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# 1

. .

. .

23 2010 .

1 . , , .

Now drop that! When I say Ill learn a man the river, I mean it.
And you can depend on it, Ill learn him or kill him.

## Life on the Mississippi.

Twain, Mark, 183519101

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1 , ! , , .
, ! .
.

4
: ,
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! : ,
, ; ( ) , - ,
,
, . ,
, ,
- .
!

1.
A B , . . ,
. x1 x2
. |AB| ( ,
AB)
|AB| = |x2 x1 |.
. O, A B . , A O B. ,
|OB| = |OA| + |AB|, |AB| = |OB| |OA|. ().

A B
x1 x2

B
x2

A O
x1

A B O , x2 > x1 > 0,
, |AB| = x2 x1 = |x2 x1 |. x2 < x1 < 0,
|AB| = x2 + x1 = |x2 x1 |.
O A B, |AB| = |OB| + |OA|,
x2 x1 .
AB. .
.

1.
1.1. A(x1 ) B(x2 ) .
:
1) AB |x2 x1 |;
2) AB

x1 +x2
.
2

2. x M
. |AM | = |M B|, , 1, |x x1 | = |x x2 |.
M A B, x x1 x x2 , , x x1 = x2 x, 2x = x1 + x2 ,
2
x = x1 +x
.
2
, .
1.2. A(x1 , y1 ) B(x2 , y2 ) .
:

1) AB (x2 x1 )2 + (y2 y1 )2 ;
(
)
2 y1 +y2
2) AB x1 +x
, 2 .
2
1. , AB . C(x2 , y1 ).
|AC| = |x2 x1 | |BC| = |y2 y1 |. C
ABC (),

B
A

|AB|2 = |AC|2 + |BC|2 = (x2 x1 )2 + (y2 y1 )2 ,
. , AB , .
2. P , Q R , , A, M B ().

1.

B
M
A
P

## |AM | = |M B|, , , |P Q| = |QR|,

, ,
2
2
Q x1 +x
. M x1 +x
.
2
2
y1 +y2
, 2 .
1.1. , P (x0 , y0 ). . , A B P , P
AB. A
(x, y). B (u, v).
x0 = x+u
y0 = y+v
2
2 , , B (2x0 x, 2y0 y).
1.2. M1 (a1 , b1 )
M2 (a2 , b2 ) OM1 OM2 ?
,
OM1 OM2 |M1 M2 |2 = |OM1 |2 + |OM2 |2
(a2 a1 )2 + (b2 b1 )2 = a21 + b21 + a22 + b22 a1 a2 + b1 b2 = 0.

1. A(0, 1) B(3, 5) ABCD
P (2, 1). C D.
2. A(1, 2) B(4, 2). , OAB , .
3. , A(1, 3),
B(2, 2).
4. A(3, 5).
, A.

1.
5. : ) ; ) , A(1, 0), B(4, 0).
6. A(2, 1) B(4, 8). C ,
ACB = 90 .
7. A(14, 2), B(0, 14), C(12, 0) D(2, 12). ,
ABCD ?
8. P (1, 1), Q(3, 2) R(2, 4) . .
9. O1 (1, 2) O2 (7, 13)
) r1 = 5 r2 = 9; ) r1 = 22 r2 = 8, ?
10. , , , ,
.

2.
, y = kx + b .
k b. y = b x = 0, b
.
M (x0 , y0 ) x0 = 0.
y0 b
k=
,
x0
, k
.

y0
b

x0
, . ,

2.
k M0 (x0 , y0 ),
y y0 = k(x x0 ).
, k y = kx + b. M0 , y0 = kx0 +b, b = y0 kx0 , , y = kx + y0 kx0 , y y0 = k(x x0 ).
.
, M0 (x0 , y0 )
M1 (x1 , y1 ), x0 = x1 .
M0 . y y0 = k(x x0 ).
y0
M1 , y1 y0 = k(x1 x0 ), k = xy11 x
.
0
,
y1 y0
y y0
x x0
y y0 =
(x x0 ),
=
.
x1 x0
y1 y0
x1 x0
, ,
y1 = y0 .
y = kx + b,
,
, , ,
x = x0 .
1.3. ax + by + c = 0, a b ,
.
ax + by + c = 0, a b
. b = 0,
ax + c = 0, x = ac , ,
. b = 0, y = ab x cb ,
, .
.
A(x0 , y0 ) B(x1 , y1 ),
. ,
,
A B. , |AM | = |BM |.

10

1.
,
|AM | = |BM | |AM |2 = |BM |2
(x x0 )2 + (y y0 )2 = (x x1 )2 + (y y1 )2
2(x1 x0 )x+2(y1 y0 )y+x20 +y02 x21 y12 = 0 ax+by+c = 0,
(a, b) = (x1 x0 , y1 y0 ) c = 12 (x20 + y02 x21 y12 ).
a b . , (a, b) , ,
ax + by + c = 0. , ,
x y AB,
().

B(x1 ,y1)
A(x0 ,y0 )

. a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0 a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0
, a1 a2 +b1 b2 = 0, .
1.4 ( ).
M (x0 , y0 ) , ax + by + c = 0,
|ax0 + by0 + c|

d(M, ) =
.
a2 + b2
b = 0,
x =

0 +c
. b = 0.
ac , x0 + ac = ax|b|
a
c
y = b x b
K(x0 , y1 ), . h = |KM |,
().

2.

K
h
M

tg = ab ,

1
ax0 + c

=
d(M, ) = h| cos | = |y0 y1 | | cos | = y0 +

b
1 + tg2
|ax0 + by0 + c|
1
|ax0 + by0 + c|

=
.
|b|
a2
a2 + b2
1+
b2

.
|c2 c1 |
d(1 , 2 ) =
a2 + b2
1 : ax+by +c1 = 0
2 : ax + by + c2 = 0.
M1 (x1 , y1 ),
1 . , ax1 + by1 + c1 = 0, ax1 + by1 = c1 .

d(1 , 2 ) = d(M1 , 2 ) =

|ax1 + by1 + c2 |
|c2 c1 |

=
.
a2 + b2
a2 + b2

1.3. : ax + by + c = 0 M0 (x0 , y0 ).
: )
M0 ; )
M0 ;
) 1 , , ax +
by + c1 = 0. 1 M0 ,
ax0 + by0 + c1 = 0, c1 = ax0 by0 . ,
ax + by ax0 ay0 = 0,
a(x x0 ) + b(y y0 ) = 0.

11

12

1.
) (a1 , b1 ) = (b, a). a1 a+b1 b = baab = 0,
, a1 x + b1 y + c = 0,
. , ,

b(x x0 ) a(y y0 ) = 0.
1.4. , :
2x 3y + 2 = 0 M0 (1, 2).
2x3y +c = 0.
d(M0 , ) = d(M0 , ), ,
|2 6 + 2|
|2 6 + c|

=
, |c 4| = 2, c = 6 c = 2.
13
13
, , : 2x 3y + 6 = 0.

0
0
1. , yy21 y
= xx21 x
, K(x0 , y0 ), L(x1 , y1 )
y0
x0
M (x2 , y2 ) .

2. : x 3y + 7 = 0. ) A(1, 2)
. ) ,
, A.
3. 2x 3y 8 = 0 x + 2y + 3 = 0 AB AD
. ) A. )
, ,
P (0, 1) .
4. A(1, 3), B(2, 5) C(6, 2).
AM ABC.
5. M , A(0, 5) , B(4, 3).
, M, .
6. xa + yb = 1. , a b
.
7. a, ax + 3y 1 = 0 2x +
(a + 1)y 3 = 0 ) ; ) .

3.
8. ,
3x 4y + 7 = 0, 4x + 3y = 0, 3x 4y 2 = 0 4x + 3y + 8 = 0.
, ?
9. , A(0, 1), B(2, 5) C(6, 9).

3.
y = k1 x + b1 y = k2 x + b2 . k1 x y + b1 = 0 k2 x y + b2 = 0.
, k1 k2 + 1 = 0,
k1 k2 = 1. , .
1 2 , .
, ,
, = 1 2 ().
1

,
tg = tg(1 2 ) =

tg 1 tg 2
k1 k2
=
.
1 + tg 1 tg 2
1 + k1 k2

1 : a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0 2 : a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0
,
n1 (a1 , b1 ) n2 (a2 , b2 ),
, t, , n2 = tn1 , . . a2 = ta1
b2 = tb1 . , a1 b2 = ta1 b1 = a2 b1 , a1 b2 a2 b1 = 0.
, a1 b2 a2 b1 = 0. ,
n1 , , , b1 = 0.
a1 = 0, , b2 = 0, a2 = 0. n2 = aa21 n1 .
a1 , b1 = 0, bb21 = aa21 , n2 = aa21 n1 .

13

14

1.
,
.
(
) .
a
c

b
d

a b

c d

, , 1

, :

2
a1 b 1

a2 b2 = 0.
,
.
. ,
.
{

a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0,
b1
0,
=
b2
a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0
(x0 , y0 ),

b1 c1
c1 a1

b2 c2
c2 a2
, y0 =

x0 =
a1 b1 .

a1 b1

a2 b2
a2 b2

a
1.5. 1
a2

b2 ,
b1 , c1 b2
(a1 b2 a2 b1 )x + c1 b2 c2 b1 = 0, x = ac12 bb21 a
.
2 b1
.
, .
, . ,
.
1.6. A(a1 , b1 ),

3.
B(a2 , b2 ) O ( O ) 1

b1
1
1 a1
|a
b

a
b
|
=
.
2 1
2 1 2
2 a
b2
2
,
. , A
B , .

A
O

(
)
, SOAB = SOKCL SOKA + SOBL + SABC ,
SOAB = a1 b2

1
2

(
)
a1 b1 + a2 b2 + (a1 a2 )(b2 b1 ) =
= a1 b2 21 (a1 b2 + a2 b1 ) = 12 (a1 b2 a2 b1 ).

a1 b2 a2 b1 ,
.
, , , OAB . ,
, .
SOAB = 21 |OA||OB| sin AOB ,

## SOAB = 21 a21 + b21 a22 + b22 1 cos2 AOB.

AOB AOB,
(a2 a1 )2 + (b2 b1 )2 = a21 + b21 + a22 + b22 2|OA||OB| cos AOB,
cos AOB =

a1 a2 +b
1 b2 .
a21 +b21 a22 +b22

AOB,
.
1 , , .

15

16

1.
( ). A(x1 , y1 ), B(x2 , y2 ) C(x0 , y0 )

1 x1 x0 y1 y0
SABC =
2 x2 x0 y2 y0
ABC, C . A B ,
(a1 , b1 ) = (x1 x0 , y1 y0 ) (a2 , b2 ) = (x2 x0 , y2 y0 ).
.
. M (x, y)
AB , ABM ,
, SABM = 0. , ,
M AB ,

x x1 y y1

x2 x1 y2 y1 = 0
1.5. ,
A(1, 2) B(1, 1).
,

x+1

2

y 2
= 0,
3

. . 3(x + 1) 2(y 2) = 0, 3x + 2y 1 = 0,
y = 32 x + 12 .
,
. ,
M AB k : n, M
|AM | : |M B| = k : n. , A B , , , x1 x2 . ,
x1 < x2 . x M ().

A
x1

M
B
x
x2
k : n

, |AM | = x x1 |M B| = x2 x,
x x1
k
= , nx nx1 = kx2 kx,
x2 x
n

3.

17

,
x=

nx1 + kx2
.
k+n

1.7 ( ). M ,
1 , y1 ) ) B(x2 , y2 ) k : n,
( 1 +kx2A(x
1 +ky2
, nyk+n
.
nxk+n

(.
2 1.2).
k
t = k+n
,
(
)
(x, y) = (1 t)x1 + tx2 , (1 t)y1 + ty2 =
= (1 t)(x1 , y1 ) + t(x2 , y2 ) = (x1 , y1 ) + t(x2 x1 , y2 y1 ),
. r = (x, y),
r 1 = (x1 , y1 ), r 2 = (x2 , y2 ) a = r 2 r 1 ().

a
r1

r2

{
x = x1 + ta,
r = r 1 + ta,
y = y1 + tb.

(1.1)

## t (0; 1), , t : (1 t). t R

(1.1) .

1. x + 2y 1 = 0 3x y + 2 = 0.
2. ,
4 2x + y 7 = 0.

18

1.
3. A(1, 2), B(7, 1) : x 4y + 1 = 0. ) ,
AB? )
,
AB .
4. A(1, 2), B(5, 1). C , ABC 2.
5. 1 2 , ,
a1 x+b1 y +c 1 = 0

a 1 b 1 a 1 c1
= 0,
=

a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0. ,
a 2 b 2 a 2 c2
1 2 ?
6. , x = 2t 1 y = 3t + 2.
7. ,
9 : ) A(8, 1);
) B(4, 1).
8. 1 2 , , a1 x+b1 y +c1 = 0 a2 x+b2 y +c2 = 0. ,

(a1 x + b1 y + c1 ) + (a2 x + b2 y + c2 ) = 0
, 1 2 .

1

.
1.6. , 2x + 3y + 6 = 0
M (1, 2). :
) M ;
) M ;
) M .
) ,
M .

1
: ) 2x + 3y 4 = 0; ) 3x 2y + 7 = 0; ) 2x + 3y 14 = 0.
). (. . ) 1013 . , , , .
3x 2y + c = 0. |c 7| = 10,
c = 17; 3.
1.7. , A(0, 1), B(4, 3) C(6, 7).
. ,
, ,
, . . P ,
|AP | = |BP | = |CP |.
, P
{
{
|AP | = |BP |,
|AP |2 = |BP |2 ,

|AP | = |CP |,
|AP |2 = |CP |2 .
. (x, y) P ,

{
x2 + (y 1)2 = (x 4)2 + (y 3)2 ,
x2 + (y 1)2 = (x 6)2 + (y + 7)2 ,
, ,
{
2x + y 6 = 0,
3x 4y 21 = 0.
)
(
24
, , (x, y) = 45
11 , 11 .
, ,
. ,
. AB M (2, 2).
AB(4, 2) (2, 1).
,
2(x 2) + (y 2) = 0, 2x + y 6 = 0.

19

20

1.
AC . ,
, .

.
1.8. , x + 7y 1 = 0 x + y 3 = 0.
, , 1
2 , ,
, , d(M, 1 ) =

d(M, 2 ). |x+7y1|
= |x+y3|
. 50
2
: 2x y 7 = 0 3x + 6y 8 = 0.
1.9. M (3, 1) , M ,
3x = 2y x + 2y 2 = 0.
1 2 .
M1 M2 . ? : M1 1 , M2 2 M
M1 M2 .
:

3x1 = 2y1 ,

x + 2y 2 = 0,
2
2
x1 + x2 = 6,

y1 + y2 = 2.
, ,
x2 y2 .
{
3x1 = 2y1 ,
x1 + 2y1 8 = 0,
(x1 , y1 ) = (2, 3). , M1 (2, 3) M (3, 1). : 2x + y 7 = 0.
, , x y, a, b c .

2
1.10. A(1, 0)
1 P (2, 1).
a(x + 1) + by = 0,

ax + by + a = 0. |3a+b|
=
1,

|3a
+
b|
=
a2 + b2 .
2
2
a +b
a(4a + 3b) = 0,
a = 0 4a = 3b. : y = 0 3x 4y + 3 = 0.

1.1. , .
1.2. , A(1, 1) , P (5, 3).
.
1.3. , 12x5y7 = 0
d = 2.
1.4. A(1, 1), B(5, 3) C(2, 6). ABC
: 1) AB; 2) AB;
3) CH; 4) ; 5) CH;
6) H CH.

2
1.11. A(1, 1), B(5, 3) C(2, 1).
, . AB
K(2, 2),
(
)
BC L 72 , 1 . M , CK AL . ,
. . ,
2 : 1, . : M (2, 1).
1.12. A(1, 1) B(5, 3). C
, , ABC 5.

21

22

1.
C ,
(x, 0).
|x + 4| = 5, , x = 9 x = 9.
1.13. 2x + 3y 321 = 0 A(8, 100),
B(73, 60). , .
, ,
. B
5, A 5. , AB , ,
.
. f (x, y) =
ax + by + c. k = f (x1 , y1 ) l = f (x2 , y2 ).
( +kx2 ly
)M
+yx2
(x0 , y0 ) = lx1k+l
, 1k+l

, . ,
f (x0 , y0 ) = a

ly1 + yx2
lx1 + kx2
+b
+c=
k+l
k+l
l(ax1 + by1 + c) + k(ax2 + by2 + c)
lk kl
=
=
= 0,
k+l
k+l

, M . k l , M AB.
. (ax1 + by1 + c)(ax2 + by2 + c) < 0, M1 (x1 , y1 )
M2 (x2 , y2 ) ,
ax + by + c = 0.
1.14. P (1, 0) ,
x y + 1 = 0 2x + 3y + 2 = 0.
.
,
. . ,
2x + 3y + 2 + (x y + 1) = 0.
.
P , 4 + 2 = 0, = 2.

4.
= 2, ,
y = 0. , , x y + 1 = 0 P , ,
2 x + y + 1 = 0, x y 3 = 0. : 4 2 = 0, = 2.
: 4x + y 4 = 0.

2.1. A(2, 2) B(1, 3). x+2y = 0
C, , ABC 2.
2.2. , x + y > 1,
x 2y + 2 > 0 2x y 2 6 0.
2.3. A(6, 1), B(2, 7) C(1, 0). C ABC.
(
)
2.4. , x1 +x32 +x3 , y1 +y32 +y3
Ai (xi , yi ), i = 1, 2, 3.

4.
. , M f (x, y) = 0,
(x0 , y0 ) M M f (x, y) = 0
, , (x0 , y0 )
M (x0 , y0 ) M.
, M (x0 , y0 ) M f (x0 , y0 ) = 0.
1.15 ( ). ,
, .
. , R P
, R
P , . . M S , |M P | = R. ,

23

24

1.
(x0 , y0 ) P .
(x, y) M , . ,
M S |M P | = R |M P |2 = R2 (xx0 )2 +(yy0 )2 = R2 ,
.
,
(x x0 )2 + (y y0 )2 = R2 .
.
1.16. ,
.
, ,
. , A B.
M , ,
|M A|2 + |M B|2 = c.
, . , , (x1 , y1 ) (x2 , y2 )
,
.

(x x1 )2 + (y y1 )2 + (x x2 )2 + (y y2 )2 = c,
2x2 2(x1 + x2 )x + 2y 2 2(y1 + y2 )y + x21 + x22 + y12 + y22 = c,
,
,
(

)
x1 +x2 2
2

(
+ y

)
y1 +y2 2
2

2c(x1 x2 )2 (y1 y2 )2
4

(, ,
2c > |AB|2 ).
. ,
, ,

4.

25

. , A B
, AB.
A (a, 0), B
(a, 0), |M A|2 + |M B|2 = c
(x a)2 + y 2 + (x + a)2 + y 2 = c, x2 + y 2 =

c
2

a2 .

.
, , ,
g(x)h(x) = 0 g(x) = 0
h(x) = 0. .
. A B
, ,
x A B x A x B.
A B , ,
x A B x A x B.

AB

AB

1.8. A f (x, y) = 0,
B g(x, y) = 0. :
1) f (x, y)g(x, y) = 0 A B ;
{
f (x, y) = 0,
2)
A B .
g(x, y) = 0
.
M (x, y) A B M (x, y) A M (x, y) B
f (x, y) = 0 g(x, y) = 0 f (x, y)g(x, y) = 0,
.

26

1.
1.17.
2x2 + xy y 2 5x + y + 2 = (x + y 2)(2x y 1),
2x2 + xy y 2 5x + y + 2 = 0
y = 2x 1 y = 2 x.
1.18. |x|+|y| = 2.
, , M (x, y). ,
. M
, x, y > 0, x + y = 2,
y = 2 x. , y = 2 x.
. , (x, y) (x, y) |x|+|y| = 2. ,
M (x, y) M (x, y) ,
. M (x, y) M (x, y) (),
. , ,
: , .

M'

-x

, , .
1.9. M ,
f (x, y) = c. :
1) f (x, y) = f (x, y), M ;

5.
2) f (x, y) = f (x, y), M ;
3) f (x, y) = f (x, y), M .

1. , : ) x2 + y 2 + 2x 6 4y;
) |y| 6 2x x2 .
2. , (a, b) (b, a) y = x.
3. , , x2 xy + y 2 = 3:
) y = x y = x; )
4.
4. , , 2x2 7xy + 3y 2 = 12
, x = 3y y = 2x.
5. , : ) max{|x|, |y|} 6 1;
) min{|x|, |y|} > 1.
6. , : ) ; ) .
7. , , ,
, . .
{
y > x,
8. , : )
y 6 2x 1,
) (y x)(y 2x + 1) 6 0.
9. , A(0, 1), B(1, 0) C(2, 2), .

5.
.
, ( , , )

27

28

1.
( , ). . .

O E. ,
, ().

M
x(M)

## , M x(M ), , M 7 x(M ), : x(M )

|
|OM
|OE| , M O,
|
E, |OM
|OE| .
. ,
, , , ,
O . :
{
|OM |, M O,
x(M ) =
|OM |, M O.

,
1.10. x0
M , , x(M ) = x0 .
, .
, ,
.

. , M (2) ,
M 2,
, x(M ) = 2. ,
() .
, , . ,

5.
, .

.
M . K L
, x(K) x(L)
().

x(L) L

M
K
x(K)

x(K) x(L)
M . ,
M 7 (x(K), x(L)). . , . ( 90 )
. x, y.
, , M (1, 3), , M
1, 3.
1.11.
(x, y) .

y0

x0

29

30

1.
M 7 (x, y),
. ,
(x0 , y0 ) ,
.
( )
K ( L), x0 (, y0 ). , K , , L
. M .
M (x0 , y0 ).
1.19. ,
M (|M A|, |M B|), A B
. M 7 (|M A|, |M B|) .
? , , (a, b)
M , , |M A| = a |M B| = b? c = |AB|. , a
b . , (a, b)

x + y > c,
x + c > y,

y + c > x,
.

c
c
, (a, b) ,
( AB) ,

().

5.

a
a

M
b

B
M' b

, ,
AB .
.
O. M =
O (r, ), r = |OM | M
O, , OM
(). , [0; 2).

. , ,
,
. M (x, y), (r, ),
(x, y)  M  (r, ),
, .
, x = r cos y = r sin , ( )
.

r sin
r

r cos

31

32

1.

1. , O. M (u, v), u
M , v OM .
M 7 (u, v) : ) ,
; ) ,
.
2. , .
) u v x y. ) ,
.
3. , ) 1,
, 2 6 u 6 8 21 6 v 6 2.
4.
,
2
.
r=
cos sin
5. , :
) 1 6 r 6 2; ) 4 6 6 3
; ) 4
.
1 6 r 6 2, 4 6 6 3
4
6. , ,
r = 2 cos , .

3
1.20. , A(1, 3) B(2, 4) 10.
|M A|2 |M B|2 = 10,

## (x 1)2 + (y 3)2 (x 2)2 (y 4)2 = 10, x + y 10 = 0.

, . , ( ),
A B. , ,
, ,
,

33

, , AB.
(a, 0) (a, 0),

(x a)2 + y 2 (x + a)2 y 2 = c, x =

c
.
4a

: , AB.
1.21. ,
x + y = 1 P (2, 1).
,
. , , d(M, ) = |M P |
|x + y 1|

= (x 2)2 + (y 1)2 ,
2
, ,
x2 + y 2 2xy 6x 2y + 9 = 0.
, , . ,
, . ,
,
P ,
d(M, ) = 2.
,
P (0, 2):
|y| =

x2 + 2
x2 + (y 2)2 , y = .
2 2

, .
1.22. , :
) x3 + xy 2 = 2x2 ; ) 2|x 1| + |y| 6 2.

34

1.
) x3 + xy 2 2x2 = x(x2 + y 2 2x) = 0, x = 0
(x 1)2 + y 2 = 1. ,
P (1, 0).
) P (1, 0),
, 2|x| + |y| 6 2.
, , , , x > 0 y > 0. 2x + y 6 2, .
.

1.23. ,
(x2 + y 2 )2 = 2(x2 y 2 ).
. x = r cos y = r sin ,
r4 = 2r2 cos 2. r = 0 ,
r2 , r2 = 2 cos 2.
,
[ ] , , r
[ 0;] 2 , , r 0; 4 . ,
, (
).

6.

