hots ad prec rer a sherri forme pr othe arr nh er the erpove ent cod ft erm an exerin cee merece, Late A path egpingstonen, so eile “deny oth oe ening mo ha ea at ere ‘regh th ss window A spl te rug) inthe rid cf the gen spares er re utr tes green, Ping teugh the mie ue = symbole of entering tre ten word. Maa rend eareof tn eon ape ene clin ‘Abowe The log paral in sara (k-) rmensres 360 cetietes ates as oO {Sg pee of very re prec, {ae The tt bose, or the man pos baton the tena nd eign, rade of ert pes mage eee rf fa bun slated for ‘Sveti ec. Th cling ade em varie of ‘woods, paper ed recs alse ree nce toh trom Fig tp, mie ron The door pall ite) etn enn tp), pack rie) a ‘boat oar btton)—are slats to tthe thre ‘tthe room. The peaeak hte hen em nepal pol ‘Above The leon a oom ramet rates ne pst (ho bari) dee bop: [avery highs wood. The wall te le ofthe akove fas weno witha grat bbe lsc sn urstal agen pater Left: Asma woeden cas amarok) hk a ‘tone ani sik tah ant ty water ele tor ramen Oppose: Rams cratin = manner et or than tho Shon sere referred tes he shar ‘ows. The leer part of ere aan Pas ne she vino (ras rode. The dadred panes (nthe ore rca st abe up os forse rata, Summer Style in a Kyoto Machiya Located in the heart of Kyoto. the Imperial capital of Japan for over 400 years, Kondaya Genel is an ‘excellent exarnple of an elegant Kyoto-style machya, or merchant’s townhouse. Muromachi, the dis- trict where ths townhouse is located. was once a powerful trade center known for its aristocratic tastes and many elegant buiklings. Kondaya Genbei was established in the 1730s and has since served as a residence and a shop where traditional kimonos and obi sashes are crafted and sold. The prosperous business is presertly run by the terth generation owner Genbei Yamaguchi who is aso a kiriono designer himself. In 2002, he helped revive a species ofsik cocoons called koshimaru. These cocoons: ‘was used in ancient Japan for making a delicate variety of sik capable of taking on vivid éyes. but had bbeen replaced with larger cocoons because they were too srrll forthe eficient production of silk, Due to Genbei Yarmeguch’s efforts, silk of this sort isn production again ater a hiatus of many decades. This two-storey timber bulking sits on a deep rectangular lot along the street, with a 30-meter facade several ies lager than the neighboring lots. Narrow frontages are typical of machiya since the properties were taxed based upon the width of their street fronts. The outside of the house is made up of wooden lattice painted with Bengala, a redkish colcothar so named because it was frst imported from Bengal in india. The entrance leads into a doma, a room with an earthen floor, used for casual meetings or the receiving of supplies. One does not need to take shoes off here. Rooms beyond this one are raised on a wooden plinth and get more sophisticated and private along the tor riwia corridor leading into the house. The inner part of the house also contains a small garden (tsubo rive), 2 tearoom (che-shitsu) and two storeroors (kura). The tsubo-mvea helps ventilate the interior \while bringing nature in. The storerooms, set apart rom the main house, are protected by heavy. fre- resistant plaster walls, Merchandise and fariy treasures are stored in therm to this very day. In Japanese culture, food, clothing as well as décor reflect the changing seasons. Kyotoites have traditionally delighted in changing the décor of their homes to create an ambience of coolness during the warm summers. The Yaraguchis observe this vanishing custom by removing the sho and fisuma’ paper screens oftheir home, replacing them with woven wooden frames (sido) draped with beauty ‘woven bamboo blinds (Sudare), The open weave of the sudo blurs the division between interior and exterior, allowing residents to look out, while letting ight and breeze in. Through these screens, the rays ofthe summer sun appear soft as twilight, and the moiré-like pattern cast by overlapping sudo reminds one of @ coo! rippling pond. A closely woven rattan rug made from Indonesian cane (tou-qy) is lad over tatari mats, ac the dark sheen it acquires overtime is associated with 2 perception of ecol- ress. Summer in Kyoto also herals the coming of the famous Gion Festival which dates back to 869 ‘AD—and the Yemaguchis continue the tradition of old failes who displayed special heirlooms such as ‘bycbu, armor and kirnonos that are inthe therne of this Festal in their home during this te ofthe year. ‘Abo: Before approaching he wacom, ts ‘rake a al top the voter bora tes ren ‘Swathi tance rd py tha pe ee Tearoom ae rae nertiorly sal ord 200 not wo drat orn the frpotare pak ‘facheirghorvory win one Taroom i offourarda hal tars ray a popular se ht, ‘ler tote jo the quae of Zan eso ‘rved afer the habla tof ge nlc at daha so hve vines The tex pce ct ‘Above: The wak along the doy path fo) ec tonal itemupted atten by tn toe et ‘ih, wc forces one to lek downto er bl thet. Thee he reese eyes ook pt ane 3 ‘pecal accent sch aston ter (te). The mess te bushes are edad erry dy sok heen leon test Th ee ety watered Spel ender te pis igh: Dig she ion Fern wach rahe re mor fy ot sf ron ining veo th feral rcr var leg rea yeu ad arr re ape This pl of spared early 1th err servers wth Fk was ante by Tren Kano the laments Kano sel. The fone ringer a the bamboo cersner geiy dares te are scoaiio wo gues fein pages Irmrerac ams eoen ced ‘cna wooden verdana) powders ‘Steendecring swell ser ferthe eye The “agi replce tenes we ps rede oh carries with gs nes tur hese pce ‘hemon costes mace of road. The rn ug [eon theta rere ae wale aterm ich serhaner te anion cl coches The ‘rears hve ao been replant by opener ade nde The baste fs fe papr an acne) wth 2 dese ful maka Above: Aspe depicting eee fit snd Aer son the wring ek (se sha) while greta in fom me sree ihe The ero ene le inthe teow (eterna orn. gly rect the ta) decoraion of fot paced nee ion Fen Rahn are pee ens eal rng stad sae) rade ef wea ‘Above tT oto ad to he fore oor (Ges. On she gt th conte connec tothe tearoom ‘ove ike Guess can haces to appcnch he tearoom athe covered wily er they en put ‘en wenden lg (et). and walk ng the ean ‘Sern steppe tors tet gen Lae Ts tami rom apne ome the earthen: ocr cormcor ed ote ree porch Seasonal overs re dou prepara er hear. The sere paper es 3 dag eer wars Hoc price by hard wang ieeert cz pa ‘Above: A befower paced tthe ar end ‘te pss aly i an amr rangrart bang naa roe, 2 femurs fara. Fhe The que ong space around th Hower sragirertand tu fang scrolln hehe i charged vith do proses of hese ober, sed werelore ese pat ofthe py. UO Exuberant Spontaneity in an Interior in Osaka While wobi-sabi simplicity and understatement are the hallmarks of Kyoto style, interiors in Osaka cfien bustle with exuberance and spontaneity. This is well flustrated by Teizo Sato who imparts his innovative and playfl spirit to the interiors of his house. The house is situated in an upscale residential area near the Fujidere Stadium in Osaka. His grandfather buit the house over 70 years ago, using Japanese hemlock. weich was 2 popular rraterial