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1
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1 ..........................................................5
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1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

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...............................................................................5
...................................................................................................................................7

2 ................................................................................8
2.1 ...............................................................................................................................8
2.2 ........................................................................................................10
2.3 ....................................................................................................................11

................................................................................................................12
....................................................................................................12
3 ..............................................................................13
3.1 . . .........................................................................13
3.2 ISO/OSI.........................................................................................................................14
3.3 ISO/OSI .........................................................................................16
3.4 ...........19
3.5
OSI......................................................................................................................................................21
3.6 IEEE 802...........................................................................................................22
3.7 .................................................................................................................23

4 .............................................25
4.1 ..................................................................................................................25
4.2 ...........................................................................................................28

5 ...................................................................33
5.1 ............................................................................................33
5.2 .................................................................................................34

6 ...........................................................................36
6.1 ................................................................................................................36
6.2 (E-Mail).......................................................................................................36
6.3 (Mail list).......................................................................................................37
6.4 (Usenet)...........................................................................................37
6.5 World Wide Web (WWW)............................................................................................39
6.6 (DNS)....................................................................................................41
6.7 (FTP)................................................................................................44
6.8 Internet Relay Chat.........................................................................................................44
6.9 ICQ.................................................................................................................................45

7 ...........................................................47
7.1 ......................................................................................................................47
7.2 .......................................................................................................................48
7.3 ...................................................48

8 WEB......................................................................50
8.1 ............................................................................................50
.


8.2 Internet Explorer.....................................................................................50
8.3 World Wide Web....................................................................................56
8.4 .....................................................................................................57

9 .......................................60
9.1 ............................................................................................60
9.2 Outlook Express......................................................................................61
9.3 ..........................................................................................................63

..................................................................65

.........................................................................................................1
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1 ..........................................................5
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1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

.......................................................................................................................5
...........................................................................................5
...............................................................................5
...................................................................................................................................7

2 ................................................................................8
2.1 ...............................................................................................................................8
2.2 ........................................................................................................10
2.3 ....................................................................................................................11

................................................................................................................12
....................................................................................................12
3 ..............................................................................13
3.1 . . .........................................................................13
3.2 ISO/OSI.........................................................................................................................14
3.3 ISO/OSI .........................................................................................16
3.4 ...........19
3.5
OSI......................................................................................................................................................21
3.6 IEEE 802...........................................................................................................22
3.7 .................................................................................................................23

4 .............................................25
4.1 ..................................................................................................................25
4.2 ...........................................................................................................28

5 ...................................................................33
5.1 ............................................................................................33
5.2 .................................................................................................34

6 ...........................................................................36
6.1 ................................................................................................................36
6.2 (E-Mail).......................................................................................................36
6.3 (Mail list).......................................................................................................37
6.4 (Usenet)...........................................................................................37
6.5 World Wide Web (WWW)............................................................................................39
6.6 (DNS)....................................................................................................41
6.7 (FTP)................................................................................................44
2


6.8 Internet Relay Chat.........................................................................................................44
6.9 ICQ.................................................................................................................................45

7 ...........................................................47
7.1 ......................................................................................................................47
7.2 .......................................................................................................................48
7.3 ...................................................48

8 WEB......................................................................50
8.1 ............................................................................................50
8.2 Internet Explorer.....................................................................................50
8.3 World Wide Web....................................................................................56
8.4 .....................................................................................................57

9 .......................................60
9.1 ............................................................................................60
9.2 Outlook Express......................................................................................61
9.3 ..........................................................................................................63

..................................................................65




. ()
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1
1.1
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.
1.2
(Local Area Network)
,
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17



IP TCP/IP
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: NCP
Novell NetWare, SMB Microsoft Windows NT, NFS, FTP TFTP,
TCP/IP.
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3.5
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22


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Access Point ( ),

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Media Access Control (MAC)
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DDP (Delivery Datagram Protocol ).
Apple, AppleTalk.
IP (Internet Protocol ).
TCP/IP,
.
IPX (Internetwork Packet eXchange )
NWLink. Novell NetWare (
Microsoft),
.

23


NetBEUI. IBM Microsoft,
NetBIOS.

.
:
ATP (AppleTalk Transaction Protocol
AppleTalk) NBP (Name Binding Protocol
). AppleTalk.
NetBIOS/NetBEUI.
,
.
SPX (Sequenced Packet exchange )
NWLink. Novell,
(
Microsoft).
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TCP/IP,
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Macintosh.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol ).
TCP/IP,
.
NCP (NetWare Core Protocol NetWare).
Novell.
SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol
). TCP/IP,
.
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol
). TCP/IP,
.

24


4
4.1
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27


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IPX/SPX, ,
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4.2

28



, ,
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:
Bus ();
Ring ();
Star ();
Mesh ().
4.2.1
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FDDI (-).

29



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30

HUB

4.3
4.2.4 Mesh
Mesh () (.
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4.2.5

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Star Bus
Star Bus ( )
(. 4.5).
Star Ring
Star Ring ( )
Star-wired Ring, .
,
.

31


,
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HUB

4.5
Hybrid Mesh
Mesh
, Hybrid Mesh
Mesh.
,
(. 4.6).

HUB

HUB

4.6

32


5
5.1

50- .
60-
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ARPANET.
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5.1):
, FTP (FTP);

34


, FTP (FTP).
Internet

INTERNET

COMPUTER

FTP server

FTP client

SMTP server

SMTP client

.
.
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5.1
: ,
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:
( );
.
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5.2.
INTERNET

World Wide
Web (WWW)

(E-Mail)

(DNS)

(Mail List)

(FTP)

(Usenet)

ICQ

5.2

35

IRC
(Internet Relay
Chat)


6
6.1

Telnet.
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.

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36



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Windows .
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The Bat! Eudora Pro.
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39


<CENTER>
</CENTER>
<LEFT>
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<RIGHT>
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Web- ,
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40


WWW
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URL.
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WWW HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol ).
(:) / ( ):
http://...
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http://wmw.abcde.com...
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URL-eca, .
MS-DOS Windows,
.
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Web-.
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6.6 (DNS)

, : 195.28.132.97.
,
: www.abcdef.com

.
IP-, ,
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41


, Web- Microsoft www.microsoft.com, a Web- www.kosmostv.ru
( .ru ,
).
,
.

.
IP. DNS.
www.abcde.com
DNS, I-,
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DNS ,
, ( )
.
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DNS Internet Network
Information Center.
"" "". "" :
com commercial ()
mil military ()
edu educational ()
net network
(,

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gov goverment () org organization (
)
()
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United
Arab
Emirates au
Australia ()
(

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be
Belgium ()
br
Brazil ()
by
Belarus ()
ca
Canada ()
ch
Switzerland ()
cz
Czech Republic ()
de
Germany ()
dk
Denmark
do
Dominican
Republic ee
Estonia ()
(
)
es
Spain ()
fi
Finland ()
fr
France ()
hu
Hungary ()
42

il
jp
kr
lt
mx
no
pl
ru
sk
ua

yu


Israel ()
in
India ()
Japan ()
kg
Kyrgyzstan ()
South Korea ( )
kz
Kazakhstan ()
Lithuania ()
lv
Latvia ()
Mexico ()
nl
Netherlands ()
Norway ()
nz
New
Zealand
(
)
Poland ()
ro
Romania ()
Russia ()
si
Slovenia ()
Slovak Republic ()
su
Soviet Union (
- ,
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Ukraine ()
uk
United
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mail - Mail
43


relay - Mail Exchanger
proxy - Proxy
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,

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(fully qualified domain name,
FQDN),
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Windows WINS (Window Internet Name
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: anonymous,
.
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6.8 Internet Relay Chat
44


IRC (Internet Relay Chat)
. IRC
- .
,
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,
.

.

, IRC.
mtRC.exe.
6.9 ICQ
I- ,
.
,
IP-.
I seek you .

(http://www.icq.com)
UIN (Universal Internet Number).
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IRC.

46


7
7.1
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7.3
48




> > .
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(login);
(password);
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,

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IP- .

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49


8 WEB
8.1

, ,
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,
.

( browser).
:
Web-, ,
;
HTML, Web ,
;

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Web-
Web-, .

.
8.2 Internet Explorer
, Web, Internet Explorer 5.0.

, Intranet , . World Wide Web,

FTP,
.
(Outtook Express Microsoft NetMeeting) , Internet Explorer 5.0.
Internet Explorer .
8.1.

50

8.1
Internet Explorer Internet Explorer ,

( > InternetExplorer).
,
HTML.
:
Web-,
(>
),
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).
,

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Web.
"", , ,
.

51

8.2.1 Web-
Web-
. ,
.
,
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URL- Web- ,
.
.

.
Web-.
.
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8.2.2

URL, . Web ( )
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URL, ,
. Web-
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, FTP.
Web- (
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Web-
TAB. ( )
. ,
ENTER.
, .

52

. ,
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World Wide Web .

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., ., .. Networking Essentials.
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65

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