Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 188
2011$Bar$Ex aminations BERT$ – $ NOTES$in$REMEDIAL$LAW $ 1 $ $ $ Victory$ goes$ to$ those$
2011$Bar$Ex aminations
BERT$ – $ NOTES$in$REMEDIAL$LAW
$
1
$
$
$
Victory$ goes$ to$ those$ with$ homicidal$ instinct$ to$ succeed the$
$
murderous$mania$to$excel
$$$$$$
$
Dean$W.$Riano
SYLLABUS FOR 2011 BAR EXAMINATIONS
REMEDIAL LAW
I.$General$Principles$ $
!
5.!Doctrine!of!primary!jurisdic tion !
6.!Doctrine!of!adherence!of!jurisdiction !
A.!Concept!of!Remedial!Law !
B.!Substantive!Law!as!Distinguished!fr om!Remedial!
Law !
C.!Rule > making!Power!of!the!Supreme!Court !
1.!Limitations!on!the!rule > making!power!of!
the!Supreme!Court !
7.!Objections!to!jurisdiction!over!the!
subject!matter !
8.!Effect!of!estoppel!on!objections!to!
jurisdiction !
!
2.!Power!of!the!Supreme!Court!to!amend!
C.!Jurisdiction!over!the!issues !
D.!Jurisdiction!over!the!res!or!property!in!litigation !
and!suspend!procedural!rules !
!
!
D.!Nature!of!Philippine!Courts !
1.!Meaning!of!a!court !
2.!Court!as!dis tinguished!from!a!judge !
3.!Classification!of!Philippine!courts !
E.!Jurisdiction ! of!Courts !
1.!Supreme!Court !
2.!Court!of!Appeals !
3.!Court!of!Tax!Appeals
!
4.!Sandiganbayan !
4.!Courts!of!original!and!appellate!
5.!Regional!Trial!Courts
!
jurisdiction !
5.!Courts!of!general!and!special!jurisdiction !
6.!Constitutional!and!statutory!courts !
7.!Courts!of!law!and!equity !
8.!Principle!of!judicial!hierar chy !
9.!Doctrine!of!non > interference!or!doctrine!
of!judicial!stability !
6.!Family!Courts !
7.!Metropolitan!Trial!Courts/Municipal!
!
Trial!Courts !
8.!Shariah!Courts !
F.!Jurisdiction!over!small!claims,!cases!covered!by!
the ! rules!on!Summary!Procedure!and!Barangay!
Conciliation !
G.!Totality!Rule !
II.$Jurisdiction $
$
!
III.$Civil$Procedure $
A.!Jurisdiction!over!the!parties !
!

1.!How!jurisdiction!over!the!plaintiff!is!

acquired !

2.!How!jurisdiction!over!the!defendant!is!

acquired !

!

B.!Jurisdiction!over!the!subjec t!matter !

1.!Meaning!of!jurisdiction!over!the!subject!

A.!Actions !

1.!Meaning!of!ordinary!civil!actions !

2.!Meaning!of!special!civil!actions ! 3.!Meaning!of!criminal!actions !

4.!Civil!actions!versus!Special!proceedings ! 5.! Personal!actions!and!real!actions ! 6.!Local!and!transitory!actions !

matter !

7.!Actions!in!rem,!in!personam!and!quasi!

2.!Jurisdiction!versus!the!exercise!of!

in!rem !

jurisdiction !

3.!Error!of!jurisdiction!as!distinguished!

from!error!of!judgment !

4.!How!jurisdiction!is!conferred!and!

determined !

B.!Cause!of!Action ! 1.!Meaning!of!cause!of!action !

2.!Right!of!Action!versus!Cause!of!action!

3.!Failure!to!state!a!cause!of!action !

$

2011$Bar$Ex aminations BERT$ – $ NOTES$in$REMEDIAL$LAW

2

4.!Test!of!t he!sufficiency!of!a!cause!of!

(1)!Requirements!of!a!

action !

corporation!executing!

5.!Splitting!a!single!cause!of!action!and!its!

the!

effects !

verification/certification!

6.!Joinder!and!misjoinder!of!causes!of!

of!non > forum!!!shopping !

action !

d.!Effect!of!the!signature!of!

counsel!in!a!pleading !

C.!Parties!to!Civil!Actions !

4.!Allegations!in!a!pleading !

1.!Real!Parties!in!interest;!Indispensable!

a.!Manner!of!making!allegations !

parties;!Representatives!as!parties;! Necessary!p arties;!Indigent!Parties;! Alternative!defendants !

(1)!Condition!precedent ! (2)!Fraud,!mistake, ! malice,!intent,!

2.!Compulsory!and!permissive!joinder!of!

knowledge!and!other!

parties ! 3.!Misjoinder!and!non > joinder!of!parties ! 4.!Class!Suit !

condition!of!the!mind,! judgments,!official! documents!or!acts !

5.!Suits!against!entities!without!juridical!

b.!Pleading!an!actionable!

personality !

document !

6.!Effect!of!death!of!party!litigant!

c.!Specific!denials !

 

(1)!Effect!of!failure!to!

D.!Venue !

make!specific!denials !

1

.!Venue!versus!Jurisdiction !

(2)!When!a!specific!

2.!Venue!of!real!actions ! 3.!Venue!of!personal!actions ! 4.!Venue!of!actions!against!non > residents ! 5.!When!the!Rules!on!Venue!Do!not!Apply ! 6.!Effects!of!Stipulations!on!Venue !

!

E.!Pleadings ! 1.!Kinds!of!Pleadings ! a.!Complaint ! b.!Answ er ! (1)!Negative!defenses ! (2)!Negative!pregnant ! (3)!Affirmative!Defenses ! c.!Counterclaims !

(1)!Compulsory!

counterclaim !

(2)!Permissive!

counterclaim !

(3)!Effect!on!the!

Counterclaim!when!the! complaint!is!dismissed ! d.!Cross > claims ! e.!Third!(fourth,!etc.)!party! co mplaints ! f.!Complaint > in > intervention ! g.!Reply !

denial!requires!an!oath ! 5.!Effect!of ! failure!to!plead !

1.!Failure!to!plead!defenses!and!

objections !

2.!Failure!to!plead!a!compulsory!

counterclaim!and!cross > claim ! 6.!Default ! a.!When!a!declaration!of!default!is!

proper !

b.!Effect!of!an!order!of!default! c.!Relief!from!an!order!of!default! d.!Effect! of!a!partial!default ! e.!Extent!of!relief ! f.!Actions!where!default!are!not! allowed ! 7.!Filing!and!Service!of!pleadings ! I.!Payment!of!docket!fees ! II.!Filing!versus!service!of! pleadings ! III.!Periods!of!filing!of!pleadings ! IV.!Manner!of!filing ! V.!Modes!of!service ! (1)!Personal!service ! (2)!Service!by!mail ! (3)!Substituted!service !

(4)!Service!of!judgments,!

2.!Pleadings!allowed!in!small!claim!cases!

final!orders!or!

(5)!Priorities!in!modes!of!

and!cases!covered!by!the!rules!on! summary!procedure !

resolutions !

3.!Parts!of!a!pleading !

service!and!filing !

a.!Caption !

(6)!When!service!is!

b.!Signature!and!address !

deemed!complete !

c.!Verification!and!certification!

(7)!Proof!of!filing!and!

against! forum!shopping !

service !

$

2011$Bar$Ex aminations BERT$ – $ NOTES$in$REMEDIAL$LAW

3

8.!Amendment ! a.!Amen dment!as!a!matter!of! right ! b.!Amendments!by!leave!of!court ! c.!Formal!amendment ! d.!Amendments!to!conform!to!or! authorize!presentation!of!

 

e.!Effect!of!dismissal!of!complaint! on!certain!grounds ! f.!When!grounds!pleaded!as! affirmative!defenses ! g.!Bar!by!dismissal ! h.! Distinguished ! from!demurrer! to!evidence!under!Rule!33 !

evidence !

 

e.!Different!from!supplemental! pleadings ! f.!Effect!of!amended!pleading !

H.!Dismissal!of!Actions ! 1.!Dismissal!upon!notice!by!plain tiff;!Two > dismissal!rule !

 

2.!Dismissal!upon!motion!by!plaintiff;!

F.!Summons !

5.!Constructive!service!(by!publication)!

 

effect!on!existing!counterclaim !

1.!Nature!and!purpose!of!sum mons!in!

3.!Dismissal!due!to!the!fault!of!plaintiff!

relation!to!actions!in!personam,!in!rem!and! quasi!in!rem !

4.!Dismissal!of!counterclaim,!cross> claim!or! third > party!complaint !

2.!Voluntary!appearance !

 

3.!Personal!service ! 4.!Substituted!service !

I.!Pre > trial ! 1.!Concept!of!pre > trial ! 2.!Nature!an d!purpose !

4.!Appearance!of!parties;!effect!of!failure!to!

 

a.!Service!upon!a!defendant! where!his!identity!is!unknown!or!

3.!Notice!of!pre > trial !

where!his!whereabouts! are! unknown ! b.!Service!upon!residents! temporarily!outside!the!

 

appear ! 5.!Pre > trial!brief;!effect!of!failure!to!appear ! 6.!Distinction!between!pre > trial!in!civil!case! and!pre > trial!in!criminal!case !

Philippines !

7.!Alternative!Dispute!Resolution!(ADR)!

6.!Extra > territorial!service,!when!allowed !

 

7.!Service!upon!prisoners!and!minors

 

J.

! Intervention !

8.!Proof!of!service !

 

1.!Requisites!for!intervention !

 

2.!Time!to!intervene !

G.!Motions !

3.!Remedy!for!the!denial!of!motion!to!

1.!Motions!in!general!

 

intervene !

 

a.!Definition!of!a!motion ! b.!Motions!versus!plea dings

K.!Subpoena !

4.!Compelling!attendance!of!witnesses;!

! c.!Contents!and!form!of!motions! d.!Notice!of!hearing!and!hearing! of!motions ! e.!Omnibus!motion!rule !

1.!Subpoena!duces!tecum ! 2.!Subpoena!ad!testificandum ! 3.!Service!of!subpoena !

f.!Litigated!and!ex!parte!motions ! g.!Pro > forma!motions !

 

Contempt ! 5.!Qu ashing!of!subpoena !

2.!Motions!for!Bill!of!Particulars !

 

a.!Purpose!and!when!applied!for !

L.!Modes!of!Discovery !

b.!Actions!of!the!court !

 

1.!Depositions!pending!action;!Depositions!

c.!Co mpliance!with!the!order!and! effect!of!noncompliance ! d.!Effect!on!the!period!to!file!a! responsive!pleading ! 3.!Motion!to!Dismiss ! a.!Grounds ! b.!Resolution!of!Motion !

before!action!or!pending!appeal! a.!Meaning!of!deposition ! b.!Uses;!Scope!of!examination ! c.!When!may!objections!to! admissibility!be!made ! d.!When!may!taking!of!deposition! be! terminated!or!its!scope!limited !

c.!Remedies!of!plaintiff!when!the!

2.!Written!interrogatories!to!adverse!

complaint!is!dismissed !

parties !

d.!Remedies!of!the!defendant! when!the ! motion!is!denied !

a.!Consequences!of!refusal!to! answer !

$

b.!Effect!of!failure!to!serve!written!

interrogatories ! 3.!Request!for!Admission !

