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..

2005

..

-



,
140600 , ,
140601 ;
140200
140205

2005
1

621.3 (07)
31.2 (7)
84
84 .. . I.
:
/..; . . .. -. : ,
2005. 120 . ISBN 5-86911-543-4


140600 , ,
140601 ; 140200 140205 .
, : , ,
, , , , .
,
, .

. 1. . 93. .: 12.
: - . , . () ..,
. . , ()
..
31.2 (7)
ISBN 5-86911-543-4

.., 2005
2

.
.....

1.
1.1. .
1.2.
1.3. ,
.
1.4. ..
1.5. ...
1.6. ..
1.7. ..
1.8. ...
1.9.
1.10.
.
1.11. ...
1.12. ...
1.13. ..
1.14.

8
8
9

2. ..
2.1.
....
2.2. ....
2.3.
2.4. , ,
.
...
2.5.

2.6. ..
2.7. ..
2.8. R, L, C
2.9. G, L C.

12
14
16
18
21
23
25
30
31
32
33
34
35
35
36
37
38
38
39
40
41
43
3

3. ..
3.1. .
3.2.
..
3.3. ..
3.4. ...
3.5. ...
3.6. . ..
3.7.
3.8. .
3.9. ...
3.10. ,
3.11.
.
4. ..
4.1. ..
4.2. ..
4.3.
4.4. (
)..
5. .
5.1. . ..
5.2. .
5.3.
5.4.
5.5. .

46
46
48
49
50
51
52
53
53
54
54
57
61
61
68
71
72
74
74
76
77
80
81

6. .... 86
6.1. .... 86
6.2. ....
87
4

6.3. - ...
6.4. - ..
6.5. - .
6.6. , ...
6.7. .

87
90
92
93
93

7. , ...
96
7.1. . 96
7.2.
.... 97
7.3.
. 98
7.4.
.. 99
7.5. , , ..
101
7.6.
, , ... 101
... 103
... 118


, .
, , , . : , ,
,
.

.

,
, ,
, ,
.

.

: , , .
, . ,
.
. , ,
6

.
, , .
:
,
, .

, ,

.


.

.
. ,
.

: , ,
, , , , .

1.

1.1.
, , , ( 52002-2003).
, ,
( 52002-2003).
,
, .
- ,
( 52002-2003).
(
52002-2003).
, .
,
.
.
,
()
, ()
( 52002-2003).
,
() , () ( 52002-2003).
, ,
.
8

1.2.

()
.

,
( 52002-2003) (. 1.1).
I
U
+
U

R = 0
=U

. 1.1

, , ( 52002-2003) (. 1.2).
I

+
J

R = ,
G = 0
I=J
U

. 1.2

,
.
9

R, (.
1.3).
I
E

U=E-RI

+
U

RI

. 1.3


(. 1.4).
I
+

I
U

I=J-GU
J
U

. 1.4



, . , , R = 4 ,
,
, ,
.
10


.

. 1.5.

R
+
E

+
J

J = E/R
G=1/R

b
. 1.5


. 1.6.

+
J

E = J /G

R=1/G

. 1.6

. 1.7.
J
R1

J
R2
a

J
J
R3

R1

R2

J
J

J
d

R3
J

. 1.7
11

1.3. ,

, .



1
2

R1

R2

R3

U1

U2

U3

Rn

Un

R = R1 + R2 +R3++ Rn ,
U = U1 +U2 +U3 ++Un

U

I
U R1

I1
R2

I2
R3

I3

U1

U2

U3

U=U1 =U2 =U3 ==Un;

1
1
1
1
=
+
+
+ ...
R R1 R2 R3

In
Rn
Un

... +

1
;
Rn

G=G1+G2+G3++Gn;
I =I1 +I2 +I3 ++In,

=R3== Rn

R1=R2

R= R1/ n
I
U

I1
R1


1
1
1 R1 + R2
I
=
+
=
;
R
R
R
R
R
'

1
2
1
2
U1
I
2

R2

U2

R1 R2
;
R1 + R2

I = I1 + I 2 ;
U = U1 = U 2

12

.
2

I1

I1

R1
U2

U1 R2

I2

U3

R3

I3

U = U1+U2 U = U1+U3;
U2=U3;
I1 = I2+I3

R = R1 +

R2 R3
R2 + R3



I1

1
U31

R31

R12
R23

I3

U12

R1

U'31

I'3

I2

2
U23

I'1

U'12

R2

R3
3

I'2

U'23

I1=I'1 ;
I2=I'2 ;
R12 R31
R1 =
;
R12 + R23 + R31

I3=I'3 ;

U12 = U'12 ;
R23 R12
R2 =
;
R12 + R23 + R31

U23 =U'23 ;

U31=U'31 .
R31R23
R3 =
.
R12 + R23 + R31



I1

1
R1

U31

U12

I3

R2

R3

3
U23

I'1

I2

U31

R31

R12
R23

I'3
3

U12

I'2
2

U23

13

.

; U 23 = U 23
; U 31 = U 31
.
I1 = I1; I 2 = I 2 ; I 3 = I 3 , U12 = U12
G2G3
G3G1
G1G2
;
;
,
G12 =
G23 =
G31 =
G1 + G2 + G3
G1 + G2 + G3
G1 + G2 + G3
1
;
R1

G2 =

1
;
R12

G23 =

G1 =

1
;
R2

1
;
R3

G31 =

1
.
R31

R1

I1 = I

R2
;
R1 + R2

R2

I2 = I

R1
.
R1 + R2

G12 =

1
;
R23

G3 =

I1

I2

1.4.
, (. 1.8)
I

I =
U
. 1.8

U
.
R

, (. 1.9).
R

Ub

. 1.9
14

=
= + IR
;
= EIR
( a ) E
I=
;
R
U E
U b E
I=
I = b
;
R
R
U b E
I=
.
R
: E
, +, , . U.

Ik = 0 .
, , .
I5
I4
: +,
I3
.
I2

I1
. 1.10

. 1.10
I1 + I2 + I3 I4 I5 = 0.

. : , , .

U k = 0.

m =1

m =1

I m Rm = Em .


.
15

U1
E1

R1
U2 R2

I1
I2

E2

U
I3

R3

:
+,


.

. 1.11

I1R1 + U I3 R3 I2 R2 = E2 E1.

. 1.11

1.5.
1.5.1.

, .1.12.
1.
.
2. .
, J
, ,
J - ;
nI =( -1 ) , , nII = ( J) ( 1)
, R1

R2
R3
.
J
, , E1
E2
. 1.12
I1
I2
I3
I4
= 4, J = 1, = 2,
. 1.12
nI =1 nII = 2.
3. ,
. .
16

4.
I1 + I 2 + I 3 + I 4 = 0;
I R I R =E +E ;
1 1 2 2
1
2

I 2 R2 I 3 R3 = E2 ;
I 4 = J .

5. , .
6. : - ,
, .
1.5.2.
. . 1.13 abcda ,
a .

+ I1

E1

d R1


I2

R2
b
-

E2

R3

I3

c
R2

R1

E2

E1

+
b
. 1.13

,
, .
.

17

1.6.
,
. 1.14 ,
I11, I22, I33.
E1
I
R1
1

E3
I11
:
R2
R3
2

3
I2

R4
I4

I22

I3

R5
I5
1
. 1.14

I33

R6
I6

I1 = I11,
I2 = I22 I11,
I3 = I33 I11,
I4 = I22,
I5 = I33 I22,
I6 = I33.

(1.1)


, I11:
I1R1 I3 R3 I2 R2 = E1 E3.
I1, I2, I3 , (1.1),

I11R1 I33 R3 + I11R3 I22 R2 + I11R2 = E1 E3 .