3.1. , :
1) x2 + 2xy + y 2 =4; 2) x2 + xy 2y 2 = 0; 3) x2 + xy = 1;
4) x2 + 2xy + y 2 2 2x + 2 2y = 0.
3.2. , :
1) xy + 1 6 x + y; 2) |x| + |y| + |x + y| 6 4; 3) xy 6 1.
3.3. ,
.
3.4. , , (
), ( ).

6.
, y = x2 , , y =
(x 1)2 , , (. . ), y = x2 + 1. ,

( : 1
+1 ).
x2 + y 2 = R2
(x x0 )2 + (y y0 )2 = R2 , P (x0 , y0 ).
a(x0 , y0 ). .
1.12. M f (x, y) = 0.
f (x x0 , y y0 ) = 0 M
a(x0 , y0 ).
M (x1 , y1 ) M.
M (u, v) a,
M , , x1 u = x0 y1 v = y0 . u = x1 x0 v = y1 y0
().

35

36

1.

M '(x1 ,y1)

M M, (u, v) f (x, y) = 0,
, f (u, v) = f (x1 x0 , y1 y0 ) = 0. ,
M f (x x0 , y y0 ) = 0.
:

M.
y = f (x),
f (x) y = 0 g(x, y) = f (x) y. a(x0 , 0). ,
g(x x0 , y) = 0, f (x x0 ) y = 0, y = f (x x0 ).
a(0, y0 ) ,
g(x, y y0 ) = 0, f (x) (y y0 ) = 0, y = f (x) + y0 .
, .
1.13. M f (x, y) = 0.

1) x = x0 f (2x0 x, y) = 0;
2) y = y0 f (x, 2y0 y) = 0;
3) P (x0 , y0 ) f (2x0 x, 2y0 y) = 0;
4) k f (x, ky) = 0;
5)
(
) k
f xk , ky = 0.

6.
. ,
.
. k
P ,
M M , P M , |P M | =
k |P M | ().

M'
M
P
x

kx

## , k M (x, y) M (kx, ky).

5 . M (x1 , y1 ),
M . , x1 = ku y1 = kv, u v
x1

( x1 My1
) M, , f (u, v) = 0. u = k
y1
v = k , (f k ,) k = 0, . . M
f xk , ky = 0. , (x1 , y1 )
u = xk1 v = yk1 . f (u, v) = 0,
M (u, v) M, , M (x1 , y1 ) . .
1.24. y = kx2 .
, k
( )2
ky = k xk , y = x2 .
, .
1.25. x2 + y 2 = a2
k, ,
4 , x2 +k 2 y 2 = a2 . b = ka ,
2
, x2 + ab2 y 2 = a2 ,
x2
a2

y2
b2

= 1. ().

37

38

1.

a
y
by

a
a

1. ax+by+c = 0.
, : ) ;
) ; ) M (x0 , y0 ).
2. , y = x2 : ) a(2, 1);
) x = 2; )
y = 2; ) 2 ; ) 2
.
3. , , P , ,
.
4. ,
y = x2 2x 3 y = x.

7.

a. .
, ,

(x, y). ,
,
(e
x, ye). ,
,
(x, y)  M  (e
x, ye).

7.
, ,
.
1.14. 1. , ,
{
x=x
e + x0 ,
y = ye + y0 .
(x0 , y0 ) .
2. , , ,
{
x=x
e cos ye sin ,
y=x
e sin + ye cos .
1. .

O
x0
O'

M
x
M
x~

M x x
e .
x = |OM | = |OO | + |O M | = x0 + x
e. ,
x = x
e+x0
O, O M . , y = ye + y0 .
2. ,
, , .
(x, y)  (r, )  M  (e
r, )
e  (e
x, ye),
()
{
x = r cos ,
y = r sin ,

{
r = re,
=
e + ,

{
x
e = re cos ,
e

ye = re sin .
e

39

40

1.

M
r

,
x = r cos = re cos(
e + ) =
= re cos
e cos re sin
e sin = x
e cos ye sin .
.

1. M (1, 3) ,
/3 .
2. , : ) xy = 1; ) x2 4xy + y 2 = 1.
,
45 .
3. ,
P (x0 , y0 ),
. .

4. , x2 4xy +
y 2 + 6x = 0 x2 4xy + y 2 = c.
5. , f (x, y) = 0,
.

8.
, , . ,
.
.
. , , 2 , . .
a11 x2 + 2a12 xy + a22 y 2 + 2a13 x + 2a23 y + a33 = 0.
,
, .
, ,
a11 , a12 a22 . , , (
, ), ,
() , . , .
, .
1. a11 ,
x2 = 0, x = 0, .

42

2.
2. a11 , a33 = 0, . , ,
a11 = a33 = 1, x2 = 1, , .
, a11 = 1 a33 = 1,
x2 = 1,
x = 1 x = 1.
3. a11 , a22 = 0.
. x2 + y 2 = 0 , x2 y 2 = 0
: y = x y = x.
4. a11 , a23 = 0, , ,
, x2 y = 0.
5. a12 , a33 = 0 .
6. , .
x2 + 2y 2 + a33 = 0 a33 < 0 , a33 > 0 .
, - , . .
,
,

a11 a12

.
=
a12 a22
2.1. = 0, ,
{
a11 x + a12 y + a13 = 0,
a12 x + a22 y + a23 = 0.
= 0, (x0 , y0 ). , ,

8.
O (x0 , y0 ). (x, y) .

a11 (x + x0 )2 + 2a12 (x + x0 )(y + y0 ) + a22 (y + y0 )2 +
+ 2a13 (x + x0 ) + 2a23 (y + y0 ) + a33 =
= a11 x2 +2a12 xy+a22 y 2 +2(a11 x0 +a12 y0 +a13 )x+2(a12 x0 +a22 y0 +a23 )y
+ a11 x20 + 2a12 x0 y0 + a22 y02 + 2a13 x0 + 2a23 y0 + a33 .
,
a11 x2 + 2a12 xy + a22 y 2 + b = 0,
,
. .
. p(x, y) . (x0 , y0 )
.

a11 + 2a12 xy + a22 y 2 + p(x0 , y0 ) = 0.
, , , ,
,
x2
y2
+
= 1, a > b,
a2
b2

x2
y2

= 1,
a2
b2

y 2 = 2px, p > 0.

; , . , . ,
, . ,
, .
.

43

44

2.
2.1. ,
x2 xy + y 2 = 3 ,
45 .
, , 45 ,
{
y
x = xee
,
2
y=

x
e
+e
y
2

:
2
2
y )2
(e
xe
y )2
y2
y2
xe e
+ (ex+e
= 3, xe +3e
= 3, ,
2
2
2
2
, .

x
e2
6

+ ye2 = 1.
2

1. , :
) x2 + 2xy + y 2 + 2x + 2y = 0; ) x2 + 2xy + y 2 + 2x + 4y = 0?
2. : ) x2 y 2 2x + 4y 3 = 0;
) x2 + 2xy + y 2 + 2x + 2y = 0
, .
3. ( a) , x2 + ay 2 = a + 1.
4. , x2 + 2axy + y 2 = a.
a. :
, 45
.
5. , ,
a12 = 0, a11 = a22 = 0.

9.
-
. ,
.
a11 x2 + 2a12 xy + a22 y 2 = b.
, .

9.
2.2. a11 x2 + 2a12 xy + a22 y 2 ,
= 0.
a11 x2 + 2a12 xy + a22 y 2 = m(cx + dy)2 , a11 = mc2 , a12 =
mcd, a22 = md2 , = a11 a22 a212 = m2 c2 d2 (mcd)2 = 0.
, = 0. a11 = 0, a12 = 0,
a22 y 2 . , a11 = 0. ,
a212 2
y =
a11
1
a2 x2 + 2a11 a12 xy + a212 y 2
=
(a11 x + a12 y)2 .
= 11
a11
a11

## a11 x2 + 2a12 xy + a22 y 2 = a11 x2 + 2a12 xy +

. , = 0, , .
, b = 0 (a11 x + a12 y)2 = a11 b a11 x + a12 y = 0,
a11 b > 0,
a11 x + a12 y = a11 b.

.
2.3. a11 x2 +2a12 xy +a22 y 2 = b
, > 0.
> 0, a11 , a22 = 0. .
a11 x2 + 2a12 xy + a22 y 2 =
=

)
1 ( 2
a11 + 2a11 a12 + a11 a22 y 2 =
a11

)
1 ( 2 2
a x + 2a11 a12 xy + a212 y 2 + (a11 a22 a212 )y 2 =
a11 11
)
1 (
=
(a11 x + a12 y)2 + y 2 .
a11

## (a11 x + a12 y)2 + y 2 = a11 b

y, a11 x + a12 y, x . ,
= 0. , ,
< 0.

45

46

2.

,
.
(x, y) .
2.4. e
a11 , e
a12 e
a22 . :
e
a11 = a11 cos2 + 2a12 cos sin + a22 sin2 =
=

a11 +a22
2

a11 a22
2

## cos 2 + a12 sin 2,

e
a12 = a12 (cos2 sin2 ) (a11 a22 ) cos sin =
= a12 cos 2

a11 a22
2

sin 2,

e
a22 = a11 sin2 2a12 cos sin + a22 cos2 =
=

a11 +a22
2

a11 a22
2

## cos 2 a12 sin 2.

, ,
a11 (x cos y sin )2 + 2a12 (x cos y sin )(x sin + y cos )+
+ a22 (x sin + y cos )2 ,
.
. ,
xy,
, e
a12 .
,
,
ctg 2 =

a11 a22
.
2a12

## 2.5 ( ). a11 + a22 ,

.

9.
, e
a11 + e
a22 = a11 + a22
. e
a11 e
a22 e
a212 = a11 a22 a212
. ,
(
)2
22
e
a11 e
a22 e
a212 = a11 +a

2
(1
)2 (
)2
2 (a11 a22 ) cos 2 + a12 sin 2 a12 cos 2 12 (a11 a22 ) sin 2 =
)2 ( a11 a22 )2
(
22
= a11 +a

## a212 = a11 a22 a212 .

2
2
.
a11 x2 + 2a12 xy + a22 y 2 = b kx2 + ly 2 = b,
k l

a11 x
a12

= 0,
a12
a22 x
, k + l = a11 + a12 kl = .

a11 x
a12

a12
a22 x

= x2 (a11 + a12 )x + a11 a22 a212 ,

, , , k + l = a11 + a12
kl = a11 a22 a212 , ,
, e
a12 = 0, k = e
a11 l = e
a22 .
, ,
2.5
, . 2.5
, , .
, 2.5
.
, , invariant .
, , ,
.
.

47

48

2.

1. ,
: ) 2x2 + xy + 2y 2 = 5; ) x2 + 4xy + y 2 = 1.
2. , 7x2 + 6xy y 2 = 1,
,
.
3. , a11 = a22 a12 = 0,
45 , .
4. , a11 a22 < 0, ,
.

4
2.2. ,
x2 + 4y 2 + 4 = 4x + 8y.
,
, ,

x2 4x + 4 + 4y 2 8x + 4 = 4,

(x 2)2
+ (y 1)2 = 1.
4

,
1, , |x 2| 6 2, 0 6 x 6 4,
|y 1| 6 1, 0 6 y 6 2. ,
, .

49

2.3.
x2 + 4xy + 4y 2 2x 4y = 0
.
, .
{
x + 2y 1 = 0,
x + 2y 1 = 0,
2x + 4y 2 = 0
, . , x + 2y 1 = 0.
x2 + 4xy + 4y 2 2x 4y = (x + 2y)2 2(x + 2y) = (x + 2y)(x + 2y 2) = 0,
x + 2y = 0 x + 2y = 2. ,
.
2.4. ,
, .
,
, . P (d, 0)
,

## 2 (x d)2 + y 2 = |x|, 3x2 8dx + 4d2 + y 2 = 0,

,
(
3 x

)
4d 2
3

(
2

+y =

4
3

d ,

)
4d 2
3

4d2
9

y2
d2
3

=1.

, .
2.5. ?
, . ?

50

2.
2.6. ,
.
, ,
.
, ,
. , , .

. y = kx y = kx,

|k 2 x2 y 2 |
= c,
k2 + 1
, .
2.7. , (a cos t, b sin t),
t R, .
, x = a cos t y = b sin t,
x2
y2
+
= cos2 t + sin2 t = 1.
a2
b2

4.1.
2x2 + xy y 2 5x + y + 2 = 0
.
4.2. ,
, .
4.3. ,
x2 + 4xy + y 2 = 6.
4.4. x2 + xy + y 2 = 3 , ,
.

10.

51

10.

, ,
, !
.
,
,
xy, . . a12 = 0. , ,

a11 x2 + a22 y 2 + 2a13 x + 2a23 y + a33 = 0.
. , , = a11 a22 .
1. , a11 , a22 = 0. ,
a11 x2 + a22 y 2 + 2a13 x + 2a23 y + a33 =
(
)2
(
= a11 x + aa13
+ a22 y +
11
x
e=x+

a13
a11

ye = y +

a23
a22 ,

)
a23 2
a22

+ a33

a213
a11

a223
a22

a11 x
e2 + a22 ye2 = b.
x = x
e aa13
y = ye aa23
11
22
.
,
.
.
1. b = 0. , a11 a22
, .. > 0,
. < 0, .
1. , b = 0. < 0,
, > 0,
. , b a11 ,
, .

52

2.
2. , a11
a22 ( , = 0), , a11 = 0 (
90 , x = e
y
y=x
e). ,
a22 y 2 + 2a13 x + 2a23 y + a33 = 0.
.
2. a13 = 0.
(
)2
(
23

## a22 y 2 + 2a13 x + 2a23 y + a33 = a22 y + aa22

+ 2a13 x + aa33
13

a223 )
a22 a13 .

a2

ye = y + aa23
, x
e = x + aa33
a2223
a13
22
13
2
y = 2px, .
2. a13 = 0,
- y. ,
, , .
, .
2.6. :
, , , > 0;
, < 0;
, ,
, = 0.
. , .
, .
2.8. ,
x2 + 2axy + y 2 = 1.
, , -, ,
(1, 0) (1, 1), , (0, 0) . ,
1 a2 . ,
|a| < 1, , |a| > 1 ,
a = 1, .

11. , ,

1. ( a) , : ) x2 + 2xy + ay 2 = 1; ) (x + y)2 = 1 + ay.
2. , 7x2 + 6xy
y 2 8x 8y = 1,
,
.
3. , (x+y +1)2 = 2(x1)2 +
2(y + 1)2 .
4. ( a) , x2 + xy + y 2 3y = a.

11. , ,
, , .

.
, .
- , ,
. .

x2
y2
x2
y2
+ 2 = 1 , 2 6 1 2 6 1,
2
a
b
a
b
, |x| 6 a |y| 6 b. , 2a 2b ().
b
a

53

54

2.
2

## xa2 yb2 = 1 , -, xa2 > 1, ,

|x| > a, , , , 2
2
|x| < a. -, xa2 > yb2 , , |y| < ab |x|, ,
,
y = ab x ().
b x

y= a
y=

- b
a x

.
(x y) (x y )
y2
x2

+
=1
a2
b2
a
b
a
b
, ,
. , M (x, y)
, , x, y +.
xa yb 0, , yb = xa
. x + y , xa + yb 0,
y
x
b = a .

, , . c = a2 b2 (c = a2 + b2 ) (, ), .
(
)
F1,2 (c, 0); F p2 , 0 .
2.7. M (x, y) . :
|F1 M | = a ac x, |F2 M | = a + ac x, M ,
|F1 M | = ac x a, |F2 M | = ac x + a, M x > a,
|F1 M | = a ac x, |F2 M | = a ac x, M x < a,
|F M | = x + p2 , M .
.
( 2 )
M , , y 2 = b2 xa2 1 ,

11. , ,
x > a. M .

|F1 M |2 = (x c)2 + y 2 = x2 +

|F1 M | =

c
a

b2 2
c2 2
2
2
x

2cx
+
c

b
=
x 2cx + a2 =
a2
a2
)2
(c
xa ,
=
a

x a, x > a.

: .
1. .
2. .
, ,
M ,
|F1 M | + |F2 M | = a

c
a

x+a+

c
a

x = 2a.

.
.
2.9. y 2 = 2px,
M0 (x0 , y0 ), ,
yy0 = p(x + x0 ).
, , x = 0. , y0 > 0. M0 y = 2px.
, k
(
)
p
.
2px = 2px
,
p
p

k = 2px0 = y0 . ,
y y0 = yp0 (x x0 ), yy0 = px + y02 px0 . M0
, y02 = 2px0 , yy0 = p(x + x0 ).
y0 < 0 .
2.8 ( ). , , ,
.

55

56

2.
y0
k1 F M0 () x0 p/2
,
, k yp0 . ,
, . ,
y0
p
k1 k
y 2 px0 + p2 /2
x0 p/2 y0
=
=
tg =
= 0
py0
1 + k1 k
1 + y0 (x0 p/2)
y0 (x0 + p/2)

px0 + p2 /2
p
=
= k.
y0 (x0 + p/2)
y0

, . ,
. , . ,
,
, . ,
. .
.
2

## 2.10. xa2 + yb2 = 1, M0 (x0 , y0 ), ,

yy0
xx0
a2 + b2 = 1.
x(2 + y 2)= a2
, (x, y) 7 x, ab y .

.
(
)
x0 , ab y0 ,
x0 (x x0 ) +

ay0 (
ay0 )
xx0
yy0
x2
ay 2
y
= 1,
+
= 0 + 20 = a.
b
b
a
b
a
b

11. , ,

xx0
ayy0
xx0
yy0
+ 2 = a,
+ 2 = 1.
a
b
a2
b
, ,
. ,
yy0
0
xx
a2 b2 = 1,
.
2.11. , , , .
, M F1 M F2 , M (x0 , y0 ),
.
,
d1
d2
|M F1 |
d1
=
,
= ,
|M F1 |
|M F2 |
|M F2 |
d2
d1,2 F1,2 . , |M F1 | = a ac x0 |M F2 | = a + ac x0 ,
|M F1 |
a2 cx0
= 2
.
|M F2 |
a + cx0
, , ,

cx
20 1
a2 cx0
d1
a
=
= cx0
.

d2
a2 + cx0
a2 1

d1

d2
F2

F1

57

58

2.

2

1. , x9 + y5 = 1
P (2, 0) x = 92
.
2. ,
A(1, 0) B(1, 0) .
3. ,
, :
) ; ) .
2

4. , x5 +

3 5.

y2
3

= 1

5. ,
,
: ) ; ) .

12.
.
.
3.1. x y
:

1. |x + y| 6 |x| + |y| 2. |x y| > |x| |y| .
1. , |x| 6 x 6 |x|
|y| 6 y 6 |y|,
(|x| + |y|) 6 x + y 6 |x| + |y|, |x + y| 6 |x| + |y|.
2. |x y| 6 |x| |y| 6 |x y|
. |y| = |x + y x| 6
|x| + |y x|, , |x y| 6 |x| |y|.
x y.
3.2 ( ). n x > 1
(1 + x)n > 1 + nx.

60

3.
x > 0, .

(1 + x) (1 + x) . . . (1 + x)
|
{z
}
n

1 + nx + . . . ,
, , . , (1 + x)n > 1 + nx x > 0.
-,
.
, (1 + x)2 = 1 + 2x + x2 > 1 + 2x. x > 1,
x + 1 > 0,
1 + x,
(1 + x)3 > (1 + 2x)(1 + x) = 1 + 3x + x2 > 1 + 3x.
, , (1 + x)n > 1 + nx
n, ,
1 + x, ,
(1 + x)n+1 > (1 + nx)(1 + x) = 1 + (n + 1)x + x2 > 1 + (n + 1)x.
, n = 3,
n = 4, , n = 5, .
.

(a2 + b2 )(x2 + y 2 ) = (ax + by)2 + (ay bx)2 ,
, (ax + by)2 6 (a2 + b2 )(x2 + y 2 ),

|ax + by| 6 a2 + b2 x2 + y 2 .
.
.
3.3 ( ). ai
bi
(a1 b1 + a2 b2 + . . . + an bn )2 6 (a21 + a22 + . . . + a2n )(b21 + b22 + . . . + b2n ).

12.

p(x) = (a1 x b1 )2 + (a2 x b2 )2 + . . . + (an x bn )2 ,
, x R. p(x) x. , ,
p(x) = (a21 +a22 +. . .+a2n )x2 2(a1 b1 +a2 b2 +. . .+an bn )x+(b21 +b22 +. . .+b2n ).
Ax2 2Bx + C > 0 x, 4B 2 4AC 6 0, B 2 6 AC.

A = a21 + a22 + . . . + a2n , B = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + . . . + an bn , C = b21 + b22 + . . . + b2n ,
.
.
3.1. a b

a+b
> ab.
2
,

)2
(
a b > 0. a, b, c d

a+b
c+d

a+b+c+d
ab + cd
4
2 + 2
=
>
>
ab cd = abcd.
4
2
2
n , .
.
3.4. xi > 0 x1 x2 . . . xn = 1,
x1 + x2 + . . . + xn > n.
. n = 1, 2 . . ,
x1 , x2 , . . . , xn+1 1. ,
1, , 1. , xn < 1 < xn+1 .

61

62

3.
(1xn )(xn+1 1) > 0, , xn +xn+1 > xn xn+1 +1.
,
x1 + x2 + . . . + xn + xn+1 > x1 + x2 + . . . + xn1 + xn xn+1 + 1 > n + 1,
, x1 , . . . , xn1 , xn xn+1 .
3.5 ( ). ai > 0,

a1 + a2 + . . . + an
n
a1 a2 . . . an 6
.
n
ai > 0.
, . ,
ai
ai > 0. xi =
n a a ...a ; , x1 x2 . . . xn = 1. 1 2
n
, ,

a1
a2
an
a1 + a2 + . . . + an
+
+. . .+
=
> n.

n a a ...a
n a a ...a
a1 a2 . . . an n a1 a2 . . . an
1 2
n
1 2
n

.
, .
(
)
3.6. x 0; 2
sin x < x < tg x.
(). , SOP K < S. OKP < SOP Q .
,
SOP K =

sin x
,
2

S.

OKP

=
K

x
,
2
Q

SOP Q =

tg x
.
2

13. :
.
(
) x | sin x| 6 |x|.
x 0; 2 . x = 0,
. x > 2 , sin x 6
1 < 2 . , x > 0.
, ,
x R.

1. , |x 2| 6 3. : ) 2x + 1;
) |x| ) |x + 2|?
2. , : ) 12 (|x y| + x + y) = max{x, y};
) 21 (|x y| x y) = min{x, y} ) 12 (|x + y| + |x y|) = max{|x|, |y|}.
3. , : ) 1, 0520 > 2; )
5%, 20 , 2 .
4. , a b

2ab
a+b
a2 + b 2
6 ab 6
6
6 max{a, b}.
a+b
2
2
5. x > 0 : ) x+ x2 ; ) x+ x12 ;
) x2 + x4 .
6. :
) x + 2y = 3; ) x + 2y + 2z = 5.
4
4
3
3
7. :
+ c) >
) a + b > a b + ab ; ) (a + b)(a2 + c)(b
2
2
2
8abc, (a, b, c > 0); ) a + b + c |a| + |b| + |c| ) a + b2 + c2 >
ab + bc + ac.

## 8. , a > 1, ) n (1 + a)m < 1 + m

a m < n;
n

a, m > n.
) n (1 + a)m > 1 + m
n

9. : )
, 2; ) ,
3.

13. :
( )

63

64

3.
() . ( .)
, .
3.2. xn =
x1 =

n
n+1 ,

1
2
3
, x2 = , x3 = , .
2
3
4

, .
, :
1, 2, 4, 8, . . . ,
, n- xn =
2n1 . ,
, ,
.
,
.
. ,
. , {xn }
n=1 ,
xn 6 xn+1 n N. (, .) xn < xn+1 n N,
.
( ), xn > xn+1 (, xn > xn+1 ) n N.
n
3.3. , xn = n+1

. ( )
xn1 < xn . n
2
2
n1
n < n+1 , n 1 < n , .

( ) , . {xn }{
n=1 ,
}
n
n
xn = n+1
, xn | xn = n+1
, nN .