2011$Bar$Ex aminations BERT$ – $ NOTES$in$REMEDIAL$LAW

4

6.!Rendition!of!judgments!and!fi nal!orders ! 7.!Entry!of!judgment!and!final!order !

!

a.!Implied!admission!by!adverse! P.!Post!Judgment!Remedies !

 

party !

d.!Effect!of!failure!to!file!and!

 

b.!Consequences!of!failu re!to!

1.!Motion!for!New!Trial!or!reconsideration!

answer!request!for!admission ! c.!Effect!of!admission !

a.!Grounds ! b.!When!to!file ! c.!Denial!of!the!motion;!effect!

serve!request!for!admission !

d.!Grant!of!the!motion;!effect !

 

4.!Production!or!inspection!of!documents!

e.!Remedy!when!motion!is!

or!things !

denied,!Fresh!15 > day!p eriod!rule !

5.!Physical!and!mental!examination!of!

persons !

2.!Appeals!in!General !

6.!Consequences!of!refusal!to!comply!with!

a.!Judgments!and!final!orders!

modes!of!discovery !

subject!to!appeal !

 

b.!Matters!not!appealable !

M.!Trial !

c.!Remedy!against!judgments!and!

 

1.!Adjournments!and!postponements !

orders!which!are!not!appealable !

2.!requisites!of!motion!to!postpone!trial!

d.!Modes!of!appeal !

 

a.!for!absence!of!evidence !

(1)!Ordinary!appeal !

b.!for!illness!of!party!or!counsel!

(2)!Petition!for!review !

 

3.!Agreed!statement!of!facts!

(3)!Petition!for!revi ew!on!

4.!Order!of!trial;!reversal!of!order!

certiorari !

5.!Consolidation!or!S everance!of!hearing!or! trial !

e.!Issues!to!be!raised!on!appeal ! f.!Period!of!appeal !

6.!Delegation!of!reception!of!evidence!

g.!Perfection!of!appeal!

7.!Trial!by!commissioners !

h.!Appeal!from!judgments!or!final!

 

a.!Reference!by!consent!or!

orders!of!the!MTC !

ordered!on!motion !

i.!Appeal!from!judgments!or!final!

b.

! Powers!of!the!commissioner !

orders!of!the!RTC !

c.

! Commissioner’s!report;!notice!

j.!Appeal!from!judgments!or!final!

to!parties!and!hearing!on!the! report !

orders!of!the!CA ! k.!Appe al!from!judgments!or!final!

 

orders!of!the!CTA !

N.!Demurrer!to!E vidence ! 1.!Ground ! 2.!Effect!of!denial ! 3.!Effect!of!grant !

l.!Review!of!final!judgments!or! final!orders!of!the!COA ! m.!Review!of!final!judgments!or! final!orders!of!the!COMELEC !

 

4.!Waiver!of!right!to!present!evidence!

n.!Review!of!final!judgments!or!

5.!Demurrer!to!evidence!in!a!civil!case!

final!orders!of!the!CSC !

versus!demurrer!to!evidence!in!a!criminal! case !

o.!Review!of!final!judgments!or! final!o rders!of!the!Ombudsman !

 

p.!Review!of!final!judgments!or!

O.!Judgments!and!Final!Orders ! 1.!Judgment!without!trial ! 2.!Contents!of!a ! judgment ! 3.!Judgment!on!the!pleadings ! 4.!Summary!judgments !

c.!when!the!case!not!fully!

final!orders!of!the!NLRC ! q.!Review!of!final!judgments!or! final!orders!of!quasi > judicial! agencies !

a.!for!the!claimant !

3.!Relief!from!judgments,!orders!and!other!

b.!for!the!defendant !

proceedings ! a.!Grounds!for!availing!of!the!

 

adjudicated ! d.!affidavits!and!attachments !

remedy ! b.!Time!to ! file!petition !

 

5.!Judgment!on!the!pleadings!versus!

c.!Contents!of!petition !

summary!judgments !

$

4.!Annulment!of!Judgments!or!final!orders!

and!resolutions ! a.!Grounds!for!annulment ! b.!Period!to!file!action ! c.!Effects!of!judgment!of! annulment !

2011$Bar$Ex aminations BERT$ – $ NOTES$in$REMEDIAL$LAW

5

attached!is!claimed!by!third! person !

f. ! Discharge!of!attachment!and!the!

counter > bond ! g.!Satisfaction!of!judgment!out!of!

property!attached !

5.!Collateral!attack!of!judgments !

4.!Preliminary!Injunction !

h.!In!relation!to!RA!8975,!Ban!on!

issuance!of!TRO!or!Writ!of!

a.!Definitions!and!Differences:!

Q.! Execution ,!Satisfaction!and!Effec t!of!Judgments !

Preliminary!Injunction!and!

1.!Difference!between!finality!of!judgment!

Temporary!Restraining!Order !

for!purposes!of!appeal;!for!purposes!of! execution ! 2.!When! execution ! shall!issue ! a.! Execution ! as!a!matter!of!right ! b.!Discretionary! execution ! 3.!How!a!judgment!is!executed ! a.! Execution ! by!motion!or!b y! independent!action ! b.!Issuance!and!contents!of!a!writ! of! execution ! c.! Execution ! of!judgments!for! money ! d.! Execution ! of!judgments!for! specific!acts ! e.! Execution ! of!special!judgments ! f.!Effect!of!levy!on!third!persons ! 4.!Properties!exempt!from!execution !

b.!Requisites ! c.!Kinds!of!Injunction ! d.!Whe n!writ!may!be!issued ! e.!Grounds!for!issuance!of! preliminary!injunction ! f.!Grounds!for!objection!to,!or!for! the!dissolution!of!injunction!or! restraining!order ! g.!Duration!of!TRO !

Injunction!in!case s!involving! government!infrastructure! projects ! i.!Rule!on!prior!or! contemporaneous!service!of! summons!in!relation!to!

5.

! Proceedings!where!property!is!claimed!

attachment !

by!third!persons ! a.!in!relation!to!third!party!claim! in!attachment!and!replevin ! 6.!Rules!on!Redemption !

5.!Receivership ! a.!Cases!when!receiver!may!be! appointed !

7.!Examination!of!Judgment!Obligor!When!

b.!Requisites !

Judgment!is!unsatisfied !

c.!Requirements!before!issuance!

8.!Examination!of!Obligor!of!Judgment!

of!an!Order !

Obligor ! 9.!E ffect!of!Judgment!or!Final!Orders !

d.!General!po wers!of!a!receiver ! e.!Two!(2)!kinds!of!bonds !

10.!Enforcement!and!Effect!of!Foreign!

f.!Termination!of!receivership !

Judgments!or!Final!Orders !

6.!Replevin !

R.!Provisional!Remedies !

a.!When!may!writ!be!issued !

1.!Nature!of!provisional!remedies!

b.!Requisites !

2.!Jurisdiction!over!provisional!remedies!

c.!Affidavit!and!bond;!Redelivery!

Bond !

3.!Preliminary!Attachment ! a.!Grounds!for!issuance!of!writ!of! attachment ! b.!Requisites !

d.!Sheriff’s!duty!in!the! implementation!of!the!writ;!when! property!is!claimed!by!third! party !

c.!Issuance!and!contents!of!order! of!attachment;!affidavit!and!bond !

S.!Special!Civil!Actions ! 1.!Nature!of!special!civil!actions !

d.!Rule!on!prior!or!

2.!Ordinary!civil!actions!versus!special!civil!

contemporaneous!service!of! summons !

actions ! 3.!Jurisdiction!and!venue !

e.!Manner!of!attaching!real!and!

personal!property;!when!property!

4.!Interpleader !

2011$Bar$Ex aminations BERT$ – $ NOTES$in$REMEDIAL$LAW $ 6 $ $ a.!Requisites!for!interpleader ! b.!When!to!file !
2011$Bar$Ex aminations
BERT$ – $ NOTES$in$REMEDIAL$LAW
$
6
$
$
a.!Requisites!for!interpleader !
b.!When!to!file !
!
5.!Declaratory!Reliefs!and!Similar!
Remedies !
a.!Who!may!file!the!action !
b.!Requisites!of!action!for!
declaratory!relief !
c.!When!court!may!refuse!to!make!
judicial!declaration !
d.!Conversion!to!ordinary!action
e.!Proceedings!considered!as!
similar!remedies !
A.!Reformation!of!an!
instrument !
B.!Consolidation ! of!
ownership !
C.!Quieting!of!title!to!
real!property !
b.!When!government!commence!
an!action!against!individuals !
c.!Wh en!individual!may!
commence!an!action !
d.!Judgment!in!Quo!Warranto!
action !
e.!Rights!of!a!person!adjudged!
entitled!to!public!office !
!
!
!
6.!Review!of!Judgments!and!Final!Orders!
or!Resolution!of!the!COMELEC!and!COA
!
a.!Application!of!Rule!65!under!
Rule!64 !
b.!Distinction!in!the!application!of!
Rule!65!to!judgments!of!the!
COMELEC!and!COA!and!t he!
application!of!Rule!65!to!other!
tribunals,!persons!and!officers !
!
7.!Certiorari,!Prohibition!and!Mandamus !
a.!Definitions!and!distinctions !
b.!Requisites !
c.!When!petition!for!certiorari,!
prohibition!and!mandamus!is!
proper !
d.!Injunctive!relief !
e.!Certiorari ! distinguished!from!
Appeal!by!Certiorari;!Prohibition!
and!Mandamus!distinguished!
from!Injunction;!when!and!where!
to!file!petition !
f.!Exceptions!to!filing!of!motion!
for!reconsideration!before!filing!
petition !
g.!Reliefs!petitioner!is!entitled!to !
h.!Actions/O missions!of!
MTC/RTC!in!election!cases !
i.!Where!to!file!petition !
j.!Effects!of!filing!of!an!
unmeritorious!petition !
9.!Expropriation !
a.!Matters!to!allege!in!complaint!
for!expropriation !
b.!Two!stages!in!every!action!for!
expropriation !
c.!When!p laintiff!can!immediately!
enter!into!possession!of!the!real!
property,!in!relation!to!RA!8974 !
d.!New!system!of!immediate!
payment!of!initial!just!
compensation !
e.!Defenses!and!objections !
f.!Order!of!Expropriation !
g.!Ascertainment!of!just!
compensation !
h.!Appoin tment!of!
Commissioners;!Commissioner’s!
report;!Court!action!upon!
commissioner’s!report !
i.!Rights!of!plaintiff!upon!
judgment!and!payment !
j.!Effect!of!recording!of!judgment !
!
10.!Foreclosure!of!Real!Estate!Mortgage!
a.!Judgment!on!foreclosure!for!
payment!or!sa le !
b.!Sale!of!mortgaged!property;!
effect !
c.!Disposition!of!proceeds!of!sale!
d.!Deficiency!judgment !
(1)!Instances!when!court!
cannot!render!deficiency!
judgment !
e.!Judicial!foreclosure!versus!
extrajudicial!foreclosure !
f.!Equity!of!redemption!versus!
right!of!r edemption !
!
!
11.!Partition !
a.!Who!may!file!complaint;!who!
should!be!made!defendants !
b.!Matters!to!allege!in!the!
complaint!for!partition !

$

8.!Quo!Warranto ! a.!Distinguish!from!Quo! Warranto!in!the!Omnibus!Election! Code !

c.!Two!(2)!stages!in!every!action!

for!partition ! d.!Order!of!partition!and!partition! by!agreement !

