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I.

INTRODUCTION

UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING


Originates in the GI tract from the mouth to the ligament of Treitz where the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, ends. Bleeding from the esophagus may occur from esophageal varices, dilation of the veins in the esophagus. One of the symptoms of upper GI bleeding is vomiting of blood (hematemesis).If the blood travels through the GI tract, the stool may appear tarry and black (melena) because of digested blood, though the stool can still be stained with red blood (hematochezia). About 75% of patients presenting to the emergency room with GI bleeding have an upper source. The diagnosis is easier when the patient has hematemesis. In the absence of hematemesis, 40% to 50% of patients in the emergency room with GI bleeding have an upper source. Determining whether a patient truly has an upper GI bleed versus lower gastrointestinal bleeding is difficult. Mortality is about 11% in patients admitted with an UGIB.2 It is as high as 33% in patients who develop bleeding whilst in hospital. A score of less than 3 using the Rockall system above is associated with an excellent prognosis, whereas a score of 8 or above is associated with high mortality.3 Most deaths occur in elderly patients with co-morbidity. Mortality is reported to be lower in specialist units possibly because of adherence to protocols rather than because of technical advances.2 The prognosis in liver disease relates significantly to the severity of the liver disease rather than to the magnitude of the haemorrhage

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is commonly caused by bleeding varices (varicose veins) in the esophagus, peptic ulcers or a Mallory- Weiss tear at the esophageal gastric junction from severe retching .Otherwise, bleeding over time results in anemia, characterized by lower than normal blood hemoglobin and hematocrit with symptoms like weakness, fatigue, and fainting. The most important step to evaluate upper GI bleeding is upper endoscopy. During this procedure, performed by a gastroenterologist, a tube with a camera (endoscope) is passed into the mouth and down the esophagus. The gastroenterologist can proceed to the stomach and duodenum and localize

the source of the bleeding, if possible. Other examination to determine UGIB are Vital signs, in order to determine the severity of bleeding and the timing of intervention. Abdominal and rectal examination, in order to determine possible causes of hemorrhage. Assessment for portal hypertension and stigmata of chronic liver disease in order to determine if the bleeding is from a variceal source. Laboratory findings include anemia, coagulopathy, and an elevated BUN-tocreatinine ratio.

Emergency treatment for upper GI bleeds includes aggressive replacement of volume with intravenous solutions, and blood products if required. As patients with esophageal varices typically have coagulopathy, plasma products may have to be administered. Vital signs are continuously monitored.Early endoscopy is recommended, both as a diagnostic and therapeutic approach, as endoscopic treatment can be performed through the endoscope. Therapy depends on the type of lesion identified, and can include:injection of adrenaline or other sclerotherapy, electrocautery, endoscopic clipping, or banding of varices. Stigmata of high risk include active bleeding, oozing, visible vessels and red spots. Clots that are present on the bleeding lesion are usually removed in order to determine the underlying pathology, and to determine the risk for rebleeding. Pharmacotherapy includes the following: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), which reduce gastric acid production and accelerate healing of certain gastric, duodenal and esophageal sources of hemorrhage. These can be administered orally or intravenously as an infusion depending on the risk of rebleeding. Octreotide is a somatostatin analog believed to shunt blood away from the splanchnic circulation. It has found to be a useful adjunct in management of both variceal and non-variceal upper GI hemorrhage. It is the somatostatin analog most commonly used in North America. Terlipressin is a vasopressin analog most commonly used in Europe for variceal upper GI hemorrhage. Antibiotics are prescribed in upper GI bleeds associated with portal hypertension.

If Helicobacter pylori is identified as a contributant to the source of hemorrhage, then therapy

with antibiotics and a PPI is suggested.

II. OBJECTIVES

General objectives:

This case study focuses on the advancement of my skills in managing and administering the extensive range of my intervention to my client with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding (UGIB). This study will further help me to expand my knowledge about the said disease.

Specific objectives:

1. To established good rapport to the client and to get the physical assessment. 2. To define what is Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding (UGIB). 3. To trace the pathophysiology of UGIB. 4. To enumerate the different signs and systems of UGIB.
5. To formulate and apply necessary nursing care plans utilizing the nursing process.

III. DEMOGRAPHIC DATA


Name: Mrs. E.M.C Age: 47 y/o Gender: Female Status: Married Sensoruim Nationality: Filipino 2010 Religion: INC Blood type: O+ Address: BKL3 LOT 10 PH Dela Costa Homes 3, SJDM, Bulacan Final Diagnosis: Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding (UGIB) Spouse: Armando A. Cacho Chief Complaint: Change in Date admitted: November 11, Time admitted: 10:30 am

CLINICAL ABSTRACT This is the case of EMC 47 y/o female from BKL3 LOT 10 PH Dela Costa Homes 3, SJDM, Bulacan. She was born on September 15, 1963. She is married for 22 years now and has 6 children. Mrs. EMC is a non smoker and non alcoholic beverages drinker.

