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Temperatura apei inregistreaza variatii zilnice si sezoniere. Ea are un rol hotarator
in dezvoltarea biocenozelor, fiind un factor determinant in raspandirea lor. Apa fiind
buna conducatoare de temperatura, caldura din aer patrunde lent in paturile din
profunzime, insa si eliberarea se face incet, lacurile, marile, oceanele functioneaza
ca adevarate surse de caldura.
Temperatura, comparativ cu alti factori abiotici, joaca un rol important in
desfasurarea, structura si repartizarea biocenozelor in mediul acvatic. Temperatura
apei inregistreaza zilnic variatii in functie de clima si zona geografica si chiar zi /
noapte. Apa fiind o mare sursa de caldura, influenteaza puternic si temperatura
terestra.
Daca luam in considerare "Regula lui Van't Hoff", care arata ca, viteza proceselor
biochimice creste aproximativ de dou ori la cresterea temperaturii cu 10C, putem
observa rolul temperaturii in desfasurarea vietii in ecosistemul acvatic. Regula
este valabila intre anumite limite si evidentiaza faptul ca in cazul reducerii
temperaturii, viteza de dezvoltare scade dar durata vieti creste fata de organismele
din zona mai calda.
Influenta temperaturii asupra biocenozelor acvatice se poate manifesta direct sau
indirect ca factor semnalizator. In prima faza se poate vorbi de actiunea
acceleratoare asupra proceselor metabolice (Van't Hoff), iar in a doua faza, de
influenta indirecta a temperaturii asupra deplasari si flotatiei hidrobiontilor din masa
apei.
Temperatura prin modificarile sezoniere, zonale sau diurne, va determina corelativ
o variatie a tensiunii superficiale, greutati specifice si inclusiv a diferitelor corelatii
calitative si cantitative ecologice (biotop-biocenoza).
Deci, modificarea densitati, greutati specifice, vascozitati, in functie de
temperatura, indica faptul ca termica unui ecosistem acvatic se gaseste la baza
fenomenelor biologice ce influenteaza dinamica si calitatea ecosistmului.