. I11 ,
, I22 I33 .
,
.
I11 ( R1 + R2 + R3 ) I 22 R2 I 33 R3 = E1 E3 ;

(1.2)
I11R2 + I 22 ( R2 + R4 + R5 ) I 33 R5 = 0;
I R I R + I ( R + R + R ) = 0.
11 3
22 5
33 3
5
6

(1.2) , (1.1) .
n-
18

I11R11 + I 22 R12 + I 33 R13 + K + I nn R1n = E11


I R
11 21 + I 22 R22 + I 33 R23 + K + I nn R2n = E22
(1.3)

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

I11Rn1 + I 22 Rn 2 + I 33 Rn3 + K + I nn Rnn = Enn ,


R11, R22, Rnn , n- , , ; R12, R23, , Rkm , ,
- m ; E11, E22, , Enn n- ,
,
.
1.6.1.
1. ,
: nII = ( J) ( 1) .
2. (1.3).
3. , .
4. , . Rnn
+, Rkm
+ ,
.

+.
:
, , , +, .
5. .
6. , .
19

7. .
1.6.2.
J
R2
R4
I4

I11

I33

E3

R3

R5
I5

R6

I22

I6



,

(. 1.15).

. 1.15

I11 ( R2 + R4 + R5 ) I 22 R5 I 33 R2 = 0;

(1.4)
I11R5 + I 22 ( R3 + R5 + R6 ) I33 R3 = E3 ;
I = J.
33
,

, . 1.16.
J
R3 E3

R2
R4

R5

R6

R4

I11

R3 E3

R2

R2 JR2

R4

R5

R6

R3 JR3 E3
R5 I
22

R6

. 1.16

I11 ( R2 + R4 + R5 ) I 22 R5 = JR2 ;

I11R5 + I 22 ( R5 + R3 + R6 ) = JR3 + E3.


20

(1.5)

(1.4) (1.5) , ,

.
1.7.
. ,
, J
,
E1
I1 G1

1
2
nI = 1.
I'2

G2

G'1 I'1

I5


G4

G5
G'2
I4
I2

E2

E 4 G3
,
. 1.17.
4
3

I6
G6
. 1.17

J + I'1 I1 I2 I'2 I3 =0.

E U
I=
= ( E U )G ,
R

J+[0 (1 2 )]G'1 [E+ (1 2)]G1 [E2 + (1 4 )]G2
[0 +(1 4 )]G'2 [0 +(1 3 )]G3 =0.

1 (G1 +G'1 +G2 +G'2 +G3) - 2(G1 +G'1 ) - 3G3 = J - E1G1 E2G2 .

.
I3

21

n (n-1)

1G11 + 2G12 + ... + n 1G1, n 1 = J11;


G
1 21 + 2G22 + ... + n 1G2, n 1 = J 22 ;
(1.6)
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .

1Gn 1,1 + 2Gn 1, 2 + ... + n 1Gn 1, n 1 = J n 1, n 1 ,

Gkk , k ( k- ), Gkm ,
k- m- ( ), Jkk
k- ,
J kk =

j =1

n =1

J j + EnGn .

: +, .
,
+.
1.7.1.
1. .
2. (1.6).
3. , , .. .
4. Gkk, Gkm Jkk.
5. .
6. .
Ik = [ Ek (k - m)] Gkm .
7. .
22

1.7.2.
,
.1.18, , (1.6)
1G11 = J11
1

G1

Gn

E1

En

G1

Gl

0
0=0
. 1.18

J1

Jj

n =1

l =1

1 ( Gn + Gl ) =

j =1

n =1

j =1
p

n =1
m

J j + EnGn ,

J j + EnGn

1 = 1 0 = U10 =

Gl + Gn

l =1

n =1

.
1.8.
n .
k- . , k-
, Ik = Ikk:
R11I11 + R12 I 22 + K + R1k I kk + K + R1n I nn = E11;
R I
21 11 + R22 I 22 + K + R2k I kk + K + R2n I nn = E 22 ;

. . .
. . .
. . .
. . . . . .
. . .
. . .
Rn1I11 + Rn 2 I 22 + K + Rnk I kk + K + Rnn I nn = E nn .
Ikk , , Ik:

I kk = I k = E11 k1 + E22 k 2 + ... + E nn kn =

= E11Gk1 + E22Gk 2 + ... + EnnGkn =

(1.7)

= I k1 + I k 2 + ... + I kn = I k + I k + ... + I k(' ) k ,


23

-
R11 R12 K R1k K R1n
R21 R22 K R2k K R2 n
=
,
. . . . . . ... . . . ... . . .
Rn1 Rn 2
Rnk
Rnn
km , k- m-
(-1)k+m.
(1.7)
k- ,
.
, .
.
, . 1.19.

, . 1.19.

R1
E1
I1

R2

R3
E3

I2

I3

R1

R2

R3

E1
I'1

I'2

I1 =

I'3

E
,
R2 R3
R1 +
R2 + R3

R1

I"2

I"1

I 3 =

I"3

E
,
R2 R1
R3 +
R2 + R1

I 2 = I1

R3
,
R2 + R3

I1 = I 3

R2
,
R1 + R2

I 3 = I1

R2
,
R2 + R3

I 2 = I3

R1
,
R1 + R2

. 1.19

R3
E3

I 1= I1 I1, I 2 = I 2 I 2 , I 3 = I 3 + I 3.

24

R2

. , , I1 I1 , I1 +,
I1 -. , I1 = I1 - I1 , I 2 =- I 2 - I 2 ,
I 3 = - I 3 + I3 .

, ,
, .
.
, . , , , , .
, , R
R (. 1.20) P
I
= UI, U=IR, P=I 2R.
U
I = I' + I'',

Pa= (I' + I'')2 R =[(I')2 + 2I' I'' + (I'')2]R,


. 1.20
Pb= P1 + P2 = [(I')2R" + (I'')2]R.
Pa b.
:
: ,
,
, , .
1.9.
1.9.1.
,
, ( 52002-2003).
( 52002-2003).
25



.1.21, . 1.22.

. 1.21

. 1.22

( , ), , .
( , ), ,
( 52002-2003).
1.9.2.
,
,
.
. 1.23.

. 1.23
26

R
E

.
,
R ( .
1.23).
I , km E1 2 (. 1.24).
k

k
R

E1
m
E1=E2

E2

I''

I'

Ukm

R
l
E1

m
E1=Uxx= Ukm

k
R

E2

R
E2

m
E2=Uxx= Ukm

. 1.24

I' I''
I = I' + I''.
I' , 1
. , klmk,

I R U km = E1 ,

U E1
I = km
,
R
1 , 1 = Ukm , I' = 0.
I' =0
I". I'' E2,
.
E2
I = I =
.
R + R

.1.24, . 1.23, ,
.
27

1.9.3.

1. , ..
.
: ,
..
2.
. ,
.
3.
E
I=
.
(1.8)
R + R
. I ,
. 1.25.
.
1. U
.
cb , . 1.26.
U

R3

d
R4

R2

R1

R2

R1

Uxx

R4

R3
U

b
E
. 1.25

E
. 1.26

U cb U U ca = 0,
U xx = U c U ,
U xx =
28

R3
R1
E
E
R3
R1 = E(

).
R3 + R4
R1 + R2
R3 + R4 R1 + R2

2. (. 1.27),

RR
RR
R = 1 2 + 3 4 .

R1 + R2 R3 + R4
R1

R2

d
R3

b
. 1.27

R4

3.
(1.8)
R3
R1
E(

)
R3 + R4 R1 + R2
.
I=
R1R2
R3 R4
R+
+
R1 + R2 R3 + R4

1.9.4.

1. .
.
U
.
2. I , ,
. 1.28.
E
U
E
R = = xx .
I
I
I
R
3.
U xx

I=
.
R + R
. 1.28

. ,
I = f(R) .
29

1.10.

