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The campus novel or academic novel is the genre that flourished in the second half of the twentieth century.

The setting is usually an unknown red-brick university in England. The antogonist is usually a professor of English and the other characters are university students and staff. As David Lodge states in the introduction section of Kingsley Amiss Lucky Jim, the genre of campus novel first had emerged in the USA and then in England. He puts Lucky Jim was a distinctly British version of a kind of novel that had hitherto been a peculiarly American phenomenon. My own novels of university life, and those of Malcolm Bradbury, Howard Jacobson, Andrew Davies et al., are deeply indebted to its example(Amis,1992:v). Therefore, Kingsley Amiss Lucky Jim (1954) can be claimed as the proto-type of campus novel in England and the others, like Malcom Bradburys Eating People is Wrong(1959), David Lodges Changing Places: A Tale of Two Campuses (1975) and so on followed it. Since the campus novel is a mirror of the society of postwar period in England, the main cause of flourishing the genre in 1950s is that of Welfare State organisation and Butler Act in 1944. Many lower class origin young students found the chance to study at Oxford and Cambridge universities by the support of government grants. However, most them felt displaced and alineated in the university campuses where were their work places. Thus, many of the most significant campus novels highlight the problems of survival and adjustment of the various kinds of displaced person who are their heroes-from Jim in Amiss Lucky Jim, ..... and others. It is this which allows the campus novel or academic fiction to present miniaturised versions of the condition of England theme(Connor, 2001: 70-71). At this point Andrew Sanders makes a similiar comment for the dominance of the genre in the following years. He states that the campus novel of the 1970s served to reflect the academic ambitions and the academic tensions of the rapidly expanding world of higher education in the period(Sanders, 1994:378). Of course it is not coincidental as Steven Connor asserts that many novelists concerned with university life as the narration of the condition in England. This is not just because of the actual and symbolic centrality of the university as an index of social social changes and pressures, but also because of the concern about the nature of national and cultural identity within the universities during the postwar period(Connor, 2001:72). Another cause of popularity of campus novel among the writers is that the double foldness of its structure. It is safe because it has a closed environment and limited stock characters. Besides, the audience is the people who are already accustomed to the subject matter and a small minority of the population. However, it is dangerous because it is also addressed to the people who are out side of the campuslife. It is a sense of the dividedness of actual readers, who may feel that they both do and do not belong to the academic world through which they may or may not have passed (Connor, 2001:73). So, it is this kind of paradoxical sense that the redear of academic novel finds both academic and non academic subject matters in the campus novel. David Lodges Changing Places is a good example for it. The nature of campus novel is not a stable kind but always unstable. Malcolm Bradbury emphasizes this situation of campus novel in his The Atlas of Literature. He states that the genre was not constant in its form; it has naturally changed with development of

society and universities themselves(Bradbury, 1998:27). Besides, the academic novel became a typical novel genre at the end of seventies. Most of the intellectualls agree that the first example of campus novel in England Kingley Amiss Lucky Jim (1954) and Malcolm Bradburys Eating People is Wrong (1959) followed it. So, both Amis and Bradburys novels can be assumed in the first category of academic novel. The setting of this kind of novels is just after the Second World War of England. So, the atmosphere of the campus novels written in this period is dull and gloomy and the heros in this books are displaced and alienated just like the society at that time. Malcolm Bradbury states this situation of the society in his The Modern British Novel as by the wars end in 1945, many of the great European cities were gutted by bombing or land offensive, large regions of the continent lay in ruins, industrial activity ceased, harvest went unreaped, all frontiers were unsettled and many of Europes peoples were displaced(Bradbury, 1993:265). On the other hand, the atmosphere of the society has gradually changed through the sixties, so the campus novel. Contrary to the previous decade, sixties gave way to future hopes first in the USA and then in Europe. Bradbury states that it was a time of rock music, mass concerts, drugs, improvised events, public happenings, street theatre, love-ins, all part of the counter-cultural revolution of consciousness that would grow ever more vigorous during the decade(Bradbury,1993:337-338). Furthermore, in the society there was a growing protest of black people called Black Power movement, students revolts in nearly every university campus in Europe particularly for the War in Vietnam and for military industry in general. Feminism began to be a rising trend among the females as well. All this changing and devoloping aspects of the society in sixties can be seen in David Lodges Changing Places: A Tale of Two Campuses (1975) as the development of campus novel in time. In this paper, firstly it has been tried to give the definition of campus novel as a novel genre and secondly state the causes of its flourishing of it in the second half of the twentieth century and lastly demonstrate its development in time through the sixties by giving specific examples on the decade in the society and so its reflections on the genre.

WORKS CITED 1- Andrew Sanders, The Short Oxford History of English Literature, Clarendon Press Oxford,1994, USA. 2- David Lodge, Introduction to Kingsley Amis, Lucky Jim (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1992), p. v. 3- Steven Connor, The English Novel in History 1950-1995, Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2001 4- Bradbury, Malcolm. The Atlas of Literature. New York: Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 1998. Print 5- Bradbury, Malcolm. The Modern British Novel. London: Secker & Warburg, 1993. Print. 6- Amis, Kingsley. Lucky Jim. New York: Penguin, 1992. Print.

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