Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 11

1) . .

( ) ,
( ).
, . ,
( ), ( ).
. .
.
1) y =s (t) - ,
t.
t0

v = lim

t0

s
t ;

'

v =x

2) y= v (t) - ,
t.
t0:

a= lim

t0

v
t ;

a=v '

3) y =Q (T) - , ,
.
Q :

C= lim

t0

Q
T ;

C=Q '

4) y =q (t) - ,
t.
q t

I= lim

t0

q
t ;

I =q'

2) , .
""
u = g(x) - , , ,
f.
f g - ,
x

,
. , ,
x, -
u = g(x)!
,
"", .

y(x) . ,

y(x) .
y'(x) :
x,
,
y - x
;
y'(x).

x = t, .
:
1. xt'.
2. yt'.

3. y x'.
4. , y x' t. .
, x(t) y(t) ,
yx' = dy(t) / dx(t) , dt, yx' = yt' /
xt'
3) , .
=() .
, , ,
D /D ='()+, 0 0, ='()+.
, '()
, x0.
,
, :

'() .
=() ,
, d (
d()):
dy='().
(24.1)
d .
, . . =.
'='=1, , (24.1), dy=dx=x, . .
: d=.
(24.1) :
dy='()d,
(24.2)
,
.
(24.2) dy/dx='().
dy/dx dy d.

. ,

y f (x)

y f ( x)x x dy x

x 0

, (5.2.)

, :

lim (x) 0

. ,

. ..
,

y dy f ( x)x

,
(5.3.)

.

(5.2.)

dy f ( x0 )x

y f ( x0 x) f ( x0 )
,

f ( x0 x) f ( x0 ) f ( x0 )x

.
(5.3.)

x0 x
. ;
.

x
),
.
,
.

y f (x)

x x0 x
,

x x x 0 x

(5.4.)

, (14.48),

y f ( x x) f ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) x f ( x0 ) x
.

(5.5)

x
f ( x0 )
100 %
x 100 %
f ( x0 )
f ( x0 )

( f ( x 0 ) 0)
.

4) .

(5.6.)

y=uv, (u>0), u v , u', v'.


y=u v, ln y = v ln u.

3, 5 , :
y'/y = vu'/u +v' ln u, y' = y (vu'/u +v' ln u).
,
(u v)'=u v (vu'/u+v' ln u), u > 0.
, y = x sin x, y' = x sin x (sin x/x + cos x ln x).
y = f(x) x, ..

y
x

y',
= y'+, 0 0; y = y' + x.

dy: dy = y' . y=x,


dx = x' = 1 =, dy=y'dx, . .

dy
dx

.
y , dy
.
y=f(x) y = f (x).
f(x), ,

y , f (x),

d2y
dx 2


.
:

y , f (x),
-

d 3y
dx 3

y I V , f I V (x),
-

d4y
dx 4

y ( n ) , f ( n ) (x),
n- 5) .

y f (x)

f ( x1 ) f ( x 2 )

dny
dx n

()

x1 , x 2

x1 x 2 ,

f (x ) f (x )

1
2 )
(
( ,
() ).

f (x ) f (x )

f (x ) f (x )

1
2
1
2 ),

().
, ,
. .

yx

y x3

(, 0)

(0, )

6) .

. x0 f(x),
h >0, :
f(x 0-h )>f (x 0) f(x 0+ h)>f(x 0),
. , x

f ( x ) > f ( x 0 ).
. x0 f(x),
h >0, :
f(x 0-h)< f(x 0) f(x 0+h )< f(x 0),
. , x
:
f ( x ) < f ( x 0 ).
. 4.3 .

1- , 2- .
.
.( ). y =f(x) 0
, f/( x 0 ) .
. , , .
.
. 0 ,
.
( ).
f(x) [a , b], x 0
. :
1) f/(x) < 0 (a;x0) f/(x) > 0 (x0;b), x0 f(x);
2) f/(x) > 0 (a;x0) f/(x) < 0 (x0;b), x0 f(x).
2. .
f/(x) < 0 (a;x0) f(x) x0, f(x) (a;x0],
x (a;x0) f(x)>f(x0).
f/(x) > 0 (x0;b) f(x) x 0, f(x) (x0;b],
x (x0;b) f(x)>f(x0).
, x x0 (a;b)
f(x)>f(x0), x0 f(x).
.
7) .
. f ' ( x ) f ( x )
( x0 ), f ( x )
( x0 ), f '' ( x0 ).
f ( x ) ( a, b ),
, y = f ( x )
( x0 , f ( x0 ) ), x0 ( a, b ).
f ( x ) ( a, b ),
, y = f ( x )
( x0 , f ( x0 ) ), x0 ( a, b ).
( ) .
f ( x ) ( )
( a, b ), :
f '' ( x ) > 0 x ( a, b ), f ( x )
( a, b );
f '' ( x ) < 0 x ( a, b ), f ( x )
( a, b ) .