for lumurious homes at that time: Over time, the surfaces of hemock timber a5 well as the garden have acquired a wonderful patina and a welcoming air “The Japanese deseribe a person who is fee from the trammels of ordinary Ke and able to deeply admire the beauty of nature, as well 2s things. as being fu. Teizo Sato, a bachelor who's adept atthe tea ceremony and Japanese flower arrangement; likes to think of himself as such a person Having ved among beautiful antiques in this special house since he was sis, he has cultivated a dis cerning eye and an understanding of Eastern as well as Western aesthetics, and often rine the two with great panache. Like many pottery enthusiasts, one of Sato's favorite collections is that of soba cups. Soba, or buclawheat noodles. are served on a wickerwork platter and eaten with a dipping sauce served in soba cups. Sato scours curio shops and antique markets after work and on every weekend. some. times traveling as far as Tolyo to look for cups with special designs In order to truly enyoy the cups and other tableware he has collected, he has taken to cooking and delights in setting the table with his faverite dishes. His enthusiasm for collecting and using antiques also extends to earthenware, flassware, fabrics, furniture and Buddhist paintings. Sato enjoys creating innovative interior arrangements to entertain and surprise his guest, “while teling them stories related to his displays. Although itis carmon to see only minimum or restrained decoration in Sukiya-style interiors, Sato’ displays are just the opposite. overflowing with new ideas and nuances. He aso likes to use byobu, oF folding screens, as decorative elements, as a backrop for his displays, and as versatile dividers for his interiors. Japan has several festivals throughout the year such as the New Year, the Girls’ (Dolls) Festival the Boys’ Festival. the Star Festival and the Chrysanthemum Festival. On these and other special occasions, Sato creates interior arrangements with appropriate festive theres, He hangs scrolls with paintings or caligraphic works in the tokonoma alcove to suit each festival. The highlight of such decorations is hs display of dol for the Gis’ Festival on March 3 each year, when Sato's home comes alive with dols and flowers. and is opened to the public for three days. The traction ofthis annual exhibition in the Sato house is already 20 years old and becoming widely know, attracting as mary as 3,000 spectators each year, Hopeful this old home wel continue to host this show for many years to come. Above: Sogseres shes cig) for doping rt bjecs oe way Lu beste fkenana (eral ier: Her ard equ tice nore ar (ert) st the oregon On the lt tnd an Eo Prod (1600-1867 bck pc inwich nae Bust renks cred Se surance, Lat The dove, ich rendered in freak sar hoks a hargng so fhe ror Tazan We Chine, The dee hay characters repre fli sree andtagpres A lth at a the Ede Fen fray wer by common oo set pce ol haat saves aun fora cea ta ses Te ttg sow ed pata foro used we astrlerg tcc ted beara yee ae te, bos ond fee ove Bar st ergs igh The ellen of ppc do its pen selves softy bythe srrereng ‘rea Soh do ave been de nus Frofcare nce the Eo Feri (1601867 LL Aoove: Tis room anerps wo entire japanese sercbkis wath Waters decor Arama KRorrert ware smermiged with made ces Le An ecagoral ay wth eps nthe Korean Jone Dyan (1392-1910, an ate Ina pet ands 1h carer Wester-sfe mp al ee 2 hee nhs comer ofthe vera (Oppose: The L-shaped verde (rg) prewécs eure trea pace between te reeror an he con, cre rm ee — ce N AS paar merl eas ‘Kr ¥ oe eeeee Net re es Ce SAS eo ed aN ee Ae a we de! Ae ee ie “ep The paper mh dot the top plete seprseres Usivalaters 3 pepe 0h certiny sera vb isl egress hare gan, ‘Above: These manent aeons. aden the fer payg td dg he New Year hokey Lae Te ltr shows thes oom son in ‘he prvns pags rere na fh by the House of Ikebana With lively eyes, good posture and thick gray hair belying her age, Chizu Kusume, who will soon reach her 90th year isthe owner ofa home that is imbued withthe spint of kebana, the Japanese art cf arranging flowers. Her house is located in Zushi, an olf resort town by the Paciic Ocean in Kanagawa Prefecture. What was a once 2 sedate vacation destination for many celebrated painters and authors, has now become @ busy suburb for commuters working in Tokyo. However: a few traditional bulings, like Kusume's house, have survived the change. and are a good reminder of bygone days. Kusurre’s house wias built in the early Showa Period (1926-1989) as a simple rental house for holidayrrakers, but has acquired an air of dignity and poise over time, quite distinct from its more recent neighbors, Architecturally, tf a rather simple house with no remarkable colurins, massive beams, or extraordinary workmanship. However, over the past 60 years, ithas become a beautiful antique, something lke a simple earthenware piece from ages past. Kusume moved into this small ‘two-storey 150-square-meter house in 1941. I has a garden over three times the size ofthe house, which is fly large by Japanese standards. On opening the wooden sling door atthe entrance, the frst thing that catches the eye is the flower arrangement in front of a single panel screen (sutate, gv ing a feeling of formality and cignity, The next room isthe drawing room (zashil) and the room at the back (cho-no-ma) is for Kusume’s private use. These two rooms have the deep eaves of the roof and the engawa corridor to protect them from strong sunlight, and to provide a transitional space between the indoor and the garden, This transitional space is a special feature of Japanese architecture. “To her creeit, Chizu Kusume, who procaims herself “a devoted admirer of flowers,” has taken lowing care ofthe house, infusing it with her aesthetic sense over the years. Ikebana embodies the essence of Japanese aesthetics and a deep respect for nature. Compared to the symmetrical and exw brant arrangements ofthe West, kebana strives to use usta few flowers in an asymmetrical balance ‘that is fragile yet so dynamic that moving even one stem would destroy the tight compostion. There are many ikebana schools in Japan, each witha distinct philosophy. Kusume has established her oven school, Murasaki-Ka (Iteraly translated as the "Purple Group"). Her schoo!’ foremost prinople is to arrange flowers as they grow in nature, without formalzing or manipulating them ‘As she goes about her business of inspiring her students and arranging seasonal flowers every day, Kusume carefully picks out a suitable container for each arrangement from her vast collection cf vases, and uses her great sense of design, which she has cultivated over time, to ensure that each arrangement comes alve. A successiul ikebana arrangement charges the space in and around ite, so placing the arrangements in each room has to be cone with great care so as to provide adequate “breathing room’ around them. Like a freshly watered garden, Chizu Kusume's flower arrangements refresh the spirits of the beholder. a depicts the ae sui othe Hasegawa edn god Asus won Ket Temple nN Lefe Te oom Hooded with nh, efor, the war tres ta epens oreo the = shaped veranda (ngve), loony bayer co ‘pine grove pil of there aren “ro tat recs jd wen the parsers beswoan ae remeved Inthe thou love “yanthemur an an ampalapt are orange ‘ng decrer made fr ering bqor to he pcs the Sila Krom (57 c 935 70) the Keren Ferma. The ksh faves he ew cutie. scroning the top ard roma beaut arf the garden Geeugh ts lower al The able, cm a hanged fas iors ds, Due She wwrter mere gle pad under a ene shletbte op, show nope wenden ane eer “uch people hang thr legs Freya! fee beep vrs by puting th eg under able andthe ult they din sole, a " at [| . ove: The oor ser iat) ole edatic Cale of Kure ly sera br shape far eur a sharper doanne leer re ands facarst Cys ppervoight For France. Fgh Poses ea 8 pcre, panne rd dayete hve been arangd onthe low near te ‘The were oft beth work ailes, carperear wo has drop wc erphies the ‘ir wed grain Le The cesng alle with he ore em ‘he sho Po (1912-1925) wa goed repre tate of te age when pan eager ere ‘ester technogy anders. The copper vam bers 2 ond By and be fpr rs ent dan A Kaga-style Teahouse to Sooth the Soul Kanazawa, one ofthe wealthiest castle towns in the Edo Period (1600-1867), was also famous for its ‘elegant cuture. Arts such as the tea ceremony flourished under its powerful Maeda lords, and were known {or their bold fourshes in comparison with the understated arts in Kyoto. The fist stop on the highway that connected Kyoto to Kanazawa Castle was Noncichi Town in the Kaga area. The Mimou home is situated along the old highway in this town. This stately mansion, along with ts various tea- rooms and storehouses. was bult by the influential Mimou family in the 1870s, scon after the time of the Meiji Revolution in 1968. The main Mimou house is built n the Sukiya style, the style of tea ceremony A tea garden is an integral part of the Subiya experience, and acts as an interface between the tea hut and the mundane. ‘world. The garden has a series cf gates or thresholds to punctuate the guests’ walk on a mj stone path from the outside world tothe tea hut. At each such marker; the guest may st down and relax. releasing worldly cares to enter a “tea state of mind.” The plants in the tea garden are designed to be a microcosm of nature in the deep forests, where big evergreen trees grow alongside low shrubs, ‘and the ground is carpeted with thick moss. The views that a guest sees while walking along a mean- dering path on the roji are carefully considered, so as to compress the sensory experience of a longer ‘walkin the short distance frem entry to the tearcor. The ro path finally leads to a large stepping- stone pleced in front of the tearoom. usually surrounded by a broad earthen floor under deep eaves The eight-mat tearcom in the Mimou house shows a connoisseur’s refined taste, and excuisite ‘care taken to heighten the intrinsic beauty of nature. Shoji windows and doors are placed and fitted ‘with painstaking consideration for garden views and the lighting conditions during certain hours of the dla, Fitered light through thick rice paper gives soft luster to a painting of deer on siveryfisuma doors. Handmade white paper. pasted to the lower part of brown-ccated wal, reflects the light, adding a bit of brightness, The hanging scroll in the tokonoma akcove is complemented by an arrangement of fresh flowers. Tea flowers are arranged as modestly and naturally as pessible, On the second floor ‘of the tearoom is @ formal room with ten tatami mats, This guest roory has walls of old red ocher characteriste ofthis area, a unsh lacquered ceiling and cmate carvings on the transoms. These rooms. ‘with their superb garden view over the veranda, are typical eribodimerts of the streng relationship between Japanese interiors and the garden. The 18th owner, Michiko Mimou, leamed the art of tea ceremony in her chidhood. She has ‘also inherited a vast collection of hanging scrol, folding screens, tea utensils and pottery, from which she carefully selects items for display according to seasonal themes. Michiko says that on a fine day, ‘when she is siting quietly in the room with birds chirping ane the leaves rusting in her garden, she feels the presence of her ancestors wiho must have done sirilar things in this very house rag ts agar a ty lsat, Le: Asmphory of lor ar seg es ns the cru ese of em tos tevoor, Hon ‘ed sue citions eter ath parsininon ‘hes andatinck cquerconaer wth sweat fo ‘tex ceremony anat gsi When the prec forthe en ceremony ae crplet, be gor Fane Fgh nth wor ofthe ave tn rer San Fy, aden op of ta shuld be ered 20 {mee coclnin sneer se! warming in est "Wippdgscrtos (ctf) sve ere with tensieat inthe color ad she henge, © senor dows, “Thi tarcom, known ws Shao. wae btn the ely 200; carey, The Gc fature of ‘he rooms afar the fa or deere the aig rn dears shorg3 pt of dee sir tackroued The pt dpi sk leone devin lovingly at 2 regan doe ‘Above; The lage tepprg tore paced fet tf he ibs earring he separe fave he ier ard te oso adden by he cage ann be very she. ‘The elairuhip of reir and tegen le vory mnpoanci Suka se acteurs The pudked yen floor rade exodus Ire the felig of contri Apc of Peres Inverter fp, ths dancin be dosed f wth ‘emorable shuts, sparc the cela ors the garden te pre a ction ye of protec ion agatet dhe wir col This eden cent ‘th essen darts ofa waseral ta arden (irre the waa for parte, one Ise, 2 capping stone pay. andthe woe tink and ground covered wh on nds of st A Celebration of Lacquer Craft Lacquerware, aso known as shld, isa highly developed art in Japan. Obtained from the sap of the lacquer tre, lacquer (.rushi is used not only for decoration, but ako for waterproofing and protect- ing wooden objects against moths and decay. Creating shit isa laborious process in which 20 to 30 coats of various kinds of lacquer are applied onto a prepared wooden surface by hand. Each layer is left to dyin a moist, warm place for about a week before the next coat can be applied. The product is then polished with charcoal to enhance its luster and translucence. ‘Wajima City, the location ofthe Nakamiuro house, has been famous for producing refined lac. {querware for at least SOD years. Situated at the northern end of the Noto Peninsula facing the Japan Sea, Wajima was once a major port. The chiels of lacquerware producers, caled nushi, traveled from there by boat to trade with weathy merchants and farmers around the country. In the golden age of the lacquer industry, lacquer guilds exchanged information about customers, helped improve tech niques through friendly varies, and cultnated the nushi culture. The Nakamuro house was built by the head of one such guild in the days gone by. and has recently been restored by a modern nisi Katsure Nakamuro, the current ovmer of the house. Nakariuro is the president of Wajmaya Honten, a long-established lacquerware company: ‘When he found this house in 1988, it was over about 80 years old and was in a dilapidated state, having stood empty for years. Nakamuro fet that this house had a special historic aura, and was inspired to full his drearn of rebuilding rusti cuture through