2011$Bar$Ex aminations BERT$ – $ NOTES$in$REMEDIAL$LAW

7

 

e.!Partition!by!commissio ners;!

B.!Summary!Settlement!of!Estates !

Appointment!of!commissioners,!

1.!Extrajudicial!settlement!by!agreement!

Commissioner’s!report;!Court! action!upon!commissioner’s! report ! f.!Judgment!and!its!effects !

between!heirs,!hen!allowed ! 2.!Two > year!prescriptive!period ! 3.!Affidavit!of!Self > adjudication!by!sole! heir !

g.!Partition!of!personal!property !

4.!Summary!settlement!of!estates!of!small!

h.!Prescription!of!action !

value,!when!allowed !

 

5.!Remedies!of!aggrieved!parties!after!

12.!Forcible!Entry!and!Unlawful!Detainer!

extra > judicial!settlement!of!estate !

 

a.!Definitions!and!Distinct ion !

b.!Distinguished!from!accion! publiciana!and!accion!

C.!Production!and!Probate!of!Will ! 1.!Nature!of!probate!proceeding !

reinvindicatoria !

2.!Who!may!petition!for!probate;!persons!

c.!How!to!determine!jurisdiction!

entitled!to!notice !

in!accion!publiciana!and!accion!

reinvindicatoria !

D.!Allowance!or!Dis allowance!of!Will !

d.!Who!may!institute!the!action!

1.!Contents!of!petition!for!allowance!of!will!

and!when;!against!whom!the!

2.!Grounds!for!disallowing!a!will!

action!may!be!maintained !

3.!Reprobate;!Requisites!before!will!proved!

e.!Pleadings!allow ed ! f.!Action!on!the!complaint !

outside!allowed!in!the!Philippines;!effects! of!probate !

g.!When!demand!is!necessary !

h.!Preliminary!injunction!and! preliminary!mandatory!injunction ! i.!Resolving!defense!of!ownership ! j.!How!to!stay!the!immediate!

E.!Letters!Testamentary!and!of!Administration ! 1.!When!and! To!whom!letters!of! administration!granted ! 2.!Order!of!preference !

execution ! of!judgment !

3.!Opposition!to!issuance!of!letters!

k.!Summary!procedure,! prohibited!pleadings !

testamentary;!simultaneous!filing!of! petition!for!administration !

 

4.!Powers!and!duties!of!Executors!and!

13.!Co ntempt ! a.!Kinds!of!contempt !

Administrators;!restrictions!on!the!powers ! 5.!Appoi ntment!of!Special!Administrator !

b.!Purpose!and!nature!of!each !

6.!Grounds!for!removal!of!administrator!

c.!Remedy!against!direct!

contempt;!penalty !

F.!Claims!Against!the!Estate !

d.!Remedy!against!indirect!

1.!Time!within!which!claims!shall!be!filed;!

contempt;!penalty ! e.!How!contempt!proceedings!are!

exceptions ! 2.!Statute!of!Non > claims !

commenced !

3.!Claim!of!Executor!or!administrator!

f.!Acts!deemed!punishable!as! indirect!contempt !

against!the!Estate ! 4.!Payment!of!Deb ts !

g.!When!imprisonment! shall!be!

imposed ! h.!Contempt!against!quasi > judicial!

G.!Actions!by!and!against!Executors!and! Administrators !

bodies !

1.!Actions!that!may!be!brought!against!

executors!and!administrators !

IV.$Special$Proceedings $

2.!Requisites!before!creditor!may!bring!an!

A.!Settlement!of!Estate!of!Deceased!Persons,!Venue!

action!for!recovery!of!property! fraudulently!conveyed!by!the!deceased !

and!Process !

1.!Which!court!has!jurisdiction ! 2.!Venue!in!judicial!settlement!of!estate ! 3.!Extent!of!jurisdiction!of!Proba te!Court !

H.!Distribution ! and!Partition ! 1.!Liquidation ! 2.!Project!of!Partition !

4.!Powers!and!Duties!of!Probate!Court!

!

3.!Remedy!of!an!heir!entitled!to!residue!but!

not!given!his!share !

$

4.!Instances!when!probate!court!may!issue!

2011$Bar$Ex aminations BERT$ – $ NOTES$in$REMEDIAL$LAW

8

3.!Differences!between!Amparo!and!search!

writ!of! execution !

warrant !

4.!Who!may!file !

I.!Trustees !

5.!Contents!of!retur n !

1.!Distinguished!from!

6.!Effects!of!failure!to!file!return !

executor/administrator ! 2.!Conditions!of!th e!Bond !

7.!Omnibus!waiver!rule ! 8.!Procedure!for!hearing !

3.!Requisites!for!the!removal!and!

9.!Institution!of!separate!action !

resignation!of!a!trustee !

10.!Effect!of!filing!of!a!criminal!action !

4.!Grounds!for!removal!and!resignation!of!

11.!Consolidation !

a!trustee !

12.!Interim!reliefs!available!to!petitioner!

5.!Extent!of!authority!of!trustee !

and!respondent ! 13.!Quantum!of!p roof!in!application!for!

J.!Escheat ! 1.!When!to!file !

period!for!filing!a!claim !

issuance!of!writ!of!Amparo !

2.!Requisites!for!filing!of!petition ! 3.!Remedy!of!respondent!against!petitio n;!

O.!Writ!of!Habeas!Data!(AM!No.!08 > 1 > 16 > SC) ! 1.!Scope!of!writ ! 2.!Availability!of!writ !

3.!Distinguish!from!Habeas!Corpus!and!

K.!Guardianship !

Amparo !

11.!Quantum!of!proof!in!application!for!

1.!General!powers!and!duties!of!guardians!

4.!Who!may!file !

2.!Conditions!of!the!bond!of!the!guardian ! 3.!Rule!on!Guardianship!over!minor !

5.!Contents!of!the!petition ! 6.!Contents!of!return !

7.!Instan ces!when!petition!be!heard!in!

L.!Adoption !

chambers !

1.!Distinguish!domestic!adoption!from!

8.!Consolidation !

inter > country!adoption ! 2.!Domestic!Adopt ion!Act ! a.!effects!of!adoption !

9.!Effect!of!filing!of!a!criminal!action ! 10.!Institution!of!separate!action !

b.!instances!when!adoption!may!

issuance!of!writ!of!Amparo !

be!rescinded !

c.!effects!of!rescission!of!adoption ! 3.!Inter > country!Adoption ! a.!when!allowed ! b.!functions!of!the!RTC !

P.!Change!of!Name ! 1.!Differences!under!Rule!103,!RA!9048 ! and! Rule!108 ! 2.!Grounds!for!change!of!name !

c.!fbest!interest!of!the!minorf!

standard !

Q.!Absentees ! 1.!Purpose!of!the!Rule !

M.!Writ!of!Habeas!Corpus ! 1.!Contents ! of!the!petition !

3.!Distinguish!peremptory!writ!from!

2.!Who!may!file;!when!to!file !

2.!Contents!of!the!Return !

R.!Cancellation!or!Correction!of!Entries!in!the!Civil! Registry !

preliminary!citation !

1.!Entries!subject!to!cancellation!or!

4.!When!not!proper/applicable !

correction!under!Rule!108,!in!relation!to!R A!9048 !

5.!When!writ!disallowed/discharged !

6.!Distinguish!from!writ!of!Amparo!and!

S.!Appeals!in!Special!Proceeding !

Habeas!Data !

1.!Judgments!and!orders!for!which!appeal!

7.!Rules!on!Custody!of!Minors!and!Writ!o f! Habeas!Corpus!in!Relation!to!Custody!of! Minors!(AM!No.!03 > 04 > 04 > SC) !

may!be!taken ! 2.!When!to!appeal ! 3.!Modes!of!appeal ! 4.!Rule!on!Advance!Distribution !

N.!Writ!of!Amparo!(AM!No.!07 > 9 > 12 > SC) !

1.!Coverage !

2.!Distinguish!from!habeas!corpus!and!

habeas!data !

V.$Criminal$Procedure $

!

A.!General!Matters !

$

1.!Distinguish!Jurisdiction!over!subject!

matter! from!jurisdiction!over!person!of!the! accused !

2.!Requisites!for!exercise!of!criminal!

2011$Bar$Ex aminations BERT$ – $ NOTES$in$REMEDIAL$LAW

9

c.!by!private!per son !

4.!Requisites!of!a!valid!warrant!of!arrest!

5.!Determination!of!Probable!Cause!for!

issuance!of!warrant!of!arrest !

jurisdiction !

6.!Distinguish!probable!cause!of!fiscal!from!

3.!Jurisdiction!of!Criminal!courts !

that!of!a!judge !

4.!When!injunction!may!be!issued!to!

restrain!criminal!prosecution !

F.!Bail !

1.!Nature !

B.!Prosecution!of!Offenses !

2.!When!a!matter!of!right;!exceptions!

1.!Criminal!actions,!how!instituted !

3.!When!a!matter!of!discretion !

2.!Who!may!file!them,!crimes!that!cannot!

4.!Hearing!of!application!for!bail!in!capital!

be!prosecuted!de!officio ! 3.!Criminal!actions,!when!enjoined ! 4.!Control!of!prosecution !

9.!Amendment!or!Substitution!of!

offenses ! 5.!Guidelines!in!fixing!amount!of!bail ! 6.!Bail!when!not!required !

5.!Sufficiency!of!Complaint!or!Information !

7.!Increase!or!Reduction!of!Bail!

6.!Designation!of!Offense !

8.!Forfeiture!and!Cancellation!of!bail!

7.!Cause!of!the!Accusation !

9.!Application!not!a!bar!to!objections!in!

8.!Duplicity!of!the!Offense ;!Exception !

illegal!arres t,!lack!of!or!irregular! preliminary!investigation !

complaint!or!information !

10.!Hold!Departure!Order!&!Bureau!of!

10.!Venue!of!criminal!actions !

Immigration!Watchlist !

11.!Intervention!of!offended!party !

 

G.!Rights!of!the!Accused !

C.!Prosecution!of!Civil!Action !

1.!Rights!of!accused!at!the!trial!

1.!Rule!on!implied!institution!of!civil!action!

2.!Rights!of!persons!under!Custodial!

with!criminal!action !

Investigation !

2.!When!civil!action!m ay!proceed!

independently ! 3.!When!separate!civil!action!is!suspended !

H.!Arraignment!and!Plea ! 1.!Arraignm ent!and!Plea,!how!made !

4.!Effect!of!the!death!of!accused!or!convict!

2.!When!should!plea!of!NOT!GUILTY!be!

on!civil!action !

entered !

5.!Prejudicial!Question !

3.!When!may!accused!enter!a!plea!of!guilty!

6.!Rule!on!Filing!Fees!in!civil!action!

to!a!lesser!offense !

deemed!instituted!with!the!criminal!action !

4.!Accused!plead!guilty!to!capital!offense,!

D.!Preliminary!Inves tigation ! 1.!Nature!of!right ! 2.!Purposes!of!preliminary!investigation !

what!the!court!should!do ! 5.!Searching!Inquiry ! 6.!Improvident!plea ! 7.!Grounds!for! suspension!of!arraignment !

3.!Who!may!conduct!determination!of!

existence!of!probable!cause !

I.!Motion!to!Quash !

4.!Resolution!of!investigation!prosecutor!

1.!Grounds !

5.!Review !

2.!Distinguish!from!demurrer!to!evidence!

6.!When!warrant!of!arrest!may!issue!