Mrs. EMC was admitted to East Avenue Medical Center on November 11, 2010, 10:30 in the morning. She was admitted due to dizziness, loss of consciousness and change of sensorium. HISTORY OF PRESENT ILLNESS One week prior to admission the patient had experienced dizziness and vomiting of previous ingested food but still conscious and able to communicate. Three days prior to admission Mrs. EMC had experienced anorexia and abdominal pain. Few hours prior to admission Mrs. EMC still in the previous symptoms, and rushed to the ER of EAMC. November 11, 2010 the physician ordered CBG monitoring, serum glucose control which revealed type 2 DM, start of empiric antibiotic which revealed complicated UTI and had her laboratory examinations like blood chemistry, hematology test and urinalysis. On the same day she undergone upper endoscopy with biopsy which revealed gastric ulcer. On the 13th day of Nov. she had her cross matching which revealed her blood type which is type O positive. Nov. 21 she had undergone to IJ catheter insertion for dialysis.

PAST MEDICAL HISTORY According to the patient she has a hypertension, DM and BA (last attack 20 vq). She is negative to PTB and thyroid disease. She had no maintenance on her HPN, for her DM she took Metformin. FAMILY MEDICAL HISTORY (+) Hypertension (+) DM (+) BA (-) PTB (-) Thyroid disease

LIFE STYLE A. Personal Habit The patient beverages. does not smoke nor drinks alcoholic

B. Diet She eats three times a day and drinks 6-8 glass of water per day and sometimes she also drinks soft drinks. The patients usual diet includes rice, meats like pork, beef, chicken and fish. According to the patient, she seldom eats vegetables. She is fond of eating sweets and lechon. She also drinks coffee often (4x a day). C. Recreational Activity She watch television during her free time after she had finish the household choirs. D. Sleep and Rest She said that she spends 6 hours of sleep every night and she takes naps if she had free time. She usually sleeps at 11:00 in the evening and wakes up at 5:00 in the morning she said that it is continuous and she feels refreshed after waking up. E. Activities of Daily Living The patient works everyday in their house and sometimes she accepts laundry. Every weekend she allotted time to rest and to have bonding with her family. She said she do the household choirs before she starts washing her accepted laundry from her neighbors.

PATIENTS SOCIAL HISTORY A. Family Relationship and Friends

The patients family is nuclear type together with her husband Armando A. Cacho, her six children. According to her she has a good relationship with each member of her family and also with her friends. She allotted time to bond with her family. B. Occupational History The patient is self employed.

C. Economic History According to the patient her husband is a constructor and an OFW before. Her husband is the one who brings income in their family. According to her husband work is enough to support their childrens need. Her accepted laundry from their neighbors helps them in their needs and it is an additional income to them and it satisfies their needs.

IV. PHYSICAL ASSESSMENT


Actual Findings Head -Normocephalic -No lumps Normal Findings -Normocephalic -Smooth -No lumps -Absence of modules or masses -No area of tenderness -Symmetrical with protrusions on the lateral part of parietal forehead Interpretatio n -Normal

Skull

Scalp

-No nits, lice and dandruff -no baldness

and occipital bone. -Whitish -No nits, lice and dandruff -no baldness

-Normal

Hair

-Normal

-Straight, Black with white hair, oily hair

-Black or brown in color -Hair is evenly distributed -No area of baldness -Thick -Fine -Curly/kinky/straight -Dry/oily/shiny hair -Normal -Symmetrical with movement -Expressions appropriate to situations -Symmetrical -No protrusions -Dear or no Cloudiness -No excessive Lacrimation -Moves symmetrically -Hair evenly distributed -Skin Intact -Equally distributed -Curved slightly outward -Skin intact -No discharge -No discoloration -Lids close symmetrically -approximately 15-20 involuntary blinks per minute; bilateral blinking -No -No -No -No scaling secretions erythema redness

Face

-Symmetrical with movement -Expressions appropriate to situations -Symmetrical -No cloudiness -No Lacrimation -Symmetrical

Eyes

-Normal

Eyebrows

-Normal

Eyelashes Eyelids

-Normal -Normal

-Equally distributed -Curved slightly outward -Skin intact -No discharge -No discoloration -Lids close symmetrically -approximately 15-20 involuntary blinks per minute; bilateral blinking -No secretions -No erythema -No redness -Pink, shiny, with visible blood vessels -No discharges

Lid margins

-Normal

Lower palpebral conjunctiva

-Normal

-Pink, shiny, with visible

blood vessels -No discharges Sclera -White in color -Clear - No redness -Flat -Brown -Round -Transparent/Shiny -White/yellowish in black Americans -Clear, No cloudiness -No redness -Flat -Brown -Even coloration -Symmetrical -Round -Transparent/Shiny -PERRLA(Pupils Equally Round, Reactive to Light & Accommodation

