Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 13

A Project Report On

ANALYSIS OF HEAT TRANSFER IN A METALLIC ROAD THROUGH EXPERIMENTAL SETUP (Group code=07)
Submitted to
Gujarat Technological University For Partial Fulfillment Towards the

Subject: PROJECT-I (Definition) Semester VIIth


In the Field of

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Devarshi Vyas Pankaj Vatukiya Juvansinh Parmar Submitted by (090170119021) (090170119035) (090170119036)

Under the Guidance of Prof.S.P.Patel


Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Department of Mechanical Engineering Vishwakarma Government Engineering College, Chandkheda 382424 August 2012

MECHAL

Page 2

VGEC

GTU INNOVATION COUNCIL


SELF-DECLARATION of UDP
SELF-DECLARATION (team of students)
We 1) Devarshi Vyas / 2) Pankaj Vatukiya / 3) Juvansinh Parmar the students of Mechanical Branch enroll number 090170119021 / 090170119035 / 090170119036 enrolled at Vishwakarma Government Engineering College hereby certify and declare the following:

We have defined our project based on input at Laboratory development and each of us will make significant efforts to make attempt to solve the challenges . I /we will attempt the project work at my college or at any location under the direct and consistent monitoring of Prof.S.P.Patel .We shall adopt all ethical practices to share credit amongst all the contributors based on their contributions during the project work. (We will work on the project work under the direct and consistent monitoring of Industry mentors and Faculty Guides) we have not purchased the solutions developed by any 3 made by us under the guidance of guides.
rd

party directly and the efforts are

The project work is not copied from any previously done projects directly. ( The same problem can be attempted done in new ways.)
The project work submitted by me/us is prepared by me/us and I/we fully understand the contents. We will make best efforts to solve the problems given by the user/ industry. If the project is in relay model (kho-kho) we will share credits with the initial contributors.

My College to the best of my knowledge is a genuine , engaged in the professional service/social organizationsI/we understand and accept that the above declaration if found to be untrue, it can result in punishment /cancellation of project definition to we including failure in the subject of project work.

Names: Devarshi vyas, Pankaj Vatukiya , Juvansinh Parmar Contact numbers: 9510142585 , 8866771985 ,9998924524

Date: 01/08/2012

signs:

Place: Vishwakarma Government Engineering College,Gandhinagar

MECHAL

Page 3

VGEC

UDP Project Statement Form


TITLE OF PROJECT

Analysis of Thermal conductivity of metal through experimental setup (Laboratory Development) DICIPLINARY DISCIPLINE DISCIPLINE MECHANICAL
STUDENT PARTICULARS NAME MOBILE NO EMAIL ID VYAS DEVARSHI H. 9510142585 devarshimecahnical@gmail.com PARMAR JUVANSINH M. 9998924524 juvansinhparmar14@gmail.com HARHARIIII VATUKIYA PANKAJ B. 8866771985 pankajvatukiya@gmail.com

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. COLLEGE NAME Vishwakarma Government Engineering College COLLEGE CODE 017 BRANCH Mechanical SEMESTER YEAR 7th 2012-13 TEAM CODE ( to be given by the institute ) SIGNATURE OF STUDENTS (TEAM MEMBERS)

NAME ADDRESS

COLLEGE DETAIL COLLEGE DETAILS VISHWAKARMA GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE Near Visat Three Roads, Visat-Gandhinagar Road,Chandkheda, Ahmedabad - 382424

CONTACT NO. COLLEGE LOGO ( optional)

OFFICE

079-23238331

MOBILE

---

NAME MOBILE NO. EMAIL ID

GUIDE DETAILS S.P.PATEL 9426342645 er_sppatel@rediff.com

MECHAL

Page 4

VGEC

Department of Mechanical Engineering VISHWAKARMA GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE Chandkheda, Ahmedabad

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that DEVARSHI VYAS PANKAJ VATUKIYA JUVANSINH PARMAR 090170119021 090170119035 090170119036

Student of Mechanical Engineering have satisfactorily completed their term work as a part of course curriculum in Bachelor of Engineering semester-7 having project title Thermal conductivity of metallic rod with Experimental setup Guide (Prof.S.P.Patel) H.O.D (Mech.) (Prof.R.P.Vyasa)

MECHAL

Page 5

VGEC

PROBLEM SUMMARY:Aim: - Analysis of Thermal conductivity of metal through experimental setup (Laboratory Development)

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM:BACKGROUND: Thermal conductivity is the physical property of the material denoting the ease with particular substances can accomplish the transmission of thermal energy by molecular motion. Thermal conductivity of material is found to depend on the chemical composition of the substances of which it is composed, the phase (i.e. Gas, Liquid or solid) in which it exists, its crystalline structure if a solid, the temperature and pressure to which it is subjected, and whether or not it is homogeneous material. The atoms in the rod that are exposed to the heat, gain energy in the form of heat and transfer this energy to their neighbours, which then transfer the heat energy to their neighbouring atoms. In this manner, the energy is passed along through the length of the rod. Mechanism of Thermal Conduction in Metals: Thermal energy may be conducted in solids by two modes. 1. Lattice vibrations. 2. Transport by free electrons. In good electrical conductors a rather large number of free electrons move about in the lattice structure of the material. Just as these electrons may transport electric charge, they may also carry thermal energy from a high temperature region. In fact, these electrons are frequently referred as the electron gas. Energy may also be transmitted as vibrational energy in the lattice structure of the material. In general, however, this latter mode of energy transfer is not as large as the electron transport and it is for this reason that good electrical conductors are almost always good heat conductors, i.e. Copper, Aluminium & silver. With increase in the temperature, however the increased lattice vibrations come in the way of the transport by free electrons for most of the pure metals the thermal conductivity decreases with increase in the temperatures for some metals.

MECHAL

Page 6

VGEC

APPARATUS: The apparatus consists of a metal bar, one end of which is heated by an electric heater while the other end of the bar projects inside the cooling water jacket. The middle portion of the bar is

MECHAL

Page 7

VGEC

surrounded by a cylindrical shell filled with the asbestos insulating powder. The temperature of the bar is measured at different section. The heater is provided with a dimmer stat for controlling the heat input. Water under constant head conditions is circulated through the jacket and its flow rate and temperature rise are noted by two temperature sensors provided at the inlet and outlet of the water.

Metal Rod Thermal Conductivity Experiment Setup

ADDITONAL EQUIPIMENTS: Hand Watch A/C supply Water supply at constant Rate Beaker PROCEDURE: First of all connect cold water supply at inlet of the Cooling Chamber of setup. Make sure that drain valve is open. Start water supply (1 LPM) at constant water supply rate. Now switch on the supply and make sure the zero position of all digital devices before switching on it. Fix the Power Input to the Heater with the help of Variac, Voltmeter and Ammeter provided. After 30 Minutes start recording the temperature of various points at each 5 minutes interval. If temperatures readings are same for three times, assume that steady state is achieved.
MECHAL Page 8 VGEC

Record the final temperatures.

Different view of objects in Pro-E designing software

MECHAL

Page 9

VGEC

Repeat the above procedure for two different Temperatures.

Closing Procedure: When experiment is over, Switch off heater first. Adjust Variac at Zero. Switch off the Panel with the help of Mains On/Off Switch given on the Panel. Switch off Power Supply to Panel. Stop cold water supply.

SPECIFICATIONS: -

Length of the Metal Bar Diameter of the Metal Bar Test length of the bar Total no. of temperature sensors in the setup Number of Temperature Sensors mounted on bar Number of Temperature Sensors mounted on water jacket Type of Temperature Sensors Heater Cooling Jacket Dia Length of cooling jacket Dimmer stat for heater coil 230VAC Digital Voltmeter Digital Ammeter Amps. Temperature indicator

: : : : : : : : : : : : :

450mm 25mm 235mm 8 Nos. 6 Nos. 2 Nos. RTD PT-100 Nichrome heater 100mm 75mm 2Amp, 0 to 250 Volts 0 to 2.5

: Digital Temperature Indicator 0C to 99.9C and least count 0.1oC with multi-channel switch.

FORMULAE USED: 1. Heat gained by water = Q = MCp (T9 T8) 2. Thermal conductivity of metal rod = ( )

MECHAL

Page 10

VGEC

OBSERVATIONS: Observation table: Thermocouple T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T8 T9 Distance from the leading edge (mm) 35 75 115 155 195 235 Water inlet Water outlet At V=165V 126.4 119.9 105.9 94.8 83.4 70.5 22.8 25.1 At V=199V 162.5 154.1 135.4 120.2 104.6 87 22.5 25.7

Volume flow rate of water at steady state condition= Q = 3.06x10-6 m3/s Mass flow rate = density x volume flow rate = m = 3.06 x 10-3 m3/s Cross sectional area of metal rod = 0.000491 m2 Cp of water = 4.18 kJ/kg K

CALCULATIONS: 1. At voltage = 165 V Heat gained by water = q = mCp (T9 T8) = 3.06 x 10-3 x 4.18 x 2.3 x 1000 = 29.409 W dT/dX from graph at 165V = -322.5o C/m Thermal conductivity of the metal rod: 29.409 = 0.000491 x = 185.724 W/m0C (322 .5) 2. At voltage = 199 V Heat gained by water = q = MCp (T9 T8) = 3.06 x 10 -3 x 4.18 x 3.2 x 1000 =40.91 W dT/dx from the graph for 199 V = -440o C/m Thermal conductivity of the metal rod: 40 = = 189.363 W/m0C .91 0.000491 x (440 )

MECHAL

Page 11

VGEC

GRAPH OBTAINED: T v/s X 180 160 140 120 100 V=199 80 60 V V=165 V

MECHAL

Page 12

VGEC

CONCLUSION: The thermal conductivity for copper rod at different voltage obtained. K at 165 volt = 185.724 W/m0C K at 199 volt = 189.363 W/m0C SOURCE OF ERROR: Thermal expansion of rods neglected. The accuracy limit of thermal sensor display is .1 degree. Heat transfer from the rod to the water assumed to be by conduction only. The k of rod assumed same for entire rod which is not totally true. PRECAUTIONS: Never switch on mains power supply before ensuring that all the ON/OFF switches given on the panel are at OFF position. Voltage to heater should be increased slowly. Never run the apparatus if power supply is less than 180 volts and above than 230 volts. Operate selector switch of temperature indicator gently. There is a possibility of getting abrupt result if the supply voltage is fluctuating or if the satisfactory steady state condition is not reached.

MECHAL

Page 13

VGEC

EXPECTED OUTCOME:We can find thermal conductivity of a rod made by different material and can use that conductivity database as physical characteristic database analysis

OTHER DESCRIPTION:1) Devarshi Vyas 2) Juvan Parmar 3) Pankaj Vatukiya Guided By :- Prof.

Prepared By:S.P.Patel

Reference www.google.com www.wikipedia.com www.scribd.com

MECHAL

Page 14

VGEC