3.!Effects!of!sustaining!the!motion!to!quash !

7.!Cases!not!requiring!a!preliminar y!

8.!Remedies!of!accused!if!there!was!no!

4.!Exception!to!the!rule!that!sustaining!the!

investigation !

motion!is!not!a!bar!to!another!prosecution ! 5.!Double!Jeopardy !

preliminary!investigation ! 9.!Inquest !

6.!Pro visional!Dismissal !

E.!Arrest !

J.!Pre > trial ! 1.!Matters!to!be!considered!during!pre> trial !

1.!Arrest,!how!made !

2.!Arrest!without!warrant,!when!lawful!

3.!Method!of!arrest!

a.!by!officer!with!warrant!

b.!by!officer!without!warrant!

2.!What!the!court!should!do!when!

prosecution!and!offended!party!agree!to! the!plea!offered!by!the!accused ! 3.!Pre > trial!agreement ! 4.!Non > appearance!during!pre > trial !

$

5.!Pre > trial!or der !

6.!Referral!of!some!cases!for!Court!

2011$Bar$Ex aminations BERT$ – $ NOTES$in$REMEDIAL$LAW

10

7.!Personal!property!to!be!seized !

8.!Exceptions!to!search!warrant!

 

Annexed!Mediation!and!Judicial!Dispute! Resolution !

requirement ! a.!Search!incidental!to!lawful!

 

arrest !

K.!Trial !

b.!Consented!Search !

 

1.!Instances!when!presence!of!accused!is!

c.!Search!of!m oving!vehicle !

required!by!law !

d.!Check!points;!body!checks!in!

2.!Requisite!before!trial!can!be!suspended!

airport !

on!account!of!absence!of!witness ! 3.!Trial!in!Absentia !

e.!Plain!view!situation ! f.!Stop!and!Frisk!situation !

4.

! Remedy!when!accused!is!not!brought!to!

g.!Enforcement!of!Custom!Laws !

trial!within!the!prescribed!period !

5.!Requisites!for!discharge!of!accused!to!

become!a!state!witness !

6.!Effects!of!Discharge!of!accused!as!state!

witness ! 7.!Demurrer!to!Evidence !

9.!Remedies!from!unlawful!search!and!

seizure !

!

P.!Provisional!Remedies ! 1.!Nature ! 2.!Kinds!of!provisional!remedies !

L.!Judgment !

3.!Promulgation!of!judgment;!instances!of!

VI.$Ev idence $

1.!Requisites!of!a!judgment !

2.!Contents!of!Judgment !

A.!General!Principles ! 1.!Concept!of!Evidence !

promulgation!of!judgment!in!absentia !

2.!Scope!of!the!Rules!of!Evidence !

4.!When!does!judgment!become!final!(four!

3.!Evidence!in!Civil!Cases!Versus!Evidence!

instances) !

in!Criminal!Cases1avvphi1 ! 4.!Proof!Versus!Evidence !

M.!New!Trial!or!Reconsideration !

5.!Factum!Probans!Versus!Factum!

1.!Grounds!for!New!Trial!

Probandum !

2.!Grounds!for!Reconsideration ! 3.!Requisite s!before!a!new!trial!may!be! granted!on!ground!of!newly!discovered! evidence !

6.!Admissibility!of!Evidence ! a.!R equisites!for!admissibility!of! evidence ! b.!Relevance!of!evidence!and!

4.!Effects!of!granting!a!new!trial!or!

collateral!matters !

reconsideration !

c.!Multiple!admissibility !

5.!Application!of!Neypes!Doctrine!in!

d.!Conditional!admissibility !

Criminal!Cases !

e.!Curative!admissibility !

f.!Direct!and!circumstantial!

N.!Appeal !

evidence !

1.!Effect!of!an!Appeal ! 2.!Where!to!appeal ! 3.!How!appeal!taken !

g.!Positive!and!negative!evidence ! h.!Competent!an d!credible! evidence !

4.

! Effect!of!appeal!by!any!of!several!

7.!Burden!of!Proof!and!Burden!of!Evidence !

accused !

8.!Presumptions !

5.!Grounds!for!dismissal!of!appeal!

a.!Conclusive!presumptions !

b.!Disputable!presumptions !

O.!Search!and!Seizure !

1.!Nature!of!search!warrant!

2.!Distinguish!from!warrant!of!arrest!

3.!Application!for!search!warrant,!where!

filed ! 4.!Probable!Cause ! 5.!Personal!examination ! by!judge!of!the! applicant!and!witnesses !

6.!Particularity!of!place!to!be!searched!and!

things!to!be!seized !

9.!Liberal!Construction!of!the!Rules!of!

Evidence !

10.!Quantum!of!Evidence!(Weight!And!

Sufficiency!of!Evidence) ! a.!Proof!beyon d!reasonable!doubt ! b.!Preponderance!of!evidence ! c.!Substantial!evidence ! d.!Clear!and!convincing!evidence !

!

B.!Judicial!Notice!and!Judicial!Admissions !

$

1.!What!Need!Not!be!Proved ! 2.!Matters!of!Judicial!Notice ! a.!Mandatory ! b.!Discretionary ! 3.!Judicial!Admissio ns ! a.!Effect!of!judicial!admissions ! b.!How!judicial!admissions!may! be!contradicted !

4.!Judicial!Notice!of!Foreign!Laws,!Law!of!

Nations!and!Municipal!Ordinance !

2011$Bar$Ex aminations BERT$ – $ NOTES$in$REMEDIAL$LAW

11

e.!Audio,!photographic,!video! and!e phemeral!evidence ! 5.!Parol!Evidence!Rule ! a.!Application!of!the!parol! evidence!rule ! b.!When!parole!evidence!can!be! introduced ! c.!Distinctions!between!the!best!

evidence!rule!and!parol!evidence! rule !

6.!Authentication!and!Proof!of!Documents!

C.!Object!(Real)!Evidence ! 1.!Nature!of!Object!Evidence ! 2.!Requisites!for!Admissibility ! 3.!Categor ies!of!Object!Evidence ! 4.!Demonstrative!Evidence ! 5.!View!of!an!Object!or!Scene !

a.!Meaning!of!authe ntication ! b.!Public!and!private!documents ! c.!When!a!private!writing!requires! authentication;!proof!of!a!private! writing ! d.!When!evidence!of!authenticity!

6.!Chain!of!Custody!in!Relation!to!Section!

of!a!private!writing!is!not!

21!of!the!Comprehensive!Dangerous!Drugs!

required!(ancient!documents) !

Act!of!2002 ! 7.!Rule!on!DNA!Evidence!(A.M.!No.!06> 11 >

e.!How!to!prove!genuineness!of!a! handwriting !

5

> SC) !

f

.!Public!documents!as!evidence;!

 

a.!Meaning!of!DNA ! b.!Applicable!for! DNA!testing! order ! c.!Post > conviction!DNA!testing;! remedy ! d.!Assessment!of!probative!value! of!DNA!evidence!and! admissibility ! e.!Rules!on!evaluation!of! reliability!of!the!DNA!testing! Methodology !

proof!of!official!record ! g.!Attestation!of!a!copy ! h.!Public!record!of!a!public! document ! i.!Proof!of!lack!of!record ! j.!How!a!judicial!record!is! impeached ! k.!Proof!of!notarial!documents ! l.!How!to!explain!alterations!in!a! docum ent ! m.!Documentary!evidence!in!an! unofficial!language !

D.!Documentary!Evidence ! 1.!Meaning!of!Documentary!Evidence ! 2.! Requisites!for!Admissibility ! 3.!Best!Evidence!Rule ! a.!Meaning!of!the!rule b.!When!applicable ! c.!Meaning!of!original d.!Requisites!for!introduction!of!

!

!

secondary!evidence !

4.!Rules!on!Electronic!Evidence!(A.M.!No.!

01 > 7 > 01 > SC) ! a.!Meaning!of!electronic!evidence ;! electronic!data!massage ! b.!Probative!value!of!electronic! documents!or!evidentiary!weight;! method!of!proof ! c.!Authentication!of!electronic! documents!and!electronic! signatures ! d.!Electronic!documents!and!the! hearsay!rule !

!

E.!Testimonial!Evidence ! 1.!Qualifications!of!a!Witness !

2.!Competency!Versus!Credibility!of!a!

Witness ! 3.!Disqualifications!of!Witnesses ! a.!Disqualification!by!reason!of! mental!capacity!or!immaturity ! b.! Disqualification!by!reason!of! marriage ! c.!Disqualification!by!reason!of! death!or!insanity!of!adverse!party ! d.!Disqualification!by!reason!of! privileged!communications ! (1)!Husband!and!wife ! (2)!Attorney!and!client ! (3)!Physician!and!patient ! (3)!and!penitent ! (4 )!Public!officers !

! Parental!and!filial!privilege!rule ! 4.!Examination!of!a!Witness !

$

2011$Bar$Ex aminations BERT$ – $ NOTES$in$REMEDIAL$LAW

12

a.!Rights!and!obligations!of!a! witness ! b.!Order!in!the!examination!of!an! individual!witness !

b.!Opinion!of!ordinary!witness ! 8.!Character!Evidence ! a.!Criminal!cases ! b.!Civil!cases !

(1)!Direct!examination !

9.!Rule!on!Examination!of!a!Child!Witness!

(2)!Cross!examination ! (3)!Re > direct!examination ! (4)!Re > cros s!examination ! (5)!Recalling!the!witness ! c.!Leading!and!misleading! questions ! d.!Methods!of!impeachment!of! adverse!party’s!witness ! e.!How!the!witness!is!impeached! by!evidence!of!inconsistent! statements!(laying!the!predicate) ! f.!Evidence!of!the!good!character ! of!a!witness !

(A.M.!No.!004 > 07 > SC) ! a.!Applicability!of!the!rule ! b.!Meaning!of!fchild!w itnessf ! c.!Competency!of!a!child!witness ! d.!Examination!of!a!child!witness ! e.!Live > link!TV!testimony!of!a! child!witness ! f.!Videotaped!deposition!of!a! child!witness ! g.!Hearsay!exception!in!child! abuse!cases ! h.!Sexual!abuse!shield!rule ! i.!Protective!orders !

5.!Admissions!and!Confessions !

a.!Res!inter!alios!acta!rule ! b.!Admission!by!a!party ! c.!Admission!by!a!third!party ! d.!Admission!by!a!co > partner!or! agent ! e.!Admission!by!a!conspirator ! f.!Admission!by!privies ! g.!Admission!by!silence !

F.!Offer!and!Objection ! 1.!Offer!of!Evidence ! 2.!When!to!Make!an!Offer ! 3.!Objection ! 4.!Repetition!of!an!Objection ! 5.!Ruling ! 6.!Striking!Out!of!an!Answer ! 7.!Tender!of!Excluded!Evidence !

h.!Confession s !

i.!Similar!acts!as!evidence !

G.!Supreme!Court!Rulings!as!of!December!2010 !

6.!Hearsay!Rule !

a.!Meaning!of!hearsay ! b.!Reason!for!exclusion!of!hearsay! evidence ! c.!Exceptions!to!the!hearsay!rule ! (1)!Dying!declaration !

VII.$Revised$Rules$on$Summa ry$Procedure $ A.!Cases!covered!by!the!Rule ! B.!Effect!of!failure!to!answer ! C.!Preliminary!conference!and!appearances!of! parties !

(2)!Declaration!against!

interest !

VIII.$Katarungang$Pambarangay $

(3)!Act!or!declaration!