renewing this house. He commissioned architect Shinji Takagi, who was born and lives in Wajima and is well versed in the use of regional ‘material such a5 wood and lacquer, to help with his ambitious undertaking, This elegant yet utltarian building was orginally built to serve as a guest house, a residence and a workplace, complete with an inner garden and a storehouse (Kure), and a perimeter vill with a lacquered frame. Close inspection of the house revealed that its foors,celings, walls, verandas, posts and fixtures had all been lacquered using different techniques. Nakamuro set himself a challenge—the repaired and refurished house had to exceed the original in terms of quality. During the renovation, new ideas were also incorporated, such as those in the design cf lighting fodures and a well, Baborately carved and beautifully cquered, the ornamental nat covers (kupkakushi) and door catches (hikte). as ‘well as the decorative siding doors added to the house are beautiful works of art in their own right ‘With the renovations complete, this house once again represents the best of lacquer-based nushi culture: Nakarnuro hopes that it wil play an important role in passing on local culture and traditions to future generations. ? an q | 8 ul Uy “ay i ae 7 ‘a ‘oo: Sj doors seve pric pacing aves odo 0 proving care of ton aneddoceraien Hove so a0 cor he ew For the windows Th fre scree seen ‘trough gs are spec Go) ey hve ret fin he corer Late Th in earthen Pood cede eric) ta comme the ort andthe ack te ots, roids aces toll the roors, Te roth Shows the erence ger roa the ‘Budo aka room onthe le. The wood ee mateo tes loely prom coir sce fr estnce ts diy and ie copay wth beqer: “The wood hs especial son Fein or the te cont of bee at hive buen appa ok Te, race ark elo hi eth ae sd or Feplce the erga orng at was wie elo, wich ust have Been charge fo main ‘Above: Bc laquered wi one wich thes area fomsin trace, were cond se, ovale tra by i ber ralers to ny ‘rare. Bows nthe foreground are cf rece vin {age base on dg em bok coped the “aaho Paid (1912-1926) are A leuered way stor ening roe ta dyad noted Cefectinery of the dae, ‘nade rom wera exon and inoue (Opposite: These two tare fing tha ‘erect were ence sed a renin oom hore Sequervare prices ah) exchanged rms rar tha lngroves. A Bude sar cn be sean the bekgreund ‘bve: The sure doors in he star ren hve ah raul deen wth squared board feet nthe ‘hope ofl! bear ee (ore). Right The paring en the esa bearde epit= ithe Tower rmed hese wich bee to ‘ori the Buddha's pron (Oppose: The wooden egsered verte (ogee) deren -eored dona cere form 3 ier eraberoee te enor ae htt ofthe hous, dese ete w rspende he weather endorse snowy det Wooden doors (er) ecose he ego ding the wre, = purge hang reise ine ser the (door are sce avy t0 make the gon 2 foneron ofthe gen. The whe pater hoor Fetches deo it te Rees hos ‘Aone: ours parse hie (i) sands bese the layer keep th he mas thee the drvung room decor lt op The metic ower age adore gered door ech i) Lett bot: Goldy nthe frm of th pn te ecoraes moter dor cath Cropp 8 par ofa penne co pyea wna deal hewhele a old aston m paras COppeene: The 100 ear ld ecu nr es “compris acting bows for he, Soup cher ‘shes ae paced on eee y= Coming Home to an Old Machiya Kyoto, the poltical and cutural center of Japan for more than a thousand years. is stil the center of Japanese traditions in art and architecture, Besides the famous temples and shrines, Kyoto's architec tural treasures indude many mochiya townhouses. Some of these date as far back as the Edo Period (1600-1868), Many were destroyed and damaged by fre and ether disasters in the |700s and |800s, but were rebuilt in the Meiji or Taisho Periods. The townspeople who started the tradition of building these homes had neither the important ttles nor the privileges of the aristocrats or the sarnurai of their time, Nevertheless, the houses that these people buit incorporated beauty and function so wel they continue to attract us today, The machiya are usually located on lots averaging about five meters wide by about 20 meters deep, purposely kept narrow because property taxes were determined by the amount of street frontage. These homes usually had a shop or workroom in front. with private areasin the back An earthen-floored long corridor, called a tor-rio, extends from the entrance all the way to the back cf the house providing access to all the rooms. There may also be ancther earthen flocr area called a dora, reserved for cooking or other chores. Other rooms are raised on a plinth, and people are expected to remove their shoes before entering, Honored guests or customers may be ushered to a tore formal room in the central part of the house, located next to a tiny elegant garden (tsubo-nma Cr serzai) that brings light and ar tothe adjoining rooms. Formal rooms are often decorated with fine ‘woods, cofered ceilings. 2s wel as some elements ofthe aristocratic Shoin syle. ‘Architect Toru Beba and his wife, essayist Keiko Asou, had always wanted to live in a mocha, but were having a great deal of trouble finding one. Traditional houses in Japan are hard to find, 2s they are increasingly being demolished by owners opting for modem conveniences and low mainte- nance. Contributing to this ongoing loss the lack of public support for preserving bullings that are not designated cultural properties. Toru and Keiko were finally able to find this wonderful machya, a former retreat for a merchant frrily in the early Showa Period (1926-1989). As it hed been unoceu- pied for years this home required extensive renovations. including the cleaning and refrishing of ‘walls and floorboards, These surfaces were lacquered by this energetic young couple thernselves. The new overs have also added several unusual and personal elernents to the house. making ths machiyo truly their own. Its qute dificult to equip a sll machiya with modern converiences such as air-conditioning and heating, Instead of worrying about making these changes, Toru and Keiko have decided to endure periods of intense heat and cold in order to stayin touch with the changing seasons, which is more in keeping with how they wish to live ther lives. Throughout the year, the couple also enjoy the local ‘events and festivals tht take place outside their front door—another advantage of ving in a machiyo, ‘Aro, Teu ad Ks hve beg the omihirgs © ‘arr andthe cco f ther sal toro sbsireas posible hs ug ita fey of Couaent Here, care tude are arranged 2 Srple bd ase peed apa ens chs. Carla flere were ot eed habanaarargerant the pa, beet the fling oo the pe eso tren ts ser wes aad ith the bebo of Re: Trehargralowepot nthe arc al ‘alsa Feng arargerert ef gros see bare tor the taroor Oveugh heared door Cale ho gc. The presen owes stile he ‘rll the ft wih enoround widows to reps nosing praton. The bun ar reed pe {i these opens, cle shah red, crete! by enw the lace amewerk ef de wal ua ‘wre prowang etch, The ec cbr of the wal comes omraural ay eld oc ‘sc, whieh nd been ap used the one ‘tar ofthe bae r Tn —- 7 J I HY Ay — \ i Henn tH i j } ‘Above: Tis rooms ony ané warm nwt “Tha wal ae ted wh he range snd The lower pare the walls covered with ce paper (Weoer, esa sates to protest Korot Irom ert be ed hereto eect he Clg to gen the room. Lee Subdued colors and a ayaa ofsrple es lend order wo pase errs Th very ara treet stig are, farhed wth a owe able ands (ee ashons een here trough an pen sige pred eres att). ‘Above Ta gle be eer extrac for [gts pace ertiven ke pre rang reso) tacoverc Atrogh very te toes roc warp ove tr Th washed by arg viva, paral pra ake hom the eer thine gana cyan) wee Pgh Aoethr rasa etl in he howe his bad white ae Nor ofthe sal oonare skove 90190 cetera) nthe damn oor (eat). The all ofthe cera are pastes vt tick segue ope co whch perme Sent nen api =e le , | t \ auune. ae Ny a Antiques Find a New Home in an Old Minka The unassuming beauty of Japan's minka farmhouses comes from the use of natural bulking materials and traditional techniques perfected over hundreds of years. The word minka originally meant a home ‘of &.common person who was not an aristocrat or a samurai. However. its now primarily used to describe farmhouses with heavy wooden structures and thatched roofs. These buildings aso iltstrate ‘deep understanding and appreciation of wood in Japan. The love of nature insiled by japar's ancient religious belies, an abundance of forests, and a damp dimate have contributed to wood becoming the preferred building mater for over a thousand years, Since common people did not have access to fine straight woods and quality cuting devices, minke often explot the beauty of large uncut timbers in their natural form. These timbers are rendered shiny and dark overtime by soct from the large hearth that was the core of if for the large fails that lived and worked in these homes, Instead of chimneys, the smoke in such homes escaped through the thatch, math-proofing the weed at the same time. The mink now owned by graphic designer Takeshi Yamamoto is located in Keihoku Town, an hour's drive south of central Kyoto. The home is situated among mountains and valleys where cedar trees called ktqyerna-sugi rise straight into the sky. These trees have been carefully cuvated for cen- turies to provide the fawess straight, fine-grained wood used for sophisticated Sukiya-style structures. ‘Yarnamoto had originally bought the minka in an attempt to presen it. He heard from a wood- artist friend that a nearby minko of fine wood was to going be demolished so that the land could be sold, The story deeply moved Yamamoto and his wife—vho had developed a keen appreciation for ininko—and they decided to purchase the structure in 1995. They intally planned to use the mina for weekends only, with a view of setting down init permanently in the future. While inspecting the house, Yamamotos discovered the construction plaque (munis) placed on the ridgepole, which confirmed that askiled master carperter had built the house in 1912. A watercourse dircled the premises, which aso has a solid rammed-earth boundary wal built on a stone base. The Yarmamotos: decided to leave the structure and the exterior ofthis handsome house jst as they found it, simply rectling the roof and refinishing the stucco wals, However, more remodeling was utimately needed in the interior to make it suitable for a modern lifestyle. Using instints and expert advice, they removed many of the later additions and il: matched fixtures that were not in the spirit cf the original house ‘They replaced these with old fitings and tatami mats purchased from demolition sites of old machyo in Kyoto. After consultation with a lacquer expert. fresh raw lacquer was applied to the floorboards. The Yamamotos have filed their new home with antiques lovingly collected over many years from antique markets and demolition stes throughout Kyoto, Their collection includes pottery, acquerware. -lasvare, omamental hairpins (kanzash), furniture, lighting fetures and fisuma dors with beautiful paintings. Infused with the Yamamcto’s love for their home, new life is given to these old treasures hs Ne Om (i ‘Above Tees rete fa collected ages Seen 20. These Bl ard hit ‘es ae sor th verte orca cllction feces. Eyecare tat as been Inky sree he Meme Peto (172-03, whan hs apie ves bong aor fen Korea arg the pote ware Bh and we pty Feeko cersuuse an imporare porn of pan ‘egors dough hing, with ough ard ect Foes wd as ps’ ba Lefe-The water over (cas bch) sen reagh the wirdew ia peed ar an acco pons, se was orl sd or wag hands Oppose: The woodoored bg room, ttn ‘om aed he yrand paces fow scan the ‘wap i retered riko, Baribo Bis (Sleds, wadonly ued on intone Garne Stier oe ued are prove ial dfnon Coane par ofthe torn wut dig the fom pce Avon Te crescercstapehagre vse beareg Beamaia crates ane shxene aan the sh screen. Hap (lata) th oraental ead fea ppt ealectar'tr are edgy hae ext a ered box Lele The sting pare ster in pres omes silly evgeds contracts pace acer Aigo edi the or oor tobe ay wth se panand satay ot Desde ae cen (ctor), The rear he ack wit ethane er lomaline RE vets ‘Ave: Made since the Edo Paid (1600-1867), Japanese chests (et) dare he Baty orn 2 pace bu tae mic fer ands weds tne cecrsve hardvare Hardwcod ed or {he tarevert, whl the etiwood ued for ho rasa Ss kee te corer vere’ are a hese ne, eugeoathe tert be eed eas Apa ef prea ‘arden dogs (si) to i ple ere, Sephgein rort of ela sere, Let Taft ereen wth delton f= csp che uae agen backareund ‘ves defers fist doors engualy eure nthe 18 cetry Sch fume ae ye ere degen fx ting we paper large (enor)—a mete fgg that sl prods 3 seep saabnc odore rom ex rove aah ri Narameto fe pasty ped eer er yer oftacqcr the Fe The ery {aleccn of poe ae gsvare sa home hee ‘nse dru and was rade cr the end te do Pid (1600-187) eta bun ees, wh allows be en rod ot of danger ine ever ofr ‘Above: The we of rere and vert nee ‘combed wired hades for he ashe nos ef wana epanne wentecare The ‘err cores cone ernecs the ot rl tack of the hoe Lal: Te lower lnelertheroered pac rs) as ray meat to serves: both a lace an {erkaop, sd tl rtane a woe! ned cooing Bove, The cirved ben on the rar wal shows an tramp of he rough tnbas fen sadn mika Fige A erste eth gee be) surrounded by but an we es erred with ‘popu ety 200 cara cen Fore eeen teh po bat ara ma ob aa ron ereath by an oneal weed fadedszow, Tre K eng apart wl place’ one the bo ‘eep the ter war A wooden pana ped ‘ome the Boor prong mace mee ‘onan protecang bates rom te het etl A House with a Cosmopolitan Interior Japan ended its selFimposed isolation in | 868 with the Meij Revoltion, and soon emerged as a leader in sik trade cue to the techniques in dying and weaving tat had been developed overt long history. The Kawabata house was but 120 years ago inthe middle ofthe Meij Era (1868-1912) by Mr Kawabata, sik merchant who had made His fortune by exporting jparese sik from Yokoharra, ‘one of the first ports to be opened to foreign trade. With an estate of over a million square meters, Kawabata was one of the biggest landovmers in this part of Gunera Prefecture, not far from Tokyo. This remarkable man had also served as the vilage chet since the tender age of 17. and later gov- -emed