13. :
f (x) = x2 +x
y = x2 + x,
.
. xn ,
, c, , |xn | 6 c
, . .
c : |xn | 6 c n N.
. ,
, , , .
, .
3.4. , xn = 2n+3
n+1
. -, , xn > 0. ,
2n + 3
2n + 3
3
6
= 2 + 6 2 + 3 = 5.
n+1
n
n
,
-. .
.
( ), c, ,
xn 6 c (, xn > c). ,
c : xn 6 c n N, , , c : xn > c n N.
3.7. xn yn . :
1) a b
zn = axn + byn ;
2) zn = xn yn ;
3) zn =

xn
yn

65

66

3.
1 2 . , n N
|xn | 6 c1 yn 6 c2 ,
|axn + byn | 6 ac1 + bc2 |xn yn | 6 c1 c2 n N.
3. . xn = 1 yn = n1 . zn = n .
C : , ( , ) , . . , . .
3.8. xn yn , ,
xn = yn n > k. , ,
.
, |xn | 6 c. , |yn | 6 c n > k.
y1 , y2 , . . . , yk1 ,
. ,
, ,
|y1 |, |y2 |, . . . , |yk1 | c,
c = max{|y1 |, |y2 |, . . . , |yk1 |, c}. |yn | 6 c n N. .
,
.
. xn ,
k,
|xn | < , . .
k : |xn | < n > k.
3.5. : xn = n1 . , n1 < 0, 01
n > 101, n1 < 0, 001 n > 1001.
> 0
k , k > 1 . n > k , n1 6 k1 < .
3.9. xn yn , ,
xn = yn n > l. , ,
.

13. :
xn . > 0 m, , |xn | <
n > m. k l m,
k = max{l, m}. n > k, -, yn = xn , -, |xn | 6 ,
, |yn | < .
3.10. .
xn , yn , |yn | 6 c n N. > 0 k, , |xn | < c
n > k. n > k
|xn yn | = |xn | |yn | <

c = .

.
3.11 ( ).
1. . 2. ,
. 3.
.
1. xn . ,
, . 3.8 .
2. xn yn .
> 0 m1 m2 , , |xn | <

## 2 n > m1 |yn | < 2 n > m2 .

n > max{m1 , m2 }, ,
|xn yn | 6 |xn | + |yn | <

= .

, xn + yn xn yn
.
,
3.9 3.10.

67

68

3.
3. xn = n1 yn = n12 . zn = xynn = n, , .
. xn , c k, , |xn | > c
n > k, . .
c k : |xn | > c n > k.
3.6. xn = n .
, , yn = n1 .
?
3.7. , . , . .
, ? , ,
0, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0, . . .
3.8. , ?
. , , , . xn = n
yn = n. ,
!
3.12 ( ).
1. xn , x1n .
2. .
1. xn .
1
> 0.
k,
1 k, |xn | > n >

, xn < . , x1n
.
.

13. :
2. xn , yn . |yn | 6 b n N.
c k, , |xn | > c + b n > k.
|xn + yn | > |xn | |yn | > c + b b = c n > k,
, xn + yn
.

1. x1 , x2 x3 43 , 94
, .
16
5
xn ,
: ) ; ) ; )
.
2. a, : ) xn = n2 + an; ) yn = an+1
. n+2
?
3. , c

9 10 22
2 3n + 6,
: ) xn = 2n+1
,
c
=
;
;
;
)
x
=
n

n
n
n+1
5 7
9
c = 1; 3; 5; ) xn = 2n + n2 , c = 17; 177; 1017.
1
1
1
+ 23
+ . . . + n(n+1)
.
4. xn = 12
. .

5. :

2
+n+1
; ) yn = n2 + 1 n; ) zn = sin n?
) xn = n n+2
6. a,
2
+1
) xn = an
; ) yn = n2 + 1 an; ) zn = sin(an2 + 1).
n+1
7. n
: ) xn = 1 100
; ) yn = 2n ; ) zn = nn+1
2 +1 ? .
8. : ) xn = 2nn ; ) yn =

2
2
2n + 1 2n 1; ) zn = n2nn+1
.

2n
9. ) xn = n 2; ) yn = 2n1

1
n, ) |xn 1| < 0, 1;
) |yn 2| < 0, 1.

69

70

3.

5
3.9. , 12 , 43 , 94 , 16
5 .
: ) ; ) ?
, , xn =

n2
n+1 .

) , , ,
xn1 < xn . ,
(n 1)2
n2
<
, (n2 1)(n 1) < n3 , 1 n n2 < 0.
n
n+1
.
) , xn
n. : n + 1 6 2n, , xn > n2 . n2 , .
3.10. , ) ; ) n
n
: xn = 2n+1
n+1 yn = 3 2 .

xn :
x1 =

3
5
7
, x2 = , x3 = .
2
3
4

, x1 < x2 < x3 . ,
,
xn1 < xn ,

2n 1
2n + 1
<
, 2n2 + n 1 < 2n2 + n,
n
n+1

. , , 0 < 2n+1
n+1 < 2.
2 3n > 2n , yn .
, . ,
n > 2 yn > 12 3n .
3.11. xn = 2n+1
n2 +1 : ) ; ) ; ) ?

71

, xn
. 3
. , xn xn 6 2n
.
3.12. , xn yn . : xn + yn ;
xn yn ? , ,
.
n xn < xn+1
yn < yn+1 , xn + yn < xn+1 + yn+1 . ,
. , , ,
.
xn = n2 yn = 6n.
3.13. 2
xn = 2nn .
.
, , . n2 > 2n+1,
n > 3. , x3 = 98 .
3.14.
:

n
3n1
) 100n+1
; ) n + 1 n; ) 3n2+1 ; ) sin n1 ?
) , . ,
.
. , ,
) ,
n + 1 n < 0, 01.

n+1

n=

1
.
n+1+ n

( )n
n
n
) , , 3n2+1 < 32n = 23 .
) , , 0 < sin n1 <

1
n.

72

3.
3.15. , xn . ,
: ) xn + n1 ; ) xnn ; ) nxn ; ) xn sin n?
) , .
) , .
) , xn = 1n .
) ,
.

5.1. , ?
?
5.2. , xn . ,
: ) xn + n2 ; ) n xn ; ) xnn ; ) xn + sin n?
5.3. () k, , :
n > k; 3n+1
n2 +1 < 0, 01 n > k.

n2
2n+1

> 100

5.4. , xn yn . : xn yn ; xynn ?
, ,
.
5.5.

(
):
n
xn = 2n ; yn = n2 + 1 n; zn = 1 + (1)n n.
5.6. a 2
+111n
xn = an3n1
?

14.
, .

14.
. a
xn , zn = xn a .
, xn
a
lim xn = a, xn a.

xn . ,
0 ( 0).
, , lim xn = a,
n

## k n > k : |xn a| < .

, , , n .
n+1
3.16. xn = 2n+1
. , xn 12
n. ,
,

lim

1
n+1
= .
2n + 1
2

,
zn =

n+1
1
1
=
.
2n + 1 2
2n + 1

, , , .
.
, ( !).
.
3.13 ( ). xn 6 yn ,
xn a yn b, a 6 b.

73

74

3.
, a > b. = ab
2 . k,
,
ab
|xk a| < ab
2 , |yk b| < 2 ,
a+b
ab
, , , xk > ab
2 + a = 2 yk < b + 2 =
a+b
2 , xk > yk , .
. xn yn
xn < yn , xn a yn b,
a 6 b, . .
. , xn = n1 > 0, lim xn = 0.

3.14 ( ). xn
a > 0, k, , xn > 0 n > k.
= a. k, a < xn a < a, ,
xn > 0.
. xn a > 0, b
k, , xn > b > 0 n > k.
, ,
. = a2 , a2 < xn a
, xn > a2 > 0.
3.15 ( ). ,
xn 6 yn 6 zn n N, xn a zn a. yn a.
,
, , ,
.
. > 0. k1 , , a < xn < a + n > k1 ,
k2 , , a < zn < a + n > k2 .
n > max{k1 , k2 }, , ,
a < xn 6 yn 6 zn < a + , | yn a| < .
.
3.16. 1. ,
. 2. xn
, x1n .

14.
1. , xn = a + zn , zn = xn a
, , .
2. , xn a > 0. ,
k, , xn > b > 0 n > k, ,
0 < x1n < 1b . 3.8.
,
.
3.17 ( ). xn a yn b. :
1. xn yn a b;
2. c , cxn ac;
3. xn yn ab;
xn
a
.
yn
b
1. un = xn a vn = yn b. un vn . ,

4. b = 0,

## zn = un vn = (xn a) (yn b) = (xn yn ) (a b),

, xn yn a b.
2. cxn ca = c(xn a) xn a , cxn ca
, , cxn ca.
3. un = xn a vn = yn b. xn = un +a, yn = vn +b,

## xn yn ab = (un + a)(vn + b) ab = un vn + avn + bun .

, un vn + avn + bun .
4. ,
xn
a
(un + a)(vn + b) ab
1
=
=
(un vn + avn + bun ).
yn
b
yn b
byn
, by1n , un vn + avn + bun
.

75

76

3.
1 + 3n 3n2
.
2n2 + 1
2
, n ,
3.17. xn =

xn =

1 + 3n 3n2
=
2n2 + 1

1
n2

+ n3 3
.
2 + n12

n1 n12 , n12 +
1
3
n 3 3 2 + n2 2. ,
, , . . 32 .
3.18. , 1, 01n +. 1, 01n > 1 + 0, 01n. ,
1 + 0, 01n , .

, xn > yn yn +, xn +.
.
3.18. 1. xn = an :
, a > 1;
, 0 < a < 1. 2.

a > 0 , lim n a = 1.
n

1. a > 1. ,
. ,
(
)n
xn = an = 1 + (a 1) > 1 + (a 1)n.
a1 > 0, 1+(a1)n + n , , xn (+.
)n
0 < a < 1. yn = x1n = a1 .
a1 > 1, yn +, , xn 0.
2. a > 1. > 0. k > a1
.
(1 + )n > 1 + n > 1 + k > a n > k,

, n a < 1 + . ,

0 < a < 1,

77

1. xn =

3n+1
.
n+4

a = lim xn , n

## |xn a| < 0,05.

2. , xn .
n 2
n
n
, : ) xn = 10n+1
; ) xn = (1)
;
n2 n+1

3
3
n +1
ln 2n
2
2
) xn = n2 +1 ; ) xn = n n 1; ) xn = ln n ; ) xn = n + 1.
3. , k, , n > k 3
+1
: ) 2n+5
< 2, 01; ) sin n1 < 0, 01; ) 2n3n+n
2 +3 > 0, 49.
n+1

n
4. ) , 3 < n 2n + 3n < 3 2. )
, limn n 2n + 3n .
5. xn = 1 + a + . . . + an1 .
6. pq ,
xn = 0, 2323 . . . 23 ( 2n ).
7. : ) xn =

) 2, 2 2, 2 2 2, . . ..

1
1
1
+ 57
+. . .+ (2n1)(2n+1)
;
35

## 8. xn , xn+1 = 12 (xn + xn1 ),

n > 1, x0 = 0, x1 = 1. , : ) xn+1 xn =
n1
12 (xn xn1 ); ) xn = 1 12 + 14 + . . . + (1)
n > 1. )
2n1
limn xn .
9. , xn+1 = xnxn+1 x1 = 1. xn .
10. , a ,
:
k : n > k

|xn a| < .

6
3.19. xn = 3n+2
,
2n+3

1
3
2
1

: ) xn 2 < 100 ; ) xn 3 < 2 .
) , xn 32 =

3n+2
2n+3

3
2

5
2(2n+3) .

5
1
<
, 250 < 2n + 3, n > 124.
2(2n + 3)
100

78

3.
5n
) 3(2n+3)
<
n = 1, 2.

1
2,

4n < 9,

3.20. , xn 1 yn 2.
n
: ) zn = 2xn 3yn ; ) un = xynn ; ) vn = ynx2
;
xn 1
) vn = yn 2 ?
, ) zn 2 1 3 2 = 4 un 12 .
) vn .
) . .
1
xn = 1 + nc yn = 2 + n1 . xynn2
= c c, c
. xn = 1 + n1 yn = 2 + n12 .
1
xynn2
= n .
3.21. : ) xn =

n
+n
) yn = n2 + n + 1 n; ) zn = 22n n
.
) xn 3,
) yn

1
2,

3n2 +1
1n2

3+ n12
1
n2

3n2 +1
1n2 ;

n2 + n + 1 n =

1 + n1
n+1
=
.
n2 + n + 1 + n
1 + n1 + n12 + 1

) , 2nn 0.
,
. ,
1 + 2nn
zn =
1.
1 2nn

: xn 1, xn 1.
, ?! .

3.22. , xn 1, xn 1.
:

|xn 1|
6 |xn 1|.
| xn 1| =
xn + 1

6
, n > k |xn 1| < ,

n | xn 1| < .
,
. ,
lim xn = a > 0 k : n > k |xn a| < .

, , , , k n, . .
? 6 ,
.
8
. , 48 ,
! ...
3.23. xn a,

## ) > 0 k n > k |xn a| < ; ) > 0 k : n > k |xn a| < .

) , , > 0 n N
|xn a| < . , , n = 1

|x1 a| < 1, |x1 a| < 0, 1, |x1 a| < 0, 01, |x1 a| < 0, 001, !
, x1 = a. , , .
n = n1 0.
n1 < x1 a <

1
n,

, , , 0 6 x1 a 6 0, ,
x1 = a. x2 , x3
.
, , .
) n > k < xn a < ,
a < xn < a + . , , , .

79

80

3.
, . .
(
)
3.24. lim n n2 + 1 n .
n

, n

n2 + 1 n =

n
n2 +1+n

1
1+ n12 +1

12 .

3.25. :
) xn = 2

n2 +1
n+2

; ) yn = 2

n2 +2
n+1

n+2

; ) zn = 2 n2 +1 .

n2 +1
n+2 +, xn +.
2
+2
) nn+1
, yn 0.
) un = nn+2
2 +1 0. ,
zn = 2un 20 = 1. ,

6.1. :
(
)
3n 2n
) xn = n(n+1)(n+3)
n+1 n .
3n3 n2 +2 ; ) yn = 2n+1 3n+2 ; ) zn = n
:
6.2.

n n+4
) xn =
;
)
yn = 4n2 + 3n + 5 2n.
4n3 +2
6.3. :

2
+cos n
n+2n .
) xn = n(n+3)
2 ; ) yn =
n+3 n
6.4. xn 1.
:

x 1
x2 +5
) yn = xnn +3 ; ) zn = x3n1 ; ) un = cos(xn ).
n

6.5. , xn 0. , xn yn
n2
: ) yn = cos n; ) yn = n+1
; ) yn = 100n
n+3 ? .
6.6. , xn 2. , xn yn
n
n
n
: ) yn = (1)
n ; ) yn = 5n+1 ; ) yn = (1) ?
.

15*. R
6.7. xn =

1
2

1
23

81
+ ... +

1
(n1)n .

a0 + a1 n + . . . + ak nk
, ak = 0
b0 + b1 n + . . . + bl nl
bl = 0. k, l, ak bl . , ?

6.8. xn =

6.9. xn a,
) > 0 k n > k : |xn a| < ;
) > 0 : k n > k : |xn a| < .

15*. R
R
Q ? , , , ,
, , . ,
,
. x2 = 2 ,
x2 + 1 = 0 ( , ,
, , ).
Q R ,
.
, ,
, , ,
. , ,
, ?
,
R. . , ,
.
.
( ). L R
R, , x L
y R x 6 y;

82

3.
:
x L y R , x 6 y.
z R, ,
x 6 z 6 y x L y R.
: L R, , .
, Q. L , 2, R
, 2,
L R!
,
R .
. E R
( ), c, , c > x (, c 6 x) x E. c,
c > x x E (, c 6 x x E) () . ( )
() E. : sup E ( supremum) inf E
(inmum).
3.26. [0; 1]. , 1, 0. . (0; 1) ,
. [1; +), . ,
sup(0; 1) = 1 inf(0; 1) = 0.
3.19. ()
() .
E, C
.
, x 6 c x E c C.

15*. R
, E C , . ,
, z, ,
x 6 z 6 c x E c C.
x 6 z x E, z ,
z C. , z 6 c c C, z
.
.
, z , , x 6 z x E.
, z , , , z, .
, z < z, x E, , z < x.
, , z = sup E ,
1. x 6 z x E;
2. z < z x E : z < x.
3.20 (). ()
() .
xn . E = {xn | n N} , ,
a = sup E. , a . > 0.
a E,
k, , a < xk . ,
| xn a | < n > k.
a E
, xn 6 a < a + n N.
, xn > xk > a n > k.
, n > k

## a < xn < a + , | xn a | < .

83

84

3.
. ,
E.
3.21 ( ). [a1 ; b1 ] [a2 ; b2 ] . . . , bn an
. c, , an c bn c.
c , c
, |c c | 6 bn an 0. A
, A = {an | n N}, B ,
B = {bn | n N}. A B
, , c. , an 6 c 6 bn , , c [an ; bn ]. ,
bn an 0, an c bn c.
3.22 ( ).
.
C, ,
.
3.27. ,
xn = (1)n , , 1, 1, 1, 1, . . . , ,
, 1, 1.
, 1, , yk = x2k , ,
1. , ,
xn ,
1.
. xn n1 , n2 , . . . .
, k- xn nk , . , {yk }
k=1 {xn }
n=1 , yk = xnk , n1 ,
n2 , . . . .

15*. R
3.23. xn a, xn
a.
.
, . , yk = xnk , n1 , n2 , . . . .
> 0. xn a, m,
, |xn a| < n > m.
n1 , n2 , . . . , nk > m
k > m. , |yk a| = |xnk a| < k > m,
, yk a.
. {xn } ,
[a1 ; b1 ]. n1 = 1.
[a2 ; b2 ] [a1 ; b1 ], , n2 ,
: 1) n2 > n1 (, n1 = 1, , n2 = 1) 2) xn2 [a2 ; b2 ]. [a2 ; b2 ], [a3 ; b3 ] ,
.
,
n3 > n2 , . , [a1 ; b1 ] [a2 ; b2 ] . . . {yk } ,
,
yk [ak ; bk ].
c, , ak c bk c,
, , yk c. .
R , ,
.
, ,
.
.
. {xn } ,
k : |xn xm | < n, m > k.

85

86

3.
3.24.
.
xn a. > 0. k, , |xn a| < 2 n > k.
, n, m > k
|xn xm | 6 |xn a| + |xm a| <

+ = .
2 2

.
, . .
3.25. .
, k , |xn xm | < 1 n, m > k,
, ,
k, [xk 1; xk +1]. ,
, . .
3.26 ( R ). .
{xn } .
. yk , a.
, .
. ,
. , xn a
yk . .
> 0. p , |xn xm | < 2
n, m > p. m = nk , k = 1, 2, . . .
k . xnk a, ,
|xn a| 6

< n > p,
2

16.
, xn a.

1. , x 6 y x L y R, :
) L = {x | |x + 1| 6 2} R = {y | |y 2| 6 32 };
) L = {x | |x + 1| 6 2} R = {y | |y 2| 6 1};
) L = {x | |x + 1| 6 2} R = {y | |y 2| 6 12 }?
, ,
z, x L y R
x 6 z 6 y.
2. U : ) A = (0; 1);
) B = (0; 1) [2; 3]; ) C = {2x | x [0; 1]}; ) D = N = {1, 2, 3, . . .}.
3. {, :
) A = (0; 1) ) B = (0; 1) [2; 3];
}
n
) C = n+1
| n N ; ) D = N = {1, 2, 3, . . .}
? , , .

4. 2, 2 + 2, 2 + 2 + 2, . . . , : ) ; ) . ) .
5. , :
{
2n+1
, n ,
xn = 2n1
an2
, n .
n2 +1
) , a . ) a = 2. ,
, 1, , 2. ) ,
a = 2 . ) a, xn
.
6. , xn , |xn+1 xn | 6
q|xn xn1 |, q (0; 1), .

16.
. .

87

88

3.
3.27. 0 < q < 1, k .
, n > k |xn+1 | 6 q|xn |,
xn 0.
, , , , , |xn+1 | 6 q|xn | n N. ,
|xn | 6 aq n1 .
, , q (0; 1), q n 0.
, aq n1 0, , xn 0.
3.28. x n
zn = xn! .
k ,

|zn+1 | =

|x|
k+1

1
2.

n > k.

|x|n+1
|x|
1
= |zn |
< |zn | n > k.
(n + 1)!
n+1
2

, zn .
3.29. a > 1
m
m xn = nan .
k ,

1
m a + 1
<
1 .
k
2
n > k,

(
)
( n+1 )m 1
(
)
m a+1
1
1 m
<
< a+1
a < 21 a1 + 1 .
n
2 1, 1 + n
2 ,
n
(
)
q = 12 a1 + 1 . a > 1, q < 1. ,
k ,
(
)m
xn+1
n+1
1
=
< q n > k.
xn
n
a
, xn+1 6 qxn n > k. , - .

16.
3.30. yn =

89

n 1.

> 0. , k, ,

n n < 1 + n > k.
n
n < (1 + )n ,
< 1,
(1 + )n
, n
(1+)
n .
, e,
, . , , , ,
( ) . ,
e 2, 7182818284590452354
.

3.31
(
)n ( e). ,
xn = 1 + n1
, e.
(
)n+1
yn = 1 + n1
.
, ( 1). ,
. ,
yn1 > yn . ,
yn1 > yn ,

(
1+

)n
1
n1

(
)n+1 ( n )n ( n+1 )n+1
> 1 + n1
,
> n
,
n1
(
( n1 )n ( n )n+1
)
n
< n+1
, n+1 n1
<
n
n

n
n+1

(
)
( n1
)
n+1
n1 n
1
1 < n+1
n n +1 .
n
,
.
, , yn
. , . e.
,
yn
xn =
e,
1 + n1

90

3.
1 + n1 1.
. , xn ,

(
)n
(
)n+1
1 + n1 < e < 1 + n1
.
, , e
. , , n = 100
.
2, 704813829 < e < 2, 731861968,
, e .
, e. :
2+

1
2

1
6

1
120

1
720

1
5040

109601
40320

2, 718278770 .

e !
, . ,
, ex .
3.28. . ,
12% , 1% . , . . . , n
,
ni 100%.
x
(
)
x + x ni = x 1 + ni , ,
1 + ni . , ,
(
)2
, x 1 + ni .
(
)n
x 1 + ni
. , (
)n
j = 1 + ni 1. i = 0, 12
n = 12
j12 = 1, 0112 1 0, 12683,
, 12, 68%. , 12, , , 100 ;
? ,

91

? , 100
12, 74%. ,
e0,12 1 0, 127497.
, ,
( ), .
)n
)n
(
(
1 + n1 e, 1 + ni i e, ,
(

1+

)
i n
n

((

1+

i
n

) ni )i

ei .

(
)
, ei 1 100%.

2

1. , xn = (n!)

(2n)!
.

2. , xn a > 0, n xn 1.
:
3. (
)
(
)n
(
)n
n+1 n
) xn = 2n+3
; ) yn = 2n+1
; ) zn = n+1
.
n+3
n+2
4. ( :
(
(
1 n
) xn = 1 + n1 )2n ; ) yn = 1 + 2n
) ; ) zn = 1 +
5. :
2
+2n
n2 +2n
) xn = nn2 +2
n+1 ; ) yn = n2 +2n1 ; ) zn =

1 n
) .
n2

2n +3n
.
2n+1 +3n+1

6. p(x) ( ,

). xn = n p(n).

7
3.29. xn 1. x2n +1
x2 +xn 2
x2 xn 2
: ) yn = 3x
; ) zn = nx2 1
; ) un = nx2 1
.
n
n

) yn 1
3
. ) zn = xxnn +2
+1 2 . ) un ,
1, .
3.30.
yn = xnn , ) xn 12 ; ) xn 2; ) xn 1?

92

3.
) yn 0,
( )n 0 < xn < 23 < 1, 32 0. ) yn +,
xn > 32 . ) . ,
xn = 1 + n1 , yn e. , xn = 1 + n12 ,

(
(
)n
)n2
1
1
n
yn = 1 + 2
=
1+ 2
e0 = 1.
n
n

3.31. , xn 2. , xn 2.
:

xn 2 = | xn 2| 6 1 | xn 2|.
xn + 2
2
,
,

, xn a, xn a, 4 xn 4 a.
3.32. xn
1.

4 x 1
: ) yn = xnn1 ; ) zn = xxnn+32
1 ; ) un = n(xn 1)?
) yn =

( xn +1)( 4 xn +1) , yn
1
, zn 14 .
xn +3+2

14 .

) zn =
) . ,
un , n
n
. xn = 1 + (1)
n , un = (1) , .
3.33. p(x) . ,
xn a, p(xn ) p(a).
.
3.34. , : ) | sin x sin y | 6 |x y| x, y
R; ) xn a, sin xn sin a.
) 3.6

x+y
6 2 |xy| = |x y|.
| sin x sin y| = 2 sin xy
6 2| sin xy
2 cos 2
2
2
) , |xn a| < n > k,
| sin xn sin a| < n > k.

17*.

7.1. , xn 1.
3
xn 3 +1
xn +21 .
: ) yn = xnx2n+x+1
;
)
z
=
;
)
u
=
2
n
n
xn xn 2
x +52
n 2
n

7.2. xn 1. a, lim
n
, .

x2n 2axn 2
x2n 1

## 7.3. f (x) = x x+x+1

2 1 . {
}
f (xn ) , : ) xn 2; ) xn 1; ) xn ?
7.4. xn .
:

xn
x2n +1+xn
2xn +3
) yn = 3xn +2 ; ) zn =
; ) un = 23xn +3
xn +3
+2 .
7.5. yn =
, : ) xn 1; ) xn 2; ) xn .

x2n 4
x2n x2 ,

## 7.6. , xn a, cos xn cos a.

n
7.7. xn = cos n+4
.

7.8. xn 1, k m . :
k x 1
xk
n 1
n
) lim xm
1 ; ) lim m xn 1 .
n

17*.
,
x0 = 2 (, 0) ,
,
(
)
1
2
xn+1 =
xn +
, n = 0, 1, . . .
(3.1)
2
xn
.
, .

93

94

3.
3.35. d a . x0 = a
xn+1 = xn + d. ? xn+1 xn = d. , . ,
q = 0. , xn+1 =
xn q. , , . , ,
, .
3.36. . ,
1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89
, ,
? .
. ,
. ,
,
Fn+1 = Fn + Fn1 , n = 1, 2, . . . , F0 = F1 = 1.
(
)
xn+1 = 12 xn + x2n . ,
, .1

xn

xn

0
1
2
3
4
5

2
1,5
1,4166666666666666667
1,4142156862745098039
1,4142135623746899106
1,4142135623730950488

3
2
17
12
577
408
665857
470832
886731088897
627013566048

17*.
, .
, ?

2:

2 1, 4142135623730950488
, 2. ,
, .

3.32. : 1) 2; 2) .
1. , , ,
(
)

1
2
2
xn+1 =
= 2,
xn +
> xn
2
xn
xn

, x0 = 2 > 2.
2. ,
(
)
1
2
xn
1
x2 2
xn xn+1 = xn
xn +
=

= n
>0
2
xn
2
xn
2

xn > 2, .

3.33. (3.1) 2.
.
. , , , . a. , . ,
(
)
1
2
xn+1
x
+
n
2
xn

y
y
(
)
2
1
a
2 a+ a

95

96

3.

, a2 = a1 , a2 = 2, , a = 2,
xn > 0.
,
. zn = x2n 2, z1 = 94 2 = 14 .
,
zn+1 =

x2n+1

1
2=
4

)2
(
(
)
1
2
4
2
xn +
2=
xn + 4 + 2 8 =
xn
4
xn
(
)2
2
1
z2
1
=
xn
= 2 zn2 6 n .
4
xn
4xn
8

1
zn = 41 , z2 6 32
. , z3 6 213 , . 2
, zn 0, x2n 2. ,

|xn

2| =

x2n 2
z
6 n 0.
2
xn + 2

2
1. x1 = 1, xn+1 = 2xn +1 n > 1. x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ,
xn .
xn
n > 1. x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ,
2. x1 = 1, xn+1 = 1+x
n
xn .

3. xn xn = a2n +b2n . ,
xn+2 = 52 xn+1 xn .
4. pn n- .
bpn
pn+1 =
,
a + pn
a b . p0
.
) , pn ,
0, b a.
) , pn+1 < ab pn .
) , a > b, pn 0, ,
.
2 4 5 : James Stewart, Calculus, Fifth edition,
2003, Thomson Learning, Inc.

18.
) , a < b. , p0 < b a, pn , p0 > b a,
. limn pn .
5. ( ). pn+1 = kpn (1 pn ). pn ,
. , , , . .
0 < p0 < 1 .
) p0 = 21 k (1; 3). 30
pn . , pn
? p0 k.
pn p0 ?
k?
) , k (3; 3, 4).
pn ?
)
k (3; 3, 4)?
) k (3, 6; 4). 100 . p0 0.001
.

18.
f (x) x, , . ,
, , x, . ,
, .
. A f (x) x
+, c, ,
x > c |f (x) A| < ,
A = lim f (x), > 0 c : |f (x) A| < x > c.
x+

, , , , .

97

98

3.
A = lim f (x) B = lim g(x).
x+

x+

## lim (f (x) + g(x)) = A + B.

x+

> 0.
c1 : |f (x) A| <
c2 : |g(x) B| <

x > c1 ,
x > c2 .

c c1 c2 , c = max{c1 , c2 }.
x > c , ,
|f (x) + g(x) A B| 6 |f (x) A| + |g(x) B| <

= .

.
, , :
1)
2)

x+

## lim (f (x)g(x)) = AB;

x+

f (x)
x+ g(x)

3) B = 0, lim

A
B;

4) A = 0, c : f (x) = 0 x > c.
, , ,
,
x . x + f (x) A x (c; +), A
x (; c). .
. A f (x) x
, > 0 c : |f (x) A| < x < c.
,
.
, ,
, f (x) A x (; c)
(c; +). x, .
. A f (x) x
, > 0 c : |f (x) A| < |x| > c.

18.

99

1
3.37. lim 3xx2 x+1
.
x
x n , n , . ,
, . , , , x1 0
x12 0 x . ,
2

1 x12
x2 1
1
=

x ,
3x2 x + 1
3
3 x1 + x12
1, 3.
,
.
3.38. f (x) =
2

x
x+1

(x 1) =

1
x+1

x2
x+1

1
= x1+ x+1
.

0 x , 2

x
, ( ) x y = x+1
y = x1 ( ). ,
x . , x 1, .

,
.

10
5
-4

-2

-5
-10
-15

( ,
y = x1
.)

100

3.

.
. , y = kx+b y = f (x), M (x, y) x + ( x ).

M ,
M K,
, M , . ,
y = kx + b ,
f (x) kx b 0 x .
, ,
. ,
.
3.34. y = kx + b
y = f (x) ,
f (x)
x( x

1) k = lim

)
2) b = lim f (x) kx .
x

,
) k b 1 2,
(
lim f (x) kx b = 0, , .

. f (x)kxb 0

1
f (x)
b
(f (x) kx b) =
k 0 .
x
x
x

1
x

0,

xb 0, f (x)
lim f (x)
x k 0, , k = x
x .
2 .
1
3.39. y = xx2 +x
. . ,
1 x13
f (x)
x3 1
= 3
=
= 1.
x
x + x2
1 + x12
3

18.

101

, , 1.
(
)
( 3 1
)
lim f (x) kx = lim xx2 +x
x = lim

1x2
2
x x +x

= lim

1 x12
1
1+ x

= 1.

, y = x 1.
, ,
1 3.34, ,
.

## 3.40. y = 2x+ x1? ,

f (x)
x x +,
f (x)
1
1
= 2 + 2 x +,
x
x x

f (x) kx = 2x +

x 1 2x =

x1

. ,
.

1. ) y =
2. ) y =

x2 +3x
;
x+1

) y =

x x+1
.
x2

x2 + 2x + 3; ) y =

|x+1|
.
x2

3. f (x) A > 0 x +. ,
c, f (x) > 0 x > c.
4. , f (x) x ,
> 0 c > 0, , |f (x)f (y)| <
x y, |x| > c |y| > c.
5. , x g(x) 6 f (x) 6
h(x), g(x) A h(x) A x . , f (x) A
x .
6. , f (x)
[0; +). , f (x) x +.

102

3.
7. x > 1. n = [x] (. . n x).
(
)n (
)x (
)n+1
1
) , 1 + n+1
6 1 + x1 6 1 + n1
.
)
)x
(
1
= e.
lim
1+
x+
x
) ,

(
lim

8. , , A =
A = lim f (x).
x

1+

1
x

)x
= e.

lim f (x) A =

x+

lim f (x),

19.
.
. D , x D
, f (x)
x,
f

x D 7 f (x) R.
f (x) ,
, .
, , , , , ,
.1
4.1. f (x) = x2 . R,
f ()? : f () = 2 .
D .
,

. , , y = 1 x2 ,
, , , x [1; 1].
1 , Mathematica
Sin[x], .
Sin[x] , Sin.

104

4.
x 7 x2 , , x [0; +). ,
.
. E f (x)
D f (x) x D, . . E = {f (x) | x D}. .
f (A) f (x) A, , ,
x A. , f (A) = {f (x) | x A}.
,
.
. f (x)
, y = f (x).
. (,
, ) . y = x2 3x + 1.
5
4
3
2
1
-1

-1

[
)
54 ; + .
y = ax+b
cx+d - .
y = 2x+1
x1 .
10
7.5
5
2.5
-2

-1

1
-2.5
-5
-7.5
-10

19.

105

, , , 2. , (; 2) (2; +).
. f (x) ( ) , , x1 < x2 , , f (x1 ) 6 f (x2 ) (, f (x1 ) < f (x2 ))
x1 x2 . ()
f (x1 ) f (x2 ).
4.2. , , ,
f (x) = 2x+1
x1 (; 1) (1; +), , . . ! ,
x1 = 0 < x2 = 2, , f (x1 ) = 1 < f (x2 ) = 5.
, , , (1; +). 1 < x1 < x2 .
,
x1 x2
2x2 + 1 2x1 + 1

=
< 0,
x2 1
x1 1
(x1 1)(x2 1)
x1 < x2 , x1 > 1 x2 > 1. , f (x2 ) < f (x1 ).

.

y = x2 , y = x3 , y = x8 y = x.
1
0.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

-0.5
-1

4.3. , y = 2x y = log2 x.

106

4.
3
2
1
-2

-1

-1
-2

, y = x. . , , y = 2x y = x, x y .
x = 2y , log2 x = y, . . .
.
. ,
a R f (x) = a .
, , ,
, x1 = x2 , , f (x1 ) = f (x2 ).
.
4.4. ,
x x [0; 1) 3 x x [1; 2].
6

@
@
@

-

, .
, y
() x ,
, f (x) = y.
. y E 7 x D : f (x) = y , f (x) f 1 .
,
f

f 1

x D 7 y E, y E 7 x D.

19.

107

, f 1 (x) ,
1
f (x), f (x)1 = f (x)
.
4.5. , f (x) = 2x+1
x1 .
, x, , f (x) = y,
2x+1
x1 = y. ,
2x + 1
y+1
= y, 2x + 1 = xy y, y + 1 = x(y 2), x =
.
x1
y2
, , ,
y+1
y 7 y2
. , , y = 2. ,
.
x+1
, , g(x) = x2

2x+1
f (x) = x1 .
(
)

(
) f (x). x, f (x)
. f (x), x
f 1

, f (x) 7 x. (a, b)
(b, a) y = x, .
4.1.
y = x.
, . .
4.6. , x 7 x2 . , ,
. f (x) = x2 , x [0; +). , f (x) .
g(x)
, g(x) = x.
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
1

108

4.
. ,
, , f (x) = x3 + x,
. .
. f (x) g(x) , Df Dg
, x 7 f (x) +
g(x).
. f (x) g(x) Df Dg {x Dg | g(x) = 0}
, g(x) .
, .
. .
. , Eg
g(x) Df
f (x). , x Dg , ( y =) g(x) Df ,
,

f (y) = f g(x) . ,
(
)
x 7 f g(x) , f (x) g(x).
, ,
(
)
(
)
. f g(x) = g f (x) .

f)(x) = x + 1 g(x) = x2 .
(
) 4.7. ,
(
f g(x) = g(x) + 1 = x2 + 1, g f (x) = f (x)2 = (x + 1)2 .
. , , , ,

.
,
( f g)
f g, (f g)(x) = f g(x)
.

, (
)
f g(x) f (x) g(x).

.
4.2. f (x) g(x)
( -)
R. 1) u(x) = f (x)+g(x) 2) h(x) = f g(x)

8
.
, .
. x1 < x2 . 1) f (x1 ) <
f (x2 ) g(x1 ) < g(x2 ), u(x1 ) = f (x1 )+g(x1 ) < f (x2 )+g(x2 ) = u(x2 ),
, u(x) . (
)
2)
y
=
g(x
)
<
g(x
)
=
y
,

h(x
)
=
f
g(x
)
= f (y1 ) <
1
1
2
2
1
1
(
)
f (y2 ) = f g(x2 ) = h(x2 ).

1. [1; 3]:
) f (x) = x2 x; ) g(x) = x21+1 ; ) h(x) = sin x; ) u(x) = (2x + 1)2 .
2. , f (2x + 1) = x2 . : ) f (5); ) f (x).
3. f (x) = x2 1 ( g(x)
) = 2x(+ 1.
)
(
)
( )
: ) f f (x) ; ) g f (x) ; ) f g(x) ; ) g g(x) .
(
)
4. , f g(x) = x x R. , : )
g(x) ; ) f (x) g(x) .
5. ,
( :
) ) f (x) g(x) , f g(x) ; )
f (x) g(x)
, ,
(
)
f g(x) ;
6. , f (x) (; 1] [1; +). g(x) = f (x2 ).
7. , , x2 +1
g(x) = x2 f (x): ) a(x) = 1x
2;
) b(x) = 2x ; ) c(x) = sin 2x.
( )
8. ) , h(x) = f x2 . ) .

8
4.8.
x2 1
: ) f (x) = x5 +x; ) g(x) = 2
; ) h(x) = 5x x2 4.
x +1

109

110

4.
) x, x5 x5 + x. , f (x) .
) x1 < x2 .
g(x2 ) g(x1 ) =

x22 1 x21 1
x2 x21
2
= 2 2
,
2
x2 + 1 x1 + 1
(x1 + 1)(x22 + 1)

, 0 6 x1 < x2 x1 < x2 6 0. ,
[0; +), (; 0].
) 5xx2 4 > 0, x2 5x+4 6 0, . . [1; 4].

, 5x[ x2 )4
(
]
5
5
; 2 [
2 ; + .
]
,
1; 52 , [5 ]
2 ; 4 .
4.9. , f (x) g(x) .
( ) : ) cf (x), c = 0 ;
) f (x)g(x)?
) , . cf (x) , c > 0,
, c < 0.
) , . : f (x) = g(x) = x.
:
4.10.
x2 1
4
2
) f (x) = x + x + 1; ) g(x) = x2 +1 ; ) h(x) = 5x x2 4.
) : [1; +).
) , y
. , ,

x2 1
x2 +1

x2 1 = x2 y + y, x2 (1 y) = 1 + y, x2 =

= y -

1+y
.
1y

,
1+y
1y > 0, . . y [1; 1). , ,
g(x).
) -, h(1) = h(4)
[ =]0. ,
[
]
1; 52 , 52 ; 4 . ,(
x = 25 .
) 3 [
]
5
3
h 2 = 2 , 0; 2 .

8
4.11. , f (x), , [1; 4]. (
)2
( )
: ) f (x) ; ) f x2 ;
) f (2x + 1); ) 2f (x) + 1?
) f (x) [1; 4],
[0; 16], , ,
.
( )
) g(x) = f x2
, [1; 4].
) ,
(,
, 3. g(x) = f (2x+1)
)
f (4) = 3, g 32 = f (4) = 3.
) : [1; 9].
4.12. x :
x2 + 1
x3 + 1
x+1
x3

)
;
)
;
)
;
)
.
2x2 + x + 1
x4 x + 1
x2 + 1
x2 + 1
1 + x12
x2 + 1
1
=
.
2x2 + x + 1
2
2 + x1 + x12
) , , 0.
)
, x + x .

2
, x = x x < 0. x
)

x+1
x+1

=
x2 + 1
x 1+

1
x2

1 + x1
=
1.
1 + x12

) .
4.13. :
x2 + 1
x3 + 1
x+1
x3
) y = 2
; ) y = 4
; ) y =
.
; ) y = 2
2x + x + 1
x x+1
x +1
x2 + 1
), ), ) . .
.
y
x2
1
k = lim
= lim 2
= lim
=1,
x x
x x + 1
x 1 + 12
x

(
)
x3
x
b = lim (y kx) = lim
x = lim 2
=0,
x
x x2 + 1
x x + 1

111

112

4.
y = x.
, , - , ,
.
4.14. :
x2 1
x+1
) y = 2
; ) y =
.
x +1
x2 + 1
) -, . -, , [0; +), (; 0]. , , y = 1
x x +. .
4

1
-6
-4

-2

-4

-2

-1

-1
-2

x+1 .
x2 +1

) f (x) =

. , y = 1, y = 1
(0, 1). ? ,
, . ,
, .

8.1. , f (x) =
.

x3
x2 +1

## 8.2. , f (x) g(x)

.

( ) :
) f (x) g(x); ) f (x); ) g f (x) ?
8.3. :
2

## ) f (x) = 22xx ; ) g(x) = sin(2x x2 ); ) h(x) =

1
.
2x x2

20.

113

8.4. :

2x + 1
x2 + x
) y = x + 1 x; ) y = x
; ) y =
.
2 1
x1
8.5.
2
: ) f (x) = 22xx ; ) g(x) = 2x x2 ;
1
) h(x) =
.
2x x2

20.
, , ,
, .

x
2
2,001
2,01
2,1

x2
4
4,004
4,0401
4,41

x3
8
8,01201
8,1206
9,261

1
x

0,5
0,49975
0,497512
0,47619

sin x
0,909297
0,908881
0,905091
0,863209

, 2, 001 2, ,
. 2 0,001,
0,004,
0,01, 0,00025, 0,0005. :
, .
.
. , ,
. f (x) a,
. a , a
, f (x)
x [a; b) ( x (c; a]).
,
.

114

4.
. f (x) a
,
> 0 : |x a| < = |f (x) f (a)| < .
, .
, .
4.3. |f (x) f (y)| 6 L|x y| x y a, f (x) a.
(, .)
> 0 > 0 ,
6 L (a ; a + ) ,
. x, a , ,
|f (x) f (a)| 6 L|x a| < L 6 ,
.
. 1. .
2. .
1.

x+y
6 2 |xy| = |x y|,
| sin x sin y| = 2 sin xy
6 2 sin xy
2 cos 2
2
2
, | sin x sin y| 6 |x y|
x, y R.
2. x, y [c, c], c .
|xn y n | = |x y| |xn1 + xn2 y + . . . + y n1 | 6 L|x y|,
L ncn1 .
, ,
.
. f (x) , c, ,
,
c : |f (x)| 6 c x Df .

20.
. , f (x) A, c, , |f (x)| 6 c
x A,
c : |f (x)| 6 c x A.
. f (x) ( ), c, ,
c : f (x) 6 c x Df , , c : f (x) > c x Df .
.
4.4. f (x) a. :
1) ;
2) f (a) = 0,
;
3) , f (a) = 0,
a.

1
f (x)

1. , , (a ; a + ),
, |f (x) f (a)| < 1 |x a| < . ,
x (a ; a + ) |f (x)| 6 1 + |f (a)|.
2. , f (a) > 0. > 0
,
|x a| < = |f (x) f (a)| < f (a)
2 .
f (a)
f (a)
2 < f (x) f (a), f (x) > 2 > 0
x (a ; a + ).
3. , f (a) > 0.
> 0 , . 1
2
1
f (x) > f (a)
> 0, 0 < f (x)
< f (a)
, , f (x)

2
(a ; a + ).

## 4.5 ( ). f (x) g(x) a. :

1. b c bf (x) + cg(x)
a;
2. f (x)g(x) a;

115

116

4.
3. g(a) = 0,

f (x)
g(x)

a.

1. > 0. f (x)
g(x) a, 1 > 0 2 > 0,

2|b|

## |xa| < 2 = |g(x)g(a)| <

2|c|

1 1 ,
|x a| < ,
|bf (x) + cg(x) bf (a) cg(a)| 6

## 6 |b| |f (x) f (a)| + |c| |g(x) g(a)| < |b| 2|b|

+ |c| 2|c|
= .

2. ,
|f (x)g(x) f (a)g(a)| = |f (x)g(x) f (x)g(a) + f (x)g(a) f (a)g(a)| 6
6 |f (x)| |g(x) g(a)| + |g(a)| |f (x) f (a)|.
a, f (x) , |f (x)| 6 c, b = |g(a)|.
,
|f (x)g(x) f (a)g(a)| 6 b |f (x) f (a)| + c |g(x) g(a)|.
, > 0 ,
, -, (a ; a + ) , , -, |x a| <
|f (x) f (a)| <

2|b|

## |g(x) g(a)| <

2|c|

3. 1
g(x)
. a,
1
x |g(x)| 6 b.

1
g(x)

1
g(a)

= g(x)g(a)
g(x)g(a) 6

b
|g(a)|

|g(x) g(a)| .

. > 0 > 0
, , -, (a ; a + )

20.
, , -, |xa| <

## |g(x) g(a)| < |g(a)|

.
b

1
|x a| < = g(x)

1
g(a)

< .

.
n

1 x+...+an x
1. f (x) = ab00+a
+b1 x+...+bk xk
.

2.
.
4.15. ,
, . ,
ax .
-, !
,

, , , 2 2 ?!
, ,
?!
, ax
x a > 0. .
,
.
, , , 2 ,
ax+y = ax ay x, y R.
4.6. f (x) = ax x = 0
.
2 , . f (x + y) = f (x)f (y) x, y R , f (x)
x = 0, f (x) = ax .

117

118

4.
, ax x = c.
> 0 ,

|x| < = ax 1 < ac .
|x c| <
x

a ac = ac |axc 1| < ac ac = .
, , .
4.7 ( ). f (x) (a
g(x) f (a), )
h(x) = g f (x) a.
> 0. g(x)
f (a), > 0, ,
|u f (a)| < = |g(u) g(f (a))| < .
f (x) a,
> 0,
|x a| < = |f (x) f (a)| < .

## |x a| < = |f (x) f (a)| < = |g(f (x)) g(f (a))| < ,

.
4.16. ,
, .

1, x < 0,
sign(x) = 0,
x = 0,

1,
x > 0.
( signum) .
, , ,
x, |f (x) f (0)| = 1.

20.
, . . , x
, x. , 3 = 3,
2, 999 = 2, 1, 5 = 2. , x , .
, .
, .
4.8. f (x) [a; b], g(x) [b; c].
, f (b) = g(b), h(x)
{
f (x) x [a; b],
h(x) =
g(x) x [b; c].
h(x) [a; c].
. , |f (x) f (b)| <
x (b1 ; b], |g(x)g(b)| < x [b; b+2 ), , = min{1 , 2 },
, |h(x)h(b)| < x (b; b+). ,
h(x) x = b. h(x) f (x) g(x)
x = b.

f (xn ), f (x) .
4.9. f (x) a, ,
xn a , f (xn ) f (a).
> 0. a
, > 0, , |x a| < = |f (x)
f (a)| < . xn a, k, , |xn a| <
n > k. ,
n > k |f (xn ) f (a)| < , ,
f (xn ) f (a).

119

120

4.
. , .
, f (xn ) f (a) xn a,
f (x) a.

1. f (x) g(x) A (
). ,
(x)
? .
: ) f (x) + g(x); ) f (x)g(x) ) fg(x)
2.

## : ) a(x) = 8 2x x2 ; ) b(x) = log2 (72xx2 );

2
) c(x) = 21x ; ) d(x) = sinx x ? .
x

3. , > 0, , xtg
2 1 < 0, 01
x, |x| < ?
2

x2
4. f (x) = x x2
x = 2 f (2) = a. a
R?
2

## x = 2, f (2) = a f (2) = b. ) 5. f (x) = x xx2

2 4
a,
x = 2? ) b,
x = 2? .

6. ) , cos 2n+1
= 12 2 + 2 + . . . + 2 (n ). )
,

2, 2 + 2, . . . 2.
7. f (x) = lim

n+

xn
, x = 1?
+1

xn

21.
4.17. y = x5 + x 1.
y = x5 y = x
,
R. , , x = 1; 0, 1.
, ,
.

21.

4
3
2
1
-1

-0.5

0.5

-1
-2

, Ox ,
.
? .
, .
, x5 + x 1 = 0 ?
.
4.10 (). f (x) [a; b]
,
, . . , f (a)f (b) < 0, ,
c [a; b], , f (c) = 0.
a1 = a b1 = b. ,
1
f (a1 ) < 0 < f (b1 ). [a1 ; b1 ] a1 +b
2 . [a2 ; b2 ] ,
. ,
{[
]
(
)
1
a1 ; a1 +b1 , f a1 +b
2 ) > 0,
( a1 +b
[a2 ; b2 ] = [ a1 +b1 2 ]
1
< 0.
2 ; b1 , f
2
, (
f (a2 ) < 0 f (b2 ) > 0. ,
)
1
, f a1 +b
=
0,
,
2
. , [a2 ; b2 ]
[a3 ; b3 ] ,
, .
[a1 ; b1 ] [a2 ; b2 ] . . . , f (an ) < 0 < f (bn ).
[an ; bn ] 2ba
n1 0,
c, ,
an c bn c.

121

122

4.
f (x) , f (an ) f (c), , f (c) 6 0 ( ).
, f (bn ) f (c), f (c) > 0. ,
f (c) = 0.
: .
f (x) [a; b],
, f (a) f (b).
, f (a) < f (b), m (f (a); f (b)).
g(x) = f (x) m.
g(a) = f (a) m < 0 g(b) = f (b) m > 0,
c (a; b), , g(c) = f (c) m = 0, . . f (c) = m.
.
4.18. x3 4x = 1?
f (x) = x3 4x1
.
x
f (x)

2
1

1
2

0
1

3
14

[2; 1] , . , [1; 0]
[0; 3]. , , ,
,
.
15
12.5
10
7.5
5
2.5
-2

-1

-2.5

4.11 ( ). f (x)
[a; b]
, c [a; b],
, f (c) = c.

21.
g(x) = f (x) x. f (a)
[a; b], f (a) > a, , g(a) > 0. , f (b) 6 b,
g(b) 6 0. c [a; b],
g(x) 0, . . g(c) = f (c) c = 0,
f (c) = c.
2
1.5
1
0.5
-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

-0.5
-1

, f (x) = x,
f (x).
4.12 ( ). f (x)
[a; b]. , . . m, , |f (x)| 6 m x [a; b].
, .
[a; b] . , f (x)
;
[a1 ; b1 ]. , [a2 ; b2 ] , f (x) ; .
c , . , an c bn c.
c [a; b], f (x)
, , U . ,
an c bn c, k ak , bk U , , [ak ; bk ] U . U ,
[ak ; bk ], .
.
4.13 ( ). f (x)
[a; b].
, . .
x1 , x2 [a; b], , f (x1 ) 6 f (x) 6 f (x2 ) x [a; b].

123

124

4.
E , . ,
m2 = sup E,
m1 = inf E. , m2 m1 , . . x1 , x2 [a; b], , f (x1 ) = m1 f (x2 ) = m2 . , , ,
f (x) < m2 x [a; b].
1
g(x) = m2 f
(x) . g(x) [a; b], , .
.
: . , , .
, ,
x1 , x2 [a; b], , f (x1 ) 6 f (x) 6 f (x2 )
x [a; b].
m [f (x1 ); f (x2 )] f (x).
4.19. f (x) = x1 (0; 1].
, . ? , ,
, , 2x
. f (x) = x+1
x [1; +). [1; 2), , ,
. -, , [1; +) . ,
.
.
4.14 ( ).
f (x) [b; c], .
a (b; c). g(x) , f (x).
> 0. , [a ; a + ]
(a ; a + ). f (x) [a ; a + ]

21.
[; ], ( f)(a). > 0 , f (a) ;
( f (a) + -)
(; ). , f (a) ; f (a) +
f (x) ,
x (a ; a + ). ,
(
) g
x f (a) ; f (a) + 7 g(x) (a ; a + ),
,
|x f (a)| < = |g(x) a| < .
4.15 (, , ).
f (x) [a; b],
.
, f (a) < f (b). a 6 x1 <
x2 6 b. , f (a) 6 f (x1 ) < f (b). , f (x1 ) < f (a).
c (x1 ; b), , f (c) = f (a),
. , f (x1 ) > f (b),
. x1 < x2 6 b f (x1 ) < f (b), , , , f (x1 ) < f (x2 ) 6 f (b).
, f (x1 ) < f (x2 )
x1 < x2 , . . f (x) . f (a) > f (b), ,
.
4.20.

{
x, x [0; 1),
f (x) =
3 x, x [1; 2]

[0; 2], .

1. : ) x + 2x = 1035; ) x3 x2 = 1;
) cos x = 2x 3? .
2. [0; 1]. , , : ) f (x) ; ) ;
) y [0; 1] f (x) = y ,
? .

125

126

4.
3. f (x) = x x [0; 1] f (x) = x + 1 x (1; 2]. ,
: ) f (x) ; ) f (x) ; ) , f (x), .
4.
[0; 2]: ) a(x) = 16x x5 ;
{

x x [0; 1),
) b(x) =
) c(x) = x + 5 ln(8 x2 )?
2
x 2x x [1; 2];
5. ,
, , .
6. , b x + sin x = b .
7. , |f (x) f (y)| 6 q|x y| x, y R,
q (0; 1), f (x) = x .

9
4.21. ,
t,
|x| < t : ) | 5 x2 + x + 1 1| < 0, 01;
) | sin 2009x | < 0, 001; ) |(x 1)(x 2)(x + 3)(x + 5) 30| < 0, 0001?
, ,
|f (x) f (0)| < , t , .
.
,
y = (x 1)(x 2)(x + 3)(x + 5)
, , .
4.22. , |x 2| < |x2 4| < 0, 05.
, = 0, 01. . |x2| < 0, 01,
|x + 2| < 5. ,
|x2 4| = |x 2| |x + 2| < 0, 01 5 = 0, 05.

127

20
15
10
5
-10 -7.5

-5

-2.5

2.5

-5
-10

4.23. ,
( ):

## ) f (x) = 2 + ln(1 + x2 ); ) h(x) = x2 x 6 1 h(x) = 2 x

x > 1?
) .
) 4.8.
4.24.
{
x sin x1 , x = 0,
f (x) =
?
0, x = 0.
, . x = 0 .
|f (x)| 6 |x|.
4.25. : ) x5 + x3 + x = 1;
) (x + 3)(x + 1)(x 2)(x 5) = 1; ) sin x = 2x + 0, 01?
) , f (x) = x5 +x3 +x .
. ,
[0; 1], f (0) = 0 < 1 < 3 = f (3).
) , ,
, . p(x) = (x+3)(x+1)(x2)(x5) (, 1)
x = 3, 1, 2, 5. , x = 4; 0; 6
1. , [4; 3], [1; 0], [0; 2] [5; 6]
.

128

4.
) f (x) = sin x 2x. , f (0) = 0 < 0,01. ,
(
)
f (0,01) = 0,02 sin(0,01) > 0,01, sin x < x x 0; 2 .
, [0,01; 0]. , . sin x1 = 2x1 + 0, 01
sin x2 = 2x2 + 0, 01, sin x1 sin x2 = 2(x1 x2 ),
, | sin x1 sin x2 | 6 |x1 x2 | < 2|x1 x2 |.
, .
, sin 2x = 2x + 0, 01 . ,
, y = sin 2x y = 2x + 0,01?
1
0.75
0.5
0.25
-1.5

-1

-0.5
-0.25

0.5

1.5

-0.5
-0.75
-1

4.26. ,
, .
, f (x) = x x [0; 1) f (1) = 0.
[0; 1] [0; 1),
.

9.1. a, ,
x2 x 6 2 1 + ax x > 2, .
9.2.
, f (x)
f (x)?
2
1
+x2
) f (x) = x x1
; ) f (x) = 2 x ; ) f (x) = sin x1 .
9.3. , [1; 1],
(
n)
an = f (1)
.
n

22.

129

9.4. , , .
9.5. : ) sin x = x2 ; ) 2x = x + 2?

22.
18 x .
. , , .
f (x) g(x) ,
a, f (a) = g(a) = 0. (x)
fg(x)
x, a.
, f (x) = x2 1, g(x) = x2 + x 2.
,
x2 1
(x 1)(x + 1)
x+1
f (x)
= 2
=
=
,
g(x)
x +x2
(x 1)(x + 2)
x+2
, x 1,
23 . , , !
, .
. A f (x) x
a, A = lim f (x), f (x) A,
xa

xa

## > 0 > 0 : 0 < |x a| < = |f (x) A| < .

: f (x)
A, x a, .
x = a ,
x a,
a.
4.27. f (x),
{
1, x = 0,
f (x) =
0 x = 0.

130

4.
, lim f (x) = 1, f (x) = 1 x = 0,
x0

## lim f (x) = f (0).

x0

. , , .
4.16. f (x) a
, lim f (x) = f (a).
xa

,
,
, 20,
.
4.17. A = lim f (x) B = lim g(x). :
xa

xa

1. f (x) g(x) A B;
xa

2. f (x)g(x) AB;
xa

3. B = 0,

f (x)
A
;
xa
g(x)
B

4. A = 0, f (x) x = a
a;
5. f (x) 6 g(x) x = a a, A 6 B;
6. f (x) a.
, x = a a
f (x) 6 h(x) 6 g(x) A = B,
lim h(x) = A.
xa

, x a; , ,
x a. , ,
. .

22.
. f (x) x
a,
m > 0 : 0 < |x a| < = |f (x)| > m.
, limxa f (x) = .
, , f (x)
1
, g(x) = f (x)
, ,
. , ,
.
, , .
. A f (x) x a, A = limxa f (x),
> 0 : 0 < x a < = |f (x) A| < .
, A
f (x) x a, A = limxa f (x),
> 0 : < x a < 0 = |f (x) A| < .
,
. x a x a ( x
a 0), x a x a+. ,
.
4.28. limx0 sign(x) = 1 limx0 sign(x) = 1.
.
4.18. f (x) a.
1) limxa f (x) , limxa f (x)
limxa f (x);
2) a ,
limxa f (x) limxa f (x)
f (a) .

131

132

4.
, ,
. ,
, , .

1. f (x) =
) x 2.

x2 x+1
x2 4

2. : ) a(x) =
) c(x) =

|x2 1|
x1

: ) x ; ) x 1;
cos x
;
x

) b(x) =

x2 +x2
;
x2 1

x 1.

3. a, lim
x1
.

x2 2ax2
x2 1

4. limx2 x limx2 x ( x
x).
5. , f (x) A > 0 g(x) B x a. ,
f (x)g(x) AB x a.
1

6. , : ) n n+1 6 x x 6 (n + 1) n , n = x; ) x x 1
x +; ) lnxx 0 x +.
7. f (x)
(b; c) a (b; c). ,
limxa f (x) limxa f (x).

23.
,
. ,
,
(. 25).
, ,
)n
(
1
lim 1 +
= e.
n
n
n .
, n . , k =
n, n N,
(
)k (
)n (
)n (
)n
1
1
n
1
xn = 1 +
= 1
=
= 1+
.
k
n
n1
n1

23.
,

(
xn = 1 +

133

)n1
1
1+
e.
n1
(
)
n
, 1 + n1
e
, n n +, , n n . ,

(
)x ,

1 + x1 x (. 7 18).
. ,

(
)x
1
lim 1 +
= e.
(4.1)
x
x
1
n1

)(

4.19 ( ).
ln(1 + u)
= 1,
u
u
e 1
lim
= 1,
u0
u
(1 + u) 1
lim
= .
u0
u
lim

u0

(4.2)
(4.3)
(4.4)

(4.1), u = x1 ,
u 0. ,
1

(1 + u) u e u 0.

(4.5)

f (x) = ln x ,
1
ln(1 + u)
= ln(1 + u) u ln e = 1.
u

(4.2).
v = ln(1 + u), u = ev 1, ,
v
ev 1

1,

1 v 0.
ev 1
v
(4.3) . (4.4) . v = ln(1 + u), ,
v 0 u 0.
(1 + u) 1
ev 1
ev 1 ln(1 + u)
=
=

u
u
v
u

134

4.
(4.3) (4.2). .
4.20 ( ).
sin x
lim
= 1.
x0 x
( )
, x 0; 2 . 3.6

1<

x
1
<
.
sin x
cos x

, sinx x cos1 x(
) ( )
, x 2 ; 0 0; 2 .
, cos1 x 1 x 0.
4.29.
1 cos x
.
x2
,
(
)2
2 sin2 x2
1 cos x
1 sin x2
1
=
=
.
x
x2
x2
2
2
2
lim

x0

, .

1

1. x 1: ) x x1 ; ) (1 + cos 2x)x ;
(
)1

) 1 + 3 x 1 x .
ln x
cos x
ln cos 2x
2. x 1: )
; )
; )
.
x1
x
(x 1)2
3. x 1: )

ex 1
ex e
ex1 1
; )
; )
.
x
x1
x1

x5/3 1
x2/3 1
x5/3 1
; )
; ) 3/5
.
x1
x
x
1
sin x
sin x
sin x
5. x 1: )
; )
; )
.
x
x1
x1
6. , n-, r, 2r n .

4. x 1: )

10

135

10
4.30.

x 1 :

3
2
x +1
x + 3 sin x
3 cos x
) 2
; )
; )
.
x +x+1
x3
x9
x = 1,
x 1
. : ) 23 ; ) 1; ) 12 .

4.31.
x 1 :

5
3x + 1 2
x1
x5 1
)
; ) 3
; )
.
3
x1
x 1
x1
,
,
.

3x3
3

) , 3x+12
=
= 3x+1+2
34 .
x1
(x1)( 3x+1+2)
x +x +x +x+1
) xx3 1
53 .
1 =
x2 +x+1
) t = x15 ,
3
3
tt5 1
1 5 .

u = x 1, x = 1 + u, u 0
, x 1.

5
5
5
x1
1+u1
1+u1
u
3

=
=

,
3
3
3
u
5
x1
1+u1
1+u1
5

(1+u) 1
u
u0

lim

= .

4.32. x 0:
)
(
sin x
1
tg 5x
tg 7x
1
1 x
x
) sin
; ) e 1+x1
; )
3x ; ) cos 4x ; ) (1 + 2x) ; ) 1 + x

ln cos2 x
.
x

: ) 53 . ) 0. ) e2 . ) 1. ) 2. ) 0.

4.33.

x :

( 2x+1 )x

## ) 4x + 1 2 x; ) x2 + x + 1 x; ) x sin x1 ; ) x cos x1 ; ) 3x1

;
( x2 +1 )x
) x2
.
: ) 0. ) 12 . ) 1. ) . ) 0. ) 1.

136

4.
4.34. k, , lim

x0

ln cos x
xk

. .
(
)
ln 1 + (cos x 1) sin2 x2 x2k
ln cos x

=
x2
xk
cos x 1
2
4
, k = 2, 12 .

10.1. (x) r, x. , lim (x)
x = 1.
x0

10.2. x 0:
(
)x2

5
tg x sin x
2
cos x 1
)
;
)
;
)
1
+
.
x2
x3
x
10.3. n,
:

1 + 2x 1
sinn x
) lim
; ) lim ( x2 x + 1 nx); ) lim
.
n
x+
x0
x1 3 x 1
x
2x 1
:
2x + 1
) x ; ) x 0; ) x + .

10.4. f (x) =

24. , ,
.
. f (x) x0
f (x0 + h) f (x0 )
lim
.
h0
h
, ,
x0 .
df
. f (x0 ) dx
(x0 ). ,
df
f (x0 + h) f (x0 )
(x0 ) = f (x0 ) = lim
.
h0
dx
h
5.1. .
f (x) = ax + b.
(ax + ah + b) (ax + b)
= lim a = a,
h0
h0
h

f (x) = lim

138

5.
, (ax + b) = a.
5.2. . f (x) =
x2 + x x = 1.
(1)
limh0 f (1+h)f
. , ,
h
.
f (1 + h) f (1)
(h 1)2 + h 1
h2 h
=
=
= h 1 1
h
h
h
h 0. , (x2 + x) |x=1 = 1.
, ( , ),
, .
( )
,
f (x) f (x0 )
f (x0 ) = lim
.
xx0
x x0
. h = x x0 , x = x0 + h,
.
,
. ,
, . . . ( ), ,
.
5.1. :
(
)
1. (c) = 0
3. f (x) g(x) = f (x) g (x)
(
)
(
)

## 2. cf (x) = cf (x) 4. f (ax + b) = af (ax + b)

, , f (x) ( g(x)) . , , 3, :
f (x) g(x) x = x0 ,
, f (x0 )+g (x0 )
. .
1. f (x) , f (x + h) f (x) = 0,
(x)
f (x+h)f
= 0, , .
h

24. , ,
2. ,
(
)
cf (x + h) cf (x)
f (x + h) f (x)
cf (x) = lim
= c lim
= cf (x).
h0
h0
h
h
3. ,
() () . ,
(

(
) (
)
)
f (x + h) g(x + h) f (x) g(x)
f (x) g(x) = lim
=
h0
h
(
) (
)
f (x + h) f (x) g(x + h) g(x)
= lim
=
h0
h
f (x + h) f (x)
g(x + h) g(x)
= lim
lim
= f (x) g (x).
h0
h0
h
h

4. . . ,
(

)
f (a(x + h) + b) f (ax + b)
f (ax + b) = lim
=
h0
h
f (ax + b + ah) f (ax + b)
= a lim
= af (ax + b).
h0
ah

.
5.2. a f (x)
x = x0 ,
f (x0 + h) = f (x0 ) + ah + (h)h,
(h) h 0.
(x0 )
a = f (x0 ), a = lim f (x0 +h)f
, h
h0
,
f (x0 + h) f (x0 )
= a + (h),
h
(h) ,
.

139

140

5.
,
f (x0 + h) f (x0 )
= a + (h),
h
, a = lim

h0

## f (x0 +h)f (x0 )

.
h

. x0

f (x) f (x0 ) + f (x0 )(x x0 ).

(5.1)

, ,
.
, .

, . ,
, f (x) .

f (x) = f (x0 ) + f (x0 )(x x0 ) + (x x0 )(x x0 ).
f (x)
y = f (x0 ) + f (x0 )(x x0 ) + (x x0 )(x x0 ).
() , y = f (x0 ) + f (x0 )(x x0 ).
. ,
y = f (x0 ) + f (x0 )(x x0 ),
x0 .
, ,

(
)
x0 , f (x0 ) .
.

24. , ,

4
3
2
1

## 0.25 0.5 0.75

1.25 1.5

, (
)
x0 , f (x0 ) . x0 + h, , ,
y = f (x0 ) +

f (x0 + h) f (x0 )
(x x0 ).
h

(x0 )
h 0, f (x0 +h)f
f (x0 ). h
.
,

. ( ,
.)
. ,
.

5.3. 1. x = x0 ,
x0 . 2. , .
1. f (x) x0 ,
f (x0 + h) = f (x0 ) + ah + (h)h, , f (x0 + h) f (x0 ) h 0,
, f (x) .
2. f (x) = |x| ,
. ,
{
1, h > 0,
f (h) f (0)
=
h
1, h < 0,
, h 0.

141

142

5.

.
,
, , .
y = sin 10x x [1; 1],
, [0,5; 0,5].1

-1

0.5

0.5

-0.5

0.5

-0.4

-0.2

0.2

-0.5

-0.5

-1

-1

0.4

.
. .

x [0,1; 0,1] () [0,05; 0,05] ().
? ! ?
!
0.75

0.4

0.5
0.2
0.25
-0.1

-0.05

0.05

0.1

-0.04

-0.02

0.02

0.04

-0.25
-0.2
-0.5
-0.4

-0.75

. , f (0) = 0
. , .
,
k,
( )
ky = f xk . t = k1 .
k ( ), t
.
y=

1
t

f (tx).

1 , . .

24. , ,
t 0. ,
1
f (tx) f (0)
f (tx) =
x f (0)x.
t
tx
, ( )

y = f (0)x,
.
,
y = |x| ,
; !

1. f (x) = ax2 + bx + c,
.
2. , (. . ) ,
.
3. y = x2 2x + 2
x = 2.
4. ) , a > 0, y = ax2 + bx + c
. )
a < 0?
5. , f (x) = |x2 1| .
6. f (x) x0

f+
(x0 ) = lim

h0

f (x0 + h) f (x0 )
f (x0 + h) f (x0 )

f
(x0 ) = lim
.
h0
h
h

f (x) = |x2 1|
x = 1.
7. , 1, 012 1, 02, 1, 0152 1, 03
(5.1). ?
8. f (x) x = 3 x = 8,
f (3) = 15. f (8).

143

144

5.

25.
5.3. f (x) =
. ,
f (x) = lim

h0

1
x+h

1
x

= lim

h0

1
x

1
1
= 2 .
x(x + h)
x

, , x = 0
x = 1. ,
f (h) f (0)
f (1 + h) f (1)
f (1) = lim
.
h0
h0
h
h

f (0) = lim

f (x) = sin x, ,
sin h
= 1,
h0 h

f (0) = lim

. f (x) = ex ,
eh 1
=1.
h0
h

f (0) = lim

f (x) = ln x.
f (1) = lim

h0

ln(1 + h)
=1.
h

f (x) = x
(1 + h) 1
=.
h0
h

f (1) = lim

.
5.4.
( )
1. x = x1 .
( )
2. ex = ex .

25.
(
)
3. ln x = x1 .
(
)
4. sin x = cos x.
(
)
5. cos x = sin x.
1.
(
)
1 + hx 1
(x + h) x
1
lim
=x
lim
= x1 .
h
h0
h0
h
x
2.
eh 1
ex+h ex
= ex lim
= ex .
h0
h0
h
h
lim

3.
(
)
ln 1 + hx
ln(x + h) ln x
1
1
lim
=
lim
= .
h
h0
h
x h0
x
x
4.
(
)
sin h2 cos x + h2
sin(x + h) sin x
=
lim
= lim
h
h0
h0
h
2
= lim

sin h2
h
2

h0

(
)
lim cos x + h2 = cos x.
h0

5.
(
)
sin h2 sin x + h2
cos(x + h) cos x
=
= lim
h
h0
h0
h
2
lim

= lim

h0

sin h2
h
2

(
)
lim sin x + h2 = sin x.
h0

, , ,
,

145

146

5.
arctg x, arcsin x arccos x. . . , . . .
5.5.
(
)
1. f (x)g(x) = f (x)g(x) + f (x)g (x).
(
)
f (x)
f (x)g(x) f (x)g (x)
2.
.
=
g(x)
g 2 (x)
1. ,
(

)
f (x + h)g(x + h) f (x)g(x)
f (x)g(x) = lim
=
h0
h
f (x + h)g(x + h) f (x)g(x + h) + f (x)g(x + h) f (x)g(x)
= lim
=
h0
h
f (x + h) f (x)
g(x + h) g(x)
= lim
lim g(x + h) + f (x) lim
=
y0
h0
h0
h
h
= f (x)g(x) + f (x)g (x)

## , , , lim g(x + h) = g(x).

h0

2. ,
(
)
1
g (x)
= 2
.
g(x)
g (x)
,
(

1
g(x)

)
= lim

h0

1
g(x+h)

1
g(x)

g(x + h) g(x)
=
h0 g(x)g(x + h)h
h
1
g(x + h) g(x)
g (x)
= 2
lim
= 2
.
g (x) h0
h
g (x)
= lim

,
(
) (
)
(
)
f (x)
1
1
1
= f (x)
= f (x)
+ f (x)
=
g(x)
g(x)
g(x)
g(x)
(
)
1
g (x)
f (x)g(x) f (x)g (x)
= f (x)
+ f (x) 2
=
.
g(x)
g (x)
g 2 (x)

25.
. ,
(

tg x

(
=

sin x
cos x

)
=

## cos2 x sin x ( sin x)

1
=
.
2
cos x
cos2 x

1
5.4. f (x)
1
. g(x) = x1 . f (x)

g(f (x)),
1
= g(f (x)),
f (x)

( 1 )
x

1
f (x)

)
=

1
f (x) = g (f (x))f (x),
f 2 (x)

= x12 . .

## f 2 (x) = (f (x) f (x)) =

= f (x)f (x) + f (x)f (x) = 2f (x)f (x) = g (f (x))f (x),

## g(x) = x2 , g (x) = 2x g (f (x)) = 2f (x).

, .
5.6 ( ). f (x) x(0 ,
g(x)
)
y0 = f (x0 ), g f (x) x0 ,

( (
))
(
)
g f (x) |x=x0 = g f (x0 ) f (x0 ).
, f (x0 ) = 0 u(h) = f (x0 + h) f (x0 ).

lim u(h)
h = f (x0 ) = 0, u(h) = 0
h = 0. ,
(
)
(
)
(
)
g f (x0 + h) g f (x0 )
g y0 + u(h) g(y0 )
=
=
h
(h
)
g y0 + u(h) g(y0 ) u(h)
=

g (y0 ) f (x0 ) h 0.
u(h)
h

147

148

5.
( (
))
f (x0 ) = 0. , g f (x) |x=x0 = 0.
u(h) = f (x0 + h) f (x0 ) = h(h), (h) 0 h 0.
y0 = f (x0 ).
(
)
(
)
g f (x0 + h) = g y0 + u(h) = g(y0 ) + g (y0 )u(h) + u(h)(u(h)) =
= g(y0 ) + g (y0 )h(h) + h(h)(u(h)) =
(
)
= g(y0 ) + h g (y0 )(h) + (h)(u(h)) .
, . .
5.5.
. f (x) = ln(1 + x2 ).

f (x) = (ln) (1 + x2 ) (1 + x2 ) =

1
2x
2x =
.
2
1+x
1 + x2

## 5.7 ( ). f (x) g(x)

. x = a f (a) = 0, g(x)
f (a),
g (f (a)) =

1
.
f (a)

b = f (a), a = g(b),

1
g (b) =
.
f (g(b))
. (a, f (a))
y = f (x), (f (a), a) y = g(x),
y = x. f (a)

, g (f (a))
. ,
. y = kx + b,
x = ky + b, y = k1 x kb .
, k1 ,
.

25.
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
1

,
,
g(x), f (x)? ,
, ,

(
) . ,
g f (x) = x, , ,
(
)
1 = (x) = g(f (x)) = g (f (x)) f (x),

g (f (a)) =

1
f (a)

, ,
g(y) g(b)
g(f (x)) g(f (a))
= lim
=
xa
yb
yb
f (x) f (a)
1
xa
= lim
=
.
xa f (x) f (a)
f (a)

g (b) = lim

, ,
. ,
, ! ,

.

. ,
(, x [1; 1]):
sin(arcsin x) = x, cos(arccos x) = x, tg(arctg x) = x.

149

150

5.
1. (arcsin x) =

1
, x (1; 1);
1 x2

2. (arccos x) =
3. (arctg x) =

1
, x (1; 1);
1 x2

1
, x R.
x2 + 1

## 1,2. (sin x) = cos x,

(arcsin x) =

1
1
1
.
=
=
cos(arcsin x)
1 x2
1 sin2 (arcsin x)

.
3. , cos2 x =

1
tg2 x+1 .

(tg x) =

1
cos2 x ,

(arctg x) =

1
1
cos2 (arctg x)

= cos2 (arctg x) =

1
1
= 2
.
x +1
tg2 (arctg x) + 1

5.6. g(x) x = y + y 3 .
g (2).
. , , x R
y R, x. , x y 3 + y = x. , ,
f (x) = x3 + x , . , ,
x = 2 ,
f (x). , 2 = f (1), g(2) = 1,
g (2) = f 1(1) = 14 .

1. : ) sin(x2 ); ) sin2 x; ) ln(x3 ); ) ln3 x.
2. : ) (x 1)2 (x + 2)3 ; ) x ln x; ) x2 ex ;

) (2x + 1) x.
3. : )

2x+1
;
x+2

x
;
2x+1

ln x
;
x

ex
.
x1

11
4. .
5. , , ln x ex .
6. ,
f (x) g(x) ,
x0 f (x0 ), ,
y = x.
7. ) y = sin x; ) y = arctg x.
8. y =
.

x3
,
x2 3

## 9. q(x) , q(1) = q(2) = 0, q (1) = p

q (2) = q. .

11
5.7. ,

f (x) = 2x + 1:
) x = 0; ) . , .
)

f (0) = lim

x0

2x + 1 1
2
= lim
= 1.
x0
x
2x + 1 + 1

) ,

2(x0 + h) + 1 2x0 + 1
=
f (x0 ) = lim
h0
h
2
1
= lim
.
=

h0
2x0 + 1
2(x0 + h) + 1 + 2x0 + 1

. ,
( )
(
)
1
1
1
x = ,
2x + 1 =
2=
.
2 x
2 2x + 1
2x + 1

151

152

5.

5.8. y = 2x + 1,
: ) 4; ) (1, 0).
,
x0 y = f (x0 ) + f (x0 )(x x0 ).
x0 = 4, f (x0 ) = 3, f (x0 ) = 2x1 +1 = 13 . ,
0
y = 3 + 13 (x 4), y = x+5
3 .

, (1, 0).
:
y=

x x0
x + x0 + 1
2x0 + 1 +
, y =
.
2x0 + 1
2x0 + 1

y = 0 x = 1, x0 = 0. ,
y = x + 1.
.
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
-1

-0.5

5.9. ,

.
k , y = ax2 + bx + c
,
2ax+b = k,
, a = 0.
5.10. , :
ln x
1) (2x + 1)9 ; 2) sin 2x + cos 3x; 3) x ln x; 4) x3 ex ; 5)
; 6) (x 1)2 ex ;
x

x+1
1 x 1
x3 + 1
; 10) ln
7) (x 1) x; 8)
; 9)
.
x
2
x + 1
x1

11
.
. x < 1.

1 x 1 1
1x
1
ln
= ln
= (ln(1 x) ln(1 x)).
2 x + 1 2 1 x
2
, :
(
)
(
)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

+
=

= 2
.
2
1 x 1 x
2 x1 x+1
x 1
x (1; 1) x > 1,
(

)
1
1 x 1
= 2
ln
2
x + 1
x 1

.
5.11.
.
,
(
)
(uvw) = u(vw) = u (vw) + u(vw) = u vw + uv w + uvw .
5.12. x =
1: ) f (x) = (x 1)2 (x);
) g(x) = (x 1)(x); ) h(x) = (x 1) arctg x 3 + x2 .
) ) , (x) .
, , (x)
. . )
f (x) = 2(x 1)(x) + (x 1)2 (x),
f (1) = 0. ): g (x) = (x) + (x 1) (x)
g (1) = (1).
. ,
(x 1)2 (x)
= lim (x 1)(x) = 0,
x1
x1
x1

f (1) = lim

153

154

5.
(x) .
, g (1), , (x)
1.
g (1) = lim

x1

(x 1)(x)
= lim (x) = (1).
x1
x1

arctg x 3 + x2 , ,

h (1) = arctg 1 4 = .
2
(
)
5.13. ln(2 + tg x) .
(
)
g f (x) f (x) = 2 + tg x g(x) =
ln x. g (x) = x1 ,
(
)
g f (x) =

1
1
=
.
f (x)
2 + tg x

, ,
(

)
ln(2 + tg x) =

1
1
1

=
.
2 + tg x cos2 x
cos x(2 cos x + sin x)

5.14. , :

(
)8
x
; 2) ln | cos x|; 3) ln(x+ x2 + 1); 4) sin x+cos x ; 5) arctg(ln2 x).
1)
2
x +1

.
.
(
)
1
1
arctg(ln2 x) =
2 ln x .
4
x
1 + ln x

11.1. :
) y = x2 2x, 45 ;

) y = x 2x + 1, x + 2y = 0.

26.

11.2.
: 1) arcsin x+x 1 x2 ;
x

2
2) ln tg ; 3) (1 + cos2 5x)6 ; 4) x 3 2 + tg2 x; 5) (x 1)3 ex .
2

11.3. ax loga x.
11.4. , , y = xk ,
.
11.5. y 2 = 2px, (x0 , y0 ), .
11.6. ,
f (x), x sin x1 x = 0 x = 0, . ?

26.

## 5.8. f (x) c (a; b)

f (c) = 0. h > 0 :
f (c h) < f (c) < f (c + h), f (c) > 0,
f (c h) > f (c) > f (c + h), f (c) < 0.
(c)
f (c) > 0. f (c+h)f
f (c),
h
f (c+h)f (c)
> 0
,
h
h = 0. f (c + h) f (c) h, ,
h > 0 f (c h) < f (c) < f (c + h).

## 5.9 (). f (x)

(a; b), c (a; b) f (c) > f (x) x (a; b). f (x) x = c, f (c) = 0.
.
, f (c) > 0, f (c+h) > f (c)
h, .

155

156

5.
5.10 (). f (x)
[a; b], (a; b) f (a) = f (b). c (a; b), , f (c) = 0.
f (x)
[a; b] , .
f (x1 ) 6 f (x) 6 f (x2 ) x [a; b]. f (x1 ) = f (x2 ),
f (x) , f (x) = 0 x (a; b).
f (x1 ) < f (x2 ), , , f (a) = f (b),
x1 x2 , ,
(a; b). , , x1 (a; b).
f (x1 ) 6 f (x) x [a; b], , ,
f (x1 ) = 0.
5.11 (). f (x)
[a; b] (a; b).
c (a; b), ,
f (b) f (a) = f (c)(b a).

g(x) = f (x) f (a)

f (b) f (a)
(x a).
ba

, g(a) = 0, , , g(b) = 0.
c (a; b), , g (c) = 0.
,
f (b) f (a)
g (x) = f (x)
,
ba

f (c) =

f (b) f (a)
, f (b) f (a) = f (c)(b a).
ba

. 1. . f (x)
[a; b] f (x) = 0 x (a; b), f (x)
.
, f (x)
[a; x], , f (x) f (a) = f (c)(x a) = 0, ,
f (x) = f (a) x [a; b].

26.
2. .
f (x) [a; b] f (x) > 0 (f (x) 6 0)
x (a; b), f (x) (,
).
x1 , x2 [a; b], x1 < x2 .

f (x2 ) f (x1 ) = f (c)(x2 x1 ) > 0,
f (x) .
, f (x) > 0 (f (x) < 0) x (a; b), f (x)
( ) [a; b]. ,
, ;
.
f (x) = x3 .
- .
, ().
.
5.15. f (x) = x3 3x. f (x) = 3x2 3 = 3(x
1)(x + 1), f (x) > 0 x (; 1] [1; +) f (x) 6 0 x
[1; 1]. ,
(; 1] [1; +), [1; 1].
5.16. f (x) = x1 . , f (x) = x12 < 0 x
. , ? , ,

, f (1) = 1 < 1 = f (1). ,

, .
, f (x) = x1
(; 0) (0; +),
!
5.12 (). f (x) g(x)
[a; b], (a; b) g (x) = 0
x (a; b). c (a; b), ,
f (b) f (a)
f (c)
=
.
g(b) g(a)
g (c)

157

158

5.

f (x) f (a) g(x) g(a)
h(x) =
f (b) f (a) g(b) g(a)

, h(b) = h(a) = 0. ,
c (a; b), , h (c) = 0.

f (x)
g (x)

,
h (x) =
f (b) f (a) g(b) g(a)

f (c)
h (c) =
f (b) f (a)

g (c)
=
g(b) g(a)
= f (c)(g(b) g(a)) g (c)(f (b) f (a)) = 0.

## , f (c)(g(b) g(a)) = g (c)(f (b) f (a)), ,

, g (c) = 0 g(b) g(a) = 0, .
. g(x) = x .
( ). , f (x) g(x) a, f (a) = g(a) = 0, g (x) = 0 a.

f (x)
lim
= A,
xa g (x)

f (x)
lim
= A.
xa g(x)
, x
cx , a x, ,
f (x)
f (x) f (a)
f (cx )
=
=
.
g(x)
g(x) g(a)
g (cx )
x a, , , cx a, ,
,
f (x)
f (cx )
f (x)
= lim
= lim
= A.
xa g(x)
xa g (cx )
xa g (x)
lim

26.
5.17. lim sinx x ? x0

, cos1 x = cos x,
1 x 0 .
, lim sinx x = 1.
x0

, ,
, ! , ,
.
5.18.
lim

x0

tg x sin x
.
x3

.
, . ,
, ,
.
1
tg x sin x
1 cos3 x
cos2 x cos x
=
lim
=
lim
=
x0
x0
x0 3x2 cos2 x
x3
3x2
(1 cos x)(1 + cos x + cos2 x)
1 cos x
sin x
1
= lim
= lim
= lim
= .
x0
x0
x0 2x
3x2
x2
2

lim

5.19. ,
. , , lim x ln x = 0. ,
x0

x ln x =

x
1
ln x

, ,
x ln2 x!

1. : ) y = x3 x2 ;

2
) y = x2 ex ; ) y = xx2 1
; ) y = 2x + 1 x.
+1

159

160

5.
2. : ) y =
) y = x +

4
;
x2

) y = x +

2
;
x

) y =

x2
;
x1

x2
.
x1

3. , f (x) = arcsin(sin x)
[0; ] .
4. .
c (a; b), ,
f (b) f (a) = f (c)(b a). , c (a; b) g(b) g(a) = g (c)(b a).
, .

5. f (x) = x 4x + 1 ,
,
x = 0 x = 6.
6. f (x) = x2/3 . , f (1) = f (1). ) , ?
)
?
(
)
7. u(x) = f h(x) , h(x) , g(x) [a; b]. ,
u(x),
.

12
5.20. , arcsin x + arccos x = const.
(
)
1
1
arcsin x + arccos x = 1x
1x
= 0
2
2
x (1; 1), , , , , . x = 0, , 2 .
, ,
arcsin x + arccos x =

.
2

## 5.21. : ) f (x) = x2 ex ; ) g(x) = (x 1)3 (x 4)2 ; ) h(x) = x 2 sin x,

x [0; 2].
) , f (x) = 2xex x2 ex = x(2 x)ex ,

12

f (x)
f (x)

0r + 2r

[0; 2],
(; 0] [2; +).
)
g (x) = 3(x 1)2 (x 4)2 + 2(x 1)3 (x 4) = (x 1)2 (x 4)(5x 14),
, (
[
]
), , g(x) (] 14
5 ;4 ,
; 14
[[4; +).
5
] [
]
) h (x) = 1 2 cos x, [ ] 0; 3 5
3 ; 2
.
, 3 ; 5
3
4
y = x+1
. ,
x2 +1
.
5.22. f (x) = x+1
.
x2 +1

f (x) =

x2 + 1 x(x+1)
1x
x2 +1

= 2
,
2
(x
+ 1)3/2
x +1

(; 1]

[1; +).
(1, 2).
5.23. f (x) = x(x 3)2 .

f (x) = (x 3)2 + 2x(x 3) = (x 3)(x 3 + 2x) = 3(x 3)(x 1),
, ,
, ,
f (x)
f (x)

+ 1r 3r +

161

162

5.
, ,
, , , . ,
x
f (x)

0
0

1
4

3
0

4
4

:
8
6
4
2
-1

-2

## 5.24. f (x) = x(x 3)2

[2; 3].
, [2; 1]
[1; 3],
x = 1.
. f (2) = 50 f (3) = 0,
min{f (x) | x [2; 3]} = 50. , [50; 4].
5.25.
:

3
) f (x) = x2 (3 x); ) g(x) = 2x + 3 x2 [2; 2].
) : [0; 20].
) . ,
,
x . ,

2
2(1 + 3 x)

g (x) = 2 +
=
,
3
3
x
x
:

12

f (x) 2
r + 1
r 0b
f (x)

163

2r

[
] 2, 1, 0 2,
: 0; 4 + 3 3 4 .
5.26. , 5x3 20x + 16 = 0
.
f (x) = 5x3 20x+16. , f (0) = 16 f (1) = 1
, [0; 1].
[0; +).
2
f (x)
20 = 5(3x2 4),

[ =2 15x
]
[
)
0; 3 , 23 ; + . ,
x = 23 [0; +).
,
(
)
( )
5
f 23 = 16 1
> 0.
3 3
, f (x) > 0 x > 0,
, [0; +)
.

12.1. a
x3 6x2 + 9x a = 0?

12.2. f (x) = 2x + 2 x
: ) [1; 0]; ) [1; 1]; ) [1; 7].
12.3. f (x)g(x) .
12.4. f (x) = xx .
12.5. arctg x + arctg x1 . ,
?
2x
2x
; ) y = 2
.
x2 + 1
x 1

3
12.7. y = 2x + 3 x2 .
12.6. : ) y =

164

5.

27. .

, , ,
. .
. a ( ) f (x), ,
x f (x) 6 f (a) (, f (x) > f (a)). .
,
, .
, . ,
, x = 1 , x = 1 .
3

2.5

1.5

2
1.5

0.5

0.5
-2

-1

-1.5

-1

-0.5

-0.5

0.5

1.5

-0.5

, ,
, ,
. , ,
.
1.75
1.5
1.25
1
0.75
0.5
0.25
-4

-2

27. .

3
, f (x) = x2 . x = 0 2
f (x) = 3
3 x . ,
x = 0, , , , x = 0.
.
lim

x0

f (x)
1
= lim
= .
x0 3 x
x

, , , .
5.27. f (x) = x2 sin x1 x = 0 f (0) = 0. ,
.
x = 0, f (x) = 2x sin x1 cos x1 .
x = 0 . , ,
,
, x = 0.
. , , ,
f (0) = lim

x0

f (x)
= lim x sin x1 = 0,
x0
x

.
, , 2x sin x1 cos x1 x 0,
, ,
R .
, , .
5.28.
f (x) = 2x + x12 .
f (x) = 2 x23
, ,
2

2
2x3 2
2(x 1)(x2 + x + 1)
=
=
.
x3
x3
x3

, ,
, .

165

166

5.

f (x)
f (x)

+ 0b 1r +

, (0; 1] (; 0) [1 + ). , (0; +)
f (1) = 3.
.
5.29. , x R
ex > 1 + x.
f (x) = ex x. f (x) =
e 1, f (0) = 0,
.
x

f (x)
f (x)

0r

, (; 0] f (x) ,
[0; +) , f (0) = 1
. , f (x) = ex x > 1,
.

, . , ,
, .
5.13. f (x)
[a; b].
:
, . . f (x) = 0;
, ;
a b .
.

27. .

167

5.30. .
,
, , , . ,
. , M (x, y) , (x, y) (x, y).
, M . ,
,
M((x, y)

)
x2
2
s = 4xy = 4x b 1 a2 = 4 ab x a2 x2 .

## f (x) = x a2 x2 , x [0; a].

, , f (x) = 0. ,
f (x) =

x2
a2 2x2
a2 x2
=
= 0 x =
a2 x2
a2 x2

a
2

, , , ,
x = a2 ,

max s = 2ab 2.
5.31. , 3 .
?
x ,
4x . ,
3 4x , , 0 6 x 6 34 .
h = 43 x, v
v(x) = x2 h = x2

(3
4

)
x = 34 x2 x3 .

## v (x) = 32 x 3x2 = 32 x(1 2x)

0 x = 0 x = 12 .
x = 0; 21 ; 34 .
v(x) , (

)
1
x = 12 . , max v(x) = v 12 = 16
3 , 62, 5 .

168

5.
, , , . ,
, , , , ,
, x .
5.32. y = 2x +

1
x2 .

f (x) = 2x + x12 .
(; 0) (0; +).
, , : (; 0) [1; +)
, (0; 1] .
f (1) = 3. , , x 0 x . , f (x) +
x 0. , f (x) 2x = x12 0 x , ,
y = 2x . ,
. , .
8
6
4
2
-2

-1

-2

,
, ,
. .
5.33. y =

ln x
.
x

(0; +). , , , ,
(
)
1
x ln x
ln x
1 ln x
= x
=
,
x
x2
x2

27. .
, x (0; e], x [e; +).
x = e 1e . , lnxx x 0.
, , x +.
, ,
, , lnxx 0
x +.
.
,
.
5.14 ( ). f (x) g(x) , , :
1. f (x) 0 g(x) 0 x a;
1. f (x) g(x) x a;
2. f (x) 0 g(x) 0 x ;
2. f (x) g(x) x .

lim

f (x)
g (x)

: 1. x a; 2. x ,

f (x)
f (x)
= lim
.
g(x)
g (x)

, 1 . ,
.
f (x) = ln x g(x) = x x .

(x)
f (x) = x1 , g (x) = 1, fg (x)
= x1 0, ,
ln x
x 0 x .
.
2
1
5
-1
-2
-3
-4

10

15

20

169

170

5.
, , ,
. .

1. ,
.
2. ,
r,
.
[
]
3. : ) a(x) = sin 2xx, x 4 ; 4 ;

2
b2
) b(x) = ax + 1x
, x (0; 1) ( a, b > 0); ) c(x) = x a2 x2 .

## 4. : ) 2 x > 3 x1 x > 1; ) ln x > 2(x1)

x+1
x > 1; ) sin x + tg x > 2x 0 < x < 2 .

5. , 5 x + 11 6 x6 x > 0?
.
6.

:
x+31
x+32
x+3 3
) y =
; ) y =
; ) y =
.
x
x
x
ln(2x + 1) ln 3

7. f (x) =
: ) x 0;
x1
) x 1; ) x +.

8. 5 5 5, 6 6 6 7 7 7 .
9. , x3 + px + q = 0 3
2
, p27 q4 > 0.

13
.
5.34.
f (x) = 3 sin10 x + 3 cos10 x.
, ,
f (x) = 30 sin9 x cos x 30 cos9 x sin x = 30 sin x cos x(sin8 x cos8 x).

13

171

,
f (x) = 0.
, [0; ]. , , .
x
f (x)

0
3

4
3
16

3
4
3
16

3
16 ; 3

]
.

## 5.35. f (x) = 3 sin10 x + 3 cos10 x.

,
, , (
3
) , , 3 16
,
. .
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
-1

.
5.36. : ) lim xk ex ; ) lim xx .
x+

x0

) k , , k k
xex ,
k
x
lim (1) k!e = 0. , . ,
x+

k ,
n > k xk ex < xn ex .
) xx = ex ln x . x ln x
1
ln x
x
,

= x 0
1
x12
x
x 0. , x ln x 0, , xx 1 x 0.

172

5.
.
5.37. , > 1, (1 + x) > 1 + x
x > 1.
f (x) = (1 + x) x.
(
)
f (x) = (1 + x)1 = (1 + x)1 1 = 0 x = 0.
, 1 > 0, f (x) > 0
x > 0 f (x) < 0 x(1; 0). ,
f (x) b 0r
f (x)

f (0) = 1 f (x), .
, (1 + x) ( > 1).
5.38. f (x) = x32 + x23 .
, f (x) =

6
6
6(x + 1)
4 =
, .
x3
x
x4
8
6
4
2

-4

-3

-2

-1

-2

5.39. 11
, , , .
?

13

x , 1 2x. 2
v(x) = x(2x
[
]1) .
1
0; 2 ,
.
v (x) = (2x 1)2 + 4x(2x 1) = (2x 1)(6x 1) = 0 x = 12 ; 61 .

, , ,
x = 16 , . ,
.
5.40. ln x < x1 x > 0, x = 1.
f (x) = x ln x , f (x) > 1

. f (x) = 1 x1 = x1
x , f (x) < 0

## x (0; 1) f (x) > 0 x > 1. , f (1) = 1

, .
, 27
ex > 1 + x. ,
x = t + 1, ln(t + 1) < t, t + 1 < et .
5.41. r h
,
.
v = r2 h.
r, ,
h 2r ().

173

174

5.


r




h

, S = 2r2 + 2rh. x . v, h = xv 2 .
,
(
v)
2v
= 2 x2 +
.
s(x) = 2x2 +
x
x
s(x) (0; +). ,
s(x) + x 0 x +.
, s(x) . ,

(
v )
v
.
s (x) = 2 2x 2 = 0 x = 3 2
x
, ,

v
v
v3
3 4v
3
=
=
h=
=
= 2x.
v2
3
2
x2

3
42
v2
4

13.1. , (0; 1) (1 + x) 6 1 + x
x > 1.
13.2. a,
f (x) = ax + sin 2x .
13.3. ) : y = xx ; y =
x1/x . )
zn = n n.
13.4. a
ax3 3x 2 = 0?

13.5. : ) y = (x 2)2 ex ; ) y = x + 1 ex .

28.
13.6. 50 80
, , , .
?

28.
. , , -, ,
-, , .
f (x)
. , ,
( 4 ) ( 4 ) ( 3 )
x
= (x ) = 4x = 12x2 .
, . , , , , .
. f (x)
() , f (x) () . f (x) ()
( () ), f (x)
.
.
5.15. f (x) > 0 x
, f (x) ( ).
, .
5.42. : f (x) = ax2 + bx + c a > 0; f (x) = x1
x > 0, f (x) = ax , f (x) = ln x. ( )
, (ax2 + bx + c) = 2a > 0, x1 = x23 > 0 x > 0, ,
( ln x) = x12 > 0.

175

176

5.
.
5
4
3
2
1
-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

, ,
. , [1,5; 0]
[0; 2]. .
. x0 f (x),
(a; b) x0 , (a; x0 ] [x0 ; b) ( ).
, (x0 , f (x0 )) .

, , ,
,
. , ,
, .
5.43. .
. 16 , ex > 1 + x x = 0.
.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

28.

177

5.16. ()
(, ) .
. f (x)
, x0 . ,
f (x) > f (x0 ) + f (x0 )(x x0 ) x = x0 .
g(x) = f (x) f (x0 ) f (x0 )(x x0 ). g (x) = f (x),
g(x) . g (x0 ) = 0 g (x)
, g (x) < 0 x < x0 g (x) >
0 x > x0 . , g(x0 ) = 0
g(x), .
5.44. f (x) = (1 + x)n , n > 2 . f (x) = n(n 1)(1 + x)n2 > 0
x > 1, [1; +).
x = 0 y = 1 + nx.
,
,
(1 + x)n > 1 + nx x (1; 0) (0; +).
. ,
. f (x) =
(1 + x) , > 1, f (x) > 0 x > 1, (0; 1) ,
f (x) < 0 x > 1. ,
:
> 1, (1 + x) > 1 + x x > 1;
(0; 1) (1 + x) 6 1 + x x > 1.
= 43 .
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

178

5.
5.17.
.
x1 < x2 . ,
f (x) < f (x1 ) +

)
f (x2 ) f (x1 ) (
x x1
x2 x1

## x1 < x < x2 . , g(x) =

)
(x1 ) (
f (x1 ) + f (xx22)f
x x1 f (x). , g(x1 ) = g(x2 ) = 0.
x1
, c (x1 ; x2 ), g (c) = 0.
g , g (x) > 0 x < c
g (x) < 0 x > c. , g
[x1 ; c] [c; x2 ]. g(x1 ) = g(x2 ) = 0, , ,
g(x) > 0 x (x1 ; x2 ) ().

y=g(x)
x1

x2

. f (x) () ,
f (x) = ax + b .
, . x
(x1 ; x2 ), x = (1 t)x
( 1 + tx2 , )t (0; 1).
x f (1t)x1 +tx2 ,
, , (1 t)f (x1 ) + tf (x2 ).
, f
,
(
)
f (1 t)x1 + tx2 < (1 t)f (x1 ) + tf (x2 )
t (0; 1). , t = 12 ,
f

( x1 +x2 )
2

<

## f (x1 )+f (x2 )

2

14

179

1. .
2. , : ) f (x) , f (x) ; )
; ) ?
3. ,
, .
4. : ) a(x) = sin x; ) b(x) = x4 2x2 +1;
) c(x) = x2x+1 .
5. ) x0 f (x) = x3 + 3x2 + 5x 1.
) ,
(x0 , f (x0 )).
6. sin

1
2

sin

30

>

1
.
10

7. f (x) , a1 , a2 , . . . , an ,
. , x1 , x2 , . . . , xn

f (a1 x2 + . . . + an xn ) 6 a1 f (x1 ) + . . . + an f (xn )

( )

8. : ) n ;
) .

14
5.45.

: ) ax2 + bx + c; ) x3 + 2x2 + 3x;

3
2
2
) 1 x ; ) 1 + x ?
(
)
) ax2 + bx + x = 2a, ( a > 0,
, a > 0.
)
) x3 +2x2 +3x = 6x+4,
[ 2
) .

;
+
,
3
(
; 32 ].

(
)
4
3
) , 1 x2 = 29 x 3 > 0 x = 0. ,
[0; +)

180

5.
(; 0], , ,
!
(
)
1
)
1 + x2 =
, (1 + x2 )3/2
.
5.46. y = x24x
+1 , .
,
)
(
4x
8x(x2 3)
=
,
x2 + 1
(x2 + 1)3

,
[ 3; 0]

[ 3; +). .
4
3
2
1
-6

-4

-2

-1
-2
-3
-4

5.47. 2x = 4 + 2x x2 ?
, , (
x = 2). , (; 1] ?
.
5
4
3
2
1
-2

-1

1
-1
-2

14
, , , ,
, 2x 4 + 2x + x2 , ,
.
5.48. , f (x0 ) = 0, f (x0 ) > 0, x0
.
f (x0 ) > 0, (a; b) x, ,
f (x) < f (x0 ) = 0 x (a; x0 ) f (x) > f (x0 ) = 0
x (x0 ; b). ,
(a; x0 ] [x0 ; b), , x0
.

## 5.49. , f (0) = f (0) = 1 f (0) > 0.

(0, 1). (, ,
).
y = f (x) (0, 1)
y = x + 1. , .
(0, 1)
().

5.50. f (x) = x3 + x2 2x 1.
,
x = 1. .
, f (1) = 1. f (x) = 3x2 + 2x 2, f (1) = 1.
, y = 1 (x + 1) = x.
,

181

182

5.
x3 + x2 2x 1 = x, x3 + x2 x 1 = 0.
x3 + x2 x 1 = x2 (x + 1) (x + 1) = (x + 1)(x2 1) = (x + 1)2 (x 1),
, ,
x = 1. (1, 1).
.
2
1.5
1
0.5
-3

-2

-1

-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2

## 5.51. , p(x) , p(a) = p (a) = 0,

p(x) = (x a)2 q(x), q(x) .
p(a) = 0, p(x) xa,
p(x) = (x a)q1 (x), q1 (x) . p (x) =
q1 (x) + (x a)q1 (x), q1 (a) = p (a) = 0, , q1 (x) = (x a)q(x),
p(x) = (x a)2 q(x).
5.52. .

.
.

29*.

14.1. 5.52
.
14.2. ( ) :
) f (x) = ln(1 + ex ); ) g(x) = x4 x2 + 1; ) h(x) = ex x3 ?
14.3. a,
f (x) = ax4 + x3 + x2 5x + 3 .
14.4. , f (x) (g(x) ) , g f (x) ?
, g(x),
.
( )
14.5. , sin x > 2x
x 0; 2 .
(
)
14.6. , 0; 2 sinx x ,
tgxx .

29*.
.
. . .

183

184

5.
, f (x) [a; b]
.
,
. , . f (a) < 0 < f (b).

[a1 ; b1 ] [a2 ; b2 ] . . . , f (an ) < 0 < f (bn ).
5.18 ( ). an bn f (x) = 0.
, .
5.19 ( ). q (0; 1), , |f (x)f (y)| 6 q |xy| x, y R.
f (x) = x x . x xn+1 =
f (xn ) x0 .
, . ,
f (x1 ) = x1 f (x2 ) = x2 , |x1 x2 | = |f (x1 ) f (x2 )| 6
q |x1 x2 |, , q < 1, , x1 = x2 .
.
, . ,
. .
5.20.

1. |xn+1 xn | 6 q n |x1 x0 |;
2. |xn+k xn | 6

qn
1q

|x1 x0 |.

## 1. |xn+1 xn | = |f (xn ) f (xn1 )| 6 q |xn xn1 |,

|xn+1 xn | 6 q |xn xn1 | 6 q 2 |xn1 xn2 | 6 . . . 6 q n |x1 x0 |.

29*.

185

2. ,
|xn+k xn | = |xn+k xn+k1 + xn+k1 . . . + xn+1 xn | 6
6 |xn+k xn+k1 | + |xn+k1 xn+k2 | + . . . + |xn+1 xn | 6
(
)
6 q n+k1 + q n+k2 + . . . + q n |x1 x0 | 6
qn
6 q n (1 + q + q 2 + . . .) |x1 x0 | =
|x1 x0 |.
1q
. , , , . xn x .
xn+1

f (xn )

f (x )

f (x) . .
. |f (x)| 6 q < 1 x R, f (x) = x
.
. x0 .
f (x), x1
.
y = f (x0 ) + f (x0 )(x x0 ),
0)
y = 0, , x1 = x0 ff(x
(x0 ) .
x2 , ,
(x1 , f (x1 )), . ,

xn+1 = xn

f (xn )
.
f (xn )

(5.2)

186

5.
1.5
1
0.5
0.5

1.5

-0.5
-1

5.21 ( ). , f (x),
[a; b], .
f (a) < 0 < f (b). {xn },
(5.2), x0 = b, f (x) = 0.
, {xn }
n=0
. .
, f (xn ) > 0. ,
n)
f (x) , ff(x
(xn ) > 0,
, (5.2), xn+1 < xn . f (x)
, . ,
xn+1 , f (xn+1 ) > 0. , xn > x , x
f (x) = 0. , , {xn } , a. ,
(5.2), , ff(a)
(a) = 0, . .
f (a) = 0, ,
f (x) = 0.
5.53. .
1000 7%,
, 800 .
.
. ,
P0 , n
, Q1 , Q2 , . . . , Qn .
Qi P0 , q,
,

29*.

187

.
P0 =

Q1
Qn
Q2
+ ... +
+
2
1 + q (1 + q)
(1 + q)n

(5.3)

. , ,
, (5.3).
1
x = 1+q
,

Qn xn + Qn1 xn1 + . . . + Q1 x P0 = 0

(5.4)

P0 = P = 800, (
) jN = 0.07 1000,
(1 + j)N = 1.07 1000. (5.4)

(1 + j)N x6 + jN (x5 + x4 + . . . + x) P = 0.
,
1.07 x6 + 0.07 (x5 + x4 + . . . + x) 0.8 = 0.
. x0 = 1.

1.
0.917001
0.89538
0.894115
0.894111
0.894111
0.894111
0.894111
, .
q = x1 1 0,118429. ,
: 11,84%.

188

5.

1. , f (x)
[a; +), f (a) < 0. : ) f (x) = 0
x > a, ) a < x < a ff(a)
.
(a)
2. : ) x5 +x2 +x = 39 0, 02; ) x+2x = 1035
0, 002.
3.

3
x = 0 ,
, .
4. ) , x3 = 3x+1 ;
c1 < c2 < c3 . ) , . ) ,
.
)
(
5. xn+1 = 23 xn + x12 , x0 = 2. :
n
) ; ) . )
?
6. 5.19.

30.
p(x) n. x a,
a ,
p(x) = c0 + c1 (x a) + . . . + cn (x a)n .
x = a, , p(a) = c0 . p(x),
p (x) = c1 + 2c2 (x a) + . . . + cn n(x a)n1 .
, p (a) = c1 . x = a
,
p (a) = 2c2 .
, ,
p(k) (a) = k! ck k = 0, 1, . . . , n
( , p(0) (x) = p(x)). , .

30.

189

5.22 ( ). p(x) n
p(x) = p(a) +

p (a)
1!

(x a) +

p (a)
2!

(x a)2 + . . . +

p(n) (a)
n!

(x a)n .

(n
) . ,
, . , , , . .
. f (x)
, a, n .
pn (x) = f (a) +

f (a)
1!

(x a) +

f (a)
2!

(x a)2 + . . . +

f (n) (a)
n!

(x a)n .

## pkn (a) = f (k) (a) k = 0, 1, . . . , n.

, rn+1 = f (x) pn (x), rn+1 (x)
, f (x) = pn (x) + rn+1 (x),
,

## f (x) = f (a) + f 1!(a) (x a) + f

(a)
2!

(x a)2 + . . . + f

(n)

(a)
n!

,
. ,

## rn+1 (a) = rn+1

(a) = . . . = rn+1 (a) = 0.
(n)

, , .
, . ,

.
5.23. f (x) , , a x, n . -

190

5.
cx , a x, ,
f (x) = f (a) +

f (a)
f (a)
(x a) +
(x a)2 + . . .
1!
2!
f (n) (a)
f (n+1) (cx )
... +
(x a)n +
(x a)n+1 .
n!
(n + 1)!

## , . g(x) = rn+1 (x) =

f (x) pn (x) h(x) = (x a)n+1 . ,
g(a) = g (a) = . . . = g (n) (a) = 0, g (n+1) (x) = f (n+1) (x),
h(a) = h (a) = . . . = h(n) (a) = 0, h(n+1) (x) = (n + 1)! .
,
g(x) g(a)
g (c1 )
g (c1 ) g (a)
g (c2 )
g(x)
=
=
=
=
= ...
h(x)
h(x) h(a)
h (c1 )
h (c1 ) h (a)
h (c2 )
... =

g (n) (cn )
g (n) (cn ) g (n) (a)
g (n+1) (cx )
f (n+1) (cx )
=
=
=
,
(n + 1)! (cn a)
(n + 1)! (cn a)
(n + 1)!
(n + 1)!

,
rn+1 (x) =

f (n+1) (cx )
(x a)n+1 .
(n + 1)!

## . n = 0 f (x) = f (a) + f (c)(x a),

.
5.54. f (x) = ex . f (k) (x) = ex ,
f (k) (0) = 1,
ex = 1 + x +

x2
x3
xn
ec xn+1
+
+ ... +
+
.
2
6
n!
(n + 1)!

## x = 1, 0 < c < 1, ec < e < 3. ,

e=1+1+

1 1
1
+ + ... +
+ r,
2 6
n!

0<r<

3
.
(n + 1)!

31.
, n = 7, ,
e2+

3
8!

3
40320

191

< 0, 0001,

1 1
1
1
1
1
685
+ +
+
+
+
=
2, 71825
2 6 24 120 720 5040
252

.

1. p(x) = x4 3x3 + 2x2 12x + 7
x1, ,

2. ) f (x) = 1 + x, a = 0
n = 4. ) 1, 2

. ) 21
.
(
)

3. f (x) = 12 1 + x + 1 x . , : ) f (x) 6 1;
) f (x) 1

x2
8

5x2
.
128

4. f (x) =

1
.
(1+x)2

5. ) ,
e2 0.001? ) , c e 104 , c2 e2 103 .
, e2 e
104 , , 5.54
, 8 .
6. f (x) = x3 x 6 0 f (x) = x2 x > 0. ) ,
f (0) = f (0) = 0, f (0) . ) a = 1.
x f (x) ?
2

7. ) , p(x) p(x)ex 2
x . ) f (x) = e1/x x = 0, f (0) = 0.
, ( a = 0)
.

31.
5.24 ( ). x
ex = 1 +

x
x2
xn
+
+ ... +
+ n ,
1!
2!
n!

192

5.
n 0 n .

x
x2
xn
ex = 1 + +
+ ... +
+ ...
1!
2!
n!
5.23 ,
ex = 1 +

x2
xn
ec xn+1
x
+
+ ... +
+
,
1!
2!
n!
(n + 1)!

|n | 6 e|x|

|x|n+1
0
(n + 1)!

3.28.
5.25 ( ). x
x3
x5
x2n+1
+
+ . . . + (1)n
+ ... ,
3!
5!
(2n + 1)!
x2
x4
x2n
cos x = 1
+
+ . . . + (1)n
+ ... .
2!
4!
(2n)!
sin x = x

## f (x) = sin x. f (x) = cos x, f (x) = sin x, f (x) =

cos x, f (4) (x) = sin x, ,
f (0)
0

f (0)
1

f (0)
0

f (0)
1

f (4) (0)
0

4. ,
sin x = 0+1

x
x2
x3
x4
x2n+1
+0 +(1) +0 +. . .+(1)n
+r2n+2 (x).
1!
2!
3!
4!
(2n + 1)!

, , |f (k) (x)| 6 1,

|r2n+2 (x)| 6

x2n+2
0
(2n + 2)!

## 3.28. f (x) = cos x,

,

31.

f (0)
1

f (0)
0

f (0)
1

f (0)
0

f (4) (0)
1

, , .
, .
4

-4

-2

-2

-4

5.26. x (1; 1)
1
= 1 x + x2 . . . + (1)n xn + . . . ,
1+x
x2
(1)n1 xn
ln(1 + x) = x
+ ... +
... ,
2
n
p(p 1) 2 p(p 1) . . . (p n + 1) n
(1 + x)p = 1 + px +
x +
x + ...
2!
n!

ln(1 + x) (1 + x)p ,
, ,
,
.
1

, f (x) = 1+x
1
1+x ,

f (x) =

1
2
(1)n n!
, f (x) =
, . . . , f (n) (x) =
,
2
3
(1 + x)
(1 + x)
(1 + x)n+1

, xn
cn =

f (n) (0)
= (1)n ,
n!

193

194

5.
. , ,
(1)n+1 xn+1
0 n , |x| < 1.
1+x
f (x) = ln(1 + x), f (x) =
(
f

(n)

(0) =

1
1+x

)(n1)

1
1+x ,

x=0

= (1)n1 (n 1)!,

,
(1)n (n 1)!
(1)n1
f (n) (0)
=
=
.
n!
n!
n
, f (x) = (1 + x)p
cn =

## f (x) = p(1 + x)p1 , f (x) = p(p 1)(1 + x)p2 , . . .

. . . , f n (x) = p(p 1) . . . (p n + 1)(1 + x)pn ,
,
cn =

f (n) (0)
p(p 1) . . . (p n + 1)
=
.
n!
n!

. x (1; 1)
(
)
1+x
x3
x5
ln
=2 x+
+
+ ...
1x
3
5
1+x
ln 1x
= ln(1 + x) ln(1 x),

x2
x3
+
... ,
2
3
x2
x3
ln(1 x) = x

...
2
3
ln(1 + x) = x

5.55. x = 12 ,

ln 3 = 1 +

1
1
+
+ ...
2
32
5 24

31.
5.56. ,
p = 1. , , ,
1
. ,
ln(1 + x), 1+x
,
!
1
5.57. 1+x
x (1; 1).
, x = 1 1 1 + 1 + . . .
1 = 1 + 1 + . . ., , , . f (x) = ln(1 + x).
x = 1,
ln 2. , ,
1
1+x
x = 1. , ,
x = 1 ,

ln 2 = 1

1 1 1
+ + ...
2 3 4

, , x a,
. .
. , (x) , xk x 0, (x)
0 x 0.
xk
, (x) = o(xk ) (

( ) ).
, xk+1 = o xk ,

## f (x) = f (a)+ f 1!(a) (xa)+ f

(a)
2!

(xa)2 +. . .+ f

(n)

(a)
n!

(
)
(xa)n +o (xa)n .

, , ,
ex = 1+x+

x2 ( 2 )
x3 ( )
x2 x3 ( )
+o x , sin x = x +o x3 , ln(1+x) = x + +o x3
2
6
2
3

.
5.27. : ) o(x2 ) + o(x2 ) = o(x2 );
) x o(x2 ) = o(x3 ); ) o(x2 ) + x3 = o(x2 ); ) o(x2 ) o(x3 ) = o(x5 ).

195

196

5.
) , (x)
0 (x)
0 x 0,
x2
x2
0.
.
(x)+(x)
x2

## 5.58. f (x) = sin x x cos x.

.
.
, f (0) = 0, f (x) = cos x cos x + x sin x = x sin x, ,
f (0) = 0. , f (x) = sin x + x cos x f (0) = 0.
f (x) = cos x + cos x x sin x = 2 cos x x sin x,
3
f (0) = 2, , f (x) = x3 + o(x3 ).

, ,
. ,
sin x = x

x3
x2
+ o(x3 ) cos x = 1
+ o(x2 ),
6
2

(
)
x3
x2
x3
3
2
f (x) = x
+ o(x ) x 1
+ o(x ) =
+ o(x3 ).
6
2
3

1. )) 5.27.
2. : ) a(x) =
) b(x) = x cos x; ) sh(x) = 12 (ex ex ).

1
1x

1
;
1+x

3.

x 0 : ) a(x) = tg x x;
) b(x) = 1 + x 1 x x; ) ,

tg x 1 + x 1 x.

1
, tg 5 0, 20271, 1, 2 0, 8 0, 201018.
4. : ) arctg x; ) arcsin x.
5. , x
arcsin x sh(x).
2
6. : ) x+2
; ) ln(x + 2)
, .

15

15
5.59. x 1
p(x) = x4 3x3 + 8x 3.
, t = x 1, x = t + 1. x
. -.
p(x)
x = 1. , p(1) = 3, p (x) = 4x3 9x2 + 8,
p (1) = 3. , p (x) = 12x2 18x, , p (1) = 6,
p (x) = 24x 18, p (1) = 6. , p(4) (x) = 24.
,
6
6
24
(x 1)2 + (x 1)3 + (x 1)4 =
2
6
24
= (x 1)4 + (x 1)3 3(x 1)2 + 3(x 1) + 3.

p(x) = 3 + 3(x 1) +

5.60.
x
x
ch x = e +e
.
2
, , . , , x
x
sh x = e e
. ,
2
(sh x) = ch x (ch x) = sh x,
, .
,
, ,
x2
x4
+
+ ...,
2!
4!
, .
. ,

ch x = 1 +

x2
x3
x4
+
+
+ ...,
2!
3!
4!
3
4
2
x
x
x
ex = 1 x +

+
+ ...,
2!
3!
4!
.
ex = 1 + x +

197

198

5.
5.61.

3 1 + x 3 9.

( 2)
( 2) 5)
1
1

x
3
2
3 3
3 3 ( 3
1+x=1+ +
x +
x3 + . . . ,
3
2
6

2
5 3
, 3 1 + x 1 + x3 x9 + 81
x . ,
x
(1; 1), ,
3 9,

x = 8.

, 3 9 = 2 3 98 = 2 3 1 + 81 , . ,
, : , , . , x = 18 , ,
(
)
1
2 1 + x3 = 2 + 12
= 25
12 2, 08333
(
2)
1
599
2 1 + x3 x9 = 25
12 288 = 288 2, 07986
(
)
2
5 3
2 1 + x3 x9 + 81
x 2, 0801.
2, 08008.
,
,

3
9 0,001.
5.62. ,
sin 1 0,001.

x2k1
(2k1)! , , , ,

|x|2k
(2k)! .

1
x = 1, (2k)!
. , k = 4.
1
5040 , , . ,

sin 1 1

1
6

1
120

0, 841667

, sin 1 0, 841471.
5.63.
,
e 0,0001.

15

e = e 2 , ex , x = 12 .

|x|
e(n+1)!
, c 0 x.

e 6 2,
1
2n (n+1)! . , , 0,0001, n = 5. ,

1
1
1
e 1 + 12 + 18 + 48
+ 384
+ 3840
= 6331
3840 1, 6487,
c

n+1

e 1, 64872. .

5.64. ln 2 0,001.
-, ln(1 + x) x (1; 1), ,
ln 2. x = 1,
ln 2 = 1

1 1 1
+ + ...,
2 3 4

, , ,
!
1+x
ln 1x
. ln 2, 1+x
x, 1x
= 2, x + 1 = 2 2x, . . x = 13 .
,
(
) 2(
)
1
1
1
1
842
ln 2 2 13 + 81
+ 1215
= 3 1 + 27
+ 405
= 1215
0, 693004 .
ln 2 0, 693147.

15.1. 5.58, .
15.2.

:
) (1 + 2x)2 (1 x)3 ; ) 4 1 + 2x; ) cos3 x.
15.3.

: 1 + x 3x+4
x+4 .
15.4.

15 0,001.

199

200

5.
15.5.
x 0
: ) f (x) = 1 + x 3x+4
;
)
g(x)
=
ln(1
+
x)

x
1 x.
x+4
15.6. : ) limx0

xarctg x
;
x3

) limx0

1cos x
1+xex .

32.
,
. z = a + bi, a
b , i2 = 1.
. ,
2(3 + 4i) (1 + 2i) = 6 + 8i 1 2i = 5 + 6i,

## (3 + 4i) (1 + 2i) = 3 + 6i + 4i + 8i2 = 10i 5, i2 = 1.

, , . .
3 + 4i
(3 + 4i)(1 2i)
11 2i
=
=
.
1 + 2i
(1 + 2i)(1 2i)
5
x2 4x + 5 = 0.
(x 2)2 = 1, x = 2 i. , ,
(
) , (, ) . ,
.
201

202

6.
6.1. x2 (1+3i)x+2i2 = 0. ,
,
D = (1 + 3i)2 4(2i 2) = 1 + 6i 9 8i + 8 = 2i.
. ,
2i. , . , 2i a + bi, ,
(a + bi)2 = 2i, , a b
. ,
{
a2 = b2 ,
(a + bi)2 = 2i a2 b2 + 2abi = 2i
ab = 1.
a = b, a2 = 1, ,
, a = b, a2 = 1,

a = 1, D = (1 i).
x1,2 =

1 + 3i (1 i)
= 1 + i; 2i.
2

, n n-
.
, . , , i2 = 1,
? 16 . ,
, . ,
. ,
,
. , , , ,
.
, ,
. , ,
: ,

32.
, , , .
. ( ).
,
.
1.
2.
3.
4.

a+b=b+a
a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c
0 : a + 0 = a
a b : a + b = 0

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

ab=ba
a (b c) = (a b) c
1 : a 1 = a
a = 0 b : a b = 1
a (b + c) = a b + a c

1 5 , ,
, 2 6 , 3 7 , , , ,
4 8 , , , . , 9
.
N Z Q R : , , , .
,
1, 5, 2, 6, 7 9.
.
Z 3 4, . Q R
19, , ,
, .
,
. , , , 19.

. z(x, y) w(u, v) (, z w ). z + w
(x + u, y + v), zw
(xu yv, xv + yu).
.
C.

203

204

6.
, 19.
, , (1, 0).
8 .

z(a, b)
)
( a
b
w a2 +b
2 , a2 +b2 .
zw =

( a2 +b2

ab+ab
a2 +b2 , a2 +b2

= (1, 0).

a (a, 0), , ,
R C. , R C
, ,
(a, 0) + (b, 0) = (a + b, 0) (a, 0)(b, 0) = (ab, 0).
R C
. , a (a, 0). , , C
1.
i(0, 1). i2 = (0, 1)(0, 1) = (1, 0) = 1,
, (i)2 = 1. ,
1. , , , (b, 0)(0, 1) =
(0, b).
, .
,
(a, b) = (a, 0) + (0, b) = (a, 0) + (b, 0)(0, 1) = a + bi,
a, b R. , z
z = a + bi. a z, b .
, ,
i2 = 1:
(a + bi)(c + di) = ac + adi + bic + bdi2 = ac bd + (ad + bc)i.
, 19.

32.
. |z| z ( ), , |z| =

a2 + b2 .
6.1. |zw| = |z||w|.
z = a + bi w = u + vi. zw = (au bv) + (av + bu)i,

)(
)
(
|zw|2 = (au bv)2 + (av + bu)2 = a2 + b2 u2 + v 2 = |z|2 |w|2
.
. - z = x + iy z = x iy.
, zz = |z|2 , z |z|z 2 = 1. ,
1
z
= 2.
z
|z|

1. 1
1
1
: ) (1 + i)(1 + 2i)(1 + 3i); ) 1+i
+ 1i
+ 1+2i
;
) i2009 ; ) (1 + i)10 .
2. : ) z 2 + 4 = 0; ) iz + 1 = 2z i; ) z 2 + 2z + 5 = 0;
) z 4 3z 2 4 = 0.
3. , : ) |z i| 6 1;
) |iz + 1| > 2; ) z + z > 2; ) zz
6 2.
i
{
{
|z| = |z 4|,
|z| = 1,
4. : )
)
|z| = |z 2i|;
|z i| = 1.
5. ) ; ) , z w = z w; )
|zw| = |z||w|.

6. , |z 1| + |z i| = 2.

= 1.
7. , : ) |z| = 1, z + z1 R; ) z R, zi
z+i

205

206

6.

33.
( ) z = x + yi
z
z = |z|
= |z|(cos + i sin ),
|z|
cos =

x
x2 +y 2

sin =

y
.
x2 +y 2

, -

2, . [0; 2)
[; ).
. z z = r(cos +i sin ) .
r z, ,
. [0; 2) [; ) ().

## zw = |z||w|(cos( + ) + i sin( + )).

, ,
,
zw = |z||w|(cos + i sin )(cos + i sin ) =
= |z||w|(cos cos sin sin + i sin cos + i cos sin ) =
= |z||w|(cos( + ) + i sin( + )).
, , .
( ).
(cos + i sin )n = cos n + i sin n.

33.
, = , ,
(cos + i sin )2 = cos( + ) + i sin( + ) = cos 2 + i sin 2,
,
(cos + i sin )3 = cos(2 + ) + i sin(2 + ) = cos 3 + i sin 3,
. .
6.2. , .
cos 3 + i sin 3 = (cos + i sin )3 =
= cos3 + 3i cos2 sin 3 cos sin2 i sin3 =
= cos3 3 cos sin2 + i(3 cos2 sin sin3 ),

## cos 3 = cos3 3 cos sin2 sin 3 = 3 cos2 sin sin3 .

) z = 1 + i.

6.3.
(
1 + i = 2 cos 4 + i sin 4 ,
(
)
(

)6
3
3
z 6 = 8 cos + i sin
= 8 cos
+ i sin
= 8i.
4
4
2
2
, , ,
(1 + i)2 = 2i, (1 + i)6 = (2i)3 = 8i, ,
, .
6.3. w
z n = w n .
w = r(cos + i sin ).
)
(
zk = n r cos +2k
+ i sin +2k
, k = 0, 1, . . . , n 1.
n
n
,
zkn = r(cos( + 2k) + i sin( + 2k)) = w.
n n,
.

207

208

6.

1. : )
; ) .

: ) 1 + 3 i; ) i 1;
2.

## ) (1 + 3 i)(i 1); ) 1+i13 i .

3. :
(
)4
cos 4 + i sin 4
9
) 3 + 4i; ) cos 8 + i sin 8 ; )

; ) (1 + i) .
cos 12
i sin 12
(
)102
4. : ) cos 8 i sin 8
;
11
) (1 + i 3) .
5. :
) z 4 = i; ) z 6 = 1; ) 1 + z + z 2 + z 3 + z 4 = 0
.
6. z 10 + z 5 2 = 0? .
7. , z 3 = 1
z 5 = 1 z 15 = 1.
8. , |z| = 1,

1+iz
z+i

9. ,

z

z, z2 (i 3 1) z2 (1 + i 3) .

16
6.4.
1+2i
: 1) (1+i)3 ; 2) (1i)(1+3i); 3) 12i
1+i ; 4) 1i+ 2i .
6.5. ) , z +
) z + z1 = 2 cos .

1
z

= 12 , |z| = 1.

, .
6.6. z = cos 6 + i sin 6 . : z 2 ; z 3 ; z 4 ; z 6 .
.
6.7. z 4 = 1 .

34*.
; , .
, 6.3.
6.8. :
) z 2 + (i 2)z + 3 i = 0; ) z 2 + z + 1 + i = 0.

16.1. 1
1
: ) 1i + 1+i
+ 1i
; ) (1 + i) + (1 + i)2 + (1 + i)3 ;
1i
+ 1+3i
) 1+2i
1+i .
16.2. z 2 = 8i 15.
16.3. : ) z 3 +z 2 +z+1 = 0; ) z 5 +z 4 +z 3 +z 2 +z+1 = 0;
) z 3 = 1.
16.4. ( a) z + z1 = a.

34*.
ex , sin x cos x
.
.
(
). 31 ,
ex = 1 + x +

x2
xn
+ ... +
+ ...
2
n!

,
ez = 1 + z +

z2
zn
+ ... +
+ ...
2
n!

z C. :
cos x = 1
sin x = x

x2
2
x3
6

+
+

x4
24 . . .
x5
120 . . .

209

210

6.
,
2

(ix)
(ix)
eix = 1 + ix + (ix)
2 + (6 + 3 24 +). . . =
4
2
= 1 x2 + x24 . . . + i x x6 + . . . = cos x + i sin x.

eix = cos x + i sin x,

ei = 1
:
1, e, i.
eix = cos x + i sin x eix = cos x i sin x,
cos x =

eix eix
eix + eix
sin x =
.
2
2i

, . ,
-,
.
6.4.
(x + 1)n =

k=0

n!
xk .
k!(n k)!

. , . .
Cnk .
:
Cnk =

n!
1 2 ... n
=
=
k!(n k)!
1 2 . . . k 1 2 . . . (n k)
n (n 1) . . . (n k + 1)
=
.
k!

34*.

211

p(x) = (x+1)n . ,
xk p(x)
x
p(k) (0)
n (n 1) . . . (n k + 1)
=
= Cnk ,
k!
k!
.
( ).
(a + b)n =

Cnk ank bk .

(6.1)

k=0

,
(
n

(a + b) = a

b
+1
a

)n
= an

k=0

bk
=
Cnk ank bk .
k
a
n

Cnk

k=0

.
,
.
6.5. eu+v = eu ev .
,

.
. ,
u2
uk
+ ... +
+ ...
2
k!
2
l
v
v
ev = 1 + v +
+ ... +
+ ...
2
l!

eu = 1 + u +

eu ev =

uk v l
1 n! k l
=
u v =
k! l!
n!
k! l!
n=0
n=0
k+l=n

k+l=n

1 k k nk 1
Cn u v
=
(u + v)n = eu+v
=
n!
n!
n=0
n=0
k=0

212

6.
.
. ex+iy = ex (cos y + i sin y).
,
ex , cos x sin x.
,
(
)
f (x) + ig(x) = f (x) + ig (x).

2i

1. : ) e2i ; ) e 2 ; ) e 3 ;
i
) e 4 .
( )n
2. , eix = einx .
3. , cos x = 21 (eix + eix ) sin x =

1
(eix
2i

eix ).

4.
nix

1 + eix + . . . + e(n1)ix =

nix

2
n1
enix 1
ix e 2 e
2
=
e

ix
ix
eix 1
e 2 e 2

## 5. , : ) Cn0 +Cn1 +. . .+Cnn = 2n ; ) Cn0 Cn1 +. . .+(1)n Cnn = 0.

5.
( ) . ex = ex
.
6. , ex cos x.

1 1. C(4, 3) D(1, 3). 2. SOAB = 5. 3. ,
1

## ( 2 ) 3 . 4. B(5, 3); C(3, 5); D(5, 3). 5. ) P (6, 0)

Q 3 , 0 ; ) R(0, 2) S(2, 0). 6. C(2, 0).
7. , . ,

. 8. A(6, 1), B(4, 3) C(2, 7). 9. ) ; ) .
10. ,
x1 +x2
2

+
2

x3 +x4
2

x1 +x3
2

+
2

x2 +x4
2

2 2. ) d(A, ) = 210 . ) , x 3y + 5 = 0
x 3y + 9 = 0. 3. ) A(1, 2). ) 2x 3y + 14 = 0 x + 2y 7 = 0.
4. x + 2y 7 = 0. 5. M y > 2x,
, ,
y = 2x. 7. ) a = 2; 3. ) a = 53 . 8. , .
9. P (3, 5).
1
3 1. arctg 7 = arccos 5
. 2. 3x y = 0 x + 3y = 0. 3. 1 : 2, 2
A. 4. x + 4y 13 = 0 x + 4y 5 = 0.
5. , ; y = 1 y = 0. 6. 3x 2y + 7 = 0.
7. ) x + 2y 6 = 0; ) x + 2y 6 = 0 x + 8y 12 = 0.

4 1. ) 5 P () 1, 2. )
, y = 2x x2 y = x2 2x
O(0, 0) P (2, 0). 5. ) 2.
) ,
, (1, 1)
. 6. ) , (x2 + y 2 1)2 = 4x2 . ) x4 + 2x2 y 2 + y 4 5x2 5y 2 + 4 = 0
1 2, . 7.
|M A|2 +|M B|2 +|M C|2 = const, M , ABC
( ). 8. ) , y = x y = 2x 1; )
. 9. x + y 1 > 0, x 2y + 2 > 0, 2x y 2 6 0.

5 1. ) , , , O, . ) ,

213

214

(. ). 2. ) u = |xy|, v = xy . ) x > 0 y > 0,

x = xy y = uv. 3. ,
xy = 2 xy = 8 2x = y y = 2x
() (2, 1), (1, 2), (4, 2)
(2, 4). 4. x y = 2. 5. ) ; ) ; )
. 6.
x2 + y 2 = 2x.
6 1. ) ax+byc = 0; ) axby+c = 0; ) ax+by2ax0 2by0 c = 0.
2
2. ) y = x2 4x + 3; ) y = (x 4)2 ; ) y = 4 x2 ; ) y = x2 ; ) y = 4x2 .
3. x2 + y 2 = r2 , P
(x0 , y0 ),
(
)2 (
)2
2
x x20 + y y20 = r4 . 4. x = y 2 2y 3.
7 1. (2, 0). 2. ) x2 y 2 = 2; ) x2 3y 2 = 1. 3. x = x
e cos
ye sin + x0 , y = x
e sin + ye cos + y0 . 4. ,
a(1, 2), x2 4xy+y 2 = 11.
5. f (x cos + y sin , x sin y cos ) = 0.
8 1. ) ; ) . 2. ) (1, 2), x2 y 2 = 0;
) , (1, 0), x2 + 2xy + y 2 = 1. 3.
a < 0; a = 0;
a = 1; a (0; 1) (1; +). 4.
(1 + a)x2 + (1 a)y 2 = a. : |a| > 1; a (0; 1); a = 1;
a = 0. a [1; 0) .
9 1. ) x2 + 3y 2 = 2; ) 3x2 y 2 = 1. 2. 8e
x2 2e
y 2 = 1;
1
1
: x = 10 (3e
x ye) y = 10 (e
x + 3e
y ).
10 1. ) , a < 1; ,
a = 1; , a > 1. ) , a = 0;
, a = 0. 2. 7x2 + 6xy y 2 = 1 . 3. .
4. a > 3; a = 3; , a < 3.
11 2.
5. ) r =

y2
x2
4 + 3
2p cos
;
sin2

= 1. 3. ) r2 =
) r =

a2 b 2
.
b2 cos2 +a2 sin2

) r =

b2 /a
1c/a cos .

p
1cos .

## 12 1. ) [1; 11]; ) [0; 5]; ) [1; 7]. 3. ) (1

+ 0, 05)20 > 1 +
20 0, 05 = 2.
3
3
) . 5. ) 2 2; )
4. 6. ) 35 ,
3 ; ) 3
4

3
1
3 = |x + 2y| 6 5 x2 + y 2 ; ) 53 . 9. ) 3 2; ) 2
.
2

13 1. xn = (n+1)
n+2 ,
, , . 2. ) a > 1,
; ) a = 12 , a > 12 ,
n
.
a < 12 . 3. ) ; ; . ) ; ; . ) ; ; . 4. xn = n+1
5. xn ,
yn . zn .
6. ) a = 0; ) a = 1; )
yn zn .
a. 7.
34
8. ) x1 = x2 = 12 . ) x1 = 3 1; ) x6 = 31
. 9. ) n = 10; ) n = 6.
1
14 1. a = 3; n > 217. 2. ) xn 10
.
) . )
. ) limn xn = 0. ) limn xn = 1. )
n
1
. 5. xn = 1a
1a 1a |a| < 1.
a . 6. pq = 23
99 .
2
1
1
7. ) 2 . ) 2. 8. limn xn = 3 . 9. xn = n 0. 10.
, a .

15[ 1. ]) , 1 L 12 R. ) , z = 1. ) ,
z 1; 32 . 2. ) U = [1; +); ) U = [3; +); ) U = [2; +); ) U = ,
D . 3. ) max A
; sup A = 1. ) max A = 3. ) max C ; sup C = 1.
) max D, sup D . 4.
2. 5. ) a = 1.

16 3. ) xn 0; ) yn +; ) zn 1e . 4. ) xn e2 ; ) yn e;
) zn 1. 5. ) xn 12 ; ) yn 1; ) zn 13 . 6. xn 1.
17 1. xn = 2n 1. 2. xn =
p0 > b a, pn b a.

1
n.

4 ). p0 < b a, pn 0,

18 1. ) y = x + 2 x = 1. ) x = 2. 2. ) y = x + 1 x +
y = x 1 x . ) x = 2, y = 1 x + y = 1
x . [
]
2
19 1. ) 14 ; 6 ; ) [0, 1; 1]; ) [1; 1]; ) [0; 49]. 2. ) 4; ) (x1)
.
4
3. ) x4 2x2 ; ) 2x2 1; ) 4x2 + 4x; ) 4x + 3. 4. ) ; ) .
6. (; 1] [0; 1],
[1; 0] [1; +). 7. ) a(x) = f (g(x)),
x+1
f (x) = 1x
; ) b(x) = g(f (x)), f (x) = 2x/2 ; )
2
c(x) = f (x ) , ;
(
)2
c(x) = f (x) ,

215

216

. 8 ). g(x) ,
f (g(x)) .
20 1. ) ; ) ; ) ( ). 2. ) , 0 6 a(x) 6 3.
) , 3, . ) , 0 6 c(x) 6 2. ) , |d(x)| 6 1
x
3.6. 3. , f (x) = xtg
2 1 x = 0 f (0) = 0. 4. a = 3. 5. ) , ,
a = 34 . ) , ,
x = 2. 7. , .
, x = 1, |x| < 1 |x| > 1.
21 1. ) , y = x + 2x , x . ) , x3 x2 6 0
x 6 1 y = x3 x2
[1; +). ) ; , y = 2x cos x R.
. 2. ,,) , . 4. a(x) c(x) [0; 2], ,
, .
b(x) [1; 1), , . 5. ,
f (x) = 1 x [2; 1] f (x) = 1 x [1; 2].
22 1. ) 1; ) 1; ) f (x) . 2. ) 1; ) 32 ; ) .
3. a = 21 ; 32 . 4. limx2 x = 2 limx2 x = 1.
23 1. ) e; ) 2; ) 1. 2. ) 1; ) 1; ) 2 2 . 3. ) e 1; ) e; ) 0.
4. ) 53 ; ) 0; ) 25
9 . 5. ) 0; ) ; ) 0.
b
. 3. y = 2x 2.
24 1. f (x) = 2ax + b. 2. 2ax + b = 0, x = 2a
4. ) a < 0,

. 5. x = 1. 6. f
(1) = 2, f+
(1) = 2. 7.
2
2
2
2
2
(a + h) = a + 2ah + h , (a + h) a + 2ah h2 .
8. f (8) = 15.
2

2
3
1
25 1. ) 2x cos(x2 ); ) 2 sin x cos x = sin 2x; ) 3x
x3 = x ; ) 3 ln x x .
3
2
2
2
2. ) 2(x 1)(x + 2) + 3(x 1) (x + 2) = (x 1)(x + 2) (5x + 1);
3
x+1
= 6x+1
. 3. )
) ln x + 1; ) x(x + 2)ex ; ) 2 x + 2x+1
(x+2)2 ; ) (2x+1)3/2 ;
2 x
2 x
[
]
( ]
x
x2
1

x

) 1ln
x2 ; ) e (x1)2 . 4. (ctg x) = sin2 x . 7. ) 4 ; 4 ; ) 0; 4 .
(
) (
)
8. (0, 0); 3, 92 ; 3, 29 . 9. x = 2p+q
p+q .

[2
)
26 1. )
[ 2 ] (; 0] 3 ; + ,
0; 3 . ) (; 0] [2; +), [0; 2]. )
(; 0],
] [0; +).
[
) 12 ; 0 , [0; +). 2. )
(; 1) (1; +). ) (; 0)
[2; +), (0; 2]. )
(; 0) (0; 1], [1; +).
) (; 0] [2; +),
[0; 1) (1; 2]. 3. f (x)
2 x0 = 2 , f (x)
( ). 4. c .
5. x 3y 5 = 0. 6. ) , ,
. ) ,
, (1; 1).

[
]
[ 2 2]
27 1. 2. 2. r2 . 3. ) 6 23 ; 23 6 . ) (a + b)2 . ) a2 ; a2 .
5. , . 6. ( ).

7. ) ln 3; ) 43 ; ) 0. 8. 5 5 5, 6 6 6, 7 7 7. :
1
y = x1+ x .
(
)
28 1. f (x)g(x) = f (x)g(x) + 2f (x)g (x) + f (x)g (x). 2. ) ,
, ., 4. 3. , . 4. ) x = k, k Z.
) x = 13 . ) x = 0; 3. 5. ) x0 = 1. ) ,
(1, 4), y = x3 +2x. 6. ,
[0; ] .

217

218

29 1. , 0 = f (x ) > f (a) + f (a)(x a).
2. ) x = 2; ) x = 10. 3. (5.2) , xn+1 = 2xn .
4. ) f (x) = x3 3x 1.
x
f (x)

2
3

1
1

0
1

1
3

2
1

## , [2; 1], [1; 0] [1; 2]

; c1 = 1, 53209, c2 = 0, 347296,
c3 = 1, 87939. ) , x0 = 2 c1 ,
xn c2 x0 = 0, xn c3 , x0 = 2. ) ,
xn c1

x0 = 0, 9 xn c2 x0 = 0, 7. 5. ) xn 3 2. ) 8 x5 = 1, 22992105. )
f (x) = x3 2.
30 1. p(x) = (x 1)4 + (x 1)3 (x 1)2 13(x 1) 5.

2
3
4
2. ) 1 + x 1+ x2 x8 + x16 5x
1, 2 1, 09545, 128 . )

5
. ) 21 = 4 21
=
4
1 + 16

16
4, 58264, . 4. , f (x) = 1 2x + 3x2 . . . + (1)n (n + 1)xn + . . . 5. ) 10
11 , e2 1 + 2 + . . . + 210! . ) |c e| < 104 ,
|c2 e2 | = |c e|(c + e) < 6 104 < 0, 001. 6. ) x > 0.
3

## 31 2. ) a(x) = 2(1 + x2 + x4 + . . .) ) b(x) = x x3! + x4! + . . .

3
5
3
3
) sh(x) = x + x3! + x5! + . . . 3. ) a(x) = x3 + o(x4 ). ) b(x) = x8 + o(x4 ).
3
5
) . 4. ) x x3 + x5 + . . .
3
5
1 5
6
) x + x6 + 3x
40 + . . . 5. arcsin x sh(x) = 15 x + o(x ). 6. )
2
x
x2
x3
x
x2
x3
x+2 = 1 2 + 4 8 +. . . |x| < 2; ) ln(x+2) = ln 2+ 2 42 + 83 . . .
|x| < 2.
1+3i
32 1. ) 10; ) 62i
5 ; ) i; ) 32i. 2. ) 2i; )
5 ; ) 1 2i;
) 2; i. 3. ) 1 (0, 1); )
2 (0, 1); ) , x = 1; ) ,

y = 1. 4. ) z = 2 + i; ) z = 12 3 . 6.
(1, 0) (0, 1).

## 33 2. ) |z| = 2, arg z = 3 ; ) |z| = 2, arg z = 3

4 ; ) |z| = 2 2,

z = arctg 43 ;
arg z = 13
2, arg z = 19
12 ; ) |z| =
12 . 3. ) |z| = 5, arg

## ) |z| = 1, arg z = 2 ; ) |z| = 1, arg z = 3 ; ) |z| = 16 2, arg z = 4 .

(
)
(
)
; ) 1024 1024i 3. 5. ) zk = cos + k + i sin + k ,
4. ) 1+i
8
2
8
2
2
(
)
(
)
k = 0, 1, 2, 3; ) zk = cos 6 + 2k
+i sin 6 + 2k
, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , 5, ,
3

3
3i
, z = i; 3+i
;

;
)
zk = cos 2k
sin 2k ,
2
2
5 +i
5

k = 1, 2, 3, 4, , , z = 51
i 5+8 5
4

z = 5+1
i 58 5 . 6. .
4
34 1. ) 1; ) i; )

i 31
;
2

1i
.
2

4. -

(
)
1 + cos x + . . . + cos(n 1)x + i sin x + sin 2x + . . . + sin(n 1)x ,
? 4. x = 1 x = 1, , (6.1). 5. ,
(
)
, ex cos x = ex ( cos x sin x). 6.

12 ex (cos x + sin x).

e(1+i)x
1+i ,

, -

219

81
86
206
203

54
100
175
36
43
104
17

28
29

186
203, 204
133, 134
42
46

57
140
55
56
65
-

51
108

202
n 207
41
45
44

184
185, 186

23
124
104
203
, 82
205

118
124
117
117
114
114

117
114

220

59
59
62
62
60
103
25
14

55
57

190
195
43
35
25
7, 10
15
84
195

68
66
, 64
(, )
85
65
, 65
73
94
138
158, 169

73
97, 129
131

73
76, 88, 89
74,
130
137
147
148
146
146
144145, 150

6
11
10
93

68
67

107

177, 178
146
115
65
130
74, 75

74
115

221

222

130
6, 7
36
36

29
31

84
121
83
, 123
, 123
84
157
156
156
122
122
184
155
206

, 164
176
164

82
82
8
13
203,
206

140
41
23
25

23

8, 9, 16

157
13
13
156
55
54

211
206
210
190, 193
189
192
191

31

38

39
103
, 105
175
137
114
106
106
119

42

2 95
e 89, 133
201

- 205
203
108
43, 53
90

223

1. . . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . . . . . :
, 2002. 100 .
2. . . , . . , . . , . . . . . : , 1986. 262 .
3. . . . . .: , 1990. 624 .
4. . . , . . . . .: ,
- , 2005. 592 .
5. . . . . .:
, 2005. . 1. 400 ., . 2. 424 .
6. . . . . : , 2007.
304 .
7. . . . . : , 2007. 336 .
8. . . . . . . 12. .: , 1969. 528 .
9. . . . . . .:
, 2006. 349 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
10. . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
11. , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
2.
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
13. : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
15*. R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
16. . . . . . . . . 87
7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
17*.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
20.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
21. . . . . . . 120
9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
24. , , . . . . . . . 137
25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
26.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
27. . . . . . . .164
13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
29*. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183
30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188
31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
3.
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
32. . . . . . . . . . 201
33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
34*. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

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