A.!Cases!covered !

about!pedigree ! (4)!Family!reputa tion!or! tradition!regarding! pedigree ! (5)!Common!reputation ! (6)!Part!of!the!res!gestae !

B.!Subject!matter!for!amicable!settlement ! C.!Venue ! D.!When!parties!may!directly!go ! to!court ! E.! Execution ! F.!Repudiation !

(7)!Entries!in!the!course!

IX.$Rule$of$Procedure$for$Small$Claims$Cases$(AM$No.$08 Y

of!business !

8

Y 7 Y SC) $

(8)!Entries!in!official!

A.!Scope!and!applicability!of!the!Rule !

records !

B.!Commencement!of!small!claims!action;!Response

(9)!Commercial!lists!and!

C.!Prohibited!pleadings!and!motions !

the!like ! (10)!Learned!treaties !

D.!Appearances ! E.!Hearing;!du ty!of!the!judge !

(11)!Testimony!or!

F.!Finality!of!judgment !

deposition!at!a!former! tri al1avvphi1 !

X.$Rules$of$Procedure$for$Environmental$Cases$(AM$No.$09 Y

7.!Opinion!Rule ! a.!Opinion!of!expert!witness !

6 Y 8 Y SC) $

A.!Scope!and!Applicability!of!the!Rule !

$

!

B.!Civil!Procedure !

1.!Prohibition!against!Temporary!

Restraining!Order!and!Preliminary! Injunction !

2.!Pre > trial! Conference;!Consent!Decree ! 3.!Prohibited!Pleadings!and!Motions !

4.!Temporary!Environmental!Protection!

Order!(TEPO) ! 5.!Judgment!and! Execution ;!Reliefs!in!a! citizen’s!suit !

6.!Permanent!Environmental!Protection!

Order;!Writ!of!continuing!mandamus !

2011$Bar$Ex aminations BERT$ – $ NOTES$in$REMEDIAL$LAW

13

2.!Institution!of!criminal!and!civil!action ! 3.! Arrest!without!warrant,!when!valid !

4.!Procedure!in!the!custody!and!

disposition!of!seized!items ! 5.!Bail ! 6.!Arraignment!and!Plea ! 7.!Pre > trial ! 8.!Subsidiary!liabilities !

!

E.!Evidence ! 1.!Precautionary!principle ! 2.!Documentary!evidence !

!

7.!Strategic!L

awsuit!against!Public!

IMPORTANT! NOTE:! This! bar! coverage! description! is! not!

Participation

intended!and!should!not!be!used!by!law!schools!as!a!syllabus!

or!course!outline!in! the!covered! subjects.! It!has!been!drawn!

C.!Special!Proceedings ! 1.!Writ!of!Kalikasan ! 2.!Prohibited!pleadings!and!motions ! 3.!Discovery!measures ! 4.!Writ!of!Continuing!Mandamus !

up! for! the! limited! purpose! of! ensuring! that! candidates! reviewing!for!the!bar!examinations!are!guided!on!wh at!basic! and! minimum! amounts! of! laws,! doctrines,! and! principles! they! need! to! know! and! be! able! to! use! correctly! before! they! can!be!licensed!to!practice!law.!More!is!required!for!excellent!

and!distinguished!work!as!members!of!the!Bar.!

D.!Criminal!Procedure ! 1.!Who!may!file !

2011$Bar$Ex aminations BERT$ – $ NOTES$in$REMEDIAL$LAW

14

CIVIL PROCEDURE

Rules 1 – 71

GENERAL PRINCIPLES

CONCEPT OF REMEDIAL LAW

Remedial Law is that branch of law which prescribes the method of enforcing rights or obtaining redress for their invasion.

SUBSTANTIVE LAW AS DISTINGUISHED FROM REMEDIAL LAW

Substantive law creates, defines and regulates rights and duties regarding life, liberty or property which when violated gives rise to a cause of action.

Remedial law prescribes the methods of enforcing those rights and obligations created by substantive law by providing a procedural system for obtaining redress for the invasion of rights and violations of duties and by prescribing rules as to how suits are filed, tried and decided by the courts.

As applied to criminal law, substantive law is that which declares what acts are crimes and prescribes the punishment for committing them, as distinguished from remedial law which provides or regulates the steps by which one who commits a crime is to be punished.

RULE-MAKING POWER OF THE SUPREME COURT

Section 5 (5), Art. VIII of the Constitution provides that the Supreme Court shall have the power to:

a. promulgate rules concerning the protection and enforcement of constitutional rights, pleading, practice, and procedure in all courts;

b. admission to the practice of law;

c. the Integrated Bar;

d. and legal assistance to the underprivileged

LIMITATIONS OF THE RULE-MAKING POWER OF THE SUPREME COURT

1)

The

rules

shall

provide

a

simplified

and

2)

inexpensive procedure for the speedy disposition of cases They shall be uniform for all courts of the same grade They shall not diminish, increase, or modify substantive rights. The power to admit attorneys to the Bar is not an arbitrary and despotic one but is the duty of the court to exercise and regulate it by a sound and judicial discretion.

3)

4)

!

Rules of procedure of special courts and quasi- judicial bodies shall remain effective unless disapproved by the Supreme Court.

POWER OF THE SUPREME COURT TO AMEND AND SUSPEND PROCEDURAL RULES

When

purpose of justice requires it = discretionary upon courts.

compelling

reasons

so

warrant

or

when

the

Reasons that would warrant the suspension:

1) the existence of special or compelling circumstances;

2)

merits of the case;

3)

cause not entirely attributable to the fault or negligence of the party favored by the suspension of rules

4) a lack of showing that the review sought is merely frivolous and dilatory; 5) the other party will not be unjustly prejudiced thereby.

" Where

substantial

resolution.

and

important

issues

await

" When transcendental matters of life, liberty or state security are involved.

" The constitutional power of the Supreme Court to promulgate rules of practice and procedure necessarily carries with it the power to overturn judicial precedents on points of remedial law through the amendment of the Rules of Court.

$

NATURE OF PHILIPPINE COURTS

Philippine courts are both courts of law and equity. Hence, both legal and equitable jurisdiction is dispensed with in the same tribunal.

WHAT IS A COURT

a. It is an organ of government belonging to the judicial department the function of which is the application of the laws to the controversies brought before it as well as the public administration of justice.

b. It is a governmental body officially assembled under authority of law at the appropriate time and place for the administration of justice through which the State enforces its sovereign rights and powers.

c. It is a board or tribunal which decides a litigation or contest.

COURT DISTINGUISHED FROM JUDGE

a) A court is a tribunal officially assembled under authority of law; a judge is simply an officer of such tribunal;

b) A court is an organ of the government with a personality separate and distinct from the person or judge who sits on it;

c) A court is a being in imagination comparable to a corporation, whereas a judge is a physical person;

d) A court may be considered an office; a judge is a public officer; and

e) The circumstances of the court are not affected by the circumstances that would affect the judge.

CLASSIFICATION OF PHILIPPINE COURTS

Regular courts engaged in the administration of justice are organized into four (4) levels:

(a) First Level (MTCs, MeTCs, MCTCs) which try

and decide (1) Criminal actions involving:

a. violations of city or municipal ordinances committed within their respective territorial jurisdiction; and

b. offenses punishable with imprisonment not exceeding six (6) years irrespective of the amount of fine and regardless of other imposable accessory or other penalties, and

(2) Civil actions including EJECTMENT CASES (FEUD) and recovery of personal property with a value of not more than P300,000 outside MM or does not exceed P400,000 in MM;

(b) Second Level (RTCs, Family Courts)

" courts of general jurisdiction

2011$Bar$Ex aminations $ BERT$ – $ NOTES$in$REMEDIAL$LAW $

# among the civil actions assigned to them by law are those in which the subject of litigation is

a. actions incapable of pecuniary estimation

b. actions

or

involving

title

to

15 $

possession of real property where the assessed value of the property exceeds P20,000 outside MM or exceeds P50,000 in MM.

c. where the demand exclusive of interest, damages of whatever kind, attorney’s fees, litigation expenses, and cost, or the value of the personal property or controversy exceeds P300,000 outside MM or exceeds P400,000 in MM.

" exercise appellate jurisdiction

"

Review cases appealed from courts of

the first level.

(c) Third Level (Court of Appeals, Sandiganbayan) CA is an appellate court

a. reviewing cases appealed to it from the RTC on questions of fact or mixed questions of fact and law

b. decisions

of

of

the

RTC

in

the

exercise

original jurisdiction

i. as a matter of right

ii. as a matter of discretion.

Occasionally, CA may act as a trial court, as in actions praying for the annulment of final and executory judgments of RTCs on the ground of extrinsic fraud subsequently discovered, against which no other remedies lies.

Sandiganbayan has jurisdiction

" over all criminal and civil cases involving

graft and corrupt practices act

such other offenses committed by public officers and employees including those in GOCCs in relation to their office.

" It also has exclusive appellate jurisdiction over final judgments, resolutions, or orders of RTCs whether in the exercise of their own original or appellate jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases committed by public officers or employees including those in GOCCs in relation to their office.

(d) Fourth Level (Supreme Court)

$

COURTS OF ORIGINAL AND APPELLATE JURISDICTION

A

proceedings are originally filed with it. A court is one

with appellate jurisdiction when it has the power of review over the decisions or orders of a lower court.

court is one with original jurisdiction when actions or

MeTCs, MCTCs and MTCs are courts of original jurisdiction without appellate jurisdiction. RTC is likewise a court of original jurisdiction with respect to cases originally filed with it; and appellate court with respect to cases decided by MTCs within its territorial jurisdiction. (Sec. 22, BP 129).

CA is primarily a court of appellate jurisdiction with competence to review judgments of the RTCs and specified quasi-judicial agencies (Sec. 9[3], BP 129). It is also a court of original jurisdiction with respect to cases filed before it involving issuance of writs of certiorari, mandamus, quo warranto, habeas corpus, and prohibition. CA is a court of original and exclusive jurisdiction over actions for annulment of judgments of RTCs (Sec. 9 [1],[2], BP 129).

The SC is fundamentally a court of appellate jurisdiction but it may also be a court of original jurisdiction over cases affecting ambassadors, public ministers and consuls, and in cases involving petitions for certiorari, prohibition and mandamus (Sec. 5[1], Art. VIII, Constitution). The Supreme Court en banc is not an appellate court to which decisions or resolutions of a division of the Supreme Court may be appealed.

COURTS OF GENERAL AND SPECIAL JURISDICTION

Courts of general jurisdiction are those with competence

to decide on their own jurisdiction and to take cognizance

of all cases, civil and criminal, of a particular nature.

Courts of special (limited) jurisdiction are those which have only a special jurisdiction for a particular purpose or

are clothed with special powers for the performance of

specified duties beyond which they have no authority of

any kind.

A court may also be considered general if it has the

competence to exercise jurisdiction over cases not falling

within the jurisdiction of any court, tribunal, person or body exercising judicial or quasi-judicial functions. It is in

the context that the RTC is considered a court of general

jurisdiction.

CONSTITUTIONAL AND STATUTORY COURTS

A constitutional court is one created by a direct

Constitutional provision. Example of this court is the SC,

2011$Bar$Ex aminations BERT$ – $ NOTES$in$REMEDIAL$LAW

16

which owes its creation from the Constitution itself. Only the SC is a Constitutional court.

