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15

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( / 2, / 2), . . - . -
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2. .
, , ,
1. yn = [xn / (1 + xn)], xn = [yn / (1 + yn)]. yn
. lim f(xn) = lim (1 + yn)1 / yn lim (1 + yn).
. - ln (1 + x) / x = 1 . 0. : lim ln (1 + x) / x = lim ln (1 + x)1 / x =
lim ln e = 1.
16

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21

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f((t)) t, f ((t))(t).
: t t. = (t + t)
(t), , , y = f(x + x) f(x).
y = f () x + () . t ,
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-.
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: dy = f(x)dx. ,
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- ,
- . (dy) = [f(x)dx].
(dy) , = dx,
d2y. dny n- .
dny = f (n)(x)(dx)n , .
dny = f (n)(x)dnx.
: (uv)(n) = u(n) v + C1nu(n 1)v(1) + + uv(n). : .
, .
, -
t (): x = (t), y = (t). : dy = (t) dt, dx = (t)
dt. y(x) = dy / dx = ((t) dt) / ((t) dt).
24

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- f, . ,
- , - ,
, , . -
, - f(c) .
- . -
, - . : f(c) =
lim (f(x) f(c)) / (x c), - = f(c)
, | (f(x) f(c)) / (x c) f(c) | < f(c) 0 < | x c | < . , ,
- (f(x) f(c)) / (x c) > 0. .
- . -
, f(c) = 0. :
f(c). - ,
, . , f(c) = 0.

25

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26

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.

. - [a, b]
(a, b), , f(b) f(a) = f(c) (b
a). : [a, b] - F(x) = f(x) f(a) [(f(b)
f(a)) / (b a)] (x a). - F . , [a, b]
, F(c) = 0. .
. ,
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27


( ).

. - f g [a, b]
(a, b) , , g
, , (f(b) f(a)) / (g(b)
g(a)) = f() / g(). : , g(a) g(b). ,
, g ,
. - F(x) = f(x) f(a) [(f(b) f(a)) /
(g(b) g(a))](g(x) g(a)). -
. , , F(a) = F(b) = 0. F(x)
. , , F(x) = 0.
.
28


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- f g - . -
, , g 0.
. f g 0
-, -,
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0. - - .
, n. -
, g
0. .
f(xn) / g(xn) = f(n) / g(n). n , xn
. n xn, n .
( ) -
n, ,
. f(xn) / g(xn).
.
. , / .
: b.
, .
.
: f(mn) / g(mn) = b + mn, m , > m, | mn | < / 2.
n, , lim [1 g(xm) / g(xn)]
/ [1 f(xm) / f(xn)] = 1. , [ / 2] / [| b | + / 2]
n0 , n > n0: [1 g(xm) / g(xn)] / [1 f(xm) / f(xn)]
= 1 + mn, | mn | < [ / 2] / [| b | + / 2]. f(xn) / g(xn) = b + (b + mn) mn + mn. b
( -), mn mn. ,
. , ,
( 0). .
1 , 0, 0.
f g, , f 1, 0 ,
g 0 . 0. ,
, ( 1 -).
0 / 0, .

29


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. - +
1. , , ,
. ,
: f(x) = f(a) + [f(a) / 1!] (x a) + [f(a) / 2!] (x a)2 + + Rn + 1(x). Rn + 1 =
[(x a) / (x )]p[(x )n + 1 / (n! p)]f(n + 1)() . :
(, ) ,
. , Rn + 1(x) = f(x) (, ).
, , Rn + 1(x) ;
, (
> a). t , [a, x],
(t) () = f(x) (x, t) (x t)pQ(x), Q(x)
= Rn + 1(x) / (x a)p;
- [a, x]
. , () = () = 0. ,
[a, x] , () = 0.
(t): (t) = f(t) + f(t) / 1! + f(2) + ,
, : (t) = [f (n + 1)(t) / (n!)] (x t)n + p(x t)p 1Q(x). t =
Q(x).
. : (n)(a, a) = f (n)(a).
= 0.

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