a vast domain as a squire. As befitting his status, Kawabata built an imposing two-storied wooden house in Fyjicka Gy amid mulberry feds where silaworms were raised. Bult wth the choicest materials —selected after much care and consideration—this house took almest ten years to complete, Legend has it that the amount of wood deemed inferior and thus discarded during the construction process would have been enough to build yet anther house. Nestled among age-old wilow trees, the grounds ofthe house also includes seven storehouses (tara for stocking nce and fermented soybean paste (msc). a majestic boundary wall wth several gates, and other sal bllngs. The estate isso impressive thatthe Ministry of Education in Japan hes desig- nated 19 ofthe structures on the compound as Registered Tangible Cultural Properties of Jaan This 300-square-meter house on this very large estate ts now owned and lovingly taken care of by Yoshiko Ts, the great granddaughter ofthe builder. fis quite unusual n Japan for ths large @ property to stay in a family over several generations due to the very high inheritance taxes in Japan Yoshiko managed to inherit from her mother cry because ofthe special eforis made by her ancestors to keep the property inthe family. She and her husband Jaw Shen Tei, a Chinese-American physi eit a a vacaton home on their frequent visits from Tokyo. Yoshiko feels tat aihough the japanese are cuite convertable removing thir shoes outside the house and Ivng on tata matted rooms without chats, it was dfcul for her husband and their foreign guests to enjoy the house inthis manner. She also believes thatthe usual Western furniture looks inppropite ina tradinonalJpanese hore, but thatthe lines of Chinese future and Wester antiques are quite suitable for it. Unlike the japanese, the Chinese have along tradition of stig on chairs and have developed their own syle of future with near beauty, Thus Yoshiko, who stoied interior design when she was in New York, rececerated her family Home by adding Chinese future and other comforts tot. The new furniture in the house includes several pieces which Yoshio bought from Shanghai—these pieces row happly co-exist withthe ancestral furishings in hor home. Asa result of her talent and efor, the interior of ths historic house now showcases an international fair well suited to its modern use. Above: Visors ore rected tthe errr (Gear) yan reagsere of eh ower A ge Fae! gl sean (Gute) eres up the {ethan and presen pty t te re The ames f these scree have bn rae with ac acqured wood Such rane oe fend Gry Inver ermal reer, whe unpuasd veren ffanet see rormin mere stl erors Lafe:l she and fare door ave been opened ‘wal the benz in ring ood ester provi ing der we For geen abe wey toe Peden th bck oe hove, pp Ne Sr Bt COC ee. | | | ‘Above: These sh oor with rae pats ‘were ace by vey sled cake evar sever Years. The clic ames ae honed rom the Sold arane, vorprescart cra perton ‘Tee Turks wath een growth rege Le: Tseng screen (ote) wah caller ‘works an team wich ro cs pc ie {he oe the ear anounced ofsunmer The wad ly ne spac paper Tangs tt sow he ot vel a the ack the sens 10 be se Clise err fom stn Cenpleent the paren arrose A sting room vith Chose uur cr bean rough ‘he open fie door. sett by dh cong trough he step Fife Yoho estes ede inher colton of al bjce, Thelbequred wooden cow ag Sn rent ofthe epoca was the et stg she ‘Sie bought A phenant coped ces turer ‘ere eon de mise ofthe epboard eto’ colecton of vor ge Inco a Chiesa kamboo beg, 2 Ippon clland ablnare pot (Orel A smal ees retin room fee at Se S\N | nant —T | \ | All| A Potter Meets His Minka ‘Tucked away in a bamboo grove and rice fields in Tanba Tov near Kyoto, this farmhouse (mink) looks fke the backdrop ofa tale from old Japan. The licher-covered thatched ro and the earthen walls of ‘the minka blend so well into the landscape that is hard to imagine that ths huge structure wes brought here as recently as 1994 from ts original location east of Lake Btwa, Now this [35-year-old mina is the home and atelier of potter Naoto Ishi and his wife. This new site for the house was chosen after ‘arelul consideration of wind Girections and atmospheric pressure, because Ishii also wented to full his long-cherished dream of building a dimbing kiln (roborigome) of the type that has been used in Japan since the Middle Ages. This type of kiln consists of several linked chambers built into a hilside, vith the opening for fire kindling in the lowest section, and the chimney at the top. Most potters in Japan do not use this sort ofa kin because it is neely impossible to control it due to the vanious forces cof rature at work inside. However, this is exacty the aspect of working with a nebonigama that fascinates Ishi, who points to his work saying. “(Who made this pottery? Wasi realy IP Architect Katsumi Yasuda, an old fiend of Ishi's, s quite knowledgeable about traditional homes, He believes that an architect should not impose his ov ideas on his cients, but should instead facitate the creation of 2 space that expresses the clent's sprit, Yasuda found Ihis mnka, which had originally belonged to a wheat farmer, and had been thatched over with wheat straw. He advised Ishi dunng the taking of measurements labeling, cfsmanting, transfer of the house piece-by-piece to the new plot, and its reconstruction. The basic composition of the house was maintained, but certain features such as 2 staircase and windows were added to improve its circulation and ventilation. Old fixtures were reused ‘where possible, and the roof of the house wes re-thetched with rice straw. Using traditional techniques. the walls were filed-in with wattle rede of split bariboo lattice tied with rice-straw rope, and then rptestae te buty ft ata uve, sod pelted raters rex wers cornered roger ‘oth etc jes whan th hase was egely eoarced 18D yrs 9g Th rade tral ‘yt ressmble ths miro Ws pe on ‘Above lt Strcin were ren ration ‘bow fe The omar ofthe ket server Bers? ‘wore, fort where he hg vw othe ‘eruneingceuera. ef Unnshd egs and tae teu wid i= lhe tothe bedroor Ths rom contains sire pen hearth oo, “which as ona the career of ily He ee reas, provang hse igi nds place we cock Durngtne evan ofthe hen, Beg td lage debe aed window to th room BE ‘ta more open anenghre Tess vncora vere Inporad trom Gamay beatae of thar Hh te laden ay ‘Abo le Stans wee rare in train Jepanesearcitccre ed a ep-chest ar era) was we to prone access to upper ore Forovabe cawars an a dont unr the ape row! the much ended orge pace va ‘dora hese, The stare iene pan ld popu ea yatariguo fru clecto. ‘Abeve rig Th come ofthe et saves a Bene ‘worse, for ware haha a god ow ef the Sound core. Lee Utinahad log aed boo bound wih ie A Home in Snow Country Koichi Sato isthe | Ith head of a family of landowners in Comagari Cty, Akta Prefecture, located near the Japan Sea in the northem part of Honshu, the main island of Japan, Winters here are severe and everything martles over with tick snow from November to Apr, presenting a beaut sight ‘on moonlit nights. Scarlet tinged auturnn leaves herald the coming of the long