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FRAME ANALYSIS

By: Mohammad Soffi bin Md. Noh

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Introduction
In the design of RC structures based on BS 8110 it has to analyse the structure subjected to all probable combinations of loads, considering the ultimate limit state. Once the bending moment, shear force etc. were obtained, reinforcements can be designed according to the standard. Generally, three dimensional wide frame analysis is the most accurate method to analyse the frame building. 3-D frame is complex and need to be carried out using relevant computer software. Clause 3.2.1.1 BS 8110: Part 1: 1997 states that the analysis may be simplified appropriately sub-frame. Hence there are 3 levels sub-frames: Complete sub-frame Simplified sub-frame Simplified sub-frame at point

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Method of Frame Analysis


1) Complete sub-frame

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The frame consists of all beams at each level with columns top and bottom of beams. Moments at columns and beams are tabulated by analyzing the complete subframe.

Method of Frame Analysis


2) Simplified sub-frame

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The frame consists of a selected beam with columns and neighbouring beams at both sides of selected beam.

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Method of Frame Analysis


3) Simplified sub-frame at point

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The frame consists of a selected point or node with columns at top and bottom, and neighbouring beams coming into the point.

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Analysis of Braced Frame


A building is saying as braced frame when the horizontal loadings are resisting by the shear walls or bracing. The analysis of braced frame is only considered for the vertical loads which are dead and imposed load. For the combination of dead load and imposed load, the following loading patterns are considered:
All spans loaded with maximum dead plus imposed loads Alternate spans loaded with maximum dead load and imposed load and all other spans loaded with minimum dead load

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Analysis of Braced Frame

1.4Gk + 1.6Qk

1.4Gk + 1.6Qk

1.4Gk + 1.6Qk

1.4Gk + 1.6Qk

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1.4Gk + 1.6Qk

1.0Gk

1.4Gk + 1.6Qk

1.0Gk

1.0Gk

1.4Gk + 1.6Qk

1.0Gk

1.4Gk + 1.6Qk

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Example 1.1
A four storey braced building is given in Figure P1.1. Perform the analysis for ABCD. Given the following data: All columns = 350 mm x 300 mm Gk = 25 kN/m All beams = 300 mm x 600 mm Qk = 10 kN/m

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Example 1.1
Solution Beam Stiffness

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Column Stiffness

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Example 1.1
Completed Sub-Frame Analysis

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Max load = 1.4(25) + 1.6(10) = 51 kN/m Min Load = 1.0(25) = 25 kN/m

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Example 1.1
Load Case 1

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All spans loaded with maximum dead plus imposed loads

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Example 1.1

Load Case 2

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Example 1.1
Load Case 3

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Simplified sub-frame Load Case 1

Example 1.1

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Example 1.1

Example 1.1

Load Case 2

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Example 1.1

Example 1.1

Load Case 3

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Simplified Sub-Frame at Point Point A & D

Example 1.1

Example 1.1

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Example 1.1
Point B & C

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Example 1.2
Figure P1.2 shows the four spans sub frame. Given: UDL (all spans): Concentrated load (span BC): Gk = 20 kN/m Gk = 30 kN Qk = 15 kN/m Qk = 15 kN Sketch the loadings arrangement.

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Example 1.2
Solution UDL Max = 1.4(20) + 1.6(15) = 52 kN/m Concentrated Load Max = 1.4(30) + 1.6(15) = 66 kN Load Case 1

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Min = 1.0(20) = 20 kN/m Min = 1.0(30) = 30 kN

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Example 1.2
Load Case 2

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Load Case 3

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Analysis of Unbraced Frame


For unbraced frame, the greatest of the following moments and shearing forces are to be taken for design purposes: Three cases loading arrangements as braced sub-frame (max = 1.4Gk + 1.6Qk, min = 1.0Gk)

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Analysis of Unbraced Frame


(i) Vertical loads (1.2Gk + 1.2Qk) for sub-frame + (ii) Wind load (1.2Wk) for complete frame

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Analysis of Unbraced Frame


Analysis of Horizontal Load Using Portal Method

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The following assumptions have to be made: Loads applied at beam-column junction. Total horizontal shear at any level is carried by columns at the points of contraflexure immediately below the level. The points of contraflexure occur at the mid-heights of columns and at midspans of beams. Each bay acts as a separate portal and the horizontal load is divided between bays in proportion to span.

