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Computerization in Bangladesh
We are living in an information age dependent upon digital information. Digital information is electronic information, the result of computer processing. Every type of job relies upon getting information, using it, managing it, and relaying information to others. Computers enable the efficient processing and storage of information. Do not think of a computer merely as the machine with the keyboard and the mouse, although that might be true for some types of computers. Embedded computers may be inside your household appliances, the VCR, the automobile, planes, trains, powerplants, water purification plants, calculators, and even inside a few toys. These embedded computers are very small. They affect our lives each day. Why, even modern traffic lights operate with computers. They are all around us. Think of additional ways in which computers affect our lives each day.

Computer evaluation in Bangladesh:

Computer Use of computer began in Bangladesh in the 1960s and assumed wider dimension in the nineties. Information Technology is today a well-known matter. IT began to assume greater acceptability in this country from the middle of the nineties. The first computer in Bangladesh (erstwhile East Pakistan) was installed at the ATOMIC ENERGY CENTRE, Dhaka of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission in 1964. It was an IBM Mainframe Computer of 1620 series. The main use of the machine was resolving complicated mathematical calculations in different research works. In the sixties rapid expansion of bank and insurance as well as trade and commerce including scientific research at both home and abroad increased manifold the volume of routine accounting works which necessitated rapidness in this job. In many of the big organisations, maintenance of accounts manually became almost impossible. During this period a number of big organisations of the country set up costly Mainframe Computer. The then Habib Bank installed IBM 1401

computer while the United Bank used IBM 1901 in the late sixties. These computers belonging to the 3rd generation Mainframe type were mainly used for entire accounting works of these banks. Before the independence, an IBM 360 computer was set up at the Bureau of Statistics in 1969. A Mainframe computer was also installed at Adamjee Jute Mills during the same period. Before independence, inclusion of computer hardware and software related courses in the curricula of Mathematics, Physics, Applied Physics and Electronics at university level education began, though in a limited way. After independence computerisation process in this country got a new spurt. In this manner BANGLADESH BUREAU OF STATISTICS played an important role. Big computers like IBM 370, IBM 9100 and IBM 4341 etc were installed in this organisation in phases since 1972. The development of computerisation process in this organisation still continues and different powerful computers and other ultra modern IT equipment of subsequent generations have since been installed there. In September 1979 an IBM 370 and an IBM 4331 Mainframe Computer were introduced at the BANGLADESH UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (BUET) and BUET Computer Centre was also established. This Computer Centre has been playing a pioneering role in imparting computer education in Bangladesh and disseminating computer technology in the country. ATOMIC ENERGY RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT (AERE) at Savar installed an IBM 4341 Mainframe Computer in 1981. The Dhaka University Computer Centre began its journey with an IBM 4331 Mainframe Computer in 1985. The invention of microprocessor by the Intel Corporation of the United States in 1971 brought about a revolution in the shape and capability of computer. Microprocessor based computers started to appear in the markets. Personal Computer or PC innovated by the IBM (International Business Machines) company hit the market in 1981. Later on highpowered microprocessors began to evolve one after another alongside powerful PCs. The IBM did not keep any prohibitory regulation about manufacturing IBM compatible computers from the very beginning. This brought about revolutionary changes in their prices and their uses also multiplied. On the other hand Apple Computer Incorporate also released in the market Apple-Macintosh computer evolved by them. But the Apple did not adopt any liberal policy in making their compatible computer and hence the price of Macintosh computer remained very high that precluded it from achieving expected popularity. Nevertheless, due to some special practical privileges Apple-Macintosh were widely used particularly in printing industries. PCs became easily available due to its easy use and cheapness in price. As a result, use of PCs started to increase in Bangladesh mainly since the last part of the eighties, especially in education and business

concerns. However, wider use of computer in Bangladesh accelerated from the mid-nineties.

