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Solutions

of

Waves & Thermodynamics

Lesson 14

th

to 19

th

By DC Pandey

14. Wave Motion

Introductory Exercise 14.1

1. A function, f

can

represent

equation, if it satisfy

2

f

t

2

v

2

2

f

x

2

wave

For,

y a sin t,

2

y

t

2

2

y

2

2

asin t

2

y

0

but,

x So, y do not represent wave equation.

2. y

( ,

x

t

)

(

bx

et

)

2 ae

(kx

ae

k b and e v

t) 2

c

k b

represent

1

3. y

( ,

x

t

)

1

(

1

4 x

)

2

1

t

given pulse, where,

y x

(

, 0)

1 k

2

x

2

1

x

2

the

k 1

4.

5.

1
1
and y ( x
,
z
)
2
2
1
(
x
2
)
1
(
x
1
)
1
2
1 2
/
v
0.5 m/s
k
1
10
a
y
2
2
5
( x
2
t
)
b
(
kx
)
t
a 10
Amplitude, y
2m
max
b
5
and
k 1; 2
v
2 m/s and is travelling in (–) x
k
direction.
10
y
2
(
kx
)
t
2
10 10
y x
(
, 0)
k 1
2
2
2
k
x
2
x
2

vk 2 m/s 1 m

1

y

10

(

x

2

t

)

2

2

Introductory Exercise 14.2

1. y(x, t) 0.02 sin

0.05

x

t

m

0.01

A sin (kx t) m

1

A 0.02 m, k

(a) v

(b) v

p

0.05

k

y

t

0.01

A

v p (0.2, 0.3)

m 1 , 001

.

)

t

1

0.05

m/s 5 m/s

cos (

0.02

kx

1

0.01

s

1

2. Yes, (

v

p

)

cos

2 cos (4 30)

2 cos 34

2( 0.85) 1.7 m/s

A

Ak

k

max

0.2

0.5

0.01

0.3

(

Ak v

)

3. 4 cm, v 40 cm/s (given)

v 40 cm/s

(a)

4 cm

10 Hz

2

| Waves & Motion

(b)

2

x

2

4 cm

2.5 cm

4

T
1
(c)
t
2
2
1
2
10
3
1
60 s
(d)
v
p (
v
p ) max
A 2 A
1
40 cm/s
1.26 cm/s
2
2
cm
10
s
y
4. (a)
x

y

sin ( t kx)

A

A

sin

v

0.05 sin

2

12

t

2

2

t

0.4

x

2

0.4

x

0.05 sin (60 t 5 x)

(b) y(0.25, 0.15)

0.05 sin (60 0.15 5 0.25) 0.05 sin (9 1.25 )

0.05 sin (7.75 ) 0.05 sin (1.75 )

0.0354 m 3.54 cm

(c)

t

T

2

0.25

60

1

240 s 4.2 ms

Introductory Exercise 14.3

1. v

T
T
Tl
m l
/
m
500 2
100 5
0.06
3

129.1 m/s

2. v

T
T
A
0.98
10 m/s
3
6
9.8
10
10

Introductory Exercise 14.4

1.

I

 P 1 W 1 4 r 2 4 ( 1 m ) 2 4

2. For line source, I

2 rl

W

/

m 2

I 1 and as I A 2

A

r

1

r

Waves & Motion

|

3

AIEEE Corner

Subjective Questions (Level 1)

1. y(x, t) 6.50 mm cos 2

v

A

A

cos2

x

28.0 cm

T

t

t

0.0360s

6.50 mm, 28.0 cm,

1

1

T

0.036 s

1

27.78 Hz

7.78 m/s

28.0 cm

27.78s

1

778

cm/s

The wave is travelling along ( )ve x-axis.

 5 sin 30 t x 240 5 sin 30 t x 8 (a) y(2, 0) 5sin 3 0 5 sin 4 (b) 2 2 16 cm k 8 30 (c) v k / 8 30 (d) 15 Hz 2 2 y cm sin(3.14 cm 1

8

5

2

240 cm/s

x

3

cmsin( cm

1

x

100

(a)

v

p

)

max

A

3

cm

2. y

Asin ( t kx)

2

3.5

35

3. 3

314 s

s

1

1

t)

t

)

Asin(kx t)

300 cm/s 3 m/s 9.4 m/s

(

100

s

1

cm

(b)

a

2

y

(100 s

1

)

2

sin(6 111 )

3 cm

4.