-Normal

-Normal

Iris

-Normal

-PERRLA Pupils

-Normal Eye Movement -Moves in unison -coordinated -Moves in unison -coordinated -Good peripheral vision -20/20 in both eyes -Same as the color of the face -No swelling -Shell shape -Parallel with outer canthus of the eyes -Same as the color of the face -No swelling -No tenderness -Shell shape -Firm cartilage -Yellowish -Dry/waxy cerumen -Presence of cilia -No foreign body -With good hearing acuity in both ears -With good hearing acuity -Normal -Normal

Field of vision *Visual acuity Ear

-Normal

-Normal

Ear Canal

- Waxy cerumen -Presence of cilia

-Normal

Hearing

acuity -No lesions -Presence of cilia Nose

in both ears -Symmetric and straight -No discharge or flaring -Uniform color -No tenderness -No lesions -Presence of cilia -Uniform pink color(darker, e.g,Bluish hue, in Mediterranean groups and dark-skinned clients) -Soft, moist, smooth texture -Symmetry of contour -Ability to purse lips -No tenderness -Pink, moist -No swelling -No tenderness -No discharges -No retraction(lower and upper) -32 in number -White -Upper teeth over-rides lower teeth -Pink, even, rough dorsal surface and moist -Midline -pinkish -With visible veins -Pink, moist, no swelling/No tenderness -Midline moves when the client says Aah

-Darker lips -Ability to purse lips Lips

-Decrease of oxygen supply

-Normal

Gums

-Pink, moist -No swelling -No tenderness -No discharges -white

-Normal

Teeth

-Normal Tongue -Pink, even, rough dorsal surface and moist -Midline -pinkish -With visible veins -Pink, moist, no swelling/No tenderness Soft Palate -Bony, Light pink in color, moist Hard Palate -Normal

-Normal

Frenulum

-Normal

-Normal

Uvula

-Bony, Light pink in color, moist -Normal -Pinkish -No discharge -No inflammation -Same as the skin color -No lymphs, No mass -Pink, moist -Midline moves when the client says Aah -Normal -Pinkish -No discharge -No inflammation -Erect & midline -Same as the skin color -No tenderness -No lymphs, No mass -Symmetrical -Muscles equal in size; head centered -Coordinated, smooth movements with no discomfort

Tonsils

Neck

Upper Extremities Skin

-No abrasions or other lesions -When pinched, skin springs back to previous state - with edema

accumulatio n of excess fluid

Nails

-Convex curvature -white

-Varies from light to deep brown; from ruddy pink to light pink; from yellow overtones to olive -No edema -No abrasions or other lesions -Freckles, some birthmarks, some flat and raised nevi -When pinched, skin springs back to previous state -Convex curvature -Smooth texture -Highly vascular and pink in light-skinned clients;

-Decrease O2 supply

Chest and back Posterior Thorax

-No tenderness -No masses

dark-skinned clients may have brown or black pigmentation in longitudinal streaks -Intact epidermis -Prompt return of pink or usual color(generally less than 4 seconds) -Chest symmetric -Skin Intact; uniform temperature -Chest wall intact -No tenderness -No masses -Full and symmetric chest expansion -Vesicular and bronchovesicular sounds

-Normal

Anterior Thorax

-Difficulty of breathing

-Full expansion -Tachypnea

-Normal Abdomen -Unblemished skin -Uniform color -Quiet, rhythmic, and effortless respirations -Full symmetric excursion -Bronchial and tubular breath sounds in the trachea -Vesicular and bronchovesicular breath sounds -Unblemished skin -Uniform color -Silver-white striae or surgical scars -Flat, rounded(convex),or scaphoid (concave) - Symmetric movements caused by respiration - Audible bowel sounds - No tenderness - Relaxed abdomen with smooth, consistent

Lower extremities Skin

-Brown in color - with edema - No abrasions or other lesions - with edema

accumulatio n of excess fluid

tension

Nails

- Concave curvature -Brown pigmentation in longitudinal streaks

- Varies from light to deep brown; from ruddy pink to light pink; from yellow overtones to olive - No edema - No abrasions or other lesions - Freckles, some birthmarks, some flat and raised nevi - when pinched, skin springs back to previous state - Concave curvature - Smooth texture - highly vascular and pink in light-skinned clients; dark-skinned clients may have brown or black pigmentation in longitudinal streaks - Intact epidermis - Prompt return of pink or usual color (generally less than 4 secs.) - Has upright posture and steady gait with opposing arm swing; walks unaided, maintaining balance - May sway slightly but is able to maintain upright posture and foot stance. - Maintain stance for at least 5 secs - maintains heel-toe walking along straight line - Repeatedly and rhythmically touches the nose

-Normal

Motor functions:

- Repeatedly and rhythmically touches the nose - Rapidly touches each finger to thumb with each hand - Can readily determine the position of fingers and toes

-Normal

- Rapidly touches each finger to thumb with each hand - Can readily determine the position of fingers and toes

GORDONDS
Before hospitalizati on a. activityexercise pattern - hobbies According to her she does the household choirs and at the same time it is her way of exercising and she can perform different activities. During hospitalizati on During her hospitalizati on she is in complete bed rest. Interpretati on Analysis

She was not able to perform the activities because of the disease process.