Innovation of Bangla software Bangla writing in computer was first materialised in 1987 and an engineer namely Mainul Islam deserved the claim of this success. He managed to write Bangla in Apple-Macintosh computer using his selfevolved font 'Mainulipi'. In this pursuit the conventional English keyboard was used without using any separate keyboard for Bangla. The difference in type and form of Bangla and English alphabets and the problems relating to Bangla conjunct letters were solved using the advantage of four layer keyboard of Macintosh. Two more Bangla font, namely 'Shahidlipi' and 'Jabbarlipi' were evolved immediately after Mainulipi. Next year, ie in 1988 the first Interface 'Bijoy' useable in AppleMacintosh computer was built under the auspices of a non-government organisation 'Anando Computers'. The layout of the first Bangla keyboard was also composed during this time. Among the initial keyboards, Bijoy and Munir are worth mentioning. In the Interface technique, the Bangla keyboard is attached with the Operating System (OS) of the computer and Bangla is inscribed in the computer by activating this keyboard and selecting a Bangla font. Bijoy, being a Macintosh based interface and the price of Apple-Macintosh computer being too high, number of its users was limited. Its use was practically confined to printing and publications. The users of IBM computer were always more and keeping this in mind two higher secondary level students Reza-E Al Amin Abdullah (Aunko) and Md. Shahidul Islam (Sohel) evolved a self sufficient Bangla word processing software entitled 'Barna' in early 1992. Innovation of this independent word processor by these two meritorious programmers from their own firm 'Safeworks' was an epoch making event. This was DOS based (Disk Operating System), though the appearance of the programme was like the Windows. In the Barna, three types of keyboard could be used - Munir, Bijoy and Easy keyboard. The Barna also incorporated the advantage of keyboard restructuring (customise). That is, one could make out new keyboard layout according to one's liking or convenience. Subsequently, with the introduction of better and better word processor versions in the market by Microsoft Corporation, an interface 'Bijoy' was evolved in 1993 with a view to using Bangla font and Bangla keyboard with Microsoft Windows in IBM computer. Later another interface namely 'Lekhani' was made available in 1994. Though 'Aabaha' (later part of 1992) was the first interface suitable for use in IBM computer, its use remained restricted due to some lapses. Quite a

few Bangla interfaces are prevalent at present, viz Bijoy, Lekhani, Proshika-Shabdo, Anirban, Barnamala, Prabartana, etc. Like more than one interfaces, a number of Bangla keyboards are also operating, viz Munir, Bijoy, National, Lekhani, Prabartana, ShahidLipi, etc. Due to the absence of a universal keyboard layout in Bangla and the lack of harmony among different interfaces, a document composed by using a particular interface and keyboard layout can not be edited by using a different interface and keyboard layout. However converter programme is being attached in some interfaces recently or converter programmes are being compiled separately. A universal keyboard layout and proper coordination between different interfaces made by various companies are necessary to resolve this problem. In keeping pace with interface and keyboard layouts Bangla font has also achieved sufficient development. Various fonts ranging from very common to artistic standard have been composed. Apart from word processor, Bangla keyboard and fonts can be used in various other application package programmes. For use with word processor different Bangla spell checking programmes have also been made, viz Pundit, Prashika Shabda-kosh, Lekhani, etc. But owing to the absence of any particular layout for Bangla font in the computer, no progress has been achieved so far in sorting Bangla alphabets in serial order. In 2001, the IT team of the National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Banglapedia, after much research, was able to attain success in sorting Bangla alphabets in computer. Following the use of Bangla in computer, role of computer in offices and printing industries in Dhaka rapidly assumed a great dimension. Exportable software development in Bangladesh commenced in 1995 while exportable multimedia system development began in 1997.

Use of Internet and e-mail Though the use of Internet worldwide spread rapidly in 1990, Bangladesh joined the bandwagon much later. Use of Internet in the country started in 1995 for the first time in a limited way through offline e-mail. VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) was first set up in 1996 for Internet purpose. Online Internet connection started mushrooming through an Internet Service Provider (ISP) by the name ISN. At present there are more than 50 ISPs in the country; of these only BTTB (Bangladesh Telegraph and Telephone Board) is government owned. Most of the ISPs are Dhaka based. However online Internet facilities are now also available outside Dhaka in cities like Chittagong, Sylhet, Khulna, Rajshahi, Bogra and Cox's Bazar. With the establishment of online Internet service a new horizon has been opened in the field of education, research, business and entertainment.

