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19932006

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2007

51
74.200.58:22.1
76
:
. . , . . , . .
. . , . .
. .


.

76 19932006: / . . .
. . . . .: , 2007. 472 .
ISBN 978-5-94057-262-6
( ) 19932006
.
.
,
. .
. , ,
. .

74.200.58:22.1

ISBN 978-5-94057-262-6


c . . , . . ,
. . , . . ,
. . , 2007.

c , 2007.


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19921993 , 9

19921993 .
9
1. , a b

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O1 LK LP KLP A D ,
S2 O2
M LP , LP B. , O1

19931994 , 10

11

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12

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42. ,
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CO EF N M . , , OM N , O D
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n.
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46. f (x)


x+1
(x 1)f
f (x) = x
x1
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x
= 1. .
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A1 B1 C1 ABC . O ,
S, A, B C1 . , SO A1 B1 C.
(.)

19941995 , 9

13

48. A1 , A2 , . . . , An ,
B1 , B2 , . . . , Bn , A1 B1 , A2 B2 , . . . , An Bn . Ai Aj ,
Ai Aj Ak Bk , k
= i, j. ,
Ap
Aq .
(., .--)

19941995 .
9
49. , x y

x
y
1
.
+ 4

x4 + y 2
y + x2
xy
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l A B C D (. . 3). , ,
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A
B
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B (. . 4). , O1 , O2 A, S1 D, S2 E
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55. 5 , , 1 (.
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1 x3



95

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(m, n) + (m, n) = m + n
(.)
, m n .
59. ABC BK
S, AB BC E
F . S E F . , ,
(.)
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60. , ( ). , ,
(., .)
.
61. f (x) =
= ax2 + bx + c, , a < b f (x)  0 x.
b+c
(.)
a +
ba ?
62. ABCD, AB = AD ABC =
= ADC = 90 . BC CD
(.)
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63. N 3 , (. .
). N  -

19941995 , 11

15

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66. . , .
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sin

+
sin

+
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(.)
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70. a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . ,
m n (m  n)
1
am+n + amn = (a2m + a2n ).
2
a1995 , a1 = 1.
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E
F
O2 A B (. M
B
. 6). O1 B S2 N
F , O2 B S1
O1
O2
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EF , A
S1 S2 M
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= AE + AF .
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16

19951996 .
8
73. 2000 .
4005 3992 (4003 + 2 4002 + 3 400 + 4)
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AC .
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1 ,

19951996 , 9

17

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81. x2 + ax + b, x2 + cx + d
, a b , c d .
(.)

82. ABC, AB = BC, AB


D, ADC BDC S1
S2 . , S1 D,
S2 M . , BM AC.
(.)
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ab(1 a)(1 b)
< 14 .
(1 ab)2

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88. 8 , 7 , , , .
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> a + b + c, a + b + c > 3.
(.)

18

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1 1. ,
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93. . 85.
94. A0 B0 C0 . A0 B0 A1 , A2 ,
. . . , An , B0 C0 C1 , C2 , . . . , Cn ,
Ai Ci+1 (i = 0, 1, . . . , n1) Ci Ai+1
(i = 0, 1, . . . , n 1) . C0 A1 , A1 C2 , A2 C1 C1 A0 , C1 A2 , A2 C3 , A3 C2 C2 A1
, . . , n 1
A0 B0 C0 .
(., .)

95. . 88.
96. 1996 .
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11
97. . 81.
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1 3
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19961997 , 8

19

100. P (x) n n . ?
(.)


101. f (x) = 4 4|x| 2. (.)
f (f (x)) = x?
102. n,
a, b, c d
(b c)(a d)
(a b)(d c)
(a c)(b d)
(a c)(b d)
,
,
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(b c)(a d)
(a c)(b d)
(a d)(b c)
(a b)(c d)
, n.
(.)
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COA = B + 60 , COB = A + 60 , AOB = C + 60 .
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.
104. ,
a b, ,
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n, i = 1, 2, . . . i- (.)
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19961997 .
8
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106. 300 ,
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107. AB BC ABC
D K, AC E M , DA + AE = KC +
+ CM = AB. , DM KE 60 .
(.)

108. 50 000 . 7.

20

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109. AB, BC CA K1 ,
K2 , K3 . , ABC ,
(.)
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(.)

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19961997 , 10

21

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ABC ( AB BC), C1
ACB, A1 CAB. A1 , B1 C1 lA , lB , lC ,
BAC, ABC ACB . , lA , lB
lC .
(.)
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10
121. -97 ,
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) ;
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= 0, , .
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A C ABCD S1 , B D S2 ,
(.)
M N .
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(2m 1)2 , n
(.)
m(2m 1).
124. 4. 3 ,
,
(.)
1 3?
125. , 100 , , . , . (.)
126.
, .

22

10 , 2
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127. O1 O2
ABC (AB = BC). , ABC O1 O2 A,
A D. , BD , (.)
O1 O2 A.
128. ,


x+a+ y+b+ z+c= y+a+ z+b+ x+c=

= z+a+ x+b+ y+c


(.)
a, b, c, x, y, z, x = y = z a = b = c.
11
129. . 121.
130. ABC K. , ABC,
(.)
K.
131. S(m) m. , n ,
(.)
S(3n )  S(3n+1 ).
132. . 124.
133. ,
A B ( ) A B
( C , C). , A B A B
(.)
.
134. , 1 < a < b < c,
(.)
loga (loga b) + logb (logb c) + logc (logc a) > 0.
135. n- (n  4) , n-
(., .)
?
136. f : R R, , ,
(.)
f ((x + y)) = f (x) + f (y) ?

19971998 , 8

23

19971998 .
8
137. n- M N , M
, N , 0 9
M N , M N ?
(.)

138. ABCD M N BC
CD . AM AN BAD
(.)
?
139. 52 , 13 .
. .
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140. n  9 . 9
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142. 128 .
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143. O ,
ABC, SA , SB , SC O, BC, CA, AB . , :
SA , A, SB B
SC C, 180 .
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144. , , ( )
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24

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.
9
145.
(.)
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146.
D
P Q. P
A, B, C, D, . 9. , AP B =
B
C
(.)
= CQD.
147. Q
, 11111 A
. . 9
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149.
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A1 A2 , , A2 A3 , A3 A4 , . . . , A1998 A1 (  -

19971998 , 10

25

), . ,
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1998-.
152.
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.
(.)
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10
153. f (x) = x + ax + b cos x.
a b, f (x) = 0 f (f (x)) = 0
(.)
.
154. ABC O B C S. OK S, D E (.)
AB AC. , ADKE .
155. ,
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.)
156. 1999
: 1, 2, 4, . . . , 21998 .
. ,
. ,
(.)
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157. {(x + 1)3 } = x3 , {z}
z, . . {z} = z [z].
(.)
158. A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 l1 , l2 , . . . , l5
A1 , A2 , . . . , A5 . l1 l2
B1 , l2 l3 B2 . ., l5 l1 B5 .
B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 ?
2

(., .)

159. n (n  3) . ,
(.)
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160. 1 144. 1 144 , -

26

.  2 , 
1 . , (.)
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161. , 36 . .

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162. S O S 
A B. S, S  C.
AC BC S  , A B, E D . , DE OC . (.)
163. . 155.
164. n n, n 1 , .
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165. . , 5 ,
.
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166. , . , , , . A
, B ,
a b . ,
A B = 4(a b).
(.)
167. 2, .
, . (.)
.

19981999 , 8

27

168. {an }, n = 1, 2, . . ., , n m
|an am |
1
<
< 1998.
1998
|n m|
, |an n| < 2 000 000 n.
(.)

19981999 .
8
169. , 33 . ,
25 /, 20 / ( ). 5 /.
, 3 .
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170. A . 1 A.
(.)
A.
171. BC, CA, AB ABC A1 , B1 , C1 , A1 A2 , B1 B2 , C1 C2 A1 B1 C1 AB, BC, CA. , A1 , B1 , C1
(.)
ABC.
172. 40 ,
. , k, ;
. k 40
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173. , 1 15 : A
2 B 13 , B
(.)
A.
174. ABC. A1 A BC, C1 C
AB. , A1 , B C1
C1 B = 2A1 B, CA1 B .
(.)

28

175. . ,
. , . (.)
?
176. 54 , .
( ) . (.)
3 3 3?
9
177.
1 N , N  2.
, .
(.)
N .
178. ABC AC D E,
AB = AD BE = EC (E A D). F BC
, ABC. ,
(.)
B, E, D, F .
179. x, y z 1. ,

1 1
1
+ +  x + y + z,
x y z
k
1
1
1
+ k + k  xk + y k + z k .
(.)
k
x
y
z
180. 8 8, 1
1 (, , ,
). .
,
, .
, , 90 . ,
8 8, ,
90 . ,
.
(.)
181. 5 ,

. , .

(.)

19981999 , 10

29

182. . 175.
183. ,
, .
( 1 , , 12
(.)
: 2 3.)
184. ABC (AB > BC) K M AB
AC, O . P
KM CO, Q , QP KM QM ||BO. (.)
, QO AC.
10
185. . 170.
186. , A,
B (B
= A). BXY ,
X Y XY A. , , BXY ,
(.)
.
187. n (
, ). . , n 3
, , (., .)
n 3 .
188. . 180.
189. 10 , ,
9 ?
(., .)
190. ABC , AB,
AC BC C1 , B1 A1 . K , C1 , D (.)
B1 C1 A1 K. , CD = CB1 .
191. n . n + 1
. ,
(n + 1)- ,
. , .
(.)

192. . ,
1999 . ,

30

, .
(.)

11
193. f (x), , , a > 1 f (x)+f (ax) .
(.)
, f (x) .
194. . 179.
195. .
,
. ,
(.)
, .
196. . ,
. (.)
, 6.
197. a, b c ,
x y
|x + a| + |x + y + b| + |y + c| > |x| + |x + y| + |y|?(.)
198. 5050 . ,
, (. . , ,
) (
(., .)
).
199. . 184.
200.
,
. ,
, (.)
.

19992000 .
8
201. a b
a2 b2 (a2 b2 + 4) = 2(a6 + b6 ).
, .
(.)
202. 3 .
,
. . ,
(.)
.

19992000 , 9

31

203. (
), ?
(.)

204. , , .

.
( , , )
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(.)
.
205. 8 1, 2, . . . , 8 , ,
. , , ,
,
(.)
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206. A B
X (0 < X < 60). X, ,
A, B
(.)
X .
207. AD CE ABC O. , AB CE, ,
BC AD, K. , KO
(.)
AC.
208. 2000 .
,

(. . 1, 2, 4, 8, . . . ). A
, , A , 2000
. 100 000. , .
(.)

9
209. x2 + ax + b = 0
(
, , ).
, , (.)
?

32

210. a, b c, 1 , 2a + 1 b, 2b + 1
c, 2c + 1 a?
(.)
211. 2n + 1 .
n . , , (.)
.
212. S1 S2 C
F
N
M N . A
S1 AM
D
A
AN , S2 B
S2
C, D S2
S1
M
DM DN , S1
B
E F , A, E, F
E
M N , D, B, C
. 10
(. . 10). , AB = DE, A, F ,
C D ,
(., .)
A D.
213. 99 101
3 3 3
, . 11. , 1 2 3
23 33 43
200.
(.)
214. 2000 - 33 43 53
.. .. .. . .
10, .
. . .
9,9.
. 11
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.
(.)
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215. AB ABC D. ,
BCD, AC M ,
, ACD,
BC N (M, N
= C). O CM N . , OD
(.)
AB.
216. 200 200 ,
404 , . ,
2 2, .
(., .)

10
217. 2000 : 11, 101, 1001, . . . , 99% .
(., .)

19992000 , 11

33

218. 3 , , , .
(.)
?
219. ABCD A, 60 . O
, ABD. AO C K.
(.)
AO/OK.
220. n n n 40 40 49 49 , ?
(.)

221. f (x), x R
x, y R
(., )
|f (x + y) + sin x + sin y| < 2?
222. a0
{an } an+1 = a2n 5, an , a2n , an
. , a0 > 5
{an } .
(.)
223. ABCD la , lb ,
lc , ld A, B, C, D . la lb , lb lc , lc ld , ld la K, L, M, N . ,
3 , K AB, L BC, M CD
. , ABCD (.)
.
224. 2000 , . , N
. , 2N + 2 , .
(., .)

11
225. ,
a1 , a2 , . . . , a10 ,
(x a1 )(x a2 ) . . . (x a10 ) = (x + a1 )(x + a2 ) . . . (x + a10 )
5 .
(.)
226. 1.
1 ?
(.)

34

227. a1 , a2 , . . . , a2000 , n, 1  n  2000,


a31 + a32 + . . . + a3n = (a1 + a2 + . . . + an )2 .
, .
(.)

228. . 220.
229. x y, 1, ,

1
1
2

+

(.)
.
2
2
1
+
xy
1+x
1+y
230. , ABC, O AC K.
O, ABC. E F AB BC, B; B1 B2 AC, B1
A. , B, K P
(.)
B2 E B1 F .
231. 1, 2, . . . , N , , .
, .
(.)
N ?
232. 2000 , . , N
. , N + 2 , .
(., ., .)

20002001 .
8
233. 1, 2, . . . , 10
, , ,
(.)
?
234. N . , , ( ). N ,
1 2, ?
(.)

20002001 , 9

35

235. , . ,
(.)
.
236. nm, m, n  2, , n m
(n 1) (m 1) . ,
, .
. , .
(.)
?
237. a, b, c, d, e f , a c e
= 0.
, |ax + b| + |cx + d| |ex + f |
(.)
x. , ad = bc.
238. n , n,
n + 1, n + 2 n + 3 . (, n = 60398
.) , (.)
, ?
239. 55 4 , ,
,
(.)
3 ?
240. ,
3 , .
(.)

9
241. . 233.
242. :
a b f = x2 + ax +
+ b: 1, 1 3. ,
, . ,
a
(.)
b ?
243. ABCD AB BC
M N , AM = N C, Q AN CM . , DQ D. (.)
244. , 100
. .
,

36

. ,
.
(.)
?
245. . ,
(.)
, .
246. ,
( 1 )
2001 ?
(.)
247. , O,
A B, K AB
. OB L , OA KL
. M ,
KLB, AK, K. ,
(., .)
OM .
248.
, . , 100 .
(.)