(a) x

300 sin ( 105 ) 0

v /

2

350

2

500

2

3

 7 7 m 0.166 m 60 50 (b) 2 t 2 t 2 500 10 3 T 180 5. y ( x , t ) 6 ( kx t ) 2 3 6 6 y ( x , 0) k 2 x 2 3 x 2 3 k 1 m 1 vk 4.5 m/s 1 m 1 4.5 rad/s y ( x t ) 6 , ( x 4.5 t ) 2 3

6.

y

1.0 sin

2.0

x

0.01

t

4.0

0.02

1.0

sin 2

A

sin2

x

t

x

T

t

(a)

(b)

A 1.0 mm, 4.0 cm, T 0.02s y

v

A cos2

x

T

t

p

t 2 A

T

T

t

x

cos 2

2 1.0 mm

0.02s

cos 2

x

t

4.0

0.02s

10 m/s cos

x

t

2.0

cm

0.01 s

v p (1.0 cm, 0.01s)

10

2

10

1

m/s cos

cos

3

2

m/s cos

0 m/s

0 m/s

10

(c) v p (3.0, 0.01)

1

2

0.01

0.01

4

| Waves & Motion

7.

v p (5.0 cm, 0.01s)

10

ms cos

5

2

1

0 m/s

v p (7.0 cm, 0.01s)

m/s cos

10

0 m/s

(d) v p (1.0 cm, 0.011s)

10 m/s

cos

1

2

0.011

0.01

10

12

1

10

cos

10 cos0.6

1.1

3

cos

5

7

2

1

9.7 cm/s

v p (1.0 cm, 0.012s)

1

2

m/s cos

(0.5

10

10 cos

0.012

0.01

1.2)

10

cos

0.7

18.5 cm/s

v

p (1.0 cm, 0.013 s) 10 m/s

cos

1

2

0.013

0.01

10

cos 0.8

(a)

k

25.4 cm/s

2

2

40

cm

20

cm

1

T

1

1

s

0.125s

8

v

8

s

1

40

cm

320

cm/s

(b) y(x, t) A cos (kx t) 15.0 cm cos (0.157x 50.3 t)

8. A 0.06m and 2.5 20 cm

20

2.5 cm

v 300 m/s

8 cm

3750 Hz

8 cm

y A sin (kx t) 0.06m

9.

10.

11.

sin

0.08 x

2

2

3750

t

0.06m sin(78.5 m

1

x

23561.9s

1

t

)

8.00 m/s

25 Hz

v

0.32

1

2

m

1

15 s

T

2

(a)

0.043 Hz

 k 19.63 rad/m 0.32 m (b) y A cos( kx ) t A x cos 2 t x 0.07 m cos 2 0.32 0.36 m 0.04 s 0.15 (c) y 0.07 m cos 2 0.32 9 30 0.04 0.07 m cos 2 8 8 0.07 m cos 39 4 0.07 m cos 10 4 0.07 m cos 0.0495m 4 (d) t T 2 / 4 2 2 25 3 v 200 s 0.015s T T A Mg A 2 9.8 8920 3.14 (1.2 10 3 ) 2 2 9.8 10 4 22 m/s 3.14 89.2 1.44 T 2 M M 2 1 M 1 8 2 4 2. 2 2 1

T

t

0.12 m.

Waves & Motion

|

5

T x
(
)
12. T x
(
)
(
L
x g
)
,
v x
(
)
g (L x)
dx
dt ;
g
(
L
x
)
Let, L x y
dx dy
dy
0
t
L
g
y
0
1
y
L
t
2
g
12 /
g
1
2
13. dm R
(a)
2
T
sin
d
T
d
d
T
R
2
R2d R
2T d
T
2
2
R

Wave speed, v

T 2
2
R
2
t
2
l
0
g
8
l
0
t
x
g
dm
15. kx
dx
2
1
2
M
dm
kx dx
kL
0
2
M
k 2
2
L
2
T
T
TL
dx
v x
(
)
kx
2 Mx
dt
1 1
L
2
Mx
2 M
L
t
dt
2
dx
2
2
0
1
TL
TL
1

2

2 2
ML
3 2
2 ML
2
3 TL
3 T
T
Mg
16. (a) v
1.5
9.8
16.3 m/s
0.055
v 16.3 m/s
(b)
0.136 m
120 / s
(c)
v
T
M
i.e.,
if
M
is
doubled both speed and wavelength

17.

increases by a factor of

E I At 2

2

2

a

2

vAt

2 .