winter, prompting local People to set about winter proofing their homes, The traditional houses here are wrapped with boards {and rice straw rats (mushiro) to protect slass windows and doors from snow faling off roofs. This ‘makes the interior of the homes dim for months on end, while the outdoors are bright with snow. Removing snow from their roofs and entrances is part ofthe daily routine of lfe in Oorragari Cty The Sato house was builtin 1894 in this harsh countryside. While the exterior and parts ofthis imposing edifice are bul to withstand extreme weather conditions, parts of the interior have been clesigned in the delicate aristocratic Shoin style. A wooden fence (itabei) made of scorched planks of Japanese cedar lines the approach to the Sato house and extends seemingly endlessly. The house is. hidden from view from the main gate (mon). A stone pavement runs from the men tothe central gate in the second boundary wal, where one gets the first fll ew of this majestic two-storey house surrounded by aged! cedar trees. Shoin-style houses were considered a priilege of the samurai dass during the 15th century but had become an acceptable style for people like vilage headmen and ‘wealthy merchants or farmers toward the end ofthe Edo Period (1600-1867). In the years afr the Meiji Revolution. such houses continued to speak of the status and sophistication of the owner. The front entrance of tis bouse is used only for ceremorial occasions such as weddings or funerals, while family members normally use 2 smaller door on the sie of the house, In ation to the main house, this vast estate includes some fireproof storehouses (ki), a Shinto shine, several ancestral tombs, and ‘wooded his, wich were the source of frewood and charcoal before electric or gas became avaiable. The Sato house took ten years to bul and was completed in 1894 by the eighth head of the ferry, The fact that the house has needed very few repairs for nearly 2 hundred years and is stil in very g00d cordition is a testament to the skill of the erafismen from the neighboring villages who built it High-quality woods such as ceder, Japanese cypress. pine, and zelkova were used in the construc tion of this house. The loving care shown by is inhabitants is also remarkable, as it speaks for theie love of traditions and ther family history. The house s cold in winter and hard to maintain, but the Satos are intent on keeping itn the family as a symbol of honor to their ancestors ‘Above: Tis coeronl ot gen te Shape varies helt an erected oer wh ‘des. Seh ies were abo ofthe stats are scphatensen ee emer Lote Ths eer vals fhe teeny enn sarural leer amples, nde mide of cored Fin pra, ada pler and he, The der ata Benue wl adr the er ats ag ert ere by he aan clr: of ggho aed ‘rola ree tha gro erste Frou page: The hea rot a den ovetargt arean sexta pera par of rst Jpn tere Troe covered wih cera Bs wich were urs nh area where most homes sed to be rooted with hatch The sree ley ts vse enfanced by be vit gen ‘fandere cedar wee rok Tre lw ol he house hl the fre erg rors ie the sermeeslocatad n te ghee Le: Te oral drawing oor wah 24 tata ‘ots rd high ce race n areocrt Sch) Se, soramed sera cereal bn des of the pe son bel the weve The overred corse love (ken) neg wth he lnpresine se of ie ocr They Lge Fangs seen jf) deployed ks pend by Hone Kong a forous att The wale re tered wh rigue perf rend Fira ors re decorsend with sl god wi er it The lacered fs ames of sb cee, the equi ermal nal covers Qh) se door bandas lite) we agnor hy ‘Ave: Th aig pcos pled enti op ‘hot are ern the lection of S's rand, vito had saved the igen fer abt 20 ort ee i St igh: This door handle (ite) has an eberte fever pater open mer werk nd meer Oppoete: The window athe open dcr bing the enrol the garden re th por recpton root ‘tater end on eral eccasone Wah the fie pert remove he [Bera room athe troom can be comp toss 40 Sree i It sn ANN ‘The wie veranda (neve) hasbeen acuerdo otc the wood Doar rom ra. sen sire Sor strane) an ba akon oro the set (ot) eat at heed othe veranda ed plod othe as tcp cn the ‘densi. Thes done wo pots the rg eave Ineroom rem col nad stow Contre’ ‘ere than ened years ag, the ered fave ot warped and an beat pushed ore ar tether thea in of er sor thera ‘Above: The wooden bse (Nbc seed Jor warmth an fer toting water gee en (Chara arranged ne corona a et ried to supper an ron bet. Lee The Sas jy at etic rm he Opposte The sa resi ts the ow roel ‘adh and he try np (od) fun is reg A Sukiya-style Setting for an Art Gallery Located in the central part of Japan, Tari City in Gifu Prefecture is wel known for its Mino pottery Inthis cy, Masanobu Ando, an ans rom a family of pottery wholesalers, has created a dramatic gallery called Galerie Momogusa, which is housed in an equally dramatic Sukya-syle building. Built in 1896, this house with its delicate timber and an exquisite interior was orginally owned by a doctor in Nagoya and was sated for demolition when Ando saw it and decided to purchase it for his gallery ‘After reconstruction, the house forms a fiting backdrop for this talented potter's collection of beaut ful ceramics and other objects. ‘Aithough every room in this house is made of wood, tatami mats and shay doors, each roc has a diferent character. The earthen floor and eight-tatar room aéjoining the porch eerkan) is meant for relaxation and is used for the family's daly activites. In contrast, the ten-mat érawing room (coshli) and the ten-tatari anteroom in the innermost part of the house are very formal and meant for recehing guests A sb-tatari room and a Bueihist altar separate these two parts of the house. This central area has an air of sacredness, quite cistinct from the other part ter of each room as well as seasons and annual events while designing the interiors of this house ‘Ance’s displays are simple yet dramatic. A serpentine line of wooden boards bearing art objects, runs throughout the house, from the earthen floor to the back rooms. The boards were orginally meant for making sturdy paper stencils (ise-katogems) with intricate patierns for printing kimono fabrics The line intentionally culminates infront of a hanging scroll (kokejky) atthe alcove (tokonome) in the innermost room, Although hanging scrolls usually have paintings or calgraphic work on them, this particular one made by Ando himself is simply a composition of white paper To Ando, this work sig rifles a void or inanity (ku). This concept cores from the Zen verse "shiki-soku-ze-ku." wihich means, “alls vanity" or “every form in realty ws empiy.” Ando aso erjoys experimenting with the subte nuances that the placernent of simple objects and light can convey about the accessibility or sacredness of spaces, Large pieces of art are displayed with stage-ke lighting, while the empty spaces around them amply their presence: ‘Ando unites the Eastern and Western influences in his life in Galerie Mornogusa. While he was busy creating European-style contemporary art in his 20s, he began to wonder if he di in fact have a cultural or ethnic identity as a japanese. In order to understand himself better, he took up the