10
249. a1 , a2 , . . . , an .
f (x) , f (a1 ) = f (a2 + . . . + an ). , A , B
, f (A) = f (B).
(.)
250. ABCD AC K.
s1 K AB AD (s1
AC AK). s2 K CB CD (s2
AC KC). ,
K AC , s1 s2 ,
.
(.)
251.
, : a, b c (
) 2000(a + b) = c,
(.)
, .
252. , 10
.
(.)
?

20002001 , 11

37

253. a, b c, c
= b. , ax2 + bx + c (c b)x2 + (c a)x + (a + b)
( ). , a + b + 2c 3. (.)
254. ABC. AC B1 ,
AB = AB1 , B1 C A. C, B1 A ABC , ,
ABC, Q. , ,
(.)
Q, AC.
255. , ,
(
, ). , 100 ,
(.)
.
256. ,
.
,
. (.)
?
11
257. p q , p + q = (p q)3 .
(.)

258. f (x) 2 .
, f (f (x)) = 0 3
, f (f (f (x))) = 0 7 ?
(., .)

259. AD ABC, l
, ADB ADC M
N . , , (.)
BD, DC M N , l.
260. . 252.
261. {xk } , x1 = 1, xn+1 = n sin xn +
+ 1. , .
(.)
262. , ,
, , ,
,
()
.

38

263. S, 11 S. ,
A B S , X S :
(.)
|XA|, |XB|  0,999|AB|.
264. , , 117 , 4
(., .)
, .

20012002 .
8
265. 9 2002
,
(.)
?
266. 99 . , , ,
, ( , ).
(.)

267. 11 .
- 10 . , .
, 21 .
(.)
?
268. ABC .
ABC1 ,
BCA1 , CAB1 . , A1 B1 C1 .
(.)
269.
, ,
9; , ,
0.
(.)
1234 2002?
270.

. , 8 . ,
(.)
.
271. , 
. , , 

20012002 , 9

39

, ,  . , 



. ( . -


(.)
.)
272. 18 , , - 99 , 100 .
99- .
(.)
9
273. . 266.
274.
. ,
(.)
.
275. ABC (AB = BC) O
. M BO, M 
M AB. K M  O AB. L BC , CLO = BLM .
, O, K, B, L
(.)
.
276. 43 n ,
. , n . , , . (.)
277. 1, 2, . . . , 60 ,
, ,
2, ,
, 3, . . . , , (.)
, 7?
278. A ABCD ,
AA . B  , C  , D . , ABCD A B  C  D
ABCD.
(.)
279. [0, 2002] d,
d 1001 .
, . , , (., .)
?

40

280. . 272.
10
281. a1 , a2 , . . . , an , 2, : a2k +1
k = 1, 2, . . . , n?
(.)
282.
m2 + 1 . , m + 1
, .
283. AC ABC
BC M (. . 12). AM B ABC K. , ,
AKM BKM , - A
AKB. (.)
284. a0 , a1 , . . . , an : a0 = 0, 0  ak+1
ak  1 k = 0, 1, . . . , n 1.

 n
2
n


3
ak 
ak .
k=1

(.)

B
K
M

C
. 12

(.)

k=1

285. Ox X1 , . . . , Xn ,
n  3. ,
Ox (
). y = f1 , . . . , y = fm ,
. , y = f1 + . . . + fm Ox
.
(.)
286. . 278.
287. [0, 2002] n 1 > 0
, , [0, 2002],
(. . , 1). n
, . ( , .) ,
, ?
(., .)

20012002 , 11

41

288.
10 10 ,
(.)
, ?
11
289. x y , p q xp + y q . , x y
.
(.)
290. SABCD ABCD.
AA1 , BB1 , CC1 , DD1 SC, SD, SA
SB . , S, A1 , B1 , C1 , D1
. , AA1 , BB1 , CC1 , DD1 .
(.)
291. a0 , a1 , . . . , an : a0 = 0,
ak+1  ak + 1 k = 0, 1, . . . , n 1.
 n
2
n


3
ak 
ak .
(.)
k=1

k=1

292. n2 , n n . , - . , , n . (., .)
293. P (x) . , P (P (x)) = 0 ,
(.)
P (x) = 0.
294. n > 1 .
. - , ;
, , . (.)
?
295. ABCD. lA , lB , lC , lD
. lA lB K, lB lC L, lC lD
M , lD lA N . , ,
ABK CDM , , , BCL DAN (.)
.

42

296. [0, N ] 2 ,
, [0, N ],
. A B ,
3, AB 3
, A,
B. ,
[0, N ]? (., .)

20022003 .
8
297. 1 10 ,
.
(.)
?
298. , , . ,
OX ( , ).
, OY (.)
.
299. 1
1000. 1.
2a, a +
+ 1, a. , . ,
1000. ? (.)
300. ,
, , , . (
(.)
).
301. 1 8,
, . (.)
?
302. a, b, c d
b
ab + 1
a
= =
.
c
d
cd + 1
, a = c b = d.
(.)

20022003 , 9

43

303. ABC C . AC
D, BD K , ABC = KAD =
(.)
= AKD. , BK = 2DC.
304. 2003 ,
a b (a > b) a + b a b
. ,
, (.)
.
9
305. ,
, (.)
, .
306. . 298.
(.)

307. ABC (AB = BC) , BC,


F , AC. , F C AB.
(.)

308.
. ,
, , , 11.
(.)
?
309. I ABC.
A , B  , C  , I
ABC. , ,
A B  C  , B, ABC = 60 .
(.)

310. 100 . , , . , 1
, . , 2, 3, 4, . . . , 99 .
(.)
?
311. , ,
, , (.)
.
312. ,
(.)
, .

44

10
313. , sin , sin 2, sin 3
cos , cos 2, cos 3.
(.)
314. . 307.
315. 45 . , , ,
.
(.)
?
316. n (n > 2) ,
O , , ,
. ,
(.)
.
317. x, x2 + y 2 + z 2 + 2xyz = 1
( z) y. (.)
318. A0 BC ABC, A .
A0 A . . ,
BC, A,
(.)
.
319. , ,
, ,
, .
(.)

320. 17 , . , .
, 5
? (, , .)
(., .)

11
321. p,
x y, px = y 3 + 1.
(.)
322. AC ABCD
K, KD = DC, BAC = 12 KDC, DAC = 12 KBC.
, KDA = BCA KDA = KBA.
(.)

20032004 , 8

45

323. f (x)x f (x2 )x6


x . , f (x3 ) 23 x6
x.
(.)
324. A1 , A2 , . . . , An B1 , B2 , . . . , Bn .
, Bi , i
= j
Ai Aj Bi Bj .
(.)
325. P (x) = x2 + ax + b Q(x) = x2 + cx +
+ d , P (Q(x)) = Q(P (x))
(.)
. , b
= d.
326. . 310.
327. ABCD.
ABC T .  ABC T 
ABD, BCD, CAD. , AT AT 
BAC.
(.)
328. . 320.

20032004 .
8
329.  . ,
17.00, 18.00  ,
.  ?
(.)

330. :
1) 5 , .
2)
.
? (.)
331.
. , (.)
.
332. 11 11 11 1, 2, . . .
. . . 1331. . , , 8, 9. , (.)
?

46



2
2
2
333. a; b; c; ab ; bc ; ca , a, b, c
, ?
(.)

334. ABCD
AD BC; M N AB CD . M N , , ABC ADC. , ABCD (.)
.
335. {N1 , . . . , Nk } , , ,
N1 , . . . , Nk .
(.)
k.
336. , ,

(.)
,
?
9
337. . 330.
338. ABC AA , BB  , CC  A0 , B0 , C0 . , M ABC AA0 . , A0 B0 C0 .
(.)
339. . 332.
340. ,
. ,

(.)
,
.
341. 100 100 . , 100 , ,
11. , 99 , (.)
, 11?
342. x, y, z ,
2. ,



xy + 1 + yz + 1 + zx + 1 > x + y + z. (.)
343. ABCD M , AM D N , M N A + M CB =
= M N D + M BC = 180. , M N AB .
(.)

20032004 , 10

47

344.   n , . , . ,
, . ,
; .
(.)
, ?
10
345. a, b, c /2. ,
(.)
cos a + cos b + cos c > sin a + sin b + sin c.
346. . 338.
347. . 340.
348. N  3 . ,

n . , N  (n + 1)2 . (.)
349.
xn + a1 xn1 + a2 xn2 + . . . + an1 x + an = 0
a1 , a2 , . . . , an n
. , ,
(.)
an1 an .
350. {N1 , . . . , Nk } , , ,
N1 , . . . , Nk .
k.
(.)
351. 1 2 A B. A
1 2 l1 l2 . T1 T2 1 2 ,
T1 A AT2 ( ). t1 T1 1 l2 M1 .
, t2 T2 2 l1
M2 . , M1 M2
, T1 , T2 .
(.)
352. p < k < n.
,
(k + 1) n (n , k + 1 )
p . , k (n + 1)
(n + 1 , k ),
(.)
p + 1 .

48

11
353. . , k, k , (.)
k .
354. 1 , 2 , 3 r S R (R > r) T1 ,
T2 , T3 . , T1 T2
(.)
( S) 1 2 .
355. P (x) = an xn + an1 xn1 + . . . + a0
a0
= 0. , ,
P (x), a0 ,
.
(.)
356. 2004 ,
, . , , -
. ,
, ( ),
, -
- , .
. - (.)
?
357. . 341.
358. a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5
i, ai
= bi .
. (.)
?
359. n , , ,
,
(.)
sin n + sin n + sin n < 0?
360. ABCD. S1 ,
A, B, C, AD, BD, CD K, L, M ; S2 , A, B, D,
AC, BC, DC P , Q, M . , KL P Q.
, KM Q LM P .
(.)

20042005 , 8

49

20042005 .
8
361. 12   90 . 90 .
,   
 60 . ,
.
(.)
362. 1 2005 .
:
, 2 , 1-
4 , 2- 8 . . (k- 2k1 ). ,
, .
(.)
?
363. 19 .
,
(., .)
19- , 11?
364. ABC. B  C 
B C AC AB.
P ABB 
ACC  , A. , (.)
ABC P A.
365. , N 100, 5N 50. , N .
(.)
366. ABCD A C .
B AD P . BP ,
A BC Q. ,
(.)
P Q CD .
367. (x, y) , x + y = an ,
(.)
x2 + y 2 = am a, n, m.
368. 99 . ,
50 ,
(., .)
.
9
369. .
. .
, -

50

.
, ,
(., .)
, ?
370. . 363.
371. 24 2 2 2 1, 2, 3, . . . , 24 ( ). ,
8 , , .
(.)
?
372. ABC (AB < BC) I , M AC, N ABC . , IM A = IN B.
(.)
373. . 365.
374.
, . , , .
(.)

375.
{an }nN , an . . . an+9
an + . . . + an+9 n? (.)
376. 100 . ,
34 ,
.
(., .)
10
377. .
(.)
.
378. , x > 0 n
(2x)n
1 + xn+1 
.
(.)
(1 + x)n1
379. . 372.
380. N  3 , 1, 2, . . . , N .
.
, A B, A B
, . (., .)
.
381. a1 , a2 , . . . ,
, , n an an+31 2005.

20042005 , 11

51

, 2005?
(.)

382. . 374.
383. (a, b) ,
n an + bn (n + 1)- .
(.)

384. ,
45 , .
(.)
?
11


385. x, y 0; 2 ,
sin x + sin y = sin(xy).
(.)
386. , S, , a + b + c + d = S
1 +
a1 + 1b + 1c + d1 = S (a, b, c, d ), a
1

1 + 1 + 1 = S. S.
(.)
+ b
c1
1
d1
387. . 380.
388. AA1 BB1
ABC. , A1 B1 , AB, C  . , CC  , (.)
ABC.
389. , P k n, P (1) +
(.)
+ P (2) + . . . + P (n) k.
390. S , .
S  . 
(.)
, SS < 3.
20
391. , 10 , : ,
7, ,
(.)
8?
392. 100 , . ,
51 ,
, (., ., .)
.

52

20052006 .
8
393. - N , , , , N , . ,
. (
(.)
, .)
394. . 1, 2, 3, 4.
1,
. ,
. ?
(.)

395. .
. , , . ,
, 4 . ( .)
(., ., ., .)

396.  
, .
2
2 2, 1 1 1? ( 27 ,
;
(.)
.)
397. a1 a2 . . . a100 , a1 , . . . , a100
. 99 , . ,
32 . (.)
a1 , a2 , . . . , a100 ?
398. 101 101 99 99 (,
, ). ,
33 (.)
?
399. AA0 ABC A0 BC .
A1 . -

20052006 , 9

53

B1 C1 . A1 B1 C1 ,
(.)
ABC 30 , 30 120.
400. N  5 ( ). , , ,
. ,
. , , ,
, , .
(., .)
?
9
401. . 393.
402.
1, 2, 3, 4 , . , ,
( ) , ,
. ?
(.)

403. , x21 + x22 + . . . + x26 = 6 x1 + x2 + . . . + x6 = 0.


, x1 x2 . . . x6  12 .
(.)
404. A C ABC A0 C0 .
,
ABC AC, A0 C0 P .
, P B
(.)
ABC.
405. . 397.
406. ABC AD
(.)
BE. , CED 45 .
407. . 400.
408. N , 81,
, 3. ,
, 3. (.)
10
409. 1 200 50 . , ,
(.)
.
410. 8 8 ,
. (

54

, 3 3
2 2.) , ,
(.)
68 .
411. . 404.
412. n > 1 x2 a1 x + b1 ,
. . . , x2 an x + bn , 2n a1 , . . . , an , b1 , . . . , bn .
, a1 , . . . , an , b1 , . . . , bn
?
(.)
413. ,
x
,

sin
x
=

0,

(., .)
n, | sin nx|  23 .
414. ABC
,
. , , (.)
.
415. n , a b, a + b an + bn ?
(.)

416. 2n (n  3), . ,
3 , ?
(.)
11
417. . 409.
418. x2 + a1 x + b1 , x2 + a2 x + b2 ,
. . . , x2 + an x + bn P (x) = x2n + c1 x2n1 + c2 x2n2 +. . .
. . . + c2n1 x + c2n , c1 , c2 , . . . , c2n . , k (1  k  n) ak bk (.)
.
419. 12 n . k ak
( ak a1 > a2 > . . . > an ). n
a1 , . . . , an ,
(.)
.
420. A C ABC A1 C1 ,
A0 C0 . A1 C1 A0 C0
P . , , P (.)
ABC, AC.