A statutory court is one created by law other than the

Constitution. All courts except the SC are statutory courts. SB was not directly created by the Constitution but by law pursuant to a constitutional mandate.

COURTS OF LAW

A court of law decides a case according to the existing

laws.

COURTS OF EQUITY

A court of equity adjudicates a controversy according to

the common precepts of what is right and just without

inquiring into the terms of the statutes.

PRINCIPLE OF JUDICIAL HIERARCHY

This is an ordained sequence of recourse to courts vested with concurrent jurisdiction, beginning from the lowest,

on to the next highest and ultimately to the highest. This

hierarchy is determinative of the venue of appeals, and is likewise determinative of the proper forum for petitions for extraordinary writs. This is an established policy necessary to avoid inordinate demands upon the Court’s time and attention which are better devoted to those matters within its exclusive jurisdiction, and to preclude the further clogging of the Court’s docket (Sec. 9[1], BP 129; Sec. 5[1], Art. VIII, Constitution of the Philippines).

A higher court will not entertain direct resort to it unless

the redress cannot be obtained in the appropriate courts.

The SC is a court of last resort. It cannot and should not

be burdened with the task of deciding cases in the first

instances. Its jurisdiction to issue extraordinary writs should be exercised only where absolutely necessary or where serious and important reasons exist.

The doctrine of hierarchy of courts may be disregarded if warranted by the nature and importance of the issues

raised in the interest of speedy justice and to avoid future litigations, or in cases of national interest and of serious

implications.

liberal

interpretations, for example, it may take cognizance of a

petition for certiorari directly filed before it.

Under

the

principle

of

DOCTRINE OF NON-INTERFERENCE OR DOCTRINE OF JUDICIAL STABILITY

Courts

of

equal

and

coordinate

jurisdiction

cannot

interfere with each other’s orders. Thus, the RTC has no power to nullify or enjoin the enforcement of a writ of possession issued by another RTC. The principle also bars a court from reviewing or interfering with the

judgment

of

a

co-equal

court

over

which

it

has

no

appellate jurisdiction or power of review.

$

This doctrine applies with equal force to administrative bodies. When the law provides for an appeal from the decision of an administrative body to the SC or CA, it means that such body is co-equal with the RTC and logically beyond the control of the latter.

JURISDICTION

Jurisdiction – the power and authority of the court to hear, try and decide a case.

JURISDICTION OVER THE PARTIES

a) The manner by which the court acquires jurisdiction over the parties depends on whether the party is the plaintiff or the defendant

b) Jurisdiction over the plaintiff is acquired by his filing of the complaint or petition. By doing so, he submits himself to the jurisdiction of the court.

c) Jurisdiction over the person of the defendant is obtained either by a valid service of summons upon him or by his voluntary submission to the court’s authority.

d) The mode of acquisition of jurisdiction over the plaintiff and the defendant applies to both ordinary and special civil actions like mandamus or unlawful detainer cases.

HOW JURISDICTION OVER PLAINTIFF IS ACQUIRED

" Acquired when the action is commenced by the

presupposes

filing

of

the

complaint.

This

payment of the docket fees.

HOW

ACQUIRED

JURISDICTION

OVER

DEFENDANT

IS

Jurisdiction over the person of the defendant is required only in an action in personam; it is not a prerequisite in

an action in rem and quasi in rem. In an action in personam, jurisdiction over the person is necessary for the

court to validly

proceeding in rem or quasi in rem, jurisdiction over the person of the defendant is not a prerequisite to confer jurisdiction on the court, provided the latter has jurisdiction over the res.

a

try

and

decide the case, while in

By

service of summons or despite a defective service of summons. The defendant’s voluntary appearance in the action shall be equivalent to service of summons.

voluntary

appearance

of

the

defendant,

without

Instances when appearance of defendant is not tantamount to voluntary submission to the jurisdiction of the court:

2011$Bar$Ex aminations BERT$ – $ NOTES$in$REMEDIAL$LAW

17

2)

when defendant files motion for reconsideration of the judgment by default;

3)

when defendant files a petition to set aside the judgment of default;

4)

when the parties jointly submit a compromise agreement for approval of the court;

5)

when defendant files an answer to the contempt charge;

6)

when defendant files a petition for certiorari without questioning the court’s jurisdiction over his person.

JURISDICTION OVER THE SUBJECT MATTER

It is the power to deal with the general subject involved in the action, and means not simply jurisdiction of the particular case then occupying the attention of the court but jurisdiction of the class of cases to which the particular case belongs. It is the power or authority to hear and determine cases to which the proceeding is question belongs.

When a complaint is filed in court, the basic questions

that ipso facto are to be immediately resolved by the court on its own:

a) What is the subject matter of their complaint filed before the court?

b) Does the court have jurisdiction over the said subject matter of the complaint before it? Answering these questions inevitably requires looking into the applicable laws conferring jurisdiction.

JURISDICTION VERSUS EXERCISE OF JURISDICTION

Jurisdiction is the power or authority of the court. The exercise of this power or authority is the exercise of jurisdiction.

ERROR OF JURISDICTION VS. ERROR OF JUDGMENT

An ERROR OF JURISDICTION is one where the act complained of was issued by the court without or in excess of jurisdiction. It occurs when the court exercises a jurisdiction not conferred upon it by law, or when the court or tribunal although with jurisdiction, acts in excess of its jurisdiction or with grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or jurisdiction.

An ERROR OF JUDGMENT is one which the court may commit in the exercise of its jurisdiction. As long as the court acts within its jurisdiction, any alleged errors committed in the exercise of its discretion will amount to nothing more than mere errors of judgment. Errors of judgment include errors of procedure or mistakes in the court‘s findings.

$

Errors of judgment are correctible by appeal; errors of jurisdiction are correctible only by the extraordinary writ of certiorari. Any judgment rendered without jurisdiction is a total nullity and may be struck down at any time, even on appeal; the only exception is when the party raising the issue is barred by estoppel.

HOW JURISDICTION IS CONFERRED AND DETERMINED

Jurisdiction is a matter of substantive law because it is conferred by law. This jurisdiction which is a matter of substantive law should be construed to refer only to jurisdiction over the subject matter. Jurisdiction over the parties, the issues and the res are matters of procedure. The test of jurisdiction is whether the court has the power to enter into the inquiry and not whether the decision is right or wrong.

It is the duty of the court to consider the question of jurisdiction before it looks at other matters involved in the case. If the court finds that it has jurisdiction, it is the duty of the court to exercise the jurisdiction conferred upon it by law and to render a decision in a case properly submitted to it. It cannot decline to exercise its jurisdiction. Failure to do so may be enforced by way of mandamus proceeding.

" Note: Jurisdiction over the subject matter is conferred by substantive law which may either be a Constitution or statute; while jurisdiction over the subject matter is determined by the allegations of the complaint regardless of whether or not the plaintiff is entitled to the claims asserted therein.

DOCTRINE OF PRIMARY JURISDICTION

Courts will not resolve a controversy involving a question

jurisdiction

the

exercise of sound administrative discretion requiring the

special knowledge, experience and services of the administrative tribunal to determine technical and intricate matters of fact.

which

administrative

is

within

the

of

an

tribunal,

especially

where

the

question

demands

The objective is to guide a court in determining whether it should refrain from exercising its jurisdiction until after an administrative agency has determined some question or some aspect of some question arising in the proceeding before the court.

DOCTRINE OF ADHERENCE OF JURISDICTION / CONTINUITY OF JURISDICTION

Once a court has acquired jurisdiction, that jurisdiction continues until the court has done all that it can do in the exercise of that jurisdiction. This principle also means that once jurisdiction has attached, it cannot be ousted by

2011$Bar$Ex aminations BERT$ – $ NOTES$in$REMEDIAL$LAW

18

subsequent

happenings

or

events

and

retains

that

jurisdiction until it finally disposes of the case.

Even the finality of the judgment does not totally deprive the court of jurisdiction over the case. What the court

loses

the

is

the

power

to

amend,

modify

or

alter

judgment. Even after the judgment has become final, the court retains jurisdiction to enforce and execute it.

OBJECTION TO JURISDICTION OVER THE SUBJECT MATTER

When it appears from the pleadings or evidence on record

that the court has no jurisdiction over the subject matter, the court shall dismiss the same. (Sec. 1, Rule 9). The

court

an

may

on

its

OWN

INITIATIVE

object

to

take

cognizance of lack of jurisdiction at any point in the case and has a clearly recognized right to determine its own jurisdiction.

erroneous

jurisdiction

and

may

ex

mero

motu

Jurisdiction over the subject matter may be raised at any

stage of the proceedings, even for the first time on appeal.

When

the

court

dismisses

the

complaint

for

lack

of

jurisdiction over the subject matter, it is common reason that the court cannot remand the case to another court with the proper jurisdiction. Its only power is to dismiss and not to make any other order.

EFFECT OF ESTOPPEL ON OBJECTION TO JURISDICTION

The active participation of a party in a case is tantamount to recognition of that court’s jurisdiction and will bar a

The

party

general rule remains: a court’s lack of jurisdiction may be raised at any stage of the proceedings even on appeal.

The

circumstances.

exceptional

from

impugning

the

court’s

jurisdiction.

to

only

Sibonghanoy

applies

Doctrine of estoppels by laches (in relation to objections to jurisdiction) = the SC barred a belated objection to jurisdiction that was raised only after an adverse decision was rendered by the court against the party raising the issue of jurisdiction and after seeking affirmative relief from the court and after participating in all stages of the proceedings.

The SC frowns upon the undesirable practice of submitting one’s case for decision, and then accepting the judgment only if favorable, but attacking it for lack of jurisdiction if it is not.

JURISDICTION OVER THE ISSUES

It is the power of the court to try and decide issues raised in the pleadings of the parties.

$

An issue is a disputed point or question to which parties to an action have narrowed down their several allegations and upon which they are desirous of obtaining a decision. Where there is no disputed point, there is no issue.

Generally, jurisdiction over the issues is conferred and determined by the pleadings of the parties. The pleadings present the issues to be tried and determine whether or not the issues are of fact or law.

a) may also be determined and conferred by stipulation of the parties as when in the pre-trial, the parties enter into stipulations of facts and documents or enter into agreement simplifying the issues of the case.

b) may also be conferred by waiver or failure to object to the presentation of evidence on a matter not raised in the pleadings. Here the parties try with their express or implied consent or issues not raised by the pleadings. The issues tried shall be treated in all respects as if they had been raised in the pleadings.

JURISDICTION OVER THE RES OR PROPERTY IN LITIGATION

2011$Bar$Ex aminations BERT$ – $ NOTES$in$REMEDIAL$LAW

19

b) With

the

CA:

petitions

for

certiorari,

prohibition and mandamus against the RTC

c) with Sandiganbayan: petitions for mandamus, prohibition, certiorari, habeas corpus, injunction and ancillary writs in aid of its appellate jurisdiction and over petitions of similar nature, including quo warranto arising or that may arise in cases filed or which may be filed.

APPELLATE JURISDICTION

a) from the RTC in all criminal cases involving offenses for which the penalty is reclusion perpetua or life imprisonment, and those involving other offenses which, although not so punished, arose out of the same occurrence or which may have been committed by the accused on the same occasion;

b) Automatic review where death penalty is imposed.

c) By petition for review on Certiorari from the CA, Sandiganbayan and from the RTC where only error or question of law is involved

Jurisdiction over the res refers to the court’s jurisdiction over the thing or the property which is the subject of the action.

"

Note: In PP vs. Mateo (2004), the SC held that while the Fundamental Law requires a mandatory review by the SC of cases where the penalty imposed is reclusion perpetua, life imprisonment or death, nowhere however, has it proscribed an intermediate review. If only to ensure utmost circumspection before the penalty of reclusion perpetua, life imprisonment or death is imposed, the Court now deems it wise and compelling to provide in these cases a review by the CA before the case is elevated to the SC. A prior determination by the CA on, particularly, the factual issues, would minimize the

possibility of an error of judgment. If the CA should

Jurisdiction over the res may be acquired by the court

1)

by placing the property or thing under its custody (custodia legis) (the seizure of the thing under legal process whereby it is brought into actual custody of law). Example: attachment of property.

2)

through statutory authority conferring upon it the power to deal with the property or thing within the court’s territorial jurisdiction (institution of a legal proceeding wherein the power of the court over the thing is recognized and made effective). Example: suits involving the

 

affirm

the

penalty

of

reclusion

perpetua,

life

imprisonment

or

death,

it

could

then

render

status

of

the

parties

or

suits

involving

the

judgment imposing the corresponding penalty as the

property

in

the

Philippines

of

non-resident

circumstances

so

warrant,

refrain

from

entering

defendants.

JURISDICTION OF THE SUPREME COURT

CRIMINAL CASES

EXCLUSIVE ORIGINAL JURISDICTION Petitions for certiorari, prohibition and mandamus against CA and Sandiganbayan

CONCURRENT JURISDICTION

a)

With

certiorari, prohibition and mandamus against

the MTC

for

the

CA

and

RTC:

petitions

judgment and elevate the entire records of the case to the SC for final disposition.

CIVIL CASES

EXCLUSIVE ORIGINAL JURISDICTION in petitions for certiorari, prohibition and mandamus against the CA, COMELEC, COA, CTA, Sandiganbayan

CONCURRENT JURISDICTION

1)

With Court of Appeals in petitions for certiorari,

RTC, CSC,

NLRC,

Central

prohibition

and

Board

mandamus

against the

of

Assessment

Appeals,

$

2)

3)

4)

Quasi-judicial agencies, and writ of kalikasan, all subject to the doctrine of hierarchy of courts. With the CA and RTC in petitions for certiorari, prohibition and mandamus against lower courts and bodies and in petitions for quo warranto, and writs of habeas corpus, all subject to the doctrine of hierarchy of courts. With CA, RTC and Sandiganbayan for petitions for writs of amparo and habeas data Concurrent original jurisdiction with the RTC in cases affecting ambassadors, public ministers and consuls.

data Concurrent original jurisdiction with the RTC in cases affecting ambassadors, public ministers and consuls .
data Concurrent original jurisdiction with the RTC in cases affecting ambassadors, public ministers and consuls .

APPELLATE JURISDICTION

by way of petition for review on certiorari (appeal by certiorari under Rule 45) against CA, Sandiganbayan, RTC on pure questions of law and CTA in its decisions rendered en

banc. 2) in cases involving the constitutionality or validity of a law or treaty, international or executive agreement, law, presidential decree, proclamation, order, instruction, ordinance or regulation, legality of a tax, impost, assessment, toll or penalty, jurisdiction of a lower court; and 3) all cases in which the jurisdiction of any court is in issue;

4)

all cases in which an error or question of law is involved

1)

Exceptions in which factual issues may be resolved by the Supreme Court:

a) When the findings are grounded entirely on speculation, surmises or conjectures;

b) When the inference made is manifestly mistaken, absurd or impossible;

c) When there is grave abuse of discretion;

d) When the judgment is based on misapprehension of facts;

e) When the findings of facts are conflicting;

f) When in making its findings the CA went beyond the issues of the case, or its findings are contrary to the admissions of both the appellant and the appellee;

g) When the findings are contrary to the trial court;

h) When the findings are conclusions without citation of specific evidence on which they are based;

i) When the facts set forth in the petition as well as in the petitioner‘s main and reply briefs are not disputed by the respondent;

j) When the findings of fact are premised on the supposed absence of evidence and contradicted by the evidence on record; and

k) When the Court of Appeals manifestly overlooked certain relevant facts not disputed by the parties, which, if properly considered, could justify a different conclusion.

2011$Bar$Ex aminations BERT$ – $ NOTES$in$REMEDIAL$LAW

20

JURISDICTION OF THE COURT OF APPEALS (69 Justices)

CRIMINAL CASES

EXCLUSIVE ORIGINAL JURISDICTION

a) Actions for annulment of judgment of the RTCs

b) Crimes of Terrorism under Human Security Act of 2007

CONCURRENT ORIGINAL JURISDICTION

a) With the SC: petitions for certiorari, prohibition and mandamus against the RTC

b) With

the

SC

and

RTC:

petitions

for

certiorari,

prohibition and mandamus against the MTC

APPELLATE JURISDICTION

" Notice of Appeal:

a) From the RTC in the exercise of its original jurisdiction, except those appealable to the Sandiganbayan

b) From the RTC where penalty imposed is

or

where a lesser penalty is imposed but for offenses committed on the same occasion or which arose out of the same occurrence that gave rise to the more serious offense for which the penalty of death, reclusion perpetua or life imprisonment is imposed (Sec. 3, Rule 122 as amended by AM No. 00-5-

03-SC).

reclusion

perpetua

or

life

imprisonment

" Automatic

is

necessary) from the RTC in cases wherein the death penalty is imposed.

Review

(i.e.

no

notice

of

appeal

" Petition for Review from the RTC in cases appealed thereto from the lower courts and not appealable to the Sandiganbayan.

CIVIL CASES

EXCLUSIVE ORIGINAL JURISDICTION

" in actions for the annulment of the judgments of the RTC.

CONCURRENT ORIGINAL JURISDICTION

1)

With SC to issue writs of certiorari, prohibition and mandamus against the RTC, CSC, CBAA, other quasi-judicial agencies mentioned in Rule 43, and the NLRC (however, this should be filed first with the CA as per St. Martin Funeral Home case), and writ of kalikasan.

2)

With the SC and RTC to issue writs of certiorari, prohibition and mandamus (CPM) against lower courts and bodies and writs of quo warranto,

$

2011$Bar$Ex aminations BERT$ – $ NOTES$in$REMEDIAL$LAW

21

habeas corpus, whether or not in aid of its appellate jurisdiction, and writ of continuing mandamus on environmental cases. 3) With SC, RTC and Sandiganbayan for petitions for writs of amparo and habeas data where the action involves public data or government office

5)

Decisions

of

the

Central

Board

of

Assessment

Appeals in the exercise of its appellate jurisdiction over cases involving the assessment and taxation of real property originally decided by the provincial or city board of assessment appeals;

6)

Decision of the secretary of Finance on customs cases

 

elevated

to

him

automatically

for

review

from

EXCLUSIVE APPELLATE JURISDICTION

 

decisions of the Commissioner of Customs which are adverse to the government under Sec. 2315 of the Tariff and Customs Code;

1)

by way of ordinary appeal from the RTC and the Family Courts. by way of petition for review from the RTC

 

2)

7)

Decisions of Secretary of Trade and Industry in the

rendered

by

the

RTC

in

the

exercise

of

its

case

of

non-agricultural

product,

commodity

or

3)

appellate jurisdiction. by way of petition for review from the decisions, resolutions, orders or awards of the CSC, CBAA and other bodies mentioned in Rule 43 and of the Office of the Ombudsman in administrative disciplinary cases.

 

article, and the Secretary of Agriculture in the case of agricultural product, commodity or article, involving dumping duties and counterveiling duties under Secs. 301 and 302, respectively, of the Tariff and Customs Code, and safeguard measures under RA 8800, where either party may appeal the decision to impose or not to impose said duties.

4) over decisions of MTCs in cadastral or land

delegated

jurisdiction; this is because decisions of MTCs in

these cases are appealable in the same manner as decisions of RTCs.

registration

cases

pursuant

to

its

" Note: There is no action to annul the decision of the CA.

JURISDICTION OF THE COURT OF TAX APPEALS (UNDER RA 9282 AND RULE 5, AM 05 11 07CTA)

EXCLUSIVE ORIGINAL OR APPELLATE JURISDICTION TO REVIEW BY APPEAL

1)

Decisions

of

CIR

in

cases

involving

disputed

assessments, refunds of internal revenue taxes, fees or other charges, penalties in relation thereto, or other matters arising under the NIRC or other laws administered by BIR;

2)

Inaction by CIR

in

cases

involving

disputed

assessments,

refunds

of

IR

taxes,

fees

or

other

charges, penalties in relation thereto, or other matters arising under the NIRC or other laws administered by BIR, where the NIRC or other applicable law provides a specific period of action, in which case the inaction shall be deemed an implied denial; 3) Decisions, orders or resolutions of the RTCs in local taxes originally decided or resolved by them in the exercise of their original or appellate jurisdiction;

4)

a. in cases involving liability for customs duties, fees or other charges, seizure, detention or release of property affected, fines, forfeitures or other penalties in relation thereto, or

b. other matters arising under the Customs law or other laws, part of laws or special laws administered by BOC;

Decisions of the Commissioner of Customs

EXCLUSIVE ORIGINAL JURISDICTION

1)

Over all criminal cases arising from violation of the NIRC and the TCC and other laws, part of laws, or special laws administered by the BIR or the BOC where the principal amount of taxes and fees,

exclusive of charges and penalties claimed is less than P1M or where there is no specified amount claimed (the offenses or penalties shall be tried by the regular courts and the jurisdiction of the CTA shall be

appellate);

2)

In tax collection cases involving final and executory assessments for taxes, fees, charges and penalties where the principal amount of taxes and fees, exclusive of charges and penalties claimed is less than P1M tried by the proper MTC, MeTC and RTC.

EXCLUSIVE APPELLATE JURISDICTION

1)

In criminal offenses

a) over appeals from the judgment, resolutions or orders of the RTC in tax cases originally decided by them, in their respective territorial jurisdiction, and

b) over petitions for review of the judgments, resolutions or orders of the RTC in the exercise of their appellate jurisdiction over tax cases originally decided by the MeTCs, MTCs, and MCTCs in their respective jurisdiction.

2)

In tax collection cases

a) over appeals from the judgments, resolutions or orders of the RTC in tax collection cases originally decided by them in their respective territorial jurisdiction; and

b) over petitions for review of the judgments, resolutions or orders of the RTC in the exercise of their appellate jurisdiction over tax collection

$

cases originally decided by the MeTCs, MTCs and MCTCs in their respective jurisdiction.

JURISDICTION OF THE SANDIGANBAYAN

ORIGINAL JURISDICTION in all cases involving

1)

Violations

of

RA

3019

(Anti-Graft

and

Corrupt

2)

Practices Act) Violations of RA 1379 (Anti-Ill-Gotten Wealth Act) Sequestration cases (E.O. Nos. 1,2,14,14-A)

3)

4)

Bribery (Chapter II, Sec. 2, Title VII, Book II, RPC) where one or more of the principal accused are occupying the following positions in the government, whether in permanent, acting or interim capacity at the time of the commission of the offense:

a) Officials of the executive branch occupying the positions of regional director and higher, otherwise classified as Grade 27 and higher, of the Compensation and Position Classification Act of 1989 (RA 6758)

b) Members of Congress and officials thereof classified as G-27 and up under RA 6758

c) Members of the Judiciary without prejudice to the provisions of the Constitution

d) Chairmen and Members of the Constitutional Commissions without prejudice to the provisions of the Constitution

e) All other national and local officials classified as Grade 27 and higher under RA 6758

f) Other offenses or felonies committed by the public officials and employees mentioned in Sec. 4(a) of RA 7975 as amended by RA 8249 in relation to their office

g) Civil and criminal cases filed pursuant to and in connection with EO Nos. 1, 2, 14-A (Sec. 4, RA

8249)

"

Note:

Without

the

office,

the

crime

cannot

be

committed.