Elimination pattern Prior to hospitalizati on she defecates every day. She urinates normal amount and normal

For the period of hospitalizati on her defecation does not vary but her urine output decreases.

The patients elimination pattern changed during hospitalizati on because she is under medication.

Exercise is very important to our body because it promotes good health and helps us build and maintain healthy muscles, bones, and joints and it reduces depression and anxiety. Good elimination pattern reduces the risk of having cancer. It helps us to

color. urinates Sleep and rest pattern

Cognitiveperceptual pattern

Before she sleeps 6 hours every day

Self perception and selfconcept pattern

The patient is a 2nd year college undergradu ate. She is literate.

Rolerelationship pattern

Prior to hospitalizati on she is a happy person and positive thinker.

The patients family is nuclear type. They are 8 in the family. They have 6

detoxify waste in our body to free Throughout ourselves her from hospitalizati Due to complicatio on sleeps confinement ns 12 hours the patient and can has no take naps. problem with her Enough and sleep. good sleep and rest Same pattern can reduce Due to stress, confinement helps us to the patient think has no better. problem During her with hospitalizati understandi Good on she is ng education is still a important positive to overcome thinker. Even she is poverty. in the hospital herself perception Good selfdoes not perception change. She and selfThroughout stayed the concept her same as she pattern hospitalizati was before. helps us to on her overcome family is problems with her Due to her and trials. side at all hospitalizati times to on the support her. family becomes Good closer to relationship one another to each and become member of stronger. the family

Copingstress tolerance pattern

children and she allotted time for her family to bond. She is sociable to everyone. During her hospitalizati on she just prays every time shes in pain. Ever time she encounters difficulties she asks guidance and help from God.

Health perception

Her coping stress is the same as what she is doing before.

creates unity and compact relationship with each other. Good relationship with other people can gain trust, acceptance, support, and someone to Call On When You Need a Hand. Having a good coping to stress can overcome stressors and depressions .

Sexualityreproductiv e pattern According to her health is very important because it is wealth. Valuesbelief pattern Before hospitalizati on she menstruate s regularly.

During her hospitalizati on she still believes that health is wealth.

Her health perception is the same as what she believes before.

Same Good health perception can maintain health, the body can function properly and it acts as personal strength.

Her reproductiv e system works properly.

During her hospitalizati on her husband

and her always prays for her health. She is an INC. They go to church every Thursday and Sunday.

Her valuesbelief pattern does not change and her faith to God become stronger.

Good sexualityreproductiv e can easily determine the fertilization and can prevent cancers in reproductiv e system.

Strong valuesbeliefs help us to overcome difficulties and trials.

V. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY UPPER GI

The upper GI tract consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and stomach. This is where ingestion and the first phase of digestion occur. MOUTH

The mouth includes the tongue, teeth, and buccal mucosa or mucous membranes containing the ends of the salivary glands, continuous with the soft palate, floor of the mouth and under side of the tongue. Chewing (mastication) is the mechanical process by which food, constantly repositioned by muscular action of the tongue and cheeks, is crushed and ground by the teeth through the muscular action of the lower jaw (mandible) against the fixed resistance of the upper jaw (maxilla). Saliva excreted in the oral cavity by three pairs of exocrine glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual) is mixed with chewed food to form a bolus, or ball-shaped mass. There are two types of saliva: a thin watery secretion that wets the food and a thick mucous secretion that lubricates and causes the food particles to stick together to form the bolus. Digestive enzymes in saliva begin the chemical breakdown food, primarily starches at this point, almost immediately. of

PHARYNX

The pharynx is contained in the neck and throat and functions as part of both the digestive system and the respiratory system. The human pharynx

is divided into three sections: cavity and above the soft palate;

the

nasopharynx

behind

the

nasal

The oropharynx behind the oral cavity and including the base of the tongue, the tonsils, and the uvula; the hypopharynx or laryngopharynx includes the junction with the esophagus and the larynx, where respiratory and digestive pathways diverge. The swallowing reflex is initiated by touch receptors in the pharynx as the bolus of chewed food is pushed to the back of the mouth. Swallowing automatically closes down the respiratory or breathing pathway as an anti-choking reflex. Failure or confusion of reflexes at this point can result in aspiration of solid or liquid food into the trachea and lungs.