20052006 , 11

55

421. . 413.
422. ABCD A AB  ,
AC  , AD , CD, BD,
BC . , (B  C  D )
(.)
(BCD).
423. , N
, 3, , 3.
(.)

424.
300 300, ,
(., .)
?

56

19921993 .
9
425. n , 2n + 1 3n + 1
. 5n + 3 ? (.)
426. AB CD 1 O,
AOC = 60 . , AC + BD  1.
(.)
427.

f
(x)





1
1
2
2
x f x + 1 (x 1) f x 1 .

x2 + 4x + 3 x2 +
+ 10x + 9?
(.)
428. .
: ,
, .
, ,
(.)
, , ?
429. x, y z ,
(x y)(y z)(z x) = x + y + z.
(.)
, x + y + z 27.
430. B2
, C1
B1
A1 , A2 ,
B1 , B2 , C1 , C2 , D1 D2 (. . 13). C2
, A1 B2 = B1 C2 = C1 D2 =
= D1 A2 , ,
A2
A1 A2 , B1 B2 , C1 C2 , D1 D2 ,
D1
(.)
.
A1
431. D2
,
. 13
,
(.)
?
432. n x2 + x + = 0 (n ). . . , . 3n
n . , ,
. , -

19921993 , 10

57

, ?
(.)

10
433. . ,
.
(.)
434.
, , . , (.)
.
435. . 427.
436. .
, . : 
? ,
, . ,
F . F ,
(.)
, ?
437. . 429.
438. ,
, , , ,
(.)
?
439. n2 1. n
n , n
, , (.--)
?
440. {ak }
{ak } ak = ak +2ak+1 . : {ak }, {ak } , {ak } {ak }, . .
, , {ak }
. , {xk } ,
{x2k } .
(.)
11
441. . 425.
442. ,
, , . ,

58

.
(.)

443. f (x),
x,
(.)
x y f (xy ) = f (x)f (y) .
444. , n,
n , , n2 1, 1993n ,
( , ).
(., .--)

445. ,
- .

(.)

446. 1
1993. :
k, k . ,
(.)
1.
447. n (
) ,
. n
(.)
?
448. ,
, ,
, ,
(.)
, .

19931994 .
449. , (x +

9


x2 + 1)(y + y 2 + 1) = 1, x + y = 0.
(.)

450. S1 S2 F .
l S1 S2 A B . ,
l, S2 C S1 . ,
(.)
A, F C .
451. . 100
, 200, 300. .

19931994 , 10

59

, ,
.
, . : (.)
?
452. n n . ,
(.)
.
453.
a2
an
a1
+
+ ... +
=
a2 (a1 + a2 ) a3 (a2 + a3 )
a1 (an + a1 )
a2
a3
a1
=
+
+ ...+
.(.)
a1 (a1 + a2 ) a2 (a2 + a3 )
an (an + a1 )
454. 1 1000 ,
- 1000
11994. n ,
n + 1. ,
(.)
.
455. ABCD (AB CD) , AD
BC P Q , : AP B = CP D, AQB = CQD. , P Q
(.)
.
456.
. n n,
, ,
. ,
100 100, ,
. ( 100 100.)
(.)

10
457. : P1 (x) = x2 + p1 x + q1 , P2 (x) =
= x2 +p2 x+q2 P3 (x) = x2 +p3 x+q3 . , |P1 (x)|+
(.)
+ |P2 (x)| = |P3 (x)| .
458. . 451.
459. a, b c , ma , mb mc
, , D , . ,
b 2 + c2
c2 + a 2
a2 + b 2
+
+
 6D.
(.)
mc
ma
mb

60

460. (6n + 1)- K , . ,


(.)
.
461. , k, m n
[k, m] [m, n] [n, k]  [k, m, n]2
( [x, y, . . .]
x, y, . . .).
(.)
462. f (x) g(x) ,
1000. m (x, y),
f (x) = g(y), n , f (x) = f (y),
k , g(x) = g(y). , 2m  n +
(.)
+ k.
463. B
S1 , S2 S3
S ( A1 , B1
C1 )
B1
ABC
(. . 14). ,
AA1 , BB1 CC1
C1
.
A1
(.)
A
464. 30 ,
C

. 14
. ,
? (
, ; A B,
(.)
C, A C.)
11
1
b+1
465. a b , a +
b + a . ,
a b

(., .)
a + b.
466. k , 2  k  50. , 2k , 2k- (.)
.

19931994 , 11

61

467. S1 S2 F .
S1 S2 A B . , AB, S2 C
S1 D E.
, , (.)
ABC BDE, F .
468. . ,
. . , , , . , ,
.
(.)

469. a1 , a2 , . . . , an , . . . ,
a1 5 n
an+1 = an + bn ,
bn an . ,
.
(.)
470. . 462.
471. AA1 , BB1 , CC1 DD1 ABCD
H , A1 B1 C1 D1 . , ABCD . (
, , ).
(.)

472. A B 1994
1994. A , . . ,
. B ,
. A ,
, .
, .
, . , A (.)
.

62

19941995 .
9
473. , x y , y z . z x .
(.)
x.
474. CD O
AB, AE OC. , DE BC.
(.)
475. , f (x), g(x) h(x) .
f (g(h(x))) = 0 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 8? (.)
476. 9 9
1 81 , 3 3
(.)
?
477. ,
(, 1,
1, 2 112, 121, 211). ,
1995- , , , (.)
.
478. A2 , B2 C2 AA1 , BB1 CC1 ABC. B2 A1 C2 , C2 B1 A2
A2 C1 B2 .
(.)
479. .
. ,
, ,
, (
). , . (
, .)
, ,
. (.)
?
480. 2000 2000 1 1. ,
. ,
1000 1000 , ,
(.)
, , 1000.

19941995 , 11

63

10
481. cos cos cos cos x = sin sin sin sin x.
(., .)

482. . 474.
483. ,
k = 1, 2, 3, . . . k
(.)
k?
484. , ,

.
(., .)
485. {ai } ,
(ai , aj ) = (i, j) i
= j. , ai = i
i N. ( (m, n) (.)
m n.)
486. AB O , C D, AB M
(M B < M A, M D < M C). K , AOC DOB. ,
(.)
M KO .
487. . 480.
488. P (x) Q(x),
1. , P (x)Q(x)
(., .)
P (x) Q(x).
11
489. 1, 2, 3, . . . , 100 12
(.)
?
490. , , ,
,
(.)
.
491. 1. ,
, . .
.
(n) ,
n, n

64

. (n) , . ,
(.)
(n)/(n) .
492. . 484.
493. , a1 > 1
a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . , a21 + a22 + . . . + a2k a1 + a2 + . . . + ak k  1.
(.)

494. n n . , , . ,
, , , . n n
, n 1
(.)
n?
495. . ,
, ,
(.)
2 : 1, , .
496. . 488.

19951996 .
9
497. 1 1 000 000
:
(.)
?
498. O1 , O2
O3 O3
. O1 , O2
O3
, . , , , O1
O2
, . 15

19951996 , 10

65

. , (.)
.
499. x, y, p, n k ,
xn + y n = pk .
, n (n > 1) , p ,
n p ( ).
(., .)

500. 1600 , 16000


80 . , ,
(.)
.
501. , ,
1, , 729, ,
(.)
10.
502. ABC (AC = BC) O
, I ,
D BC , OD BI .
(.)
, ID AC .
503. . , ,
k, , , k k
. , , x, x ( ),
, x.
(.--)

504. 5 7
(. . , 2 2 ), , ,
,
(.)
?
10
505. BC ABCD
E F ( E B, F ). , BAE =
= CDF EAF = F DE. , F AC = EDB.
(.)

506. ,
. ,

66

. , (.)
.
507. n, x y k, k > 1, 3n = xk + y k .
(., .)

508. , a1 , a2 , . . . , am k = 0, 1, . . . , n (n < m 1)
a1 + a2 2k + a3 3k + . . . + am mk = 0,
a1 , a2 , . . . , am n + 1
, .
(.)
509. ,
, . ,
, , ?
(.)

510. .
. :
1) .
2) .
3)
.
4) , ,
.
, , (.)
, ?
511. , . ,
, , (.)
. , 180 .
512. 10 ,
10 , 20 . ,
10 x2 + px + q, p q , 11 ?
(.)

19961997 , 9

67

11
513. , 1 n (n > 1),
(.)
?
514. . ,
. ,
. (.)
515. , n  5 ,
n-, (n + 1)(., .)
.
516. . 508.
517. , 1 ,
, ,
(.)
?
518. ABC (AB = BC) CD. , CD
ABC , BC
E. , E CD, AB
(.)
F . , BE = F D.
519. M , n n M,
(.)
M?
520. 1
100. 50 , 50 .
,
(.)
100 ?

19961997 .
9
521. P (x) . , x y
(.)
(P (xy))2  P (x2 ) P (y 2 ).

68

522. M

90
. , ,
2, M , M . (.)
523. a b c (a, b c )   , , . . , c
, .
(., ., .--)

524. : .
, .
( ).
, , .

, . ()
?
525. b c ,
x2 + bx + c = 0 2x2 + (b + 1)x + c + 1 = 0
(.)
?
526. 33 . ,
( ). , 0 10 . ,
(.)
.
527. , ABC,
AB, BC CA M , N K . ,
A N K, M N
D. , A M N , N K E. , DE
(.)
ABC.
528. 10 10 1, 2, 3, . . . , 100 ,
S. S. ( ,
(.)
, .)

19961997 , 11

69

10
529.
(.)
(x2 y 2 )2 = 1 + 16y.
530. n n (n  3) . . , (
, ),
(.)
.
531. A B. A , C,
D. M N BC BD, A, K CD. , M KN
. ( , C D
(.)
A.)
532. 100 ,
99. , 100 .
(.)

533. ax2 + bx + c (a + 1)x2 +


+ (b + 1)x + (c + 1) ,
(.)
?
534. O, ABC,
AC, AB BC K, M N . BB1
M N D. , O
DK.
(.)
535. m, n l , m + n =
= ((m, n))2 , m + l = ((m, l))2 , n + l = ((n, l))2 . (.)
536. ,
, (, ). :
1) n 1 n
n + 1;
2) n
n + 1, n 2.
,
, , (
(.--)
).
11
537. . 529.

70

538. : ,
. , .
( ).
, , . , .
(.)
?
539. . 531.
540. n n n .
,
( ) .
, . , ,
, (.)
.
541. x2 +
+ px + q, p, q , 1  p  1997, 1  q  1997.
: (.)
?
542. , l P l (. . , , l , P .)
, ,
, l P . , P
, l (.)
.
543. , ,
, ,
. , .
(.)

544. m n, m n , 21 , 1 1 () .
,
, ( ). ,

19971998 , 9

71


(.)
.

19971998 .
9
545. , y = x y = 2x x  0,
y = x2 + px + q . 0x.
, 1 . ()
546. .
, , . , . (.)
547. S(x) x. a, b c, S(a + b) < 5, S(a + c) < 5 S(b + c) < 5,
(., .)
S(a + b + c) > 50?
548. 8 8,
. , , ;
, .
, ,
. , ,
(., .)
?
549. 5 .
. , , .
, .
(.)
?
550. ABC (AB > BC) BM BL. , M AB, BL D, , L BC,
BM E. , ED BL (.)
.
551. N > 3
.
. ,

72

.
(.)
?
552. a b. , |a ab
(
b|

).
. . , (.)
.

10
553. ,
y
B
C
F
Ox,
3
2
y = ax + bx + cx +
A
D E
+ d: A, D
E, B, C
F (. . 16). ,
 
x
0
AB 
C  D
EF
CD
. 16
Ox
(.)
AB EF .
554. . ,
1,
1,
, 1/ 2.
, .
(.)

555. A
ABC BC
. Ka . Kb Kc . , ,
Ka , Kb Kc BC, CA AB , ,
.
(.)
556. .
2k (k
). , , (k + 1)2 , ,
. , (.)
.
557. :
. 19 98.

19971998 , 11

73

?
(.)

558. ,
a b a b. ,
(a b) c = a + b + c a, b
(.)
c. , a b = a + b.
559. n- (n > 3), . ,

, . , ()
; ,
, . ,
(.)
, .
560. (2n 1) (2n 1)
+1 1. ,
(
, ).
(.)
.
11
561. . 553.
562. , ABC, BC,
CA, AB A1 , B1 , C1 . A2 , B2 , C2 BAC, CBA, ACB ABC . , A1 A2 , B1 B2 C1 C2
(.)
.
563. S , ,
. ,
, S
(., .)
.
564. N 1998 ( ). , , , . 200 , .
, , -

74

,
(., .)
.
565. y = x2 y
1 , 2 ,
3 , . . . , n > 1 n n1 (. . 17).
1998 , , 1 1 (.)
.
566. 1998 ,

(.)
?
x
0
567. ABCD,
. 17
100,
1. , (.)
1,01.
568. :
m n , ,
,
, ( ). ,
(.)
.

19981999 .
9
569. A ( ).
(.)
9 A?
570. ,
N ,
. ,
(, ). - N 1 ,
. , . (.)
571. ABC S. A0
BC S, A; C0 AB, C. S1 A0 BC, S2

19981999 , 10

75

C0 AB. , I ABC
(.)
S1 S2 .
572. 1 1 000 000 .
1 1 000 000
, , . .
(.)
, ?
573.
1 ,
n ( n = 5).
1
. 18
,
,
(.)
?
574. , n
2

n

  n2 1
.
k 
2

k=1

({k} k.)
(.)
575. , A B
ABC, BC D. ,
B C, AB E
F . , A, E, D, C (.)
O. , BF O .
576. 2000 ,
. , ( ) ,
, . ,
- , .
(.)
?
10
577. - . -,
. .
, , . ,
- 1999 , -

76

. , - , ,
(.)
, .
578. a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . , , ,

an1 + an2
.
(.)
an =
(an1 , an2 )
579. , ABC,
AB, BC AC K, L M . , BKL, CLM AKM , , ABC.
, . (.)
580. n n n2 , .
, . ,
, . , , -
2
, , n3
(.)
.
581. n 100,
44n 800. 3n?
(.)

582. ABC , A
B, BC, , B C,
AB K, K
= B.
O ABC. ,
(.)
BKO .
583. x y (.)
x2 + y 3  x3 + y 4 . , x3 + y 3  2.
584. 12 9 5 . , 6 (.)
.
11
585. 19 (.)
, 1999?
586.
. , ,
(.)
.
587. , ABCD,
DA, AB, BC, CD K, L, M , N .