I
R,
E
. 1.29. R
U
E
R
.
I =
R + R
,
. 1.29
E2
2
,
P=I R=
R.
2
(R + R )
, ,
R R , R
dP (R + R )2 2 R( R + R )
=
= 0,
dR
( R + R ) 4
R = R. , , , R = R =f(R). R = R,
, R
E2
=
.
4R
, ,
:
E2
2
P = I R =
R,
( R + R) 2

E
E2
PE = EI = E
.
=
R + R R + R

P
E2
( R + R)
R
=
=
R
=
.
PE
R + R
( R + R ) 2
E2
30

R=R,

= R/ 2R = 0,5 .
R, R
, .
1.11.
,
,
.
, 1 ,
(. 1.30).
I1
a
U

b
R1
R2

I3

R3
R4
I2

I5
R5
R6
I4

. 1.30

I7
R7
R8
I6

R1 = 2 ,
R2 = 11 ,
R3 = 1 ,
R4 = 8 ,
R5 = 2 ,
R6 = 4 ,
R7 = 2 ,
R8 = 2 ,
U = 100 .

, ,
.
U U k :
k = U / U.

k .
Udo = I7 (R7 + R8) = 1(2+2) = 4 ,
I6 =Udo / R6 = 4 / 4 = 1 A,
I5 = I6 + I7 = 1 + 1= 2 A,
Uc = I5R5 + Udo = 2 2 + 4 = 8 B,
I4 =Uco / R4 = 8 / 8 = 1 A,
I3 = I4 + I5 = 1 + 2= 3 A,
31

Ub = I3R3 + Uo = 3 1 + 8 = 11 B,
I2 =Ubo / R2 = 11 / 11 = 1 A,
I1 = I2 + I3 = 1 + 3 = 4 A,
U = I1R1 + Ubo = 4 4 + 11 = 19 B,
k = Uo /U = 100 / 19,
, , I5 100
100
200
I 5(100) = k I 5 =
A .
2=
19
19
.
1.12.
- , (, )

= + b,
(1.9)
,
. .
. 1
R (. 1.31),

2 4,5 .

1
R
.
: . 1.31
K . R .
I1 = 1 A, I2 = 5 A - , I1 = 2 A,
I2 = 4 A- .
b (1.9).
I1 I2
I1 = a + bI2
2

32

, ,
1 = + 5b;
2 = + 4b,
= 6, b = -1. I1 = 6 I2
I1 ,
I2 = 4,5 A. I1 = 1,5 A.
- ,
(, )
= + b = cz ,
, , z - .
1.13.

,
.
.

,
.1.32 .
a

I
E2

E1

E1=E2=IR

I
E1

b
E1=IR

. 1.32

(a c ) + E2 E1
,
R
IR = (a c ) + E2 E1 ,

I=

c = a IR + E2 = a ,
E2 = IR, , E1!
.=IR! ., , R 33

, R .
1.14.
,
,
, .
, , :
n

I k2 Rk
k =1

k =1

j =1

Ek I k + U j J j .

, .
, .
+ ,
. + . , , , , .

34

2.

2.1.

i
Im



,
( 520022003) (. 2.1)
i = Imsin (t +),

. 2.1

i
, [] ( 52002-2003);
Im (Um,Em) [] ([]);
(t +) , []
( 52002-2003);
, [] ( 520022003);

,
, 2, = 2f,
[/c] ( 52002-2003);
f ,
( 52002-2003) f=1/T, [];
,
, []
( 52002-2003),
, ,

35


( 52002-2003) (. 2.2).
= u - i,
i, u
u
= 0 i
,
= ,
=/2 .
i
t
> 0, ,
u

, .
. 2.2

2.2.

, ,
, ,
(. 2.3)

i

. 2.3

p = i2R

P = I 2R

A = i 2 Rdt

A= =I 2RT

A = A = .
1T 2
I=
i dt.
T0
( 520022003)
36

1T 2
1 T 1 cos 2 t
2
I=
dt =
I m sin tdt = I m T
T0
2
0
T
0
I
1 T
1
2
T = m = 0,707 I m .
( dt cos 2 tdt ) = I m
T 0
2T
2
0

= Im


,
U
E
U = m E= m.
2
2

t1

f =

f (t )dt

t1


1T
1T
I = idt = I m sin tdt = 0 .
T0
T0

I T

1
=
T
2

2
idt
=

T
0

I m sin tdt =

T
2I m
2
( cos t ) 0 2 = I m = 0,638I m .
T

2.3.

I
I 2
Ka = m =
= 2.
I
I

Im
I
2 = = 1,11.
K =
=
2
I
2 2
Im

37

2.4. , ,
.

, , ,
, , (. 2.4).


+
m
u
U
,
mi

u
.
I
t+i
i

t+u
.
, , . 2.4
,
, .
, , . , , .
2.5.

, , , i
R
( 52002-2003).
u
(.
. 2.5
2.5)
u=Um sin(t+ u) u=0.
U
i = m sint, i = 0 .
u = iR, iR=Umsint,
R
38

, = u -i =0.

.
,
. 2.6.
u, i
u

=0

. 2.6

Im =

Um
;
R

I =

U
;
R

I =

U
R

2.6.
L (. 2.7)
i = 0
I = Im sint.
i
L
L
eL
d
d
di
u
eL =
= (Li ) = L
dt
dt
dt
. 2.7
d
di

uL =
=L ;
dt
dt
XL
}
d

u L = L I m sin t = LI m cos t = L I m sin( t + ) = U m sin(t + ) ,


123
dt
2
2
Um

Um , Um=LIm, [];
XL , XL=L=2fL, [].
u = /2 , i = 0, = u -i = /2.
39


/2.

,
. 2.8
u, i
U
u
i
- /2

/2

= /2

t
2

. 2.8

U
U
Im = m = m ,
X L L

U
U
I=
=
,
X L L

I =

U
XL

U
L

2.7.
(. 2.9) u = 0
i
u = Um sint,
C
dq d
du
i=
= ( ) = ,
u
dt dt
dt
d

i = C U m sin t = CU m cos t = CU m sin( t + ) =


. 2.9
dt
2

= I m sin( t + ),
2
Im ;
1
1
Xc =
=
[],
C 2 fC

u = 0,
i = ,
= u i = .
2
2
40

/2.
,
. 2.10.
u, i
I

i
=- /2

u
t
- /2

/2

. 2.10

Im =

Um
U
= U m , I =
= U ,
X
XC

I =

U
XC

= U .

2.8.
R, L, C

R, L,
C (. 2.11)
u = uR + uL + uC ,
i
R
L
C
di q
di 1 t
u = iR + L + = iR + L + idt + U c (0) .
dt c
dt C 0
uR

uL
u

.2.11

uC

u =Um sin (t + u).

i =Im sin (t + i)= Im sin (t + u -).


Im . i =
0,
41

I, ,
u = (. 2.12).
UL

UC

UC

U
u

i UR

UL

UR

. 2.12

,
i = Im sint,
u =Um sin (t + u)= Um sin (t + ).
i u ,
,
1
1
RI m sin t + LI m cos t
I m cos t +
I m + U C (0) = U m sin(t + ).
C
C
,
1
I m + U C ( 0) = 0 .

t, :
t = /2
RI m = U m cos ,
(2.1)
t = 0
1
( L
) I m = U m sin .
(2.2)
C
(2.1) (2.2) , ,
2
1 2 2
R
+
(

) I m = U m2 ,


Um
Im =
.
(2.3)
1
R 2 + ( L
)2
C
42

(2.2) (2.1), tg,



L 1
( C )
= arctg
.
R
(2.3) , , Z .