ESOPHAGUS

The esophagus is the hollow muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. It is also lined with mucous membrane continuous with the mucosa of the mouth and into which open the esophageal glands.

The esophagus is surrounded by relatively deep muscles that move the swallowed bolus of masticated food through peristaltic action, piercing the thoracic diaphragm to reach the stomach.

STOMACH

The stomach is a hollow muscular organ, located below the diaphragm and above the small intestine that receives and holds masticated food to begin the next phase of digestion. Two smooth muscle valves, the esophageal sphincter above and the pyloric sphincter below, keep stomach contents contained. The stomach is surrounded by stimulant (parasympathetic) and inhibitor (orthosympathetic) nerve plexuses which regulate both secretory and muscular activity during digestion. With a volume of as little as 50 mL when empty, the adult human stomach may comfortably contain about a liter of food after a meal, or uncomfortably as much as 4 liters of liquid.

DUODENUM

The duodenum precedes the jejunum and ileum and is the shortest part of the small intestine, where most chemical digestion takes place. The nameduodenum is from the Latin duodenum digitorum, or twelve fingers' breadths. In humans, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 1012 in long connecting the stomach to the jejunum. It begins with the duodenal bulb and ends at the ligament of Treitz. The duodenum is largely responsible for the breakdown of food in the small intestine, using enzymes. Brunner's glands, which secrete mucus, are found in the duodenum. The duodenum wall is composed of a very thin layer of cells that form the muscularis mucosae. The duodenum is almost entirely retroperitoneal. The duodenum also regulates the rate of emptying of the stomach via hormonal

pathways. Secretin and cholecystokinin are released from cells in the duodenal epithelium in response to acidic and fatty stimuli present there when the pylorus opens and releases gastric chyme into the duodenum for further digestion. These cause the liver and gall bladder to release bile, and the pancreas to release bicarbonate and digestive enzymes such as trypsin,lipase and amylase into the duodenum as they are needed.

VI. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
Precipitating factors factors Contributing factors Predisposing

old

NSAIDs use

Stress Diet: spicy foods and

Elicit their effects on cyclooxegenase

Disruption of mucous barrier

Inflammatory effect on gastric mucusa Ulcers burrows deep Weakening and necrosis of arterial Development of pseudo anuerysms Weakened wall raptures leading UGIB
-Generalized body weakness PR:90 -Dizziness

Neutrophils 86%

Peripheral vasoconstriction Pale nail beds and conjuctivitis

BP: 180/90 RR:25

VII. LABORATORY
URINALYSIS

Definition:
Is an array of tests performed on urine and one of the most common methods of medical diagnosis. Indication: It is used to detect the presence of UTI, Proteinuria,Glucosuria, Ketonuria, presence of urinary sediments which indicates renal pathology.

Nursing Responsibility:

Instruct the procedure

patient

perform

perineal

care

prior

to

the

Collect urine from the first voiding in the morning and examine within 30 mins. Label specimen properly Instruct patient to keep labia majora separated while urinating Instruct the patient to collect specimen by a midstream catch Results Light yellow Slightly cloudy 5.0 1,020 +2 (-) 1-2 25-30 Few 0 ccl Moderate none

Parameters Color Transparency Reaction Sp gravity Albumin Glucose RBC count WBC count Epithelial cells Mucus threads Bacteria Amorphous Urates Casts Analysis and interpretation

Laboratory results revealed that there is presence of Albumin in the blood, this indicates that the glomerular cannot filter large molecules such as that of Albumin. It also revealed that there is infection as evidence by presence of bacteria and red cells in the urine. Hematology Definition
Is the branch of internal medicine, physiology, pathology, clinical laboratory work, and pediatrics that is concerned with the study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases. Hematology includes the study of etiology, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and prevention of blood diseases. The laboratory work that goes into the study of blood is frequently performed by a medical technologist. Hematologists physicians also very frequently do

further study in oncology - the medical treatment of cancer. Indication


This test determines the concentration of hemoglobin in whole blood.

Nursing responsibility: Explain the procedure to the patient

Collect blood sample by extraction from the vein in arm using needle or finger prick
Label the specimen properly.

Parameters Hemoglobin

Normal Values M- 130- 180 g/l F 120-160 g/l Hematocrit M- 0.42-0.52 F- 0.37- 0.48 WBC count 4.3-10.8x 10/l Segments 0.45-.0.74 Lymphocytes 0.16-0.45 Eosinophils 0-0.07 Monocyte 0.04-0.10 Basophils 0-0.02 Bands 0.02-0.04 Platelets 130-400x 10 /l ESR M- 0.15 mm/hr F- 0.20 mm/hr RDW= 14.7 Normal MCH-= 28.3 Normal MCHC= 332 Normal

Results 60 0.181 0.83 0.15 0.02 239 MCV= 85.2 Normal

Interpretation: This test showed that the hemoglobin is less than the normal value therefore it indicates a decrease of oxygen in the blood. Blood chemistry Definition
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a needle, or via finger prick.