19992000 , 9

77

S1 , S2 , S3 , S4 ,
AKL, BLM , CM N , DN K. S1 S2 , S2 S3 , S3 S4 , S4
S1 , ABCD. , ,
(.)
, .
588. . 580.
589. ,
. , (.)
.
590. ,
,
(. . ,
).
(.)

591. A ABCD , . ,
ABC, ACD ABD
, AB CD = AC BD = AD BC.
(.)

592. 2000 ,
. , ( ) ,
, . ,
- , .
(.)
?

19992000 .
9
593. a, b c , x2 + ax + 1 = 0
x2 + bx + c = 0 . ,
x2 + x + a = 0 x2 + cx + b = 0.
a + b + c.
(.)
594. X  100,
. M N , 100,
:  X + M N ?
, , 7 .
(.)

595. O ABC. 1 K A,

78

O, C AB BC M N . ,
L K M N . , BL AC.
(.)

596. ,
. 3 . , ,
(.)
3.
597. a1 = 1, a2 , a3 , . . .
: an+1 = an 2, an 2
, an+1 = an + 3. ,

3 .
(.)
598. 2n 2n . ,
- , ,
- . ,
(.)
, n2 .
599. CD ABC E. S1 , E AB A, AC M . S2 , E
AB B, BC N .
, CM N S1
S2 .
(.)
600. 100 , . . , (.)
.
10
601.
     2  3
 1000 
1
2
2
2
2
+
+
+
+ ... +
. (.)
3
3
3
3
3
602. 1 < x1 < x2 < . . . < xn < 1
13
13
x13
1 + x2 + . . . + xn = x1 + x2 + . . . + xn .
, y1 < y2 < . . . < yn ,
13
13
x13
1 y1 + x2 y2 + . . . + xn yn < x1 y1 + x2 y2 + . . . + xn yn . (.)
603. ABC AA1 CC1 AB
BC P Q . B
, ABC

19992000 , 11

79

AC, R. , P , B, Q R (.)
.
604.
. A, B C ,
, m(A) < m(B) < m(C) ( m(x)
x.  ).
(.)
, ?
605. M . , , M . (.)
M ?
606. , 6, 3. ,
9. ( ,
, ,
(.)
6 = 1 + 2 + 3.)
607. , N .
BA BC K
M . Q P AB BC, N . , BQK
BP M , B1 . , BP B1 Q
.
(.)
608. n , . n , -
. ,
2n 2 . (.)
11
609. f : R R, x, y, z R f (x + y) + f (y + z) + f (z + x)  3f (x + 2y + 3z).
610. ,
100
,
a, b, c , a + 99b = c, .
(., ., ., .)

611.
ABCDE .
,

(., .)

A1

E1

D1 B1
C1
A

E
. 19

80

A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 (. . 19) .
(., .)

612. a1 , a2 , . . . , an .
k 1 n mk
akl+1 + akl+2 + . . . + ak
.
max
l=1,2,...,k
l
, > 0 k, mk > , ,
a1 + a2 + + an

(.)
.

613.
sinn 2x + (sinn x cosn x)2  1.
(.)
614. , 28, 7. ,
49. ( ,
, ,
(.)
6 = 1 + 2 + 3.)
615. ABCD . AB CD O. 1
BC K AB CD, 2
AD L AB CD. , O, K, L . ,
BC, AD .
(.)

616. 100 100 4 ,


25 . ,
,
(.)
.

20002001 .
9
617. 1 999 999 :
, , , . ?
(.)

618. P (x) = x4 + ax3 + bx2 + cx + d Q(x) = x2 + px +


+ q I
2, I . ,
(.)
x0 , P (x0 ) < Q(x0 ).

20002001 , 10

81

619. ABCD A
K , AD K C,
CD K A. N
(.)
BK. , N AK N CK .
620. 2000-,
.
999 . , , . (
(.)
.)
621. 2001 1, 2 3 .
,
,
,
.
(.)
?
622. 2n + 1 n , . ,
(.)
, .
623. AC ABC N ,
AN N C
AB BC K M . , O ABC , (.)
KBM .
624. n (n > 1) ,
a b n a + b 1
(.)
n.
10
625. . 617.
626. 100 A1 ,A2 ,. . . ,A100 , 100 .
, A1 ,A2 ,. . . ,A100 9901 (
(.)
).
627. , N .
, K, A B. M AB,
N . , ,

82

BM K, K
(.)
.
628. ,
, . , 100 , . , 50 , .
(.)

629. P (x) = x3 + ax2 + bx + c , P (Q(x)), Q(x) = x2 + x + 2001, 1.


(.)
. , P (2001) > 64
630. n n, 1, 2, . . . , n2 ,
. ,
. ( , , (.)
.)
631. ( ) ABC A1 , B1 , C1 ,
H, , ABC1 , BCA1 , CAB1
ABC. , , (.)
A1 B1 C1 , H.
632. n ,
a b a + b 1 (.)
n.
11
633. 2S . k , k , S. (.)
100 ?
634. . 627.
635. P1 P2
, P1 P2 . , , .
(.)
636. n .
:

20012002 , 9

83

, . 0 , . , , ,
.
(.)
?
637. f (x) g(x) . ,
, x f (x) + g(x) > 0.
(., .)

638. a b
, ab(a + b)
a2 + ab + b2 . , |a b| > 3 ab.
(.)
639. 2001 , , ,
. D , D D. , k . ,
2001 k ,
(.)
.
640. ABC SABC
A, B C SA, SB
SC A1 , B1 C1 . ,
A1 , B1 C1 , O. , O
, SA1 B1 C1 .
(.)

20012002 .
9
641. 2002 2002
1 20022 ,
, ,
(.)
, ?
642. O A,
B C , B O C.
O1 , OAB, O2 ,
AC OA, OC

84

OAC. , O1 A = O2 A, ABC (.)


.
643. 6 , 6 6 , . , (.)
.
644. ( ). , -
A . A
, A . , .
N , (.)
, , N .
645. 8 , . , .
( ,
(.)
.)
646. k (k > 1) ,
2n , 1 2n.
.
,
, . n
?
(.)

647. O ABC.
AB BC M N ,
2M ON = AOC. , M BN
(.)
AC.
648. (22n , 23n ) 22n1 + 1 . , , (.)
.
10
649. P , Q R ,
,
P 2 + Q2 = R 2 .
, (.)
.

20012002 , 11

85

650. ABCD, . , A, BC
B K, , B,
AD A M . , AM =
(.)
= AD BK = BC. , ABCD .
651. , n > 10 000

m, ,
(.)
0 < m n < 3 4 n.
652. 2002 , , ,
.
,
,
. , .
, , (.)
, 2002.

653.

a,
b,
c

3.
,
a +

+ b + c  ab + bc + ac.
(.)
654. . 646.
655. A
ABC BC. a A
A. b c. (.)
, a, b c .
656. , , ,
. ,
(., .)
.
11
657. . 649.
658. .
(. .
), . , , (.)
.
659. , x (0; 2 ) n > m, n, m ,
(.)
2| sinn x cosn x|  3| sinm x cosm x|;

86

660. . ,
. , 1014 ,
,
( ,
(.)
).
661. , 2002 2003 . (.)
662. ABCD . O AC BD. , ABO COD, K. L ,
BLC AKD . ,
BLCK , . (.)
663. . 656.
664. , n,
, 1 + 12 + . . . + n1 , .
(.)

20022003 .
9
665. M , 2003 ,
, a, b M a2 + b 2
. , a M a 2 .
(.)

666. S1 S2 O1 O2 A B. S1 S2 A
BO2 BO1 K L . , KL O1 O2 .
(.)

667. 2k 1 2k 1 .
, k ,
k . ,
, , , (.)
.
668. {an } : a1 = p
, 300 , an+1
1/an , 2. a2003 .
(., .)

20022003 , 10

87

669. N .
, . , , ,
. , , , ,
(.)
.
670. a, b, c , 1. :
1
1
2
2
2
1
+
+

+
+
. (.)
1a 1b 1c
1+a 1+b 1+c
671. , m, n >
> 100 m n
(.)
m + n?
672. AP P D AP D B C. ABCD Q. H1 H2 AP D BP C . , H1 H2
X ABQ CDQ, Y
BQC AQD. (X
= Q, Y
= Q.)
(., .)

10
673. M , 2003 , , a, b, c
M a2 + bc . ,
n, a M a n . (.)
674. ABCD
O. S1 S2 , ABO CDO, O K S1 S2 . , O
AB CD, S1 S2 L M . OL OM P Q ,
OP : P L = M Q : QO. , O, K, P , Q
(.)
.
675. n , n  2 (. . n n 1
, ,
, ).
x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , , . S

88

. ,

n 1(x21 + x22 + . . . + x2n )  2S.

(.)

676. X T . , X  X, 9 , T . , X
(., .)
T .
677. . 669.
678. an
: a0 ; an+1 = a5n , an

5; an+1 = [ 5an ], an 5 ( [x]


x, . . , x). ,
an .
(.)

679. ABC O, I . a
AB AC K M ,
BC N . , P KM
ABC. , O, N
(.)
I .
680. N , 1 400
20 20 ,
(.)
, N .
11
681. , , , , x
sin x + sin x = sin x + sin x.
, = = .
(., ., .)
682. . 674.
683. f (x) g(x) , m f . ,
a < b f (a) =
= g(a) f (b) = g(b). , b > m, f g
(.)
.
684. .
, . (
)
. ,

20032004 , 9

89

2 ,
, . (.)
685. . ,
(.)
.
686. . 671.
687. 100 , .
. , ,
. ,
,
(.)
.
688. ABCD ABC,
ABD, ACD BCD D1 , C1 , B1 A1 .
, A B1 C1 D1
. , , , ,
(.)
ABCD.

20032004 .
9
689.
, . , .
(.)
690. ABCD .
A B K, B C
L, C D M , D A
N . K1 , L1 , M1 , N1
ABK, BCL, CDM , DAN . , (.)
K1 L1 M1 N1 .
691. 2004 , . , , . ,
. - ,
()
?
692. n > 3 x1 , x2 ,
. . . xn , 1.

90

1
1
1
+
+ ...+
> 1. (.)
1 + x1 + x1 x2
1 + x2 + x2 x3
1 + xn + xn x1
693.
m, n,

p, q, m + n = p + q m + 3 n = p + 3 q > 2004?
(.)
694. 2004 , . ,
.
, (.)
?
695. 1 100 , ,
. , .
(.)
?
696. O ABC, T AOC, M
AC. AB BC D E , BDM = BEM = ABC. , BT DE.
(.)

10
697. . 689.
698. 2004 , . , , . ,
.
- ,
()
?
699. ABCD ,
, ABCD
AB, BC, CD AD K, L, M , N .
A B K  ,
B C L , C D M  ,
D A N  . , KK  , LL , M M  N N 
.
(., ., .)
700. . 692.
701.
a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . am + an = amn m, n. , . (.)
702. 1001 , . 500 ,

20032004 , 11

91

500 . , 668 . ,
,
(., .)
.
703. T - M . T  T P ,
T . , (.)
T  M .
704. n > 101000 , 10,
, (., .)
?
11
705. . 689.
706. IA IB ,
BC CA ABC , P , . , ,
IA CP IB CP , . (., .)
707. P (x), Q(x). , R(x, y) P (x) P (y) = R(x, y)(Q(x)
Q(y)). , S(x) , P (x) =
(.)
= S(Q(x)).
708. 9 2004 .
1 2004, 9 .
, 3.
(., .)
.
709. M = {x1 , . . . , x30 } , 30 ; An (1  n  30)
n M . , A15 > A10 , A1 > 1.
(.)
710. , ,
2N (N > 3) , :
1) N N 1
, 2N 1 ;

92

2) N N , 2N .
(.)

711. ,
, k . ,
. , k + 2
, .
(.)

712. , . ,
. ,
(.)
.

20042005 .
9
713. ABCD (AB < BC). , , AP Q, P
Q, BC CD , CP = CQ,
(.)
, A.
714. 22 22 1
222 . , ,
, , ,
(.)
4?
715. a1 , a2 , a3 , ,
a2i
> S i = 1, 2, 3. ,
S,
ai 1
1
1
1
+
+
> 1.
(.)
a1 + a2
a2 + a3
a3 + a1
716. 365 , .
, . , 2000
, 365 ,
(.)
?
717. ,
,
. , . (.)

20042005 , 10

93

718. 20 , 21 , 22 , . . . , 22005
A B , x2 S(A)x + S(B) =
= 0, S(M ) M , ?
(., .)

719. ABC AA BB  .


ACB ABC
D. AA BD P , BB 
AD Q. , A B 
P Q.
(.)
720. 100 50 ,
. ,
,
,
(.)
.
10
721. ,
2a 2b , a, b, c, d .
2c 2d

(.)

722. 2 n , n 1. , ,
1
(.)
n +
4 .
723. 2005 ( ).
, . ,
(.)
?
724. B , C ABC (. .
B C AC AB

). B
B 
AC, C C
AB. , ,


C
, ABC .
B
(.)

725. 16 8 8 . (.)
?
726. . 719.
727. x y , 2x2 1 = y 15 . ,
x > 1, x 5.
(.)

94

728.
,
(0, 2 4) , . ,
,
,
(., .--)
.
11
729.
|x a1 | + . . . + |x a50 | = |x b1 | + . . . + |x b50 |,
(.)
a1 , a2 , . . . , a50 , b1 , b2 , . . . , b50 ?
730. . 723.
731. A , B  C 
ABC. A B  C, AB  C  A BC  ABC C1 , A1 B1 .
, A1 B1 C1 , ABC (.)
.
732. x, y, z (x > 2, y > 1) , xy + 1 =
= z 2 . p
x, q y. ,
(.)
p  q + 2.
733. f : R R , f (1) >
> 0 f (x) x, y R
(.)
f 2 (x + y)  f 2 (x) + 2f (xy) + f 2 (y)?
734. 12 P1 , P2 , . . . , P12 ,
Ox, Oy, Oz , P2 (. .
) , P1 P3 , P3
, P2 P4 , . ., P12 , P11 P1 , P1 ,
P12 P2 ? ( .) (.)
735. ABCD
O. , O ABCD
, OA OC = OB OD. (., ., .)
736. 100 25 , 4 . , 4
,

20052006 , 9

95

, .
(.)