,
( 52002-2003)
U
U U
1 2
Z= m = =
= R 2 + ( L
) .
Im
I
I
C
(L 1/C) = X .
,
,
, , , ( 52002-2003).
2.9.
G, L C

iG
iC
iL , . 2.13
u
G
C
L
iG + iC + iL = i
du 1 t
Gu + C
+ udt + iL (0) = i .
dt L 0
. 2.13
u = Um sin(t+ u).
i

43

Im .
i =Im sin(t -i).
, u= 0, i =Im sin(t -).

u=0 . 2.14.

,
IG
U

GU m sin t + CU m cos t
+

1
U m cos t +
L

1
U m + iL (0) = I m sin(t ).
L

I
IC

IL

. 2.14

, U m + iL (0) = 0 ,
L

. t, :
t = /2
t = 0

GUm = Im cos ,

C U m = I m sin .

,
Im = Um G2 + (

1
C )2 .
L

, tg
1
C
L

= arctg
.
G
44

I
1
= G2 + (
C ) 2 U
L
[, -1] ,


,
( 520021
C , [, -1]
2003), G , =
L
1
.
= BL L
, C = B .
Y =

45

3.


,

,
,
, .
, , , ,
. , , ( ), . , , .
() . , , , ,
, .
3.1.
, . 3.1
, ,
,
+j
A = Ae j =Acos+jAsin ='+jA",
', A", , ;
j = 1 j2 = 1.
A" A


+1
A'
Re A = '.

. 3.1
Jm A = A".
46


A*= Ae - j, A* = ' - j A".

A = ( A) 2 + ( A) 2 .

= arctg A .
A
.
3.2.
+j
e

=j

e j = 1

e j0 = 1

j
e 2

+1
=j

. 3.2

U = U' + U"
Z = R +jX

U = Ue j
Z = Z e j

U = Ucos + jUsin
Z = Zcos + jZsin

-
, , , ..

3.1.1.

+ B = (' +j A") + (B' + j B") = (' + B') + j(A" + B").
47


B = (' +j A") (B' + j B") = (' B') + j(A" B").

B = Ae j Bej = A B e j( + ).

/ B = Ae j / Be j = ( A )e j( - ).
B

= Ae j= ' + j A" ,

B= Be j = B' + j B"

:
, = , = ;
, ' = B', A" = B".

3.2.


j = cos + jsin.
(3.1)
j
e
, 1 . (3.1) Im
Im e j = Im cos + jIm sin.
(3.2)
(3.1) . , = t +, . .
, (3.2)
Im e (j t +) = Im cos (t +) + jIm sin (t +),

Re{Im e (j t +)} = Im cos (t +);


Jm{Im e (j t +)} = Im sin (t +).

,
i = Jm{Im e j ( t +)},
(3.3)
j(t +)
. . Ime
.
48

Im e j (t

+)

I m e j (t + ) = I m e jt e j = I e jt ,

(3.4)

I = I me j ; Im, ,
Im , .

, ( 52002-2003).
: , ,
t =0.
(3.3)
i = Im sin t = Jm{Im e j(t + )}.
(Jm) ( ),
Im e j( t + ),

(3.4),
i

Im e jt.

1. .
i = 10sin (t +45 ) A, Im = 10 A, = 45 ,
I m = 10e j 45 A.
2.
.
I m = 100e j 30 A ,
i = 100 sin (t 30 ) A.

49

3.3.

i = Im sin(t +). di d

= I m sin( t + ) = I m sin( t + + ),
dt dt
2

I m sin ( t + + )
2

I m

j ( t + + )
2
e

= I m e

I m
j

j ( t + + )
2 ,
e

2 e j t e j

j
j

2
(3.5)
= e = j , I m e = I m , = j I m e j t .

, (3.5)
d ni
di
j t
n
j t
j
I
e
,
(

)
.
j I m e
m
dt
dt n

j .

3.4.
i = Im sin(t +).
Im
Im

idt = I m sin( t + )dt = cos( t + ) = sin( t + 2 ),

I m j ( t + 2 )
e
,

Im

sin( t + )

I m j ( t + 2 ) I m j 2 j t j
=
e
e e e =

I
j
1
j
2

= e
= j = , I m e = I m , = m e j t .
j

50

(3.6)

, (3.6)
1
I m e j t .
idt
j
j.
3.5.
i
, R
L
C
,

uC
uR
uL
(. 3.3)
uR + uL + uC = u,
u
di 1 t
iR + L + idt + U C (0) = u . (3.7)
. 3.3
dt C o
, . . UC (0) =0. (3.7)
1
R I m e j t + jL I m e j t +
I m e j t = U m e j t .
j C
I m , ejt ,
1
I m ( R + j L +
) = U m.
(3.8)
j C
, (3.7),
,
(3.8) .
1
I ( R + jL +
) =U,
j C

1
I ( R + j L +
) = U .
j C
51

3.6. .

1
(3.8)
R + j L +
j

,
1
1
Z = R + j L +
= R + j ( L
) = R + jX = Ze j ,
j C
C
R , ; Z
( Z = R 2 + X 2 ) , , =arctg(X /R).
,
( 52002-2003).
(3.8)
U
Im = m ,
(3.9)
Z
, ,
U
I
I= m

U= m
2
2
U
I= .
(3.10)
Z
(3.9) (3.10) , .

E U
I=
.
Z
, .

52

3.7.
,

( 52002-2003).
I
1
Y = , Y = = G jB = Ye j [ -1] [C],
U
Z
B
Y = G 2 + B 2 ;
= arctg
.
G
3.8.

,
(. 3.4).
i

uR

uL

+j

4 UC
5 U

uC

UL 3

UL -UC
UR 2 I

1 +1

. 3.4

.
, , , ,
, . ,
, . , , 53

X
, Z = R 2 + X 2 ; = arctg
R
(. 3.5).

+j
Z

=L -

+1

R
. 3.5

,
, (.
2.9), (. 3.6)
B
= arctg
;
Y = G 2 + B2 .
G

+j
G

+1
B

. 3.6

3.9.

I k = 0.

n

k =1

k =1

Ek = I k I k .

3.10. ,
, ( 52002-2003)
1
1
(3.11)
= pdt = uidt,
0
0
= ui .

u = Um sin (t + u),
i = Im sin (t + i).
54

u=0,

= u - i= - i , . . i = - ;
u = Um sin t,
i = Im sin (t - ).
i u (3.11)
UmIm T
=
sin t sin( t )dt
T 0

1
sin sin = [cos( ) cos( + )],
2

U m I m T
UmIm
P=
[s(t t + ) cos( t + t )] dt = 2T [cos dt
2T 0
0
T
T
U 2I 2T
UI
cos(2 t )dt ] =
cos dt = T cos t = UIcos ,
1442443
2
T
0
0
0
0

= UI cos.
.
U = Ue j u , I = Ie j i . ,
, =u i,

.
,
(
52002-2003).
S = U I = Ue j u Ie j i = UIe j ( u i ) =

{ }

= IUe j = IU cos + jIU sin = P + jQ,

{ }

Re U I = P [] , Jm U I = Q [] , 55


( 52002-2003);
S = UI = P 2 + Q 2
[] , ( 52002-2003).
,

- , , R, L, C (. 3.4).
+j
: UR,
S []
(UL-UC), U
Q []

, , I,

+1
P []
(. 3.7),
S = IU = P 2 + Q 2 ,
P=UIcos,
Q=UIsin.
, R
P = UIcos = I2R.
Q = UIsin ,
.
S , (. 3.8).
cos
I

*
*W

. A
U
,
V


( 52002-2003).
cos 1, UI. . 3.8
,
, U,
. 3.7

56

, ,
.
, cos .
cos:
) ,
) . ,

.
. S, Q, P , .
U = 10+ j20 A.
3.9 I = 1+ j5 A,

I
U

. 3.9

.
1) :
S = U I* = (10 +j20)(1 j5) =
=10 + j20 j50 j2100 = 90 j30 , BA.
P = 90 , Q= 30 , S = 90 2 + 302 .
2) :
S = U* I = (10 -j20)(1 + j5) = 10 + j50 j20
j2100 = 90 + j30 , BA.
P = 90 , Q = 30 , S = 90 2 + 302 .