study of ceretmorial tea (chanoyu) just before he tured 30. Twenty years later, Ando feels that he has been imbued with the spirit ofthe tea ceremony, which for him consists of attaining an intuitive and open state of mind, He feels that he can now appreciate works of at simply for what they are, with a clear perception, unhindered by thoughts about their background. With this attude as his starting poi. his ‘exhibits include things regardless of whether they are japanese or Westem, cld or new. ‘Ando consdered the charac ‘ect conted tie rg ot cat ang old up ‘omggtnd crdicard Helene tht ts cason (Brethe elated ace fang of merase arte a et aneen Eartha dararestd {owed leer arent pan he Festi seo peste te rae ofsaprtig the ecu word 8 front ho the cred word betel it Spal ‘ata newb dath bonds (yup torn) ve boon used es ror These pes of acre Ise re ed fori geo arent werk tec of ke draby They pronde an sree aera te space wth ey placed “Theaare len Stare ve caged by A ard caszom rade by asad goss rs. The ‘om ef the arctire smyth runes of De arepce, ‘Abo: A weed door made ofan et te ‘of wore shes (ao) patos the ha ed “Sines ware tor ey 3 athe tend tg “ut evey with any, tng te doo a apa) fH A cera sedptre cate by Kat Ran fats arid by Ar, egy wth dare Tehing frond the al Loe srg we craic cbc lrge wooden dh igh ad sh serena ave al en ‘ed we eens a dear ag ie fect Wooden tour he thee tat nm tough the house er play hae bee sed are oy inet ‘wen bejendasrocesble This roor fad been prove wd ra Buda ska The saan of wooden dpay boas uns ttregh he varus reoms and cere ort tn fete of the tlenona.Tislne obeard ts degre to remind pues of» mesndein path ina te garden with the bowl of varying wo epee yee rvingroa have bean cane to ake ocala ein spc ‘Above: These hows, made by Ad, ae fhe ‘pened inte arene the been sate eal placed onto ag ie of Sey Beard Lee reo mace he concen sesh the tkaemo usr yer fhe pane An Old Parlor with an Old Tree Located near the Japan Sea, Karazava is an old castle town that was well known during the Fo Period (1600-1867) for its fourshing economy as well as a culture that was quite distinct rom Kyoto, The town's traditions have been well preserved, making it one of the favorite destnations for people who are interested in Japanese arts and cuture. One building tat is reminiscent ofits gracious history 1s the Nakamura parlor. which shares ts grounds with two modern buildings and magriicent 400 year-old japanese white pine tre. The fsura doors ofthis one-room parlor lead ito a simple and serene interior, This eight-mat formal room with an engawo was builtin the Suva style in 1933, and serves as both a drewing room and a tearoom, The late Baizan Nakamura, who built this room in his 20s. wes a potter well known for making tea-ceremony utensils with beautiful and novel designs. The touch ofthe art's ingenuity is evident inthis simple room, achieved here without gorgeous materials or expensive features such as wooden posts and cling boards of precious vod, sculptured ranma, fisume with gold detailing and other decorative elements. Severe ciscipine, witha sprit of plafuness is the quintessence ofthe Sukiy style (tea style) in Japan, and the Nakamura parlor is a good example ofthat. An exarrpe of ‘Sckiya-style playfulness is found in the sliding doors on a row of low closets, which are made of wood that was selected for its apparertty moth-cten texture, The room abo has a replace (0) sunk into the floor for tea-ceremony events. When notin use, it's covered with a board made by boldly contrast ing rough weather-wom wood with smooth, fine-grained pire wood. A srilar spirit i seen in the design of the door handles (ikite), The outside hikite have an image of an iron dub representative of the devi, while those on the inside are engraved with a Chinese character for good luck. These door handles are a reference to the Japanese Bean-throving festival in spring, during which people scatter soybears throughout the house, shouting, “Out with the dew. in with good fortune.” However, these details do not detract from the simple beauty of this room, which is in complete harrmony with the natural elements of the garden outside, including the ancient pine tree. Architect Hiroshi Naito helped reconstruct the Nakamura parlor in 1996, after it had been dismantled at the suggestion of Baizan himself. This parlor, along with the old family house, was taken dlown to make space for the new hornes that Nakamura's sons were planing to build (one of these is featured on pages 214-223). Fortunately the Nakamura family later decided to reconstruct this parlor in its original form exactly where it had been before, because it had a special place in their lives, and also because this exquisite room would be irreplaceable in the future. Baizan's three sons, Kinpet, Takuo and Kohei, are all potters and display their father's originality in their contemporary ceramics. Takuo says, “In my youth, | felt put off by this parlor because | thought it was ostentatiots, but row I admit that growing up with it has helped develop my creatiily.” “Tepe: Te door bande ei th hae of the deat ro cu, ‘Ave: The square craic cots with red ‘var made by Barn for sarang bred denne Sa speci Soh uaa sere in 3 bere box Right The ver vase de by Bazan ee othe loca. The dere tte nts have bean nade of appre reheat wood selected for [spec weare. The ron a vite oor hdee (ite ware crested by Ean. The bl argng from de can by Suzie cor Kerpl His scr, Tao. rage he mer coer 09 {ne foreground Such certarers ar tend erg ‘ta ceraronios tho the waa for es cape Baw lef The sen ser replace (o) eee {nde ie of hero aed fr ea areron ner suns ceer hone fem "apention c seth pea seasoned wood “Te lower aangementin hi vase by Baan 2 reon of 91 esr Fre Nlamuim Peng rat nde the vase ge the arangeert Ov ‘pace The wae sear rough the opens are {fev with ocr on acct weer p= {Gl of Kanzava. The tinge paper cern arg Shove wae dee by les Neg The ved luge ure accermates be horas and veri nro he ream Hite onthe fire dee re fasierse nthe shape ofa wis ee. Above: Tha sl parlor nw pasternd bet ean ‘we medern ado to he propery Standing nxt the ant en ae ured by 2 mes Covered cen kok very died, elt The 400 year panese wit po ade th gen ae as anengoo,he ware space teciean ti emrir and the eerie Tis was the ‘ew hat the arty ward to repeat gn hon the paler was reorsuciedin Bs opal ocaton The Evolution of a Modern Home When Japan opened to the world after the Mei Revolution in 1868, it actively emulated architectural ‘traditions from Germany and Great Britain, However, ideas of modernism did net take root in japan tl after the Second World War. Toshihiro Karkozawa, the owner of this house, i a scholar of German It erature well versed in the aesthetics of modernity and rationalism, His wife, a piano teacher, had lived in ‘Germany during her childhood. Athough built wth Wester materials and techriques, this one-storied, rectangular concrete box house has 2 calm sense of space reminiscent of traditional Japanese homes. The Kamikazawa house was buat in 1959, when Japan was just starting is successful cimb from