Indication Blood tests are used to determine physiological and biochemical states, such as disease, mineral content, drug effectiveness, and organ function. They are also used in drug tests. Although the term blood test is used, most routine tests (except for most haematology ) are done on plasma or serum, instead of blood cells. Nursing responsibility Explain the procedure to the patient Collect blood sample by extraction from the vein in arm using needle or finger prick. Label specimen properly

Parameters Glucose Uric acid Urea nitrogen Creatinine Cholesterol Triglycerides HDL Total bilirubin Direct bilirubin Indirect bilirubin Total protein Albumin Globulin A/G ratio SGOT SGPT Alkyl phosphate Na K CHON APPT 24 hr urine ECC 24 hr urine CHON Glycosylated Hgb Total Hgb

Normal values 3.9-8 + mmol/l .16-.43 2.5-6.1 53-115 umol 0-5.2 mmol/l .23-1.71 mmol/l .91 mmol/l 0.17-1 umol/l .5 umol/l 0-12.1umol/l 61-82 g/l 34-50 g/l 25-35 g/l 1.5-2.5 15-37 u/l 30-65 u/l 50-136 u/l 140-148 mmol/l 3.6-5.2 mmol/l Value control secs Value control secs M- .78-1.155 ml/sec F- 1.03-1.81 ml/sec 28-41 mg/24hr Up to 66%

Results 1.2 61

126 3.9

B/C ECC

4.87 111

Interpretation Sodium and potassium are normal which means there is still fluid and electrolyte balance.

IX. Discharge plan


Clients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding are instructed to take the following plan for discharge.

M- Medications should be taken regularly as prescribed, on exact dosage, time,


& frequency, making sure that the purpose of medications is fully disclosed by

the health care provider. Losartan 50 mg/tab 1tab OD Hydrocortisol 50 mg/tab 1tab FeSo4 + folic acid 1tab TID CaCo3 1tab NaHCo3 1tab TID Kalium durule 1tab x 2 days Nefidipine 30 mg/tab BID

E- Exercise should be promoted in a way by stretching hand and feet every


morning. Encourage the patient to keep active to adhere to exercise program and to remain as self sufficient as possible - bed rest

T- Treatment after discharge is expected for patients and watcher with UGIB to
fully participate in continuous treatment.

H- Health teachings regarding the importance of proper hygiene and hand


washing, intake of adequate water and vitamins especially vitamin C-rich foods to strengthen the immune response and increasing of oral fluid intake should be conveyed. Avoid spicy foods, carbonated beverages and coffee.

O- OPD such as regular follow-up check-ups should be greatly encouraged to


clients with UGIB as ordered by physician to ensure the continuing management and treatment.

D- Diet which is prescribed should be followed. S- Pray for faster healing and dont losses hope.

Endoscopy: Risk assessment in upper gastrointestinal bleeding


Ernst J. Kuipers About the author Abstract Endoscopy is the mainstay for diagnosis and therapy of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Early risk assessment is crucial for effective timing of endoscopy and determination of the need for other measures to be takenscoring systems should be used for this purpose. A new prospective study suggests that the Blatchford score can identify patients who do not need endoscopic intervention.

Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is the gastrointestinal tract condition most likely to result in a medical emergency. The estimated incidence of acute UGIB is 50150 per 100,000 population per year: 4060% of these bleeds are caused by a peptic ulcer, 10% are related to varices, 10% are attributable to erosive esophagitis and the remainder are caused by a variety of conditions. Endoscopic treatment is the main therapy for patients with UGIB. However, risk assessment is necessary to determine whether endoscopic treatment is required; a study by Pang et al. has now assessed the predictive value of two risk assessment scoring systems. Endoscopic treatment, either with clips or thermocoagulation with or without epinephrine injection, can stop the initial bleed and reduce the risk of rebleeding considerably. This treatment improves outcome, as it can shorten the hospital stay, decrease the need for a blood transfusion, further endoscopic or surgical intervention, and reduce mortality. After adequate endoscopic therapy, the outcome for high-risk patients (such as those with a visible vessel) can be further improved by profound acid suppressive therapy by means of a PPI given intravenously. Early risk assessment is crucial in patients presenting with UGIB to ensure optimal timing of endoscopy, and to determine whether other measures (such as hospital admission, blood transfusion and treatment in an intensive care unit) are required. Several risk assessment scales have been developed over the past 15 years that are based on retrospective analyses of cohorts of patients presenting with UGIB. Prospective cohort studies are required to assess the validity and usefulness of these scoring systems. For that purpose, Pang and colleagues compared two frequently used risk assessment scalesthe Blatchford and pre-endoscopic Rockall scoring systemsfor their ability to predict the need for endoscopic therapy.3 Early risk assessment is crucial in patients presenting with UGIB... Both the Blatchford and pre-endoscopic Rockall scoring systems are based on parameters that can be assessed during first presentation. The pre-endoscopy Rockall scoring system is based on the patient's age, comorbidities, and signs of shock on presentation. By contrast, the Blatchford scale does not consider age, but does assess urea and hemoglobin levels. The Blatchford scale is also more focused on symptoms than the Rockall scoring system.