, , , .
3.11.


. .
57

. ,
,
, . 3.10.
.
L1
I1 E1
R1
C1
1
Z 1 = R1 + jL1 j
,

C
1
I
I2 E2 R2

1
I4

C4

I5

E5

L4
R4

I22

C3 I 3 E 3

11

R5
C5

Z 2 = R2 ,

C6

Z3 = j

R6

I33

I6
4

. 3.10

1
,
C3

Z 4 = R4 + jL4 j
Z 5 = R5 j

1
,
C 5

Z 6 = R6 j

1
.
C 6

1
,
C 4


:
:
:

I2 + I4 I1 = 0,
I5 I2 I3 = 0,
I6 + I3 + I1 = 0,
I1Z1 I3Z3 + I2Z2 = E1 + E2 E3 ,
I4Z4 I2Z2 I5Z5 = -E2 E5 ,
I5Z5 + I3Z3 I6Z6 = E3 + E5 .


I11 Z11 + I22 Z12 + I33 Z13 = E11 ,
I11 Z21 + I22 Z22 + I33 Z23 = E22 ,
I11 Z31 + I22 Z32 + I33 Z33 = E33 .
Z11 = Z1 + Z2 + Z3,
Z12 =Z21 = Z2,
E11 = E1 + E2 E3,
58

Z22 = Z4 + Z2 + Z5,
Z13 = Z31 = Z ,
E22 = E2 E5,,

Z33 = Z6 + Z5 + Z3,
Z23 = Z32 = Z5,
E33 = E5 + E3.


4 = 0 ,
1Y11 + 2Y12 + 3Y13 =J11 ,
1Y21 + 2Y22 + 3Y23 =J22 ,
1 Y31 + 2Y32 + 3 Y33 =J33 ,
1
1
1
,
Y 11 = Y 1 + Y 2 + Y 4 =
+
+
Z1 Z 2 Z 4
Y 22 = Y 2 + Y 3 + Y 5 =

1
1
1
,
+
+
Z2 Z3 Z5

1
1
1
;
+
+
Z1 Z 3 Z 6
1
= Y 21 = Y 2 = ,
Z2

Y 33 = Y 1 + Y 3 + Y 6 =
Y 12

Y 23 = Y 32 = Y 3 =

1
,
Z3

Y 13 = Y 31 = Y 1 =

1
;
Z1

J 11 = E 2 Y 2 E1Y 1 ,
J 22 = E 2 Y 2 + E 5 Y 5 E 3 Y 3 ,
J 33 = E 3 Y 3 + E 1Y 1.


, , .

1. ,

u = Um sin(t +u)
U = U m e j u ,
I = Im sin(t +i )

I = I m e j i .

59

2.
Z = RK jXK Y = GK jBK .

,
, . .
3. , ,
I K = I K e j uK .
4.

I K = I K e j iK iK =ImK sin(t +iK).

60

4.

, ,
, ,
( 52002-2003).
, . 4.1:
i
i = I m sin (t + i ),
Z
u

u = U m sin (t + u ),

= u i.
. 4.1

= 0.
.

(4.1)

4.1.

, ( 52002-2003).
R, L, C
(. 4.2)
1
Z = R + j L j
= Ze j ,
I
C
Z = R 2 + X 2 ;
UR
UL
UC
U
1
L
C .
. 4.2
= arctg
(4.2)
R
(4.1) = 0 , (4.2)
1
1
L
= 0 L =
,


2 LC = 1.
(4.3)
61

, ,
, :
1
;
0 =
LC
1
L0 = 2 ;
(4.4)
C
1
C0 = 2 .
L
0 (L C ), L0 C0 .
(4.3) ,
U L = UC .
(4.3) L 1

= 0 , C
R, L, C ,

Jm{Z } = 0.

(4.5)

R, L, C
U
U
I= =
.
Z R + j ( L 1 )
C
I = U R .
I .
XC = XL R,
, , .
.
62

: , , . 4.3.
+j

UR

UL
I

+j

+j

UL

+1
UC

<0

UR

UC
I
+1

U
=0

UC

UL

UR

+1

>0

. 4.3


, , .
:
= X L0 = X C 0 ,
1
L2
L
X L0 = 0 L =
L=
=
;
C
LC
LC
1
1
LC
L
X C0 =
=
=
=
.
2
1
0 C
C
C
C
LC
= L C , []
,
.
, ,

( ),

U L0 U C 0 I 0 X L 0 X L0 1 L
Q=
=
=
=
= =
.
U
U
I0R
R
R R C

63

,
d= 1 .
Q
,
XL, XC, X, R, Z
,

Z()
, XL()
X()
R
R()
(. 4.4).
XC()

-XC()

1
,
C
Z () = R 2 + X 2 (),
1
L
C ,
() = arctg
R
X () = L

+
2

()

R () = R,
X L () = L,
1
X C () =
,
C

. 4.4

1
1
1
R() jX ()
=
=

=
Z () R () + jX () R () + jX () R() jX ()
R()
X ()
= 2

j
= G () jB(),
2
2
2
R () + X ()
R () + X ()

Y () =

B () =

X ()

R () + X
2

()

G () =

R()

R () + X
2

()

R = 0,
64

1
1
1
L
L
B () =
=
=

=
= 2 L 2.
1
1
X () L 1
2
0
L
L
C
C
LC

() (. 4.5) R=0

R=0
( = 0, = )
1
R 0
2R
( = 0).

() 0
0 2
, 1
:

2R
1
dB d 1
=
( ) = 2 dX < 0 ;
d d
X dB
X 2 > 0 , dX
> 0.
d
1 G
R
I(), UR(), UL(), UC() (. 4.6).

U = const,
I () =

. 4.5

= 0 I = 0,

. = I = 0,

U
= 0, Z
,
R.

R + L 1
2

U, I

UC

UL

UR
1

I()
2

. 4.6
65

R
U R () = RI () = R

U
R 2 + ( L

1 2
)
C

.

U () = X C I () =

U
1 2
R 2 + ( L
)
C

= 0 ,
, 0 . UC ,
0, UC I
.
1
C

U L ( ) = X L I ( ) =

R 2 + L 1

L.

UL() , U().
UL() U (), (),

2 1 = 0 d .
66

d2 d
1,2 = 0 1 +
,
4
2

I
= (.
I0
0
4.7).
I/I0
1

1
I

d2>d1

d2
2

2
d1

/ 0

1 1 2

. 4.7

I U U R
=
= =
I0 Z R Z
1

L 1

R
1 2
R 2 + (L
)
C
1

L
1 + 0 ( 0 )
R
R 0
1
1
(4.6)
=
.
=
2
1
1
2
1
0 L
1
+
(

)
1+
( )

d2

R
, I/I0 ,
. I I 0 = 1 2 (. 4.7), , , ..
2
I
I0
0
I 02 R
I
1
2
2
=
, I=
, I =
, I R=
.
I0
2
2
2
2
1+ (

C ) 2

67


(4.6), 1 :
2
I
1
1
=
=
.
2
I0
2
1
1
1 + 2

d
2

1
1
2

d
1
1
1, = a ,
d

1.
(4.6) ,
1
L
C ,
a=
R
, , = arctg a = 45 . , 1,
45 .
4.2.
,
( 52002-2003).
, . 4.8
I
1
Y = G + jB = G + j (C j ) = Ye j ,
IL
IC
IG
L
U

. 4.8

68

Y = G2 + B2 ;
1
C
L
= arctg
.
G

(4.7)

(4.1) = 0 , (4.7)
1

= 0,

2LC = 1.
(4.8)
, , L, C,
, (4.4).
(4.8) ,

| IL | = | IC |.
:
Jm{Y} = 0.
(4.9)
, ,
,
. 4.9.
+j
IL

IG

+j

IC

+j

IC
IL

>0

+1

IG U
=0

IC
IG

+1

I
<0

IL

+1

. 4.9

,
,
. ,
. .
1
C

= 0 =
=
.
0 L
L
I
I
U0C BC BL
Q = C 0 = L 0 =
=
=
.
I
I
UG
G
G
69

G, B, Y

BC ()

Y()
BL()

G
o

G()

B()

-BC ()
+


G () = G ,
BC () = C ,
1
BL () =
,
L
1
B () =
C ,
L
Y () = G 2 + B 2 ,
= f()
. 4.10.