With the expansion of online Internet facilities, various institutions and organisations have started to release their self-introductory WebPages. The official Web address of Bangladesh Government is www.banglagov.org where various information regarding the country have been furnished in brief. E-mail is the cheapest, fastest and the most dependable media in the field of communications in the present day world. With the introduction of this system in Bangladesh, its use is increasing day by day right from individual level to all fields of education, office and commerce. With a view to introducing faster mail service Bangladesh Postal Department has arranged Electronic Post (e-post) at a number of post offices in the country. Under this postal system messages are sent and received through Internet. A good number of Cyber Cafes have been set up in Dhaka City where Internet facilities including web browsing are available. Some educational institutions, training centres and business houses of the country started setting up Local Area Network (LAN) from the beginning of the 1990s. Among them Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Rajshahi University and Bangladesh Open University have set up high standard optical fibre LAN backbone for internal communication. In 1997 a plan was undertaken to connect all the universities of the country through a Wide Area Network (WAN) called BURNET. Subsequently Dhaka University and BUET were brought under this network through radio link in 1999. The other universities have not yet been brought under this network directly but they can be connected through dial-up. The government has another plan to connect the big libraries of the country through another Wide Area Network BANSLINK. Another move is underway to set up a high bandwidth optical fibre cable through underneath the Bay of Bengal in a bid to connect Dhaka and Chittagong directly with Singapore. This will connect Bangladesh with the Global Information Super Highway which will revolutionise Bangladesh's communication facilities with other countries of the world. With the establishment of this optical fibre cable link speed of Internet browsing will increase manifold with decreasing cost and rates of international telephone calls are also expected to come down.


of computer Bangladesh





Commerce, industry, education, administration, transportation, communication etc. and many other organizations, professions and individuals depend on computers and their applications directly or indirectly. The impacts of computer in changing activities in given fields are discussed below: Education

In future much of the traditional teaching will be performed with the help of computers. This form of teaching is known as computerassisted instruction (CAI) and computer-assisted learning (CAL). Technically this is possible and indeed exists in some countries. In the institutions of higher education the computer has become an indispensable tool for undergraduates and postgraduates for arts, science, business, technology etc. Many of the current projects undertaken by postgraduates would be impractical without computers. Interactive multimedia, electronic libraries and the information superhighway play a major role in providing a range of interactive courses and services. Thus the educational institutions provide virtual learning environment, besides a physical campus. Such institutions are termed as virtual institutions of learning.

Inventory Control and Management Inventory control and management is a crucial process, especially in establishments related to retail and production. Computers are used for recording all aspects of the goods coming in, details of goods and services, distribution of stock, and storage details. Note, that in small retail and production firms, simple computer software are generally used. Whereas in large corporations, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERPs) are employed. Accounts and Payroll Management Accounting and payroll management is also believed to be an important part of the overall system in a company. Be it any kind of industry; computers are largely used for the purpose of managing accounts of administration, sales, purchases, invoices, and also payroll management, which includes recording financial details of employees.

These are just some components of the accounts and payroll management system where computing is used.

Database Management

Database management is associated with filing and recording, managing, and retrieval of data whenever required. For smooth running of businesses, it is very important that they have all procedures and details stored. This storage of data is done with the help of large databases and servers which have to be maintained on a regular basis. These information databases and servers are controlled by computers by appropriate authorities in a company. Software Development It can be said that for every computing need, a software has to be used. Software can only be made using computers for the purpose of helping businesses to combine processes and carry out their work properly. Nowadays, ERPs are largely used in business to blend all their processes together and execute the output as expected. There are many other software and application packages that a business may need to use according to the nature of work. This is some general information on the use of computers in businesses. There are many other fields such as security control, communication, research, budgeting and forecasting, web management, where computers are essential. The impact of information technology on business has certainly changed the way businesses operate and have coordinated different practices of the firm to function collectively. Computer use is not only present in businesses, but computers are even used in sectors like medical and defense. Industry Many industries such as the steel, chemical and oil companies rely on computers for the actual control of plant processes. This trend can only increase in the future. Microprocessors are used in harsh environments in extreme cold and in dirty and noisy atmosphere. Many of the tasks involved in assembly work as in the motor-car, washing machine and television industries are undertaken by processes controlled by microcomputers.