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

(3.14)

2

2

2

2

(

a ( A) (v.t)

a

a

120

2

2

2

.l

m

)

2

(0.16

10

3

)

2

 80 10 3 2 2 a 2 v 80 5 10 2

A 2

2

2

)

2

2

511.6 W

582

E

10

IA

6

J 582 J 0.58mJ

2
2
2
2
T

2

(6

(

a

2

60

18. P

t

2

2

2

2

a

(3.14)

)

10

0.06)

60

4

(3.14

R

(b) Kink remains stationary when rope and kink moves in opposite sence i.e., if rope is rotating anticlockwise then kink has to move clockwise.

14. x is being measured from lover end of the string

x
m x
(
)
dm
0
0 x dx
T x
(
)
m x g
(
)
v x
(
)
1
2
2
x
g
0
1
gx
x 2
0
t
dt
0

1

2

0 x

2

6

| Waves & Motion

2
2
2
19. P IA 2
a
T
2
2
2
(3.14)
200
(
)
6
3
10
60
6
10
2
2
1
8
(3.14)
10
6
10
W
0.474 W
l
E
Pt
P
v
0.474 2
0.474 2
J
9.48 mJ
60
100
3
6
10

20.

Objective Questions (Level 1)

 2 1. 150 5 rad/s, A 0.04 m and 60 4

y A

sin(

t

)

0.04

2. 600 , v 300 k

v

sin

2

5

t

4

y Asin( t kx)

0.04 sin (600 t 2 x)

600

y(0.75, 0.01) 0.04sin

0.04

sin 6

0.04 sin 4

0.01

2

2

3

0.04 m

2

 3. y ( x t ) 1 , 2 3 ( kx t ) 2 ( x , 0) 1 1 y 2 k 1 3 k 2 x 2 2 3 x 2 y ( x 2 ) 1 1 , 2 3 ( x ) 2 2 2 3 ( x 2 ) 2 1 v 1 m/s 4. y A sin( t kx k ) 2 A t kx 6 2 T kx T 6 6

3

4

5.

6.

7.

8.

T
2
2
2
2
2
2
P 2
v
a
vA 2
v
a
v
;v
T
2
v
T
T
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
a
v
2
a
2
v
v
2
2
3
2
2
(3.14)
(
100
)
(0.5
10
)
100
100
2
4
6
2
(3.14)
2 W 49 mW
10
0.25
10
4.93
10
2
0.04

6

12 0.04 0.48 m.

v 300 m/s

25 Hz

12 m

2

x

2

(

12

m

16

10 )m

y 0.02 sin (x 30t) A sin (kx t)

k 1,

v

k

30

30 m/s

T

T y

t

In transverse wave

v p

v

y

x

1.3

x

t

10

v

y

x

2

4

u p

900

slope

0.117N

v

they are

v

perpendicular i.e.,

2

. In longitudinal

wave

so, 0 ,

u p

v

, they are either at 0 or

and are the possible angles

2

between v p and v.

k

v
T
3
3.5 10
35

200

Waves & Motion

|

7

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

Acos( t kx) Acos(200 t 2 x) y

y

2

A sin(200 t 2 x)

sin(200 t 2 x) 0

sin(200 t 2 x)

1

1

A

20 40

x When, y 0

2 A

0.025m

y
2
0.025 cos (200 t 2 x)
2
T
0.25
8
k
v
48
6
y
A sin ( t kx)
A sin
8
1
67
6
A
A
sin
A
sin 30
3 cm
6 2
A 6 cm
2
T A
A
d
v A
B T
A
B
2
v
A
T
d
B
A T
B
B
A
d
T A / 2
d
T
B
B
B
d
d
/ 2
T
A T
B
B
B
1
2
2
2
 E A 2 2 for E to constant, A constant A A A A B B A A 4 B A B B A B 4 A A k 1 rad/m; v 4 m/s vk 4 rad/s 6 6 y ( kx ) t 2 3 ( x l Y Y l and v t l v l 10 l v t v 4