. 4.10

() , , .
4.11.

U
U,IL ,IC , IG

IL
IC

,

R, L, C . , J

IG

0

1
U () = I : G 2 + (
C ) 2 ,
L
. 4.11

.
70

4.3.
,

Jm {Z }=0

=0

Jm {Y }=0


I3 R
, L1
C
f
a
. 4.12.
b L d
2
:
I1
I1

I2

. 4.12
Jm{Z}=0.


RjL2
1
Z = jL1 +
j
=
R + jL2
C
1
R 2 L2
R2 L22
,
= jL1 j
+ j 2
+ 2
2
2
C
R + (L2 )
R + (L2 )
1
R 2L2
Jm{Z}= L1
+
= 0.
C R 2 + (L2 )2

0 L10, L20 ,C0,
.

71

. 4.13.

5 UL1

8
Uaf

+j
Ubd 2

6 UC

I3 3
7 Uab +Udf

UL1 5

I1 4

I3

+j
Ubd 2
Uaf
3

U 7 I2 1

I2 1

I1 4

+1

Uab +Udf

+1

6 UC

=0

. 4.13

.
4.4. ( )
,
. ,
, , ,
dX
> 0 , :
d
) ;
) ,
;
) N = m - 1- p - y, m
;
; , .
. , . 4.14.

72

:
.
N = 9111=6.


, . . . 4.14
, .
Z(0)=0.
,
.
. 4.15.
X


1 2


3 4


5
6

. 4.15

, =0, 0. 1 ,
2 , 3 , 4
, 5 , 6 .
, .

73

5.

5.1. .
( ) ,
( 520022003).
, , ( 52002-2003).
,
( 52002-2003).

,
( 52002-2003).

,
( 52002-2003).
()
, , , , , , .
W1
W2
. 5.1 . 2
1
11,
i1

. 5.1
21.
11 = W111,
21 = W2 21.
74

W
W
L1 = 11 = 1 11 ,
M 21 = 21 = 2 21 .
i1
i1
i1
i1
, ,
,

W
L2 = 22 = 2 22 ,
M 12 = 12 = 1 12 .
i2
i2
i2
i2
12 = 21.
, , [].
(,
, )
( ).
, ,
(, , ),

:
1=11+12= L1i1 M12i2,
2=22+21= L2i2 M21i1.
.
d12
di
u12 = e12 =
= M 12 2 ,
dt
dt
d21
di
u21 = e21 =
= M 21 1 .
dt
dt
,
, :

,
, ,
. , , ,
.
75

5.2.


:

,
12=21=
,
, . 5.2 .
Rk1
Rk2
i
5.3.
*
*
Lk2
Lk1
uk1
uk2
,
u
,
. 5.2


12=21=

U =Rk1I + jLk1I + jM12I +


R
R
k1
k2
i
+ Rk2I + jLk2I + jM12I
*
*
Lk2
Lk1
uk2
uk1

u
U =Rk1I + jLk1I - jM12I+
. 5.3
+ Rk2I+jLk2I - jM12I.
:
U =(Rk1+ Rk2)I + j(Lk1 + Lk2 + 2 M) I ,
U =(Rk1+ Rk2)I + j(Lk1 + Lk2 - 2 M) I

U =R I + jL' I,
U =R I + jL'' I,
R=Rk1+Rk2 ;
L'=Lk1+Lk2+2
; L''=Lk1+Lk22
.
L' L'', :
76

L' = L1 + L2 + 2
L'' = L1 + L2 2
L' L'' = 4,

L L
M =
.
4
+j

+j
UM21 7

Uk2

ULk2 6

U 8
Uk1

4 UM12

UM12 4 URk2 5

U 8

Uk1

ULk1 3
URk1 2

ULk1
3

7 UM21 ULk2 6
Uk2

+1

URk1 2

URk2 5
I

+1

. 5.4

(. 5.4)
.
5.3.


, .
,
,
. ,
. 77


.
.
(. 5.5), .
C1

E2

b
C6

R1
I1

I3

R6
R4

L4
I4
E3

M34

R2

I6

M45
*

*
0

*
L3

L5

R5

E5

M35 I
5
C3

I2

M34 = M43 ,
M54 = M45 ,
M53 = M35.

R3
. 5.5

a, b, c.
i4 - i1 i3 = 0 ,
b i2 + i1 i6 = 0 ,
i3 + i5 i2 = 0.
, ,
:
di5
di3
di4
1 t
1 t
i1R1 + i1dt + i6 R6 +
i
dt
+
i
R
+
L
+
M
+
M
= 0,
6
4 4
4
45
43
C1 0
C6 0
dt
dt
dt
di5
di3
di4
1 t
i6 R6 +
i
dt
+
i
R
+
L
+
i
R
+
M
+
M
= e5 + e2 ,
6 5 5 5 dt 2 2
54
53
C6 0
dt
dt
di3 1 t
di5
di4
di4
i4 R4 + L4
+ i3 R3 + L3
+

+
+
i
dt
i
R
L
M
5 5
5
34
3
dt
dt C3 0
dt
dt
+ M 35
78

di5
di
di
di
di
M 53 3 M 54 4 + M 45 5 + M 43 3 = e3 e5 .
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt

I 4 I 1 I 3 = 0,
I 2 + I 1 I 6 = 0,
I 3 + I 5 I 2 = 0,
1
1
I 1 ( R1 +
) + I 6 ( R6 +
) + I 4 (R4 + jL4 ) +
jC1
jC6
+ I 5 jM 45 + I 3 jM 43 = 0,
I 6 ( R6 +

1
) + I 5 ( R5 + jL5 ) + I 2 R2 + I 4 jM 54 +
jC6
+ I 3 jM 53 = E 5 + E 2 ,

I 4 (R4 + jL4 ) + I 3 ( R3 + jL3 +

1
) I 5 (R5 + jL5 ) I 4 jM 34
jC3

I 5 jM 35 I 3 jM 53 + I 4 jM 54 + I 5 jM 45 + I 3 jM 43 = E 3 E 5 .
, ,
.

.
. , :
Z 11 I 11 + Z 12 I 22 + Z 13 I 33 = E11,
Z 21 I 11 + Z 22 I 22 + Z 23 I 33 = E 33 ,
Z 31 I 11 + Z 32 I 22 + Z 33 I 33 = E 33 ,
, ,
1
1
+
+ R6 + R4 + jL4 + jM 45 + jM 43 ,
jC1 jC6
jM45 jM43 ,
,
.
Z11 = R1 +

79

5.4.

, , , ,

.
:

, .

M13
.