Many sophisticated industrial control and manufacturing processes cannot be imagined without microcomputer boards, embedded microprocessors and robots. Computer aided designing (CAD), computer aided manufacturing (CAM) and computer aided design manufacture and testing (CADMAT) are popular for many industries. Communication Information networks provide services to end users through communication links between microcomputers. The major components of computer networks are the central computer, database, the communication links and microcomputers. The end users desiring services can access the database in the central computer. The databases contain data and screens of information that are presented to the users. A great variety of wide area networks and databases already exists for end users. The Internet which is the network of networks wrap around the world and it is the biggest source of information and the most popular means of communication for education, research, business, entertainment and many other social and cultural activities. The future telephone will be incorporated into the microcomputer and one will not only hear but also see the person on other end of the line. The users will be able to pass data and information back and forth as if they were sitting at the same table. Transportation Sea and air transportations of today relay on computers and computer communications. Many road transport companies in advanced countries use cellular and satellite communications to prepare optimized routers for the vehicles and for sending instructions to the drivers and operators. Computer controlled traffic systems provide efficient management of traffic in some major cities of the world. Without computers air traffic control would be virtually impossible at the busy airports. Ships in the congested shipping lanes (such as the English Channel) are regulated by computer communication through satellite. General Administration Many of the administrative tasks are profaned by computers. Word-processing, spreadsheet analysis, database management, pay roll, automatic order processing are some examples. Interpersonal and

inter-office messaging, which is popularly known as electronic mail, is essential for quick and effective way of communication for administration. Videoconferencing is a common place for official and administrative activities in some nations. Automatic offices of the future will be dependent on computers, electronic communications and computer networking. Medical Field A computer has become an essential commodity in every hospital. Everything is computerized today, from open heart surgeries to X rays to various clinical tests. Everything is carried out efficiently and effectively by the computer. There are many advantages of computers that make it a must have by every medical professional. Computers in the Medical Office .There are various uses of computer in medical field as it plays a vital role in every medical office. It contributes a lot to the hospital administration where all the administrative processes are computerized. For example, staff records, recording incoming and outgoing time of the staff, the holiday records of the staff, etc. It is difficult to keep track of such things manually but with the help of computers, the task is simplified and is less time consuming.

Development through computer in Bangladesh

Storage, processing and dissemination of information play a very important role in the modern society of Bangladesh. Computers telecommunications, data and computer communications contribute tremendously for these activities. Computers and electronic communications are getting closer and closer everyday. Efficiency of production of wealth depends heavily on various kinds of automation, and computers are used to automate methods for processing information. Apart from information processing, computers play important role in many other areas of industry. Computers, electronic communications and other technologies associated with automation come under the general term of information technology. Information technology influences our lives and its impact on individuals, organizations and society is increasing day by day.

Major technological innovations generally affect the lives of individuals. New inventions lead people and society to view world through new eyes and to accept new values. Apart from benefits, many technological advances have harmful effects in society. This lesson explores the values of technological advances of computers and information technology on Bangladesh society. The demand of computer is highly growing up in Bangladesh. The present government has recognized IT is one of the priority sectors and is providing all support to the private sector to enable them to enter the export market for software and data processing service. The developments of computer which can influence Bangladesh society are elaborately described below:

Development in education system:

The system of education of the developed country is based on computer. By using a computer, a student can know about anything around the world. Now a days our government has supplied computer in primary level. We hope that, in the nearest future we can develop our education system by proper utilization of computer from primary level to higher level. Utilization in communication: Computer is highly utilized and retained in communication sector. The telecommunication sector and airlines also controlled by computer. The present government has programmed a master plan to build up a magnetic train from Dhaka to Chittagong which will be also controlled by computer. So if we ensure the proper utilization of computer in future this sector will get tremendous speed and efficiency.

Creating effective manpower: Effective manpower is creating through taking modern technology. Computer is one of the symbols of modern technology. We have huge manpower but most of the people are not having sufficient knowledge about technology. So computer may be most important media to turn these unskilled people into assets.

Use in nuclear sector: Generally computer is used in nuclear sectors. Research and invention is not possible without a computer. So the future prospect of computer in Bangladesh is so bright.