20052006 .
9
737. 15 15.
, ,
. , 200. (., .)
738. , 4 a, b, c, d,
1 000 000,
1
1 1 1 1
+ + + =
.
(.)
a
b
c d
abcd
739. 2006 , ,
17 .
,
( ).
, .
(.)
?
740. ABC. ABC A, AB K,
BC. CL ,
KL BC T . ,
(.)
BT B .
741. a1 , a2 , . . . , a10 , a1 < a2 < . . . < a10 .
bk ak , bk < ak . ,
b1 > b2 > . . . > b10 . , a10 > 500.
(.)
742. AB, BC, CA ABC P ,
Q, R , AP = CQ
RP BQ . ABC A C RP RQ X Y
(.)
. , RX = RY .
743. 100 100 : 1 2. . , .
, , . .
, .
(.)
?

96

744. f (x) = x2 + ax + b. f (f (x)) =


= 0 , (.)
1. , b  14 .
10
745. . 737.
746.
. , (.)
4.
747. . 739.
748. AB AC
ABC BC K L.
AK M . P Q
K B C . ,
(.)
P M Q .
749. . 741.
750. AB BC ,
ABC, K L , KL AC
. , (.)
ABK CBL ABC.
751. . 744.
752. 3 000 3 000
(. . 1 2 ). ,
,
(
, , ).
(.)

11

753. , sin x < sin x 0 < x < 2 .


(.)
754. T . ,
(.)
T .
755. 49 69 50 70
. : ,
. . , .

, ,

20052006 , 11

97

, .
(.)
?
756. BB1 CC1 ABC
I. B1 C1 ABC
M N . ,
M IN ABC.
(.)

757. (xn ) (yn ) xn+2 = xn + x2n+1 , yn+2 = yn2 + yn+1


n. , x1 , x2 , y1 , y2 1, xn > yn
- n.
(.)
758. I, ABC SABC, AB, BC, CA D, E, F . SA, SB, SC A , B  ,
C  , AA = AD, BB  = BE, CC  = CF ; S 
, S. ,
SI . , S 
(.)
A , B  , C  .
759. , (x + 1)n 1 P (x) = xk + ck1 xk1 + ck2 xk2 + . . . + c1 x + c0
k, c0 , c1 , . . . , ck1 .
, n k + 1.
(.)
760. , 50
100 . , , 1331 ,
(.)
20 .

19921993 , 9

99

19921993 .
9
1.
a2 + ab + b2 3(a + b 1) = a2 + (b 3)a + (b2 3b + 3)
a. 3(b
1)2 , , . a2
, ,
, a2 + ab + b2  3(a + b 1) a b.
, a = b = 1.
. , , , a2 + ab + b2 3(a + b 1) = (a 1)2 +
+ (b 1)2 + (a 1)(b 1) a2 + ab + b2 3(a + b 1) = 12 (a
1)2 + 12 (b 1)2 + 12 (a + b 2)2 . ,
, ab =
(a + b)2

(a + b)2 (a2 + b2 )
,
2

a2 + b 2 
.
2
2. . 987654321.
0 , , , , 11.
, , . 987654321. , .
n  0 987654321 a2k a2k1 . . . a2 a1 , a2k > a2k1 > . . . > a2 > a1
( ,
, 11).
(a2k a2k1 ) + (a2k2 a2k3 ) + . . . + (a2 a1 ) > 0
a2k (a2k1 a2k2 ) (a2k3 a2k4 ) . . . a1  a2k  9.

a2k + a2k2 + . . . + a2 a2k1 a2k3 . . . a1
11, , , 11
a2k a2k1 . . . a2 a1 .
3. ) . .
. 20 ABC,
. .

100

AOC (AO = OC)


CB1 , ACB1 ACO. AO
CB1 N . ,
AN C .
N C B1 O,
K A . , AK B1 .
CK M , AK = AM = CN ( AKC =
= AN C ).
, ABC , AB1 C .
B1
B
K

B
M

T
N

L
O
A

. 20

O
C

C
. 21

) . .
, A > C. BC K ,
AK = CK. L T AK CM M N
(. . 21). AKC
AO = OC, KO . L N KO, , KLN = KN L.
, KN T < KN L = KLN < KT N = AT M < BM N .
KN T = BM N , BM = BN . , A > C . ,
A < C. , A = C, . .
ABC .
4. . n .
, n
.
, .
, (. .
, ).
. .

19921993 , 9

101

, , . . .
n , n 1 .
, ,
, , .
, ,
, n
. , ,
, , , n ,
n 1 . ,
,
, . ,
, , n 1
,
(. . , ). , n- ,
, . , n 1 ,
, - , , , , n .
, ,
n .
5.
(x + y)3 = 7(x2 y + xy 2 ) + 4.
4 7,
.
. ,
, x y 4, ,
, x + y 4.
6. . 22 , , ,
, , l1 l.
l1
l
. 22

, . 23. , l2 , , ,
.

102

l2
l
. 23

7. , N M (.
. 24). .
AN E
B
CM E K1 , E. N
, K K1 .
K M
, AK1 E = AN E (
, AE)
EK1 M = ECM ( A
C
E
EK1 M C ).
ECM = AN E, , AK1 E +
+ EK1 M = , . . K1 AM . , K1 N C, . .
K AM CN . ,
D
N EA = N BC, N BC + N EC =
. 24
= N BC + ( N EA) = , . . N BCE .
, N EB = N CB ,
N B. N CB = KEM ,
KM . , N EB = KEM , , , AEN =
= CEM , AEB CEK. ,
D B AC, AED =
= AEB = KEC , , K, E D
.
8. . 1993.
: , , , ,
. ( ) , ,
1993. , , 1993.

19921993 , 10

103

, , 1993.
996 :
1, 4, 5, 8, . . . , 4k 3, 4k, . . . , 1989, 1992

2, 3, 6, 7, . . . , 4k 2, 4k 1, . . . , 1990, 1991.
,
. ,
996
996.
997- ,
1993. , ,
1 1992
1993. 1 1992 .
, , 1993.
10
9. KE AB (. . 25). B
, -, KE CH, -, AE =
= EB, AK = KB. ,
EM ABC. EM AC EM = 12 AC. E
M

H
M EK ACN .
K
N
10. . 2.
11. . x1 = 2, x2 = 12 , x3 = 2, x4 =
A
C
D
= 12 , . . . , x99 = 2, x100 = 12 .
.
25


x y : x + y1  2 x
y .

x1
1
2
,
x1 +
x2
x
 2
x2
1
2
,
x2 +
(1)
x3
x3
................

1
x100
2
.
x100 +
x1
x1
,

104





1
1
1
x1 +
x2 +
. . . x100 +
 2100 = 450 ;
x2
x3
x1
, ,
. , (1)
, . .
1
1
1
x1 =
, x2 =
, . . . , x100 =
.
x2
x3
x1
x1 , x2 , . . . , x100 , .
12. .
. S .
N , 30%
S.
. |X|
X. ()
(t, s), t , s S. s0 S (t, s0 ) 0,3|N |,
0,3|S||N |. - t0
(t0 , s) 0,3|S|, .
A.
S A . S
, N , A. S , , ,
B, 30% , S.
, A B
.
A k , N n. A B k +
+ 0,3 (n k) = 0,3n + 0,7k , k  0,3n,
0,3n + 0,7 0,3n = 0,51n, . .
N .
. n N .
, , .
, N A B,
, A, B, 0,5n.
n(n 1)
, ,
2
2
n(n 1)
(0,5n 0,5n)
 0,5n
=
n.
2
2

19921993 , 10

M (M )
M .

:
M ,

105

2
(n 0,3n)(n 0,3n 1)
 0,49n 2 0,7n ;
2
2
n(n 1)

, , (M )  0,51n 2 0,3n >
2
2
2
> 0,5n 2 0,5n , > n 0,5n 2 0,5n , .

13. . 5.
14. 2n1  n + 1 n  3. , n = 3 : 231 = 3 + 1, 2k1  k + 1 ,
2k  2(k + 1) > k + 2. ,

n1
n + 1  2 n  3.
(1)
1993
1993
, 2
> 1993, ,
1993 < 2.
(1), :





3
1992
3
1993
2 + 3 + ...
1992 +
1993 < 2 + 3 + . . . 1992 1992 + 2  . . .




3
k
. . .  2 + 3 + . . . k + 2  . . .  2 + 3 3 + 2  2 + 2 = 2.
. 2n1  n + 1 : (1 + x)n > 1 + nx
x > 1, x
= 0, 1 < n N.
15. K
N
D
C
A, B D K
O, L P F P
KA BD,
KB AM , KD AN O
L M
(. . 26).
E
, SAEF =
A
B
= SEMKN F . F K
. 26
CD, SF P D = SKP N .
, KE CB, SBLE = SMLK .
, SBKD = SEMKN F . , SAOF = SBOK
( F K AB) SAOE = SKOD ( EK AD) ,
SAEF = SEMKN F . , SAEF = SEMN F , K M N .
16. . .

106

(. . 27). , a3. , a3, , .


, (a1
I a2 II b3 I a3 II . . . a1 I b2 II b3 I a3 II . . .),
a3 (a1
I a2 II a3 I . . . a1 I b2 II c3 I b2 II a3 I . . .).
.
11
17. . n = 3.
, n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 3
n = 3.
2
1
*
, n  6 5n ,
ab c
n
2 (. . n ). ,
. 27
5n , n-,
, 9n.
, n  6 2n  9n.
, n = 6 , n
9, , 64,
, n.
18. , , n  3

3
3
+ 1 = 8n + 8.
n+ 3n+2
, n  3

3
8n + 7 < 3 n + 3 n + 2 < 8n + 8,
. .




3
n2 (n + 2) + 3 n(n + 2)2 < 6n + 6.

3
, n2 (n + 2) < n + 23 n(n +
3

+ 2)2 < n + 43 . ,





3
n2 (n + 2) + 3 n(n + 2)2  2 3 n2 (n + 2) 3 n(n + 2)2 = 2 n(n + 2)
2

n(n + 2) > n + 56 n > 25
12 , . . n  3.
1. ,


: 3 3 n2 (n + 2) = 3 3 n n (n + 2) < n + n +
6n + 5 < 3

19921993 , 11

107


+ (n + 2) 3 3 n(n + 2)2 < n + (n + 2) + (n + 2) ( ,
n
= n + 2).
2. n = 2, .
19. K, L, M N
S
(. . 28).
. , SK, SL, SM SN
D1
A
, C
S (S - A
ND M
1
). , K, L, M N C1
K B1
S
L
O
SK, ,
B
, . 28
.
SO , . . , .
A1 , B1 , C1 D1 (. . 28).
N A D.
AA1 N AA1 K, A1 K = A1 N ,
AK = AN ( , ,
), AA1 . , AN A1 = AKA1 .
BKB1 = BLB1 , CLC1 = CM C1 DM D1 =
= DN D1 . , AKA1 = BKB1 , BLB1 = CLC1
CM C1 = DM D1 . AN A1 = DN D1 ,
, N AD.
20. . , .

. , .
, , 0 (. . 29).
.
n = 2k + 1 (. . 30).
,
0. 1-, 3-, . . . , (2n
1)- . .

108

1
2

5
4

. 29

. 30

2 2k + 1 , ,
, , , 0.
n = 2k (. . 31).
,
.
, 0. , .
0,
k
.

. 31

. 32

.
. 32. 2n- (n  3) , n- M1 M2 . ,
n-. 2n-, M1
M2 (. . 33);

2
n , , 0.
n ,
1
0,
n
2 (. . 33),

.

n

. 33

. 34

19921993 , 11

109

, , ,
2n-.
. (., 1736 ):
, , ,
. , ( ).
21. . .

.
x2 .
, x. .
x. , x3 +
+ c = 0 , y = x3 + c
.

c y = x3 + bx + c. b  0, y  = 3x2 + b  0
y(x) , , y(x) = 0
c.
b, , , y1 (x) = x3 + bx

m x0 = 3b x  x0
x  x0 . c > m ,
x3 + bx + c = 0 .
22.
S
Si Si
Hi , i = 1, 2, . . . , 7, Si (x), Sj
, x . :

2
x0
x
0
Hi Hj
x
,
Si (x) = Si 1
Hi
. 35
0  x  Hi .

110

(. . 35)
, ,

2

2
x
x
Si 1
= Sj 1
Hi
Hj
Hi < Hj [0, Hi ],
[Hi , Hj ] ( x = Hi
, x = Hj ) Si (x) ( Hi = Hj
x = Hi = Hj , ).
,
x0 ( , ,
).
,
. , x0 ,
.
23. . B ,
ABC.
l (. . 36
38). . . 36,
. N AC.
P B1
l
M

N T

. 36

N
. 37

N
. 38

ADB, BN A, BN C BEC , ADBN BECN . ,


BDN = BAN = 60 , BEN = BCN = 60 , . DN E ,
l, AC. , T AC.
P -

19931994 , 9

111

T = N l; BP = BN , P
.
, P
, N ,
DEP l. l
P
B
P N M D
N P ,
N P . B, M E
(. . 39).
A
C
N T
24. . 39
. A B , A B , 63 .
: A, ,
A , (k- , A (k 1) ,
). 65 . , k =
= 0, 1, . . . , 21 3k, 3k + 1 3k + 2 ( 3k, 3k + 1,
(3k + 2)- )
94 , - (3k + 1)- 93 , .
, , 94 22 = 2068,
.

19931994 .
9
25. . 30 .
, ,
, ,
. x1 y1 , x2 y2 (x1 , x2 , y1
y2 ). T , ,
T = 2x1 + y1 = 5x2 + 3y2 ,
x2 = 10 x1 , y2 = 22 y1 . ,
2x1 + y1 = 50 5x1 + 66 3y1 ,

112

x1
116 7x1
, T =
+ 29.
y1 =
4
4
, y1  22, 116 7x1  88, . . x1  4. .
T x1 = 4 30 .
4 , 6
.
26. l CD (. . 40
41) (. . 40). CA < DA CB < DB,
A, B C l. , M
AB CM < DM .
l
A
l
A
M
M
C

D
C

B
. 40

. 41

27. . .
P (x) = x(9x + 2). n =
= 11 .
. . 11, 9n + 2 = 1 00 .
. . 00 1. , P (n) =
k

k1

. . 00 1 = 11 .


. . 11. ,
= 11 .
. . 11 1 00 .
k

k1

2k

.
28. . .
,
. 42. , -
, . , .

. 42

. 43

. 43 , , .