I1 R1
L1
I3
L3 R3
*
*

C1

C2
E1
E3
.
I2

R2

,
. 5.6
. 5.6
I1 = I 2 + I 3,

1
1
+ I 2 R2 +
+ I 3 jM 13 = E1,
I 1 R1 + jL1+
j

C
j

1
2

1
+ I 3 (R3 + jL3 ) = E 3.
I 1 jM 31 I 2 R2 +
j

2
(5.1) I 3 = I 1 I 2 ,
I 1 = I 2 + I 3 , :

1
1
(
)
+
+
jM 13 ) = E1,
I
R
+
+
j

L
+
M
I
(
R
2 2
1 1
1
13

C
j
C

1
2

I 2 ( R2 jM 31 + 1 ) + I 3[ R3 + j( L3 + M 31 )] = E 3.

j C 2
80

(5.1)
(5.2)
(5.2)

(5.3)

(5.3)
(. 5.7), L1 L3 (L1+)
(L3+) , , L2=- .
R1

C1 L1+

L3+

C2
R2

E1
I1

I2

R3

I3
E3

L2=-

. 5.7

, L2 = M .
. , .
5.5.
, ( 52002-2003).
:
) ();
) ;
) .
, ,
, , .
,
81

. .
, . 5.8.
i1

R1

i2

R2

*
u1

L2

L1

u2

*
. 5.8


,
,
di1
di2

u
i
R
L
M
=
+
+
,
1
1
1
1

dt
dt

di
di
0 = i2 R2 + L2 2 + u2 + M 1 .
dt
dt

u1 , i1 i2
u2.
:
U 1 = I 1R1 + jL1 I 1 + jM I 2 ,
(5.4)

M
I
=
I
R
+
j

L
I
+
U
.
1
2 2

2
2 2
U1, Z, , ,
.
, U1
I1.

Z = R + jX.
:
XI = L1,
XII = L2 + X,
82

RII = R2 + R,
(5.4)
U 1 = ( R1 + jX I ) I 1 + jM I 2 ,

jM I 1 = ( RII + jX II ) I 2 ,
2 M 2
I1,
U 1 = ( R1 + jX I ) I 1 +
RII + jX II

(5.5)

M
I 1.
RII + jX II
, I1 (5.5):
U1
.
I1 =
(5.6)
2 2
M
( R1 + jX I ) +
RII + jX II
(5.6):
I2 = j

2 M 2
( RI + jX I )( RII + jX II ) + 2 M 2
=
=
( R1 + jX I ) +
RII + jX II
RII + jX II
=
=
=

( RI + jX I )( R 2 II + X 2 II ) + 2 M 2 ( RII jX II )
R

II

+X

II

RI RII2 + jX I RII2 + RI X II2 + jX I X II2 + 2 M 2 RII j2 M 2 X II


R 2 II + X 2 II

RI ( R 2 II + X 2 II ) + 2 M 2 RII
R

II

= R1 +

+X

II

2 M 2

+ j

X I ( R 2 II + X 2 II ) 2 M 2 X II
R

II

+X

II

2 M 2

RII + j ( X 1 2
X II ),
R 2 II + X 2 II
R II + X 2 II
, (5.6)
U1
I1 =
=
2 M 2
2 M 2
( R1 + 2
RII ) + j ( X 1 2
X II )
R II + X 2 II
R II + X 2 II
U1
U
=
= 1 ,
R + j Z
83

Z=R +jX ,
.


R = R1 + R,
X = X1 +X,

2 M 2
R = 2
R ,
2 II
RII + X II

2 M 2
X = 2
X ,2 II
RII + X II

(5.7)

, , .
,
( R1 X1),
.
.
,
.
(5.4). jMI1,
jMI2, :
U 1 = I 1R1 + j( L1 M ) I 1 + jM ( I 1 + I 2 )
0 = I 2 R2 + j( L2 M ) I 2 + jM ( I 1 + I 2 ) + I 2 Z .
(. 5.9),

R1
L2 R2
L1
U1

I1

I1+ I2

I2
U2

. 5.9


k,
84

k=

.
L1L2
.
R2 =0 Z=0, (5.7)
M2
R1I =0, XII =L2, X =
. ,
L2
M2
M2
) = L1 (1 k 2 ) = L .
X = X 1 + X = L1
= L1 (1
L1L2
L2
L >0, WM = 1 LI 2 > 0 1-k2 2
. k 1. , , k = 0. , k =1. , 0 k 1.

, :
1)
R1 = R2 =0; k = 1; U1/ U2 = ;
2)
R1 = R2 =0; k = 1; L1 = ; U1 = cU2; I1=(1/c)I2.
,
,
U1
cU 2
= Z =
= c 2 Z ,
1
I1
I2
c
,
.
.
,
,
,
.
85

6.
, ,
, (
52002-2003)
,
( 52002-2003). , , , .

.
, , (
52002-2003).
6.1.
, 120 (. 6.1).
e
Em

eA

eB

eC

2
t

120
240
. 6.1

86

e A = E m sin t ,

(
)
eC = Em sin (t 240 o ).

eB = Em sin t 120 o ,

+1
EA

120

120

+j

EA = E,
E B = Ee j120 ,
o

E C = Ee j 240
(. 6.2).
o

EC

EB
. 6.2

6.2.

,
,
. () , .
:
1) ;
2) .
,
.
6.3.
, , , .
- 87

(. 6.3).

E
E
E
IC = Ic = C ,
I A = Ia = A ,
IB = Ib = B ,
Za
Zb
Zc
I A , I B I C , I a , I b I c
, , a, b, c.
I 0 = I A + I B + I C .
U : U a , U b U c . U
: U ab , U bc U ca .
a

IA
EA
UC A

I0

EB
UC

UBC

UB

Uc
B

Za

Uca

UAB

EC
C

Ua

UA

0'
Z

Ia
Uab
Z

Ic

Ib
Ubc

Ub
b

IB
IC
. 6.3

:
I A = I a, I B = Ib IC = Ic;
:
: U A = U a , U B = U b , U C = U c
U AB = U ab , U BC = U bc , U CA = U ca .
: I=I; U= 3 U.
:
.

88

6.3.1. ()

() ,
U A =U a
( 52002-2003).
U AB = U ab
U CA = U ca
. 6.4
Ia
+j
0 0'
. Ic
Ib
, UC =Uc
UB =Ua
.
Ia + Ib + Ic = 0
U BC = U bc
, ,
. 6.4

.
- , Z a = Z b = Z c .
+1

6.3.2. ()

U A =U a

U CA = U ca

U AB = U ab

Ia

+j

0 0'
Ib

UC =Uc

+1

I0

Ic

U BC = U bc

. 6.5

U B =Ub

, . . Z a Z b Z c ,

:
I0 = Ia + Ib + Ic,
, ,
(.
6.5). ,
: a
, b
,
c .

89

6.4.
6.4.1. ()

- ,
6.3:
U
U
I A = Ia = a = A ,
Za Za
U
U
I B = Ib = b = B ,
Zb Zb
U
U
IC = Ic = c = C .
Zc Zc
6.4.2. ()

.
U
U
U
I A = I a = a , I B = I b = b I C = I c = c Za
Zb
Zc
.
, ,
00 (. 6.6)
U a + U 00 U A = 0 ,
U a = U A U 00 .
U a ,
U 00 .

, U 00 = 0 0 U 00 = 0 ,
0 ,
E Y + E B Y a + EC Y c
U 00 = 0 = A a
.
Ya +Yb +Yc
,

90

U 00 = 0 =

E AY a + E B Y a + EC Y c
.
Ya +Yb +Yc +Y0
a

A
IA

Ua

EA

Ia

0'

0
EC
C

Za

U0/0
EB
UC

UB

IC

Uc
B

Ic

Ib

Ub
b

IB
. 6.6

,
. ,

Z a , Z b Z c .
E A = U A ,
E B = U B , E C = U C +1


:
U CA = U ca U A U a U
=
U
AB
ab
U AY a + U B Y a + U C Y c
0'
U
=
.
00
U 00
U
Y
Y
Y
Y
+
+
+
+j
b
a
b
c
0

U 00
Uc
0
.
UB
UC
-
U BC = U bc
. 6.7.
. 6.7
91

6.5.
(. 6.8), U AB = U ab ,
U BC = U bc , U CA = U ca .