Use in power sector:

To generate more power and to control over the system, computer is greatly used. The government of Bangladesh is wanted to computerize the system of power sector. So in near future we hope to grow up our power section with computer system. Development of agricultural sector: Each and every country wants to build up agricultural sector by using sophisticated method of agriculture. Computer takes an important role to build up agriculture. If we wanted to produce more crops, we have to ensure the more technical method of technology such as computer. Development of medical service: Medical science is totally based on computer. In our country computer is not available to be used in medical science for so many lacking. Our government wants to ensure sufficient computer in medical science to increase the efficiency of our doctors. We hope that in near future computer will be used much more in medical science.

Use in defense sector: Defense refers to protection of the country from the attachment of the enemy. To operate war ship, missile experiment, ZET fighter etc. computer is necessarily used. The government of Bangladesh wants to build up a strong and sophisticated force by providing the knowledge of latest technology, such as computer to each soldier.

Use in astrology: Computer has been used in astrology to predict the future condition. Day by day the users of computer are increasingly utilized in astrology. In the near future computer will be more used in this sector as major equipment.






Though computer is very essential in Bangladesh. But it is not easy to use it because of some problems. Those problems are discussed below: Lack of effective man power:

Finding effective man power is not easy in Bangladesh. Because computer training institutions are not available in Bangladesh. Whatever a few number of institution exist in our country but most of them cannot provide well facilities for the trainees. So effective man power is created by these institutions. And most of the trained man power does not work properly. Lack of proper plan:

Lack of proper plan is another problem of application of computer in Bangladesh. Sometime high level management people change their plan or they make their plan without thinking about the future prospect and problem. Lack of proper law:

The law related with the use of computer and use of internet is not up-to-date. These laws are needed to be revised. Lack of knowledge of E-Commerce:

Now E- Commerce is the most powerful business function in the world. But our people have a little knowledge about it. So computer is not properly used in this area. Because of that, our people are far behind from E-Commerce.

Costly internet service:

In our country the internet is very costly. Because of that the average earning people cannot effort to use internet of their own.

Lack of equipment:

The computer equipments which are used for special purpose is not available in Bangladesh. All the equipments are imported from abroad. So these equipments requires high price and sometimes the

import system is not easy at all. To overcome this problem we have to produce equipment of our own.

Hesitate to use internet:

Some people of our country hesitate to use internet in their own pc. They think their personal information may be stolen by another person. For that they avoid to use internet on their pc. Lack of information:

There is huge gap information in the mind of our people about computer and internet. They do not know how much a computer help in their daily life. And how much benefited they are by using the computer. Lack of proper guide line:

In our country, people do not get proper guide line. Still now the top management people have not prepares proper guide line for the mass people. So the general people face an embarrassing situation when they are going to use computer or internet. Lack of copyright protection:

The lack of any copyright protection for software has been one of the major back draws in growth of software industry. A software copyright protection act has already been drafted and is expected to be exacted very soon. Lack of Bangla software and Bangla fonts:

Most of the people of this country know English a little or nothing. On the other hand, generally computer operating language is English based. So most of the people avoid using computer. Centralized to the capital:

Almost all the IT related developments which have taken place during the last few years are centralized in the capital city Dhaka, in other cities and towns, only a small number of computers are being used, mostly for word processing. Lack of proper structural developments:

In our country structural development has not done properly all over. So it is not easy to establish a computer based working system in our country. After all this discussion, we hope our government will take proper steps to remove this entire problem and at the same time all level of people helps the government to do so. Again we also hope we will give a suitable condition for our future generation to use the computer as a very effective instrument by removing all the obstacle of using computer in our country.

Developments in computer technology play a very important role in modern society in Bangladesh. Computers telecommunications, data and computer communication contribute tremendously for these activities. Computers and electronic communication are getting closer and closer every day in every sphere of our country. Efficiency of production of wealth depends heavily on various kinds of automation and computers are used to automate methods for processing information. Apart from information processing, computers play important role in many other areas of industry which lead us to the economic development. Computers, electronic communications and other technologies associated with automation come under the general

term of information technology. Information technology influences our lives and its impact on society is increasing day by day in our country. Apart from benefits, many technological advances have harmful effects in society. Above all the developments of computer technology lead us to the social development by reducing poverty, creating more job opportunities, developing living standard, enhancing the growth of economy etc.