,
, . ,
x0 f '' ( x0 ), f '' ( x0 ) = 0.
8)
0/0 /
f(x) g(x) a, ,
, a,


f(x)/g(x) x,

. ,
,

(1)

, :

.

9) . .
,
(x, y) ()
f(x, y).
.
D f(x, y)
( ) .
10)


. ,
, .
z=f(x, y)

11)

x f ,

. .

F (x)

f (x)

F ( x) f ( x)

x ( a; b)

(a; b)

dF ( x) f ( x)d x

(
).
(6.1)

[a; b]

, a
.

F (x)
16.1

f (x)

(a; b),

F ( x) C

f (x)

F ( x) f ( x)

F (x)
,

, ..

F ( x) C
..

( F ( x) C ) F ( x) f ( x) C

(x )

x ( a; b)

( x) F ( x) f ( x)

f (x)

, ..

(( x) F ( x)) ( x) F ( x) f ( x) f ( x) 0
.

( x) F ( x ) C
,

( x) F ( x) C

, . ,

F ( x) C

f (x)dx F (x) C

f (x)

f ( x)dx

(a; b)
. ,
(6.2)

f ( x)dx

f (x)

f (x)

16.1. ;
, ..

( f ( x)dx) f ( x)

d ( f ( x)dx) f ( x)dx

(6.3)

( f ( x)d x) ( F ( x) C ) F ( x) 0 f ( x)
d ( f (x)dx) ( f ( x)dx)d x f ( x)d x

.
. ,

3cos3xdx si n3x C

(sin 3x C ) 3 cos3x
,
.
6.2.
, ..

dF (x) F ( x) C

(6.4)

dF (x) F (x)dx f (x)dx F (x) C

6.3. , ..,

k const 0

k f (x)d x k f (x)dx

(6.5)

k f (x)d x k F (x)d x (k F (x))d x d (k F (x)) kF (x) C k (F (x)


1

C1 k ) C C1 k k (F ( x) C ) k f ( x)dx

.
6.4.
, ..

( f ( x) g (x))d x f (x)d x g (x)d x

.
(6.6)
16.3.
, ..
n

i 1

i 1

i fi ( x)dx i fi (x)dx
.

6.5. ( ).

f (u)du F (u) C

u (x)

(6.7)

f (x)dx F ( x) C

(6.8)

, .
,

f ( x)dx F (x) C

u (x)

F (u) F ( ( x))
.

F ( x) f ( x)
,

dF (u) F (u)du f (u)du

f (u)d u d F (u) F (u) C

.
, ,
,
.
12)

x (t )

(t )

dx (t )dt

f (x)dx f ( (t)) (t)d t

f (x)dx
(t )

. ,

.
(6.14)
.
, , .
(16.3),

d f ( x)d x f ( x)dx f ( (t )) (t )d t
x

dx


.
, ,

d f ( (t )) (t )d t f ( (t )) (t )d t

.
(16.14) .
, , (6.14), , ..

f ( (t))(t)d t (t) C

, ..

t g ( x)

x (t )
,

(t )

f (x)d x f ( (t)) (t)d t (t) C (g (x)) C

. (6.15)
.
.

u u( x)

v v( x)

, .

d (uv) ud v vdu

,
,

ud v d (uv) vdu

udv d (uv) vdu

u dv uv vdu

.
(6.18)
( , ).
(16.18) ,
. (16.18)

dv

( , , ).

du


,
- , .
13)

. .

f (x) [a, b].


f (x) a b
, :

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
14)
.

, f (x) g (x) - [a, b].


1.

2.

k - ;

3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
15)

[a, b],

-.

f (x) [a,
b]. F (x) - f (x) [a, b],

16)
. .


x
t x = g (t):

t
g -1 - g, .. t = g -1(x).

17)

uv x = b x = a.


, ,
, :
a b ( ) ;
f (x) [a,b].