Example 1.3
Draw the bending moment diagram of the 5 storey building frame subjected to 3 kN/m wind load as shown in Figure P1.3.

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Example 1.3
Solution

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Example 1.3
Analysis of horizontal load Roof floor = (1.2 x 3) x (3.5/2) = 6.30 kN rd and 4th Floor 3 = (1.2 x 3) x [(3.5/2) +(3.5/2)] = 12.6 kN 2nd Floor = (1.2 x 3) x [(3.5/2) + (4/2)] = 13.5 kN 1st Floor = (1.2 x 3) x [(4/2) + (4/2)] = 14.4 kN Ground Floor = (1.2 x 3) x (4/2) = 7.2 kN Ratio of axial force in column Axial Force of external column : Axial force of internal column N1 : N2 8 : 2 4P : 1P

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Example 1.3 (Roof Floor)

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Axial Force in column:

Shear force in beam

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Example 1.3 (Roof Floor)


Horizontal Force in Column: MF1 = 0

MF2 = 0

H1 (1.75) 0.65(3) = 0 1.95 H1 = = 1.11kN 1.75

( H1 + H 2 )(1.75) 0.65(8) 0.16(2) = 0 H 2 = 3.15 1.11 = 2.04kN

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Example 1.3 (Roof Floor)

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Example 1.3 (4th Floor)

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Axial force in Column:

N1 = 4 P = 3.24kN = N 4 N 2 = P = 0.81kN = N 3

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Example 1.3 (4th Floor)


Shear force in beam Fy = 0 F1 + 0.65 3.24 = 0 F1 = 3.24 0.65 = 2.59kN Fy = 0 F2 + 0.65 + 0.16 3.24 0.81 = 0 F2 = 3.24 + 0.81 0.65 0.16 = 3.24kN

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Example 1.3 (4th Floor)


Horizontal force in column MF1 = 0 H1 (1.75) + 1.11(1.75) + 0.65(3) 3.24(3) = 0 H1 = 3.33kN MF2 = 0 ( H1 + H 2 )(1.75) + (1.11 + 2.04)(1.75) (3.24 0.65)(8) (0.81 0.16)(2) = 0
( H1 + H 2 ) = 9.43kN H 2 = 9.43 3.33 = 6.10kN

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Example 1.3 (4th Floor)

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Example 1.3 (3rd Floor)

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Axial force in Column: Ms = 0 P(6) P(10) 4P(16) + 6.3(8.75) + 12.6(5.25) + 12.6(1.75) = 0 P = 2.11 kN N1 = 4P = 8.44 kN = N4 N2 = 1P = 2.11 kN = N3

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Example 1.3 (3rd Floor)


Shear force in beam Fy = 0
F1 + 3.24 8.44 = 0 F1 = 8.44 3.24 = 5.20kN

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Fy = 0 F2 + 3.24 + 0.81 8.44 2.11 = 0 F2 = 8.44 + 2.11 3.24 0.81 = 6.5kN

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Example 1.3 (3rd Floor)


Horizontal force in column MF1 = 0 H1 (1.75) + 3.33(1.75) + 3.24(3) 8.44(3) = 0 H1 = 5.58kN MF2 = 0 ( H1 + H 2 )(1.75) + (3.33 + 6.10)(1.75) (8.44 3.24)(8) (2.11 0.81)(2) = 0
( H1 + H 2 ) = 15.83kN H 2 = 15.83 5.58 = 10.25kN

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Example 1.3 (2nd Floor)

Example 1.3 (3rd Floor)

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Example 1.3 (1st Floor)

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Simplified Approach
1.4Gk + 1.6Qk 1.4(25) + 1.6(10) = 51 kN/m

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Simplified Approach
1.2Gk + 1.2Qk 1.2(25) + 1.2(10) = 42 kN/m

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Result of Portal Analysis at 3rd Floor

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Vertical Load + Horizontal Load


1.2Gk + 1.2Qk

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27.03

31.53 16.07

13.67

13.67 16.07 31.53

27.03

1.2Wk

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