APPELLATE JURISDICTION - from the RTC in cases under PD 1606, as amended by PD 1861, whether or not the cases were decided b them in the exercise of their original or appellate jurisdictions.

CONCURRENT ORIGINAL JURISDICTION WITH SC, CA AND RTC for petitions for writs of habeas data and amparo

" The requisites that the offender the offender occupies salary Grade 27 and the offense must be intimately connected with the official function must concur for the SB to have jurisdiction – Justice Magdangal De Leon

JURISDICTION OF THE REGIONAL TRIAL

2011$Bar$Ex aminations BERT$ – $ NOTES$in$REMEDIAL$LAW

22

COURTS

CRIMINAL CASES

EXCLUSIVE ORIGINAL JURISDICTION

1)

Offenses

punishable

with

imprisonment

which

exceeds 6 years imprisonment

 

2)

Offenses not within the exclusive jurisdiction of any court, tribunal or body, except those falling under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan

"

Note: In cases where the only penalty is fine, the amount thereof shall determine jurisdiction. If the amount exceeds P4,000, the RTC has jurisdiction.

3)

Family Court – Criminal Cases

 

a) One or more of the accused is/are below 18 years old but not less than 9 years old;

b) Where one of the victims is a minor at the time of the commission of the offense;

c) Cases against minors cognizable under the Dangerous Drugs Act;

d) Violations of RA 7610, otherwise known as the “Special Protection of Children Against Child Abuse, Exploitation and

Discrimination Act” as amended by RA 7658; and

e) Cases of domestic violation against women and their children.

APPELLATE JURISDICTION

"

All cases decided by the MTC in their respective territorial jurisdiction.

CIVIL CASES

EXCLUSIVE ORIGINAL JURISDICTION

1)

The action is incapable of pecuniary estimation (such as rescission of contract, action to revive judgment, declaratory relief (1 st part), support, expropriation)

2)

Title to, possession of, or interest in, real property with assessed value exceeding P20,000 outside Metro Manila, or exceeds P50,000 in Metro Manila

3)

If the amount involved exceeds P300,000 outside MM or exceeds P400,000 in MM in the following cases:

a) Admiralty and maritime cases

b) Matters of Probate (testate and intestate)

c) Other actions involving personal property

d) Demand for money

4)

Cases not falling within the jurisdiction of any court, tribunal, person or body exercising judicial or quasi- judicial functions (general jurisdiction of RTC)

$

2011$Bar$Ex aminations BERT$ – $ NOTES$in$REMEDIAL$LAW

23

5)

All actions involving the contract of marriage and family relations

sufficient property to cover all its debts but foresees the impossibility of meeting them when they respectively fall due or in cases where the corporation, partnership of association has no sufficient assets to cover its liabilities, but is under the management of a Rehabilitation Receiver or Management Committee.

JURISDICTION OF FAMILY COURTS (RA 8369)

a) Petitions for guardianship, custody of children and habeas corpus involving children

b) Petitions for adoption of children and the revocation thereof

c) Complaints for annulment of marriage,

CONCURRENT JURISDICTION

 

declaration of nullity of marriage and those relating to status and property relations of husband and wife or those living together under different status and agreements, and petitions for dissolution of conjugal partnership of gains

d) Petitions for support and/or acknowledgment

1)

with

the

Supreme

Court

in

actions

affecting

ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls

2)

with the SC and CA in petitions for certiorari, prohibition and mandamus against lower courts and bodies in petitions for quo warranto, habeas corpus, and writ of continuing mandamus on environmental cases

with the SC, CA and Sandigabayan in petitions for writs of habeas data and amparo

With

not

Insurance

Commissioner

claims

e) Summary judicial proceedings brought under the provisions of EO 209 (Family Code)

3)

f) Petitions for declaration of status of children as

abandoned, dependent or neglected children, petitions for voluntary or involuntary commitment of children, the suspension, termination or restoration of parental authority and other cases cognizable under PD 603, EO 56 (1986) and other related laws

g) Petitions for the constitution of the family home " In areas where there are no Family Courts, the above-enumerated cases shall be adjudicated by the RTC (RA

8369)

4)

exceeding P100,000

 

APPELLATE JURISDICTION over cases decided by lower courts in their respective territorial jurisdictions except decisions of lower courts in the exercise of delegated jurisdiction.

SPECIAL JURISDICTION – SC may designate certain branches of RTC to try exclusively criminal cases, juvenile and domestic relations cases, agrarian cases, urban land reform cases not falling within the jurisdiction of any quasi-judicial body and other special cases in the interest of justice.

6)

To hear and decide intra-corporate controversies

Sec. 52, Securities and Regulations Code):

a) Cases involving devises or schemes employed by or any acts, of the board of directors, business associates, its officers or partnership, amounting to fraud and misrepresentation which may be detrimental to the interest of the public and/or of the stockholders, partners, members of associations or organizations registered with the SEC

b) Controversies arising out of intra-corporate or partnership relations, between and among stockholders, members or associates; between any or all of them and the corporation, partnership or association of which they are stockholders, members or associates, respectively; and between such corporation , partnership or association and the state insofar as it concerns their individual franchise or right to exist as such entity

c) Controversies in the election or appointments of directors, trustees, officers or managers of such corporations, partnerships or associations

d) Petitions of corporations, partnerships or associations to be declared in the state of suspension of payments in cases where the corporation, partnership of association possesses

JURISDICTION OF METROPOLITAN TRIAL COURTS/MUNICIPAL TRIAL COURTS

CRIMINAL CASES

EXCLUSIVE ORIGINAL JURISDICTION

1)

Cases covered by Summary proceedings

 

a) Violations

of

city

or

municipal

ordinances

 

including traffic laws

 
 

b) Violation of rental law

c) Violation of traffic laws, rules and regulations

d) Violation of BP 22 (Bouncing Check Law) effective April 15, 2003

e) All other criminal cases where the penalty is imprisonment not exceeding 6 months and/or

 

P100,000

fine

irrespective

of

other

penalties

arising therefrom

 

2)

offenses punishable with imprisonment not exceeding six (6) years irrespective of the amount of fine, and

regardless

of

other

imposable

accessory

or

other

penalties, including the civil liability arising from

$

such offenses or predicated thereon, irrespective of the kind, nature, value or amount thereof; provided however, that in offenses involving damage to property through criminal negligence, they shall have exclusive original jurisdiction thereof (Sec. 2, RA

 

7691).

3)

Offenses

involving

DAMAGE

TO

PROPERTY

through

CRIMINAL

NEGLIGENCE

where

the

imposable fine is not exceeding P10,000

 

"

Note: In cases where the only penalty is fine, the amount thereof shall determine jurisdiction. If the amount does not exceed P4,000, the MTC has jurisdiction.

4)

All offenses (except violations of RA 3019, RA 1379 and Arts. 210 to 212, RPC) committed by public officers and employees in relation to their office, including those employed in GOCCs, and by private individuals charged as co-principals, accomplices or accessories, punishable with imprisonment of not more than 6 years OR where none of the accused holds a position of salary Grade 27 and higher.

CIVIL ACTIONS

EXCLUSIVE ORIGINAL JURISDICTION

1)

If the amount involved does not exceed P300,000

outside MM or does not exceed P400,000 in MM in the following cases:

a)

Actions involving personal property

 

b)

Probate

Proceeding

(testate

and

intestate)

 

based on gross value of the estate

 

c)

Admiralty and maritime cases

 

d)

Demand for money

 

"

Note: Do not include Interest, Damages of whatever kind, Attorney’s fees, Litigation Expenses, and Costs (IDALEC). However, in cases where the claim or damages is the main cause of action, or one of the causes of action, the amount of such claim shall be considered in determining the jurisdiction of the court.

2)

Actions

involving

title

to,

or

possession

of,

real

3)

property, or any interest therein where the assessed value of the property or interest therein does not exceed P20,000 outside MM or does not exceed P50,000 in MM Inclusion and exclusion of voters

4)

Those

governed

by

the

Rules

on

Summary

Procedure

a) Forcible entry and unlawful detainer (FEUD)

issue

! With

jurisdiction

to

resolve

of

ownership to determine ONLY issue of possession (provisional only)

! Irrespective of the amount of damages or unpaid rentals sought to be recover

2011$Bar$Ex aminations $ BERT$ – $ NOTES$in$REMEDIAL$LAW $

24 $

! Where attorney’s fees are awarded, the

same shall not exceed P20,000

b) Other civil cases, except probate proceeding, where the total amount of the plaintiff’s claim does not exceed P200,000 in MM, exclusive of interests and costs.

SPECIAL JURISDICTION over petition for writ of habeas corpus OR application for bail in criminal cases in the absence of all RTC judges in the province or city DELEGATED JURISDICTION to hear and decide cadastral and land registration cases where there is no controversy over the land or in case of contested lands, the value does not exceed P100, 000 = appealable to the CA

1 st level courts:

a. Metropolitan Trial Court – Metro Manila;

b. Municipal Trial Courts in Cities – situated in cities

c. Municipal Circuit Trial Court – composed of multi-sala

d. Municipal Trial Courts – in one municipality

SHAR’IAH COURTS

EXCLUSIVE JURISDICTION 1) All cases involving custody, guardianship,

legitimacy, paternity and filiation arising under the Code of Muslim Personal Laws;

2)

All cases involving disposition, distribution and settlement of estate of deceased Muslims, probate of wills, issuance of letters of administration of appointment administrators or executors regardless of the nature or aggregate value of the property;

3)

Petitions for the declaration of absence and death for the cancellation and correction of entries in the Muslim Registries;

4)

All actions arising from the customary contracts in which the parties are Muslims, if they have not specified which law shall govern their relations; and

5)

All petitions for mandamus, prohibition, injunction, certiorari, habeas corpus and all other auxiliary writs and processes in aid of its appellate jurisdiction

CONCURRENT JURISDICTION

1)

Petitions of Muslim for the constitution of the family home, change of name and commitment of an insane person to an asylum

2)

All other personal and legal actions not mentioned in par 1 (d) wherein the parties involved are Muslims except those for forcible entry and unlawful detainer, which shall fall under the exclusive jurisdiction of the MTC.

$

3) All special civil actions for interpleader or declaratory relief wherein the parties are Muslims or the property involved belongs exclusively to Muslims

Cases that can be files:

1)

Offenses defined and punished under PD 1083

2)

Disputes relating to:

a. Marriage

b. Divorce

c. Betrothal or breach of contract to marry

d. Customary dowry (mahr)

e. Disposition and distribution of property upon divorce

f. Maintenance and support and consolatory gifts (mut’a)

g. Restitution of marital rights

3)

Disputes relative to communal properties

JURISDICTION OVER SMALL CLAIMS

1)

MTCs, MeTCs and MCTCs shall have jurisdiction over actions for payment of money where the value of the claim does not exceed P100,000 exclusive of

interest and costs (Sec. 2, AM 08-8-7-SC, Oct. 27,

2009).

2)

Actions covered are