Pang and colleagues assessed the two scoring systems prospectively in 1,087 patients presenting with UGIB. Endoscopic therapy was given to 297 (27.3%) of the patients. The decision to apply endoscopic treatment was made by the individual endoscopist, who was guided by an in-hospital protocol that required such treatment for all actively bleeding lesions, as well as for visible vessels and adherent clots.

Patients requiring endoscopic treatment were divided fairly equally over all the Rockall score categories. The preendoscopic Rockall score was thus unable to predict the need for endoscopic treatment. By contrast, the Blatchford score was able to make this prediction, as none of the patients with a score of 0 needed endoscopic intervention. The investigators conclude that the Blatchford score, but not the pre-endoscopic Rockall score, is a useful predictor of the need for endoscopic intervention. The Blatchford score can, therefore, be used to immediately discharge the subgroup of patients that present with UGIB who are at low risk and so can return to the hospital at a later date for outpatient endoscopic treatment.3 The results of this study provide valuable confirmation of the usefulness of the Blatchford score for the identification of low-risk patients, enabling the targeted use of resources. Pang et al.'s findings support the recommendation of the latest international guidelines that strongly advise the use of pre-endoscopic risk assessment scores in patients with nonvariceal UGIB. Several other reports also confirmed that patients with a Blatchford score of 0 rarely require endoscopic intervention. The clinical impact of these important observations is, however, limited by two closely related factors. First, a minority of cases have a Blatchford score of 0. In Pang et al.'s study, 4.6% (n = 50) of patients were given this score.3 In other studies the proportion of patients given a Blatchford score of 0 varied between 1% and 15%.Second, the positive predictive value of a Blatchford score >1 for the need for intervention is low. For these reasons, the next question that needs to be addressed is whether the clinical impact of the Blatchford score can be augmented. In contrast to the pre-endoscopic Rockall score, the probability of the need for intervention increases with increasing Blatchford scores. In a UK study to validate the Blatchford scoring system, approximately 20% of the participants had a score of 1 or 2, and 5% of these patients required intervention.5Similarly, Pang and colleagues found that one-fifth of patients had a score of 1 or 2, but 16% required endoscopic treatment.3 This difference in the need for endoscopic treatment is remarkable because Pang and colleagues' study only used endoscopic intervention as the outcome parameter, whereas the UK study also included other interventions, such as blood transfusion, in their outcome parameter. None of the available studies provided more detailed information regarding the endoscopic appearance of the bleeding lesion and the type of intervention provided. Such information is needed from future studies to enable the selection of a more sizable proportion of patients with UGIB for endoscopy on an outpatient basis. This strategy would better reflect the fact that only a minority of patients with UGIB require endoscopic treatment.3,5 Together, these data support the use of prognostic scores for rapid assessment of patients with UGIB, as recommended by international guidelines. Unfortunately, this strong recommendation is not routinely followed. In a nationwide survey of 6,750 patients with UGIB in more than 200 UK hospitals, pre-endoscopic risk assessment did not influence timing of endoscopy in hospitalized patients and 42% of high-risk patients did not undergo endoscopy within 24 h, as recommended by the international guidelines.9The results of this audit probably reflect the situation in many other countries around the world. These results also show that studies, such as the one by Pang et al., are urgently required to assess the performance of prognostic scales and stress the need for their use in the treatment of patients with UGIBa condition associated with serious comorbidity and mortality. In conclusion, international guidelines strongly recommend the use of pre-endoscopic risk assessment scores to stratify patients as either low-risk or high-risk, and thus determine the use of resources and timing of endoscopy. Pang and colleagues' findings suggest that the Blatchford score is more useful for this purpose than the pre-endoscopic Rockall score. A low Blatchford score is adequate for the selection of patients who are unlikely to require endoscopic intervention.

In some series, these patients are identified by a score of 0, in others by a score of <2. Further studies are now required to improve the predictive value of the Blatchford scoring system. Competing interests statement The author declares no competing interests. References

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

van Leerdam, M. E. et al. Acute upper GI bleeding: did anything change? Time trend analysis of incidence and outcome of acute upper GI bleeding between 1993/1994 and 2000. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 98, 14941499 (2003) Article PubMed ChemPort Barkun, A. N. et al. International consensus recommendations on the management of patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Ann. Intern. Med. 152, 101113 (2010). Pub Med Pang, S. H. et al. Comparing the Blatchford and pre-endoscopic Rockall score

7.