19931994 , 9

113

29. x = 0 ax5 + bx4 + c = 0,


c = 0, ,
. x5
=

= 0, , a + xb + c5 = 0. , x1 , x2 x3
x

ax5 +bx4 +c = 0, x11 , x12 x13


cx5 + bx + a = 0.
30. O1 D, O2 B (.
. 44). O1 D O2 B, LP , , O1 DO2 B . . LDC = DBO1 . O2 E ,
LM . CLEO2 , ,
CL = O2 E = O2 B = O1 D. , DCL
BDO1 , CD =
= DB , , DCB DBC .
DCB CBA (CD AB).
M
P

O2

D
O1

A
. 44

31. . p = 2, q = 7, r = 3, s = 11 p = 2, q = 7, r = 11, s = 3.
,
, , 2. p
= 2,
2, . ,
p2 + qs p2 + qr (2k + 1)2 + 2(2l + 1) = 4(k 2 + k +

114

+l)+3, , 4
1. , p = 2. 4 + qs = a2 , qs = (a 2)(a + 2).
a 2 = 1, qs = 5, . . q = a 2,
s = a + 2, , . . q s 4.
, q r 4. , s = q 4, r = q +
+ 4, r = q 4, s = q + 4. q 4, q, q + 4 3,
q 4 = 3, . . q = 7, q + 4 = 11.
32. . 4 .
. 45 , ,
- . , . , , ,
, , . ( , i-
i 1.)
1
2
3
4

1
0
0
0
0

2
0
0
0
1

3
0
0
1
0

4
0
0
1
1

5
0
1
0
0

6
0
1
0
1

7
0
1
1
0

8
0
1
1
1

9
1
0
0
0

10
1
0
0
1

11
1
0
1
0

12
1
0
1
1

13
1
1
0
0

14
1
1
0
1

15
1
1
1
0

16
1
1
1
1

. 45

,
. , .
16 3 . ,
. ,
, .
10
33. . ) ; ) .
) 1, 1 . ,
1 12
, .
1.
12
) , 1,
1 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 18 , 19 , 10
. .
A B a b . -

19931994 , 10

115

A B ,
0 a + b, B A , a + b
1 1. , .
16 = {a1 + . . . + ak }, ai 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 18 ,
1 , 1 . , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 . 9 10
4 5 8 9 10
, , 15
1 , 1 1 , 1 ,
10
4
8
9
5, 4 9 . 6 . 12 13
16 .
34. x1 x2 x2 +ax+b = 0. , x4 +ax3 +(b2)x2 ax+1 = (x2 x1 x1)(x2 x2 x1),
x1 + x2 = a, x1 x2 = b. ,
x2 x1 x 1 = 0 x2 x2 x 1 = 0 . .
x , (x2 x1 x 1) (x2 x2 x
1) = x(x2 x1 ) = 0, x = 0. x = 0 .
35. B
AB P (.
E
. 46). OE, OP
C
P E. AOP F EP ,
F P . ,
K
P OK + KEP = 180 , - P
O
M
K, O, P E N
. OP B =
= OEB = 90 , O, P
E
OB,
K. , A
D
F
BKO = 90 . . 46
, CN D = 90 , .
36. , m n , m n 3. ,
. 47.
m n m 2+ n , , 3. , a, 3 2;
, b 1; , c d, 3. na nb a

116

1
2
..
.

2
3
..
.

3
4
..
.

4
5
..
.

...
...
..
.

n3
n2
..
.

n2
n1
..
.

n1
n
..
.

n
n+1
..
.

m 1 m m + 1 m + 2 ...m + n 5 m + n 4 m + n 3 m + n 2
m m + 1 m + 2 m + 3 ...m + n 4 m + n 3 m + n 2 m + n 1
. 47

b ,
3N + 2na + nb = 3(N + nb ) + 2(na nb ), N .
2(na nb ) , , na nb 3.
37. . 5.
p. p
, p > 2, , p . , p ,
. . . , p = q + 2 p = r 2, q r ,
, p 2, p p + 2 . 3. ,
p 2, p, p + 2 . ,
p 2.
38. . 208.
a0 P (x). P (x) = x Q(x) +
+a0 , Q(x) . P (19) =
= 19n + a0 , P (94) = 94m + a0 , m n . , 19n = 94m, , n = 94k, m = 19k. ,
19 94k + a0 = 1994, a0 = 1994 1786k. |a0 | < 1000
, k = 1, a0 = 208.
39. AB CD, BC
N
M
K C
ED K M D
B
(. . 48). (,
S
M BC ED. , CB DE, B
CDM , AB, CD,
CD, .)
BAE = , DEA = . - A
E
. 48
ABM E B > 90 , M = 90 .
+ < 180 , 90 . , < 90 .

19931994 , 11

117

BC BN .
ABN :
180 (360 90 )
+ 90
180 ABN
=
=
.
BAN =
2
2
2

AED DAE = 180 2 .

, BAN + DAE = 90 2+ > , D ABN . CD AN


S. CSN CN S , N SC .
, CS < CN , , BC + CD < BC + CS < BC +
+ CN = BN = 1.
40. , 2m
( ).
K , , . , , ,
. , , ,
, . K  2n ,
. , n , , . , K  2n 1.
, , 2n 1 .
2(2n 1) < 2n+1  2m , , -
,
.
11
41. . 1 cos x = 2 sin2 x2 ,
sin 2x = 4 sin x2 cos x2 cos x, 2 cos x > tg x2 .
, 2 cos x > 2 cos 3 =
= 1, tg x2 < tg 6 < 1.
.
!
" , sin 2x cos x
0, 3 . , f (x) = sin 2x + cos x
, f (x)


, (0; f (0)) 3 ; f 3 .


f (0) = 1 f 3 = 12 + 23 > 1.
42. n . n  2 . n  3, m -

118

. m  n,
N , , (
m  3n
2 > n). ,
, N , ,
. N ,
, ,
.
K B
43. OD, OF F D
(. . 49).
AOD EF D M E
ED, .
N F
N OD + N F D = 180,
O, N , F , D O
. , ODC = OF C = 90 , O, F ,
D
OC. , N A
D
C
. 49
, ON C =
= 90 . , AM C = 90 . ( M
EF , DOC DEF ,
M OD = M ED, . . M , E, O, D ).
AM CN K. ,
AN CM AKC, OK AC, .
, D OK. ,
OK , OM KN .
44. n- . i-
ai . ,
a2 + an
a1 + a3
an1 + a1
, a2 =
, . . . , an =
.
a1 =
2
2
2
a
+
a1 ai . a1 = 2 2 an a3
, a2 = an = a1 . a2 = a1 +
2
, a1 = a2 = a3 , . . , a1 = a2 = . . . = an ,
n a1 .
45. . 37.
+1
46. x x
x 1 , :


x+1
2
x+1
f (x) f
.
(1)
=
x1
x1
x1

19931994 , 11

119

(1)



x
+
1
f (x) f x 1 . , ,
f (x) = 1 + 2x. , .
47. O SBC. O1
, SBC1 . SS1
. , SO1 B1 C .
S
S
C1

A1
B1

O1

C1

B1
C

S1
B
. 50

(. . 50),

. 51

1   1   1
SB + BS1 = 180 = 90 .
2
2
2
, A1 C SO SAC (. . 51). SO A1 C
SO B1 C, , SO A1 B1 C, .
48. n. n  2 . n  3.
, M A1 ,
Ai Ap
A2 , . . . , Ak A1 , A2 , . . . , An .
Am
Am Bm
Aj
Am
(1  m  k), M
. Am
Am Bm
M . Am Am
.
. 52
M ,
Am Am . Ap Ap ,
Ap Ap Aq . Ai ,
SB1 C +B1 SS1 = SC1 B +BSS1 =

120

Ai Bi M . ,
Aj , Aj Bj M (. . 52).
, Ai Bi Aj Bj Ap Aq
p, q
= i.
(n 1)
A1 B1 , A2 B2 , . . . , Ai1 Bi1 , Ai+1 Bi+1 , . . . , An Bn ,
, A1 , A2 , . . . , Ai1 , Ai+1 , . . . , An
. A1 , A2 , . . . , Aj1 ,
Aj+1 , . . . , An . , Ai Aj : Ai As , s
= i, j, As
Aj .

19941995 .
9
49. , x4 + y 2  2x2 y y 4 + x2  2y 2 x.
y
1
y
x
x
.
+ 4
 2 + 2 =
4
2
2
x +y
y +x
2x y 2y x
xy
50. . .
, a1 , a2 , . . . , a1995 , . ak (k = 1, 2, . . . , 1995) n(k) (
).
, k = 1, 2, . . . , 1994 n(k)
n(k + 1) , . . . ,
n(1), n(3), . . . , n(1995) . , a1995 a1 , n(1995) n(1)
. . , .
51. , C
ABC (. . 53). BC = 2 sin CAB. CBA,
,
D
, r
l
BDC.
A
B
BC = 2r sin CBA. , AC =
. 53
= 2 sin CBA = 2R sin CAB. sin CAB =
= r sin CBA sin CBA = R sin CAB, 2 = Rr, . .
AB.
52. . .

19941995 , 9

121

, . , , . , , 11 , . . 11 2 10 = 55.
, .
, , , 12 6 = 72.
12- 12 2 11 =
= 66 < 72. , .
53. . p = 3.
, p2 + 11 = p2 1 + 12 = (p 1)(p + 1) + 12. p  5
, p 1 p + 1 , .
(p 1)(p + 1) 12, , p2 + 11
12, , (6
12 p2 + 11 > 12). p = 2 p = 3.
:
) p = 2. p2 + 11 = 22 + 11 = 15 4 (1, 3, 5, 15);
) p = 3. p2 + 11 = 32 + 11 = 20 6 (1, 2, 4, 5, 10,
20).
54. AO1 O1 D C
S1 (. . 54).
AO1 O1 D D
E
AO1 O1 D , O1 , O2 A. , ACO1
B
DCO1 ,
O1
O2
. , CA
CD, S1 , A S2
S1
CO1 . B

. 54
D ( C CA CD S1 ) CO1 ,
. . CB = CD. , CE = CB.
55. 91. , ,
(. . 55).
, ,
.
, 11 4 + 1 = 45, . . -

122

. ,
.
56. . .
, . ,

, , 20  ,

11 . , , ,
11.
. 55

2
2
, m 1 m + 1 ,
, . m2 (m + 1)2 2m . , 2 + 6 + 10 + 14 + 18 = 50 .
50 11, .
10

1
3
57. . 1 3 .
19
x , 0 1.

1
1
3
= 1 3.
f (f (x)) = 
3
3
x
1 (f (x))
1
= x.
f (f (f (x))) = 
3
1 (f (f (x)))3
f (. . . f (f (x)) . . .) 3.
95 3 2,

1
3
f (. . . f (f (19)) . . .) = f (f (19)) = 1 3 .



19
95

58. . m = kd, n = ld, d = (m, n).


(m, n) = kld , , kld + d = kd + ld. ,
(k 1)(l 1) = 0, . . k = 1 l = 1. , m,
n (m, n). , n m, m
n.

19941995 , 10

123

. , (a, b) (a, b) = ab a, b. ,
(m, n) ((m, n), (m, n)) x2 (m+n)x+mn = 0, . . .
.
, (m, n) .. (m, n).
59. B

S
, S
B.
S  BH,
M
H ABC.
L
AB
H
BC L M (. . 56).
CL AM ABC, BLH
BM H . A
C
K N
. 56
N AC.
N AC ALC,
LN = CN , , CLN = LCN = 90 A = LBH,
N L S  . , M N
S  .
60. , ,
. - ,

. ,
. , . ,
.
61. . 3.
b2 .
, a > 0 b2 4ac  0, . . c  4a
b+c
A = a+
b a . , t = b a > 0,
:
2

b
a + b + 4a
4a2 + 4ab + b2
9a2 + 6at + t2
=
=
=
A
ba
4a(b a)
4at

3
3 3
9a2 t2
3 9a2 + t2
 +
= + = 3,
= +
2
4at
2
2at
2 2

124

.
2

b t = 3a, . . b =
A = 3 , c = 4a
= c = 4a.
, , 3, f (x) = ax2 + 4ax + 4a = a(x + 2)2 , a .
 
(t + 2)2
. g(t) = 4(t 1) . , g ab =
2
+ 4ab + b2 . , A ,
= 4a 4a(b
a)

g(t) t > 1.

62. . AD = a,

AB = b, DE = c BF = d (. . 57).
 


DF = b + d a, AE = a + c, AF = b + d,
BE =
= a + c b. DF AE AD DE,
 a)(a +c) = (b + d)(
 a +c) |a|2 = 0.
(b + d
AB BF ,

 (a + c b) =
AF BE = (b + d)

C
F

E c

d

B
a

b
A
. 57

 (a + c) |b|2 .


= (b + d)

|b| = |a| , AF BE = 0, . . AF BE.
. , ,
. : AB = AD ABC = ADC = 90 , F E 2 + AD2 = ED2 + F A2 F E 2 + AB 2 = BF 2 +
+ AE 2 . , , ED2 + F A2 = BF 2 + AE 2 F A2 BF 2 = AE 2 ED2 .
AB AD F BA EDA.
63. . N .
- 1.
,
. n
n1 , ,
n2 , (. . 58).
, N 3 -.
) , N . , (. . 59).
N 1, N 3 , N 3 1, . . . , N 3 N + 2,

19941995 , 10

125

n2

n1

n+1

(n+1)2

N3 N + 2
y

(n+1)1

N3
1
0

(n1)2

. 58

. 59

11 (1, 0, 1), 12 (0, 1, 0). , , . .


(N 3 N + 2)1 (0, 1, N ). N 3 N
:
() (. . 60). . 2. (N 2 )2
(1, 0, 1), . . (N 2 )2 = 11 .
N

2
1

N +1
3N 2
3N 1

N2

..
..

2N 1
2N

N2 N + 1
N2 N + 2

. 60

..
.

2N 2 1
N3

..
.
..
.
..
.

..
. N 2 +2N 1 N 2 +2N 2

..
. N 2 +3N 3

N 2 +1

N 2 +N
N 2 +N 1

. 61

(. . 61). (2N 2 1)2 (N 3 )1


(0, 1, 2), . . (2N 2 1)2 = (N 3 )1 .
2N 2 , . . . , 3N 2
2 2, . . . , N 2 ,
. .
, 1
2
. , N - (N 3 N + 2)1
(N 3 N + 1)2 . .
N .
, (,,)
(. . , , ) (,,). , -

126

. , . ,
8 , ,
. , ,
,
. ,
. .
) , 1 2
. ,
. , N = 2k + 1
. : n2 (n + 1)1 .
, . , N .
64. .
, ,
, (.
. 62. 62). . 62. 62
), ), ) ), n , n , n n . , .
. 62 . 62, , ,
, , ,
.