IA
a

A
UCA

Iab

Uca
EBA

EAC
ECB
C

Z c

UAB

Ica

B
UBC

IB

Z b
Zbc

IC

Uab

Ibc

Ubc
. 6.8

:
I ab =

U ab U AB
=
,
Z ab Z ab

I bc =

U bc U BC
=
,
Z bc
Z bc

I ac =

U ac U AC
=
.
Z ac
Z ac

, . . , :
I A = I ab I ca ,
I B = I bc I ab ,
I C = I ca I bc .

92

3 -

6.6. ,

P = Pa + Pb + Pc + P0 Q = Qa + Qb + Qc + Q0 . S = P 2 + Q 2 .
, P0 = Q0 = 0 ,
Pa = Pb = Pc = U I cos ,
Qa = Qb = Qc = U I sin ,

:
P = 3U I cos ,
Q = 3U I sin ,
S = 3U I .
, ,
:
S = 3U I = 3 3U I = 3U I ,
P = 3U I cos = 3U I os ,
Q = 3U I sin = 3U I sin .
6.7.

. .
.

93

. 6.9.
A

Wa
IA

UA

EA

Ua

Za
0'

0
EC

EB
UC

Ia

Zb

Zc

Uc

Ic

B
*
*

Wb

Wc

Ub

Ib

IB

*
. 6.9

, 0 ,
(. 6.10)
A

UAC

W1
IA

UA

EA

UAC

0'

0
EC
C

EB
UC

UB
UBC

Zb

Zc
B

* *
W2

UBC
. 6.10

94

Ia

Za

Ic
IB

Ib

{
Re{U

}
I }.

pW1 Re U AC I A
pW2

BC B

,
UA U UAC
U AC + U C U A = 0 ,
U AC = U A U C ;

U BC = U B U C .

.
U AC I A + U BC I B = (U A U C )I A + (U B U C ) I B =
= U A I A U C I A + U B I B U C I B .

I A + IB + IC = 0

I C = I A I B ,

U A I A + U B I B + U C I C ,

.
. , .

.

95

7.
,

, , . , , ,
, , , , ,
.
, . , .
7.1.
1. (, )

u (t ) = U 0 +

U mk sin(kt + u k ),

k =1

k .
2. (, )
j

U mk = U mk e u k .
3. ( )
1
X Lk = kL;
X Ck =
;
kC
1
BLk =
;
BCk = k.
kL
4. (, )
I mk = I mk e
96

ji k

5.
. , :
i (t ) = I 0 + I m1 sin(t + i1 ) + I m 2 sin(2t + i 2 ) + I m3 sin(3t + i 3 ) + K,
i (t ) = I 0 +

I mk sin(kt + ik ).

k =1

7.2.


,
(
).
, , :
u (t ) = U 0 + U m1 sin( t + u1 ) + U m 2 sin(2 t + u 2 ) + ... +
+ U mk sin(k t + uk ),
U0 ; Um1sin(t+1k) () ; Umksin(kt+uk) (k-) ;
Emk k- ; k k- ;
k k- .
,

, .

:
U mk sin(kt + k ) =U mk cos k sin kt +U mk sin k cos k t =
= Bk sin k t + Ck cos k t ,
u (t ) = U 0 +

k =1

k =1

Bk sin kt + Ck cos k t ,

Bk =U mk cos k ; C k =U mk sin k ; U mk = Bk2 + Ck2 ; tg k =

Ck
.
Bk
97

U0 Bk, Ck

1T
U 0 = u (t )dt ,
T0
2T
Bk = u (t ) sin ktdt ,
T0
2T
Ck = u (t ) cos ktdt.
T0
U0, Bk, Ck , .
7.3.

7.3.1.
u(t)
. 7.1.

T
u (t ) = u (t + ) .
2
u
u
t1+

t1
0

T/2

T
2

Bk = Ck =0 k= 2,4,6 .

u (t ) =

. 7.1

98

U0=0,

U mk sin(kt + uk ),

k =1

k= 1,3,5,7.

7.3.2.
u(t)
. 7.2.

u(t)=u(-t).
B1 = B2 = B3 = = Bk = 0.
u(t)=U0+C1 cos t + C2 cos2t+
+ Ck cos kt,

u
t1

U0

t1

u (t ) = U 0 +

Cmk cos kt ,

k =1

k= 1,2,3, .

. 7.2

7.3.3.
u(t)
. 7.3.

u
u
-t1

-u

t1

. 7.3

u(t)=u(t).

U0 = C1 = C2 = C3 = = Ck = 0.
u (t ) =
k= 1,2,3, .

Bmk sin k t ,

k =1

7.4.

,
, , , .
,
.
99

, , R.
Um1 = Im1 R,

Umk = Imk R.

.
,

U mk I mk
,
=
U m1 I m1
, .
, , L.
U m1 = I m1L,
U mk = I mk kL,
I mk U mk
=
,
I m1 kU m1
k= 2,3,4, . , , , ,
. , .
, , .

U
U
I m1 = m1 = m1 = CU m1 ,
1
XC
C
U
U
I mk = mk = mk = kCU mk ,
1
X kC
kC
I mk
U
= k mk .
I m1
U m1
, , , . , .
100

7.5.
, ,
(, )
1T 2
I=
i dt .
T0
i= i0 +i1 +i2 ++ik,

1T 2
1T
I=
i dt =
(i0 + i1 + i2 + ... + ik ) 2 dt =

T0
T0
S =

T
T q =
1

2
=
+
i
d
t
i
i
d
t
=

q
S

T 0 k =0
0 q =0

S =0

1T 2
= ik dt =
k =0 T 0

I k2 = I 02 + I12 + I 22 + ... + I k2 .

k =0

,
,

I=

I 02

I I
I
+ m1 + m 2 + ... + mk .
2 2
2


U=

U 02

U U
U
+ m1 + m 2 + ... + mk .
2 2
2

101

7.6.
,
,


1T
1T
1T
P = pdt = uidt = (u0 + u1 + u 2 + ... + u k )(i0 + i1 + i2 + ... + ik )dt =
T0
T0
T0

1
= u k ik dt +
k =0 T 0

S =
q =

1T

1T
uq iS dt + = u k ik dt = Pk =
q =0 T 0
k =0 T 0
k =0
S =0
1442443
=0

= P0 + P1 + P2 + ... + Pk = U 0 I 0 + U1I1 cos 1 + U 2 I 2 cos 2 + ... +


+ U k I k cos k .

P = UI

P
=
=
IU

Pk

k =0

k =0

k =0

U k2 I k2

=1 ,
, . ,
,
, = cos.

, .

102



.
, 52002-2003,
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1. : . /
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. . . -.:.-( )..1.-2003.-463 .:.
2. : . /
.. , .. , .. , .. .-4- .,
. . . -.:.-( )..2.-2003.-576 .:.
3. .. . : .-10- ., .-.: ,2003.-638 .:.
4. :
. / .. , .. , ..
.; . .. .-4- ., .-.:.,
2003.-528.:.
5. .. . - .: , 1990.-544.
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7. :
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8. .., .. : . .- .: .
, 2001.-407.
9. : .
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10. .. :
118

/.: .. ; .
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11.
52002-2003. . .: , 2003 28 .
12. . : .
. 3. .: , 1989. 343 .

119

..
28.11.05. 6084 1/16.
. .
Times New Roman Cyr. ... 7,5. ..-. 7,5.
.-.. 7,4. 150 . .

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