SUMMARY

Originates in the GI tract from the mouth to the ligament of Treitz where the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, ends. Bleeding from the esophagus may occur from esophageal varices, dilation of the veins in the esophagus. One of the symptoms of upper GI bleeding is vomiting of blood (hematemesis).If the blood travels through the GI tract, the stool may appear tarry and black (melena) because of digested blood, though the stool can still be stained with red blood (hematochezia). About 75% of patients presenting to the emergency room with GI bleeding have an upper source. The diagnosis is easier when the patient has hematemesis. In the absence of hematemesis, 40% to 50% of patients in the emergency room with GI bleeding have an upper source. Determining whether a patient truly has an upper GI bleed versus lower gastrointestinal bleeding is difficult. Mortality is about 11% in patients admitted with an UGIB.2 It is as high as 33% in patients who develop bleeding whilst in hospital. A score of less than 3 using the Rockall system above is associated with an excellent prognosis, whereas a score of 8 or above is associated with high mortality.3 Most deaths occur in elderly patients with co-morbidity. Mortality is reported to be lower in specialist units possibly because of adherence to protocols rather than because of technical advances.2 The prognosis in liver disease relates significantly to the severity of the liver disease rather than to the magnitude of the haemorrhage

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is commonly caused by bleeding varices (varicose veins) in the esophagus, peptic ulcers or a Mallory- Weiss tear at the esophageal gastric junction from severe retching .Otherwise, bleeding over time results in anemia, characterized by lower than normal blood hemoglobin and hematocrit with symptoms like weakness, fatigue, and fainting.

The most important

step to evaluate upper

GI bleeding

is upper

endoscopy.

During

this

procedure, performed by a gastroenterologist, a tube with a camera (endoscope) is passed into the mouth and down the esophagus. The gastroenterologist can proceed to the stomach and

duodenum and localize the source of the bleeding, if possible. Other examination to determine UGIB are Vital signs, in order to determine the severity of bleeding and the timing of intervention. Abdominal and rectal examination, in order to determine possible causes of hemorrhage. Assessment for portal hypertension and stigmata of chronic liver disease in order to determine if the bleeding is from a variceal source. Laboratory findings include anemia, coagulopathy, and an elevated BUN-to-creatinine ratio. Emergency treatment for upper GI bleeds includes if aggressive As replacement with of volume

with intravenous solutions,

and blood products

required.

patients

esophageal

varices typically have coagulopathy, plasma products may have to be administered. Vital signs are continuously monitored.Early endoscopy is recommended, both as a diagnostic and therapeutic approach, as endoscopic treatment can be performed through the endoscope. Therapy depends on the type of lesion identified, and can include:injection of adrenaline or other sclerotherapy, electrocautery, endoscopic clipping, or banding of varices. Stigmata of high risk include active bleeding, oozing, visible vessels and red spots. Clots that are present on the bleeding lesion are usually removed in order to determine the underlying pathology, and to determine the risk for rebleeding. Pharmacotherapy includes the following: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), which reduce gastric acid production and accelerate healing of certain gastric, duodenal and esophageal sources of hemorrhage. These can be administered orally or intravenously as an infusion depending on the risk of rebleeding. Octreotide is a somatostatin analog believed to shunt blood away from the splanchnic circulation. It has found to be a useful adjunct in management of both variceal and non-variceal upper GI hemorrhage. It is the somatostatin analog most commonly used in North America. Terlipressin is a vasopressin analog most commonly used in Europe for variceal upper GI hemorrhage. Antibiotics are prescribed in upper GI bleeds associated with portal hypertension. If Helicobacter pylori is identified as a contributant to the source of hemorrhage, then therapy with antibiotics and a PPI is suggested.

Reaction:
Nowadays there are many technologies discovered to treat diseases like the Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding. Before UGIB is difficult to treat because of lack of equipments and high technology equipments and because of that the mortality of UGIB is very high. Until they discovered endoscopy (means looking inside and typically refers to looking inside the body for medical
reasons using an endoscope an instrument used to examine the interior of a hollow organ or cavity of the body. Unlike most other medical imaging devices, endoscopes are inserted directly into the organ)

to treat UGIB. It is easier now to treat UGIB with the new way while

maintaining the medications prescribed, but still there is disadvantage with endoscopy like risk for infection due to sepsis. The mortality of UGIB now is low unlike before.

University of Perpetual Help College of Manila 214 V Concepcion Street Sampaloc Manila

Case Study of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

Submitted to: Ms. Ma. Evelyn Lumio

Submitted by: Racca, Freegie B.