()
(+)
()
()

()

(+)

()

. 62

(+)

(+)

(+)

. 62

(+)

. 62

()

(+)

()

(+)

. 62

()

19941995 , 10

127

. . ,
. ,
, ( ,
, ).
) ), . . n + n . , n + n .
, 2(n n ) = 2(n + n ) 4n ,
, .
. (, )
, A B (. . ), .
, A B. (. 63. 63;
).
,
. ,
.
, .
(+)

()
B

. 63

(+)

()

. 63

(+)

()

. 63

. 63

128

( ,
, , . ,
, , .)

. 64

. 64

. 64

, (, , ,
; , . 64). .
(. . 63. 64).
, 4. , .
. ( ) .
11
65. . 57.
66. (.
. 65).

19941995 , 11

129

A1

B1

Q
D1

C1

B
A

D
C
M
. 65

K, L M
AB, AA1 AD . KLA M LA (KL = LM , AL ) , KA =
= M A. , KA = LA. P Q = 13 KM ,
LP Q LKM , LP A1 LKA , AA1 = 23 AL.
, AB = 23 AK AD = 23 AM . , AB = AA1 = AD ,
, .
. ,
. , ,
 ,
.
67. . 52.
68. . k = 1. 2k
1 = 1, . . ,
. ,
, .
2a, a (
- 2a, ,
, ). -

130

, , . . .
, k = n 1. K0 ( , )
M1 M2 . M1 , K0 , M2 . M1 , , :
, K0 ,
, K0 .
M2 n 1
( K0 M2 ), ,
, M2 2(n 1)
1 , .
M1 2 ,
2 + 2(n 1) 1 = 2n 1
.

69. : cos + cos + cos > 5.

a = (sin , cos ), b = (sin , cos ) c = (sin , cos ) : 3 <



< (sin + sin + sin )2 + (cos + cos + cos )2 = |a + b + c|  |a| +
+ |b| + |c| = 3. .
.
A = (sin + sin + sin )2 + (cos + cos + cos )2
:
A = (sin2 + cos2 ) + (sin2 + cos2 ) + (sin2 + cos2 )+
+2(sin sin + cos cos ) + 2(sin sin + cos cos )+
+2(sin sin + cos cos )  3 + 3 2 = 9.

(cos + cos + cos )2 = A (sin + sin + sin )2  9 4 = 5.


70. . 19952.
m = n, a0 = 0. n = 0, am + am =
= 12 (a2m + a0 ).
a2m = 4am .
(1)
m = n + 2. a2n+2 + a2 = 12 (a2n+4 + a2n ),
(1) a2n+4 = 4an+2 a2n = 4an , :
(2)
a2n+2 + a2 = 2(an+2 + an ).
, (1) a1 = 1, :
(3)
a2n+2 + a2 = 4(an+1 + a1 ) = 4(an+1 + 1).

19951996 , 8

131

(2) (3), , (an )


an+2 = 2an+1 an + 2
a0 = 0, a1 = 1.
: a2 = 4, a3 =
= 9, a4 = 16, , n  0 an = n2 .
. n = 0 n = 1
. n = k 1 n = k (k  1).
ak+1 = 2ak ak1 + 2 = 2k 2 (k 1)2 + 2 = (k + 1)2 ,
. . n = k + 1.
, a1995 = 19952.
71. , O1 BE
E
F
O2 BF - M
B
(EBO1 =
=
F BO2 ).
N
, E, F , O1
O1
O2
O2 S.
O1 AO2 + O1 EB =
A
= O1 BO2 + O1 BE = 180 ,
A
. 66
(. . 66).
F EB BEA S O2 F O2 A. EF M N
, M BE = F EB. , M BE = BEA,
M EBA . AE = M B.
, ABF N , AF =
= BN .
, , AE + AF =
= M B + BN = M N ,
72. . 64.

19951996 .
8
73. . .
n = 400.
n5 (n 1)2 (n3 + 2n2 + 3n + 4) =
= n5 (n 1)(n4 + n3 + n2 + n 4) =
= n5 (n5 5n + 4) = 5n 4.

132

5 400 4 = 1996 < 2000.


74. . 106 10 95 .
.
a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 . a1
10 . ,
5, : 05, 16, 27, 38, 49, a1 , a2
9 ( a1 ). ,
a2 , a3 9 , . . 10 9 9 9 9 9 = 10 95 .
75. . .
, , AC . AC  AD, ACD CDA  DCA.
, .
76. . n
= 2k (k N).
n , , : ,
. n , ,
, ,
. , ,
. ,
,
. :
1) , . . n = 2. ,
.
2) , 1, . . n = 4m + 2.
, .
3) , . . n = 4m. ,
,
. , .
1)3), , , n = 4
, n = 8m + 4 , n = 8m . , ,
n = 2, 4, 8, 16, . . . , n .
77. . . . . 67.
78. . = 30 .

19951996 , 8

133

. 67

< 30 . ,
BK AC (. . 68).
M . AK = KC = KM + M C. ,
.
> 30 , AC K L ,
KBC = LBA = ; T AC (. . 69). R , KT = RC. M RC LC. N , N BM = . ,
N AK.
B
B

K
. 68

M C

A NK

R
LM C

. 69

1
N M > KM = KT + T M = CR + T M > CM + T M = T C = AC,
2

AN + M C < M N.
, .
= 30 .
M N , M BN = = 30
(. . 70). , BN
AC. ( M A ,
, .)
C BN , D,
AC ( BN AC) (. . 71).

134

B
B

x x

x
R
N C

D
. 70

. 71

BDC , , DBN = CBN =


= x N C = DN . , M BD = N BM N BD = 30 x,
ABM = ABC M BN N BC = 60 30 x = 30 x.
ABD , BM
, , AM = M D. DM N AM , M N
N C, . . .
79. . 4.
a , S ,
.
S
1
1
1
a+S
=
= + .
3
a

3
a S
a < S, a1 > 16 , . . a = 4 a = 5. a = 5
, S = 7, 5. a = 4 : S = 12
4, 5 7.
80. , , , , ( ), ( ).
,
, .
.
1 2, 3 4.
1 3 2 4. 1 3, 3 2
, 1
4. . 2 3.
, , ,
4; , 1.

19951996 , 9

135

, 2 4, .
9
81. . x + ax, x ax, a ; x2 + x 2, x2 + x 2.
a = (c + d), b = cd, c = (a + b), d = ab.

a + b + c = 0,

a + c + d = 0,

b = cd,
d = ab,

a + b + c = 0,

b = d,

b = bc,
b = ab,
b = 0, d = 0, c = a, a . b
= 0, a = c = 1,
b = d = 2.
82. . : DAC = CDM , DC S1 . , CBM = CDM
. DAC = BCA,
BCA = CBM , . . BM AC.
. B ABC
B
M
S2 O.
OD = OC S2 , .
D
, OA = OC, , O S1 .
OBM = ODM = 90 , BO BM AC,
O
, , BM AC.
A
C
83. . 8, 9, 10.
(a + b)(b + c)(c + a)

= n
abc
. 72
,
2

(a + b)(b + c)(c + a) = n abc.


(1)
a, b c , , (1), a = b. (a, b) = a = 1 (1)
.
(1 + c)(1 + c)2 = nc. , 2 .. c , ,
c = 1 c = 2. n = 8, n = 9.

136

a, b c , , a < b < c.
,
, (1) ,
a + b = mc

(2)

a + c = kb,
(3)
m k .
a + b < 2c, mc < 2c , , m < 2, . . m = 1 ,
,
a + b = c.
(4)
(3) c (4), a + b = kb a 2a =
= b(k 1).
.
a b , 2 .. b. , 1  a < b , b > 1 , , b = 2. a = 1 c = 3. ,
n = 10.
84. . .
, , , .
, .
,
.
. 73
. 73.
, , , .
, . , ,
, , ,
.
1 3 (. . 74).
85. . n = 1996.
n , n = p5 (p )
. 74
n = p2 q, p q .
2
3
4
5
2
1 + p + p + p + p + p = 3500. p(1 + p + p + p3 +
+ p4 ) = 3500 1 = 3499. 3499 2, 3, 5 7,
p > 10, p + (1 + p + p2 + p3 + p4 ) > 105 > 3499.

19951996 , 10

137

. 1 +
+ p + p2 + q + pq + p2 q = 3500, . . (1 + p + p2 )(1 + q) = 53 7 4.
5. ( ,
).
, , 1 + p + p2 > 1, 1 + p + p2 = 7. , p = 2
(p = 3 ), q = 499.
2 499 . n = 22 499 = 1996.
86. . 78.
2
87.
ab = u ; a + b = v. , v  2u ( a +
+ b  2 ab), :
ab(1 a)(1 b)
u2 (1 v + u2 )
u2 (1 2u + u2 )
u2
1
=

=
< ,
2
2
2
2
2
(1 ab)
(1 u )
(1 u )
(1 + u)2
4
u < 1 u < 1.
1 +
u
2
88. A, B, C, D, E, F , G H.
, 4 ,
. ,
, , ,
( ), ( ). ,
, ,
, .
A, B, C
D, ,
A, B, E F , . , ,
A+B+C +D > E+F +G+H

A + B + E + F > C + D + G + H.
C, D, E F ,
, A B, G H.
A + G B + H. , , A + G >
> B + H ( ). B G
A + H B + G.
A + H > B + G, , ,
A, A + H < B + G,
H.
10
89. :
(a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2(ab + bc + ca) =

138

b 2 + c2
c2 + a 2
a2 + b 2
+
+
+ 2(ab + bc + ca) 
2
2
2
 ab + bc + ca + 2(ab + bc + ca) = 3(ab + bc + ca) > 3(a + b + c).
a + b + c > 0, a + b + c > 3.
90. , , 25 ,
, . 75. 7/25 > 1/4
, , . 75
.
91. . ,
B
M
B (. .
) B.
ADEC , DM CM D
E
, ADEC (. .
M ).
, ABC , AC
A
C
B.
BDM = BCM , , . 76
AD CE. ,
B, M , C, D . BM AC (.
82), , , M l B.
, M l, B, . ,
, B M B.
92. , 1,
. .
, 1, , , n = 2m. ,
, m
m 1.
=

19951996 , 10

139

, x1 m , x2 1 m , x3
m , x4 1
m .
, :
x1 x2 x3 + x4 = 0.
x1 x2 + x3 x4 = 0,

x1 + x2 = m,
x3 + x4 = m.
,
2(x1 x2 ) = 0.
, x1 = x2 x3 = x4 .
m
, . . n 4.
x1 = x2 = x3 = x4 =
2
93. . 85.
94.
B0
Ai Ci+1 Ci Ai+1 Di
(i = 0, 1, . . . , n 1) (. . 77).
D1 D2
D1 F A0 B0 D1 G
A2
C2
B0 C0 . A0 A1 D1 F D1
, A1
C1
D0 A1 D1 C1 ,
F
G
A1 D1
D0
. , C0
C0 GD1 C1 A0
. 77
D0 A1 D1 C1 .
1
1
SD0 A1 D1 C1 = (SA0 A1 D1 F + SC0 GD1 C1 ) < SA0 A1 D1 C1 C0 D0
2
2
, SD1 A2 D2 C2 < 12 SA1 A2 D2 C2 C1 D1 , . .
n 1
1
1
(SA0 B0 C0 SA0 D0 C0 ) < SA0 B0 C0 .
2
2
95. . 88.
96. , ,
:
, ,
. .
, Ak Ak+1 (. . 78).

140

A1

A2

...

Ak Ak+1

...

A1996

. 78

k  998, A1 , . . . , Ak l .
Ak l ( , A1 , . . . , Ak ,
998 l , k > 998). , ,
A1 , . . . , Ak , Ak Ak+1 .
. Ak Ak+1
k , . , k > 998 Ak Ak+1 1996 k ,


. , ,
, 1 + 2 + . . . + 997 + 998 + 997 + . . . + 2 + 1 =
= 9982 .
11
97. . 89.
98. . n.
A . ,
l, A, , . A
,
180 ,
.
,
n. , n,
2n-.
99. , O . OA > 1 , OB > 1 , OC > 1 AOB,
3

BOC, AOC 120. AOC. ,


,
AC 2 = OA2 + OC 2 2OA OC cos .
cos  cos 60 ,  120 , ,
AC 2 = OA2 + OC 2 2OA OC cos 
1 1 1
 OA2 + OC 2 + OA OC > + + = 1.
3 3 3
AC > 1, .
n+1
100. . n
2 n, 2 n.
. P  (x)

19951996 , 11

141

O
A

C
1
3

. 79

n 1 . P  (x)
n 1, , . P (k) (x)
(k = 2, . . . , n 1). , P (x) 0.
, P (x) xk xk+1 . P (k) (x) x.
, 0 P (k) (x), .
P (x)
( n ). 0,
n+1
, . . n
2 n 2 2
2
. , (x 1)(x 4) . . . (x2 k 2 ) x(x2
1) . . . (x2 k 2 ) , n+1
n
2 n = 2k 2 n = 2k + 1.
101. . 16.
x0 f (f (x)) = x, y0 = f (x0 ).
x0 = f (y0 ), (x0 , y0 )
y = f (x) x = f (y). , (x0 , y0 )
, y0 = f (x0 ) x0 = f (x0 ), f (f (x0 )) =
= x0 . , f (f (x)) = x
y = f (x) x = f (y),
16 (. . 80).
102. . n = 2.

142

y
2

2
. 80

(a c)(b d)

(b c)(a d)

(a b)(d c)

k = (b c)(a d) . (a c)(b d) = k1 , (a d)(b c) =

(b c)(a d) (a c)(b d)
ad ac bd + bc
=
= 1 k,
(b c)(a d)
(b c)(a d)
(a c)(b d)
(a c)(b d) (a d)(b c)
k .
= (b c)(a d) (a b)(d c) = 1
k
(a b)(c d)

. , k k = 1
k , 1 k = k ; ,
k, k1 = 1 k, k1 = 1
k
1k
1 , n = n .
n = k, n = n
1n

1 , n = 1, , (a c)(b d) = (b c)(a d) bd
n = n
ad bc + ac = 0 (b a)(d c) = 0, a, b, c
n , . . n = 2. n = 2
d . n = 1
n
, , a = 1, b = 3, c = 4, d = 7.
103. D CO ,
ABC. BDO = A OBD =
= COB BDO = 60 . , OAD = 60 .
OBD
OD
BO
=
sin A
sin 60
OAD
AO
OD
=
sin B
sin 60

19961997 , 8

143

AO
BO
AO
BO
AO
BO
=
,
=
,
=
.
h
h
a
b
sin A
sin B
hb
ha
c
c
,
C
CO
hc ,
.
104. . .
O
n B
x1 x2 . . ., xi = xi+n i =
A
60
60
= 1, 2, . . . ,
1) ;
2) k D
x1 x2 . . .
. 81
xk+1 xk+2 . . . .
x1 x2 . . . , n .
: n = 3m, n = 3m + 1, n = 3m 1.
n = 3m. m
(m < n), xi , xi+m , xi
= xi+m .
xi , . . . , xi+m a aba, b bba, :
. . .  xi+m ba
(1)
xi ba
 
3m3

, , , n = 3m, ,
.
.
n = 3m + 1. , , xi
= xi+m .
(1) ,
. , n = 3m 1, (1)
. .

19961997 .
8
105. 16 x, 16 + 1  16 + x = a2  16 + 15,
a2 = 25 x = 9. 16 ,
.
: 16, 9, 7, 2, 14, 11, 5, 4, 12, 13, 3, 6, 10, 15,
1, 8.

144

106. k-
k 301 k. ,
a d, b c,
a  b  c  d. : a + d  b + 2b  1,5c + 1,5b b + c  2a +
+ d  1,5a + 1,5d, .
B
D
K
P

M
. 82

107. , CE = AC AE = AD , ,
CK = AM . , M AD = KCE , , M P E =
= 180 P M E P EM = 180 P KC P EC = C = 60 .
DM EK , M E.
108. k  , k .
7k ,
7k 6, 7k 36 . ,
, : , 7
7k 36,
6 . ,
(7k 36) 6/7 = 6k 36 .
50 000  k + 7k + 42k + 252k + 216k = 518k k  97.
109. O ABC. OAB < 45 , OBA < 45 , O K1 ,
, OAB K1 . , OBC
OCA K2 K3 .
110. . 2.
x.
, x, x; ,
1 + 2 + . . . + 37 = 37 19, x. x = 19, 37
. 37 +
+ 1 = 38 = 19 2, 1 19, .
111. . p = 7, q = 3.

19961997 , 9

145

p, q 3.
p q 3 , 3, ;
, 3,
. p 3, p = 3. p3 q 5 = (p +
+ q)2 > 0 p3 > q 5 q 5 < 27, . , , q
3, q = 3 p3 243 = (p + 3)2 , p(p2 p 6) = 252,
p 252, . . 2, 3 7.
p = 7, (p, q) = (7, 3).
112. . 14.
n. , 2n, 7(n 10),
7 n 10
. , 2n  7(n 10) n  14. :
,
, , ,
.
9
113. , 1997-, .
, 1997-, , - . , , , .
, , , .
114. . , .
, . , 3 ,
. , 1000 3, 333,
333 , 3 ( , 3, ).
, . 1 2 3,
,
.
( 3).

146

115.
: k- k- (301 k)- . , , 2 . a, b, c, d. :
0  a  b  c  d  3a. a + d  4a  2b + 2c, b + c  3a +
+ d  2a + 2d. .
, , 3/2
. .
116.   ,
N ,  
N . N . a0 , a1 a2 . . .,
ak . . . ak+N 1 al . . . al+N 1 . , 0,(ak . . . al1 )
. :  . ,
. ,   .
  l 1 k + N , . . ak . . . al+N 1 . .
117. M , a b = M a. a:
b1 + . . . +b1997 = 1997M (a1 + . . . + a1997 ), M = 0, b1 +. . .
. . . + b1997 = a1 + . . . + a1997 = M . , a b = a
(a, a). , a = a, . . a = 0.
118. . 110.
119. , ,
C
AB  AC.
AB AC  = AC (.
A
. 83). A
1
ACC  ACC  = CAB/2,
. . CC 
CAB. , A1
BC  , lA
BCC  B A2 A3 C
A2 BC.
. 83
, lB lC
B2 C2 AC AB
B C ABC. , lA , lB lC
A2 B2 C2 ,
ABC, . . .

19961997 , 10

147

120. . 112.
10
121. x. 2x.
(x 2x). , x = 0, x
= 0.


y 2 + 2xy + x = 0,
y1,2 = x x2 x.
y1
= y2 , x
= 1, x = 1.
122. O ABCD.
M O S1 S2
N1 N2 . O , N1 N2 O.
M O ON1 = AO OC = BO OD = M O ON2 , AO = OC =
= OB = OD, ON1 = ON2 , N1 = N2 = N .
. , O
M N AC BD S1 S2 , AO = OC, BO =
= OD, AO2 = M O ON = BO2 AO =
= OC = BO = OD ABCD .
123.
2kn 1 = (2n 1)(2n(k1) + 2n(k2) + . . . + 1)
, 2kn 1 2n 1,
2kn+d 1 = 2kn+d 2d +2d 1 = 2d (2kn 1)+2d 1 2d 1 (mod 2n 1).
2n 1 2m 1 , n
m. n = km,
2km 1
= 1 + 2m + . . . + 2m(k1) .
2m 1
1 2m 1,
2km 1
k (mod 2m 1),
2m 1
n
2km 1 (2m 1)2 , k = m
2m 1, , n m(2m 1).
124. . .
27 ,
. 84. 3 1 . ,
, .
125. 117 ,
a, a. , . ,

148

50 50 , ,
.
126. . 12.
, n < 12 . n ,
 n , ,
-
! "
.

n
7
n
6
n 7 = 7 n . n < 12,
6 n < 10, , 7
. , n  12.
, 12 .

,
, .
. 84
, 6 , . .
12 . ,
 . , 10
.
B
127. O1 O2 : O1 O2 B (.
. 85) O2 O1 B. D
.
O1 O2 AD
(O2 O1 AD) ,
O1
BO1 D = O2 AD.
(1)
O2
O2 AD = O2 AB + BAD =
= 12 CAB + 12 BO1 D, A
C
(1) : BO1 D = CAB.
. 85
BO1 D 1D
= CAB
= 12 (CBA + BCA).
, O1 DB = BO
2
2
O1 AD = O1 AB + BAD = O1 BA + 12 BO1 D =
= 12 (CBA + CAB). , O1 DB = O1 AD, .
128. , a  b  c.
x, y, z . , -

19961997 , 11

149

, x. , > ,

.
(t) = t + t + =
t++

t+

( x + a x + b) + ( x + b x + c) =


= ( y + a y + b) + ( z + b z + c).
x , , a = b = c. , x ,
,
a = b = c.
. , ,
. , , , .
11
129. . 121.
130. M (x0 , y0 ) . x = x0 .
. A(x1 , y1 ),

B(x2 , y2 ), C(x3 , y3 ). AM = M B + M C , , |x0 x1 | = |x0
x2 |+|x0 x3 |. M B
C , x = x0 x = x1 .
y, , - , y = y0 y = y ( y
). B C,
M , , .
131. , n,
N , S(3n ) < S(3n+1 ). 3n , 3n+1 9, S(3n ) S(3n+1 ) 9, , S(3n )  S(3n+1 ) 9.
S(3N +k )  S(3N ) + 9k > 9k, , k : 3N +k >
> 10k . , k = N 32N > 10N .
132. . 124.
133. A B . A A = A ,
, A B = A B .
134. loga b > 1, loga loga b > logb loga b,
logc a < 1, logc logc a > logb logc a. loga loga b +
+ logb logb c + logc logc a > logb loga b + logb logb c + logb logc a =
= logb (loga b logb c logc a) = logb 1 = 0.

150

135. . .
, ABCD SA1 A2 . . . An n , Ai , Aj , Ak ,
Al n- A, B,
C D . Ai , Aj , Ak , Al 4 180 = 720. , , Am1 Am Am+1 < Am1 Am S +
+Am+1 Am S, Ai1 Ai Ai+1 +Aj1 Aj Aj+1 +Ak1 Ak Ak+1 +
+ Al1 Al Al+1 < 12 720 = 360 .
A1 A2 . . . An 180 (n 2), n 4
( Ai , Aj , Ak , Al ) 180 (n 2) 360 =
= 180 (n 4), , .
136. . = 1.
= 1 : f (x) = x.
= 1 x y , y = (x + y): y = 1 x
.
f (y) = f (x) + f (y), f (x) = 0
x.

19971998 .
8
137. . .
M = a1 . . . an N = b1 . . . bn , . M = dN , d = 2, 4, 6 8 ( M , N ).
bk = 9, S = bk . . . bn .
180 . . . 0 < 2S < 199 . . . 9,
360 . . . 0 < 4S < 399 . . . 9,
540 . . . 0 < 6S < 399 . . . 9,
720 . . . 0 < 8S < 799 . . . 9
, (k1)- p, , ak1 dbk1 + p .
, M N .
138. . .
. , . O (. . 86). ABC
BO AM . K , BK
KO =
= 21 , KO = BK
2 .
ADC , LO = DL
2 . , BO = OD, ,

19971998 , 8

151

BK = LD, BK = KL = LD. , BAL AK . ,


, . . AK BD. , AL BD.
A BD .
139.
M
B
C
,
K
.
N
OL
,
1. , , D
. - A
. 86
,
13, 0, 13 .
140. 9 ,
O, 5 .
, O. ,
. , O , , ,
, O. , .
O .
A1 , . . . , A5 O B1 , B2 , B3 O. B1 , B2 ,
B3 O1 . B,
A1 , . . . , A5 , B1 , B2 , B3 . O
O1 , A1 , A2 , . . . , A5 , B1 , B2 , B3 , B.
O O1 O. B1 , B2 , B3
O,
O O1 , O,
O1 . , B O, O1 ,
.
141. . 87.
1
8
3
x , S 6
5
4
.

x + 2S = 45,
4S = 45 + S + 3x.
7
2
9
88, 89 , . 87
.

152

. 88

. 89

, x = 5, S = 20.
. , .
142. , , 2, 2,
2. , 4, . . . ,
27 = 128. , 128 ,
0 , .
143. B1
B
SB AC, BB2
BB3 SB ,
B (. . 90). O
ABC,
B3
B2
AO = BO. , OB1 =
O
= OB2 = RB , OB1 A = OB2 B =
= 90 . , OB1 A = OB2 B. A
C
B1
OBB2 = OAB1 . . 90
, OBB3 = OCB1 . ,
SA A OBC + OCB, SC
C OAB + OBA. ,
.
144. , , , .
. A
A1 , . . . , Ak 0 . A
A, A1 , . . . , Ak . A, A1 , . . . , Ak , 1 A. ,
(A) . ,

. , .

19971998 , 9

153

9
145. . ,
3, 4 5 ( ).
2r < hb  a, . . . 2r, a, b c
d > 0. ,
a = 2r + d, b = 2r + 2d, c = 2r + 3d p = a + 2b + c = 3r + 3d.

p(p a)(p b)(p c),

S
=
pr

S
=

2
pr = p(p a)(p b)(p c) pr = (p a)(p b)(p c).
r d
(3r + 3d)r2 = (r + 2d)(r + d)r,
3r = r + 2d, . . r = d, r > 0, r + d > 0. ,
3r, 4r, 5r.
146. (.
D
. 91) : P AC =
P
= P QC, P BD = P QD.
P BD B
C
ABP , P BD = P AB + AP B.
AP B = P BD P AB =
Q
= P BD P AC = P QD P QC = A
= CQD, .
. 91
147. . 3456.
, 45,
9. , 11111,
99999.
X = a9 . . . a0 , X =
= 105 a9 . . . a5 + a4 . . . a0 = 99999 a9 . . . a5 + a9 . . . a5 + a4 . . . a0 .
, X 99999 ,
99999 a9 . . . a5 + a4 . . . a0 . , ,
2 99999. 99999 ,
99999. , a0 + a5 = 9, a1 + a6 = 9, a2 +
+ a7 = 9, a3 + a8 = 9 a4 + a9 = 9. ,
,
, ,
9 a9 .
, a9 ,
a8 , a9 , ( a9 9
a9 ), a7 , a6 a5 .
9 8 6 4 2 = 3456 .

154

148. . 4.
. , 101 ,
a b,
a + b = 102.
. ,
. 1 2, 3. , .
. 4, 1
1 2. , .
, 99 , ,
, 102.
, , , : 102, ,
. 92.
. 92
,  25 . 4 25 + 1 =
= 101 . ,
25 , . ,
52, . 26. , ,

( ).
, .
149. . .
x1 , x2 x3
() .
(x x1 )(x x2 ), (x x1 )(x x3 ).
, - n (n x1 ) (n x2 ) = 19 (n x1 )(n x3 ) = 98.
n x1 19 98 ,
, 1 1. x1  n 1  0,
.
150. . .

19971998 , 9

155

4 ,
45- . .
4, 57. 48
, 3 ( ,
).
1, 2 3 49- . , 48 , , ,
13 . 49-
, 52 ,
13 .
, 11
, 4 . 11- ,
56 ,
15 , 56 ,
15 ,
3 4.
151. B1 B2 . . . B1998 B1 , B1 A1 A2 . B2 B1 A2 = (, ), = B1 A2 B2 = 1996
1998 1998-,
B1 B2 A2 = = (. . 93).
B3 B2 A3 = . B2 A3 B3 : B2 B3 A3 =
= , B4 B3 A4 = , . .,
B1998 B1 A1 = . , B1 A2 B2 ,
B2 A3 B3 , . . . , B1998 A1 B1 , , , ,
.
B3 A3
1 A2
k = B
B A = B A = ... =
2

1
= BB1 AA
B 6 A6
1998 1
B5
. : k B2 A2 = B1 A2 ,
A5
k B2 A3 = B3 A3 , . . . , k B1998 A1 =
B
4
= B1 A1 . , , , : k(A2 A3 +
B 3 A4
+ A4 A5 + . . . + A1998 A1 ) = A1 A2 +
A1998 B1998 B B 2
+ A3 A4 + . . . + A1997 A1998 , k =
1
A3
= 1 A1
A2
A1 A2 . . . A1998 . , . 93
B1 A2 B2 , B2 A3 B3 , . . . , B1998 A1 B1
, B2 , . . . , B1998 -

156

A1 A2 . . . A1998 . B1 B2 . . . B1998 .
152. . .
, , .
.
,  , ,
. ,
i- , vi = (xi , yi ), i = 1, 2, . . