Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 16

..

..
..

--

2013

www.phoenixbooks.ru

638(075.8)
46.9173
542
63

63

..
: / .. , .. , .. . / : , 2013. 412 . : ., [4] . .
( ).
ISBN 978-5-222-20428-3

-
.
,
,
,
, .

ISBN 978-5-222-20428-3

638(075.8)
46.9173

.., .., ..,


, 2012
, , 2013

www.phoenixbooks.ru


...............................................................................................5
1. .........................8
..............................................................................................20
..............................................................21
2.
...................................................................22
......................................................................................22
...................................................................30
................................................................46
.........................................................................51
.................................................................................57
.........................................................................59
.................................................................................70
.....................................................................................88
..............................................................................................93
..............................................................93
3. ....................................94
........................................................................94
..................................................................102
..................................................104
......................................106
.......................................................................... 110
........................................................... 111
............................................................................................ 113
............................................................ 113
4. ..................................... 114
........................................................................... 114
................................................................................ 115
..................................................... 118
......................................................129
..................................................................131
............................................................................................147
............................................................147
5. ................................................148
............................................................................................163
............................................................163
3

www.phoenixbooks.ru

6. .....................................164
..............................................................................164
..................................................................................182
.......................................................................................234
...............................................................276
..................................................................................290
............................................................................................294
............................................................295
7.
...................................................296
..........................................................................296

...................................................................298

..................................305
............................................................................................317
............................................................317
8.
...................................................................................318
, .................................318
.................................................351
............................................................................................399
............................................................399
9. .................................400
, ,
....................................402

.......................................................................409
............................................................ 411

www.phoenixbooks.ru


.
,
, , , , ,
. ,
, (, , , , .).
35
, 3,9, 3,5,
2,2, 4, 2, 2,4, 0,6. , ( . ): 57,4, 40, 30,4,
33,9, 353, 65,2, 74, 60.

, .
430 , 197, 206, 230, 320, 675, 800, 1000, 1300.

3 ;
2,3 2 . 8 , .
1,52 , . 18,4, 30, 20, 25,
21,5, 50, 39.
, , . 80%
10 , . , ,
.
, ,
- 5

www.phoenixbooks.ru

.
, .
, : -,
. 5 50 ,
100200.
- .
1 1 .
, ,


. 5001000 7080 . .

. 300 .
; - ,

; , 2,5 .
.
.
5 . . , ,
, : , , . : 5 . 10% . ,
- ,
17% . :
40%, 60%, 90%.
6

www.phoenixbooks.ru


. .


.
,
-, , ,
. ,
1814 .
. 1865. ,
.
.. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. ,
.. , .. , .. , .. .

, . , . ,
. , . , . , . .

www.phoenixbooks.ru

1.

, , , .
-,
.
.
,
, .
.

() ,
.

, , .
, 6080 .
.

. 1919 . . , . XVXX .. , , . ,
5 . , .
. , , - , . , , , ,
. .
,
.
, , , , . . 8

www.phoenixbooks.ru

1.

, , . ,
. VIII .
.. , , , . (I . ..),
.
, VIV. .., , , , , .
, V .
, , .
,
I . ..
( IV . . .) (III . ..).
VI . .. . VIIIIX .
, , . , ,
, , .

.
,
1800 . .. ( )
92 . ,
275 .

, .
, , , ,
, , , . ,
, ,
.
9

www.phoenixbooks.ru

, .
, ,
, . ,
, ,
, .
,
, , .
, , . 15 500 . , .
.
. , . ()
, , .
.
.
,
, VIIIX ., . ( )
. ( VIIIX ) , , . , , . ,
.
(. 1), . , , .
. .
, ,
, .
10

www.phoenixbooks.ru

1.

. 1.

()
, ,
. . 50 .
, ,
( 0,7 ) .
, 1 , .
()
0,5 . (
) , , . , (
), .
11

www.phoenixbooks.ru

57 ,
,
.
, , .
, , . ,
. XVII , .

, .
. , . , ,
.
. ,
.

. .
, . ; , , . 12 .
(1016) (1397). (1550) , (1649) . . VIII XVII
. ,
.
12

www.phoenixbooks.ru

1.

() , .
,
, .
,
. , :
, , ,
. ,
945 .
, , , , , .
, ,
.
, XVI . , , 1
.
XVIXVII . ,
, , .
, , , .. , 2050 . . , , , . , ,
, . , , .. (. . ., . 1).
, ,
. , (.. )
13

www.phoenixbooks.ru

. , , .
.
: , , ,
, ,
( ), , (),
, . , .
. ,
, . , . ,
. , , . ,
, . , .
.
1012 , 1,5 .
35 , 1220 . : (25 / 7), . . .
.
.
, ,
, . ()
(1586). () , (..
) , (1609).
( )
. () 14

www.phoenixbooks.ru

( , ).
23 .
,
, . 23
,
.
,
.
. , . ,
, , . .
,
.

, . , (), .
.
, , , ,
, .
. .
, ,
(, , ),
. , , .


, .
,
.
284

www.phoenixbooks.ru

,
.,

10.09.2012.
10.10.2012.
84108/32. .
. 2000 . . 2222


344082, . , . , 80
./: (863) 261-89-50, 261-89-59
: www.phoenixrostov.ru
-: www.phoenixbooks.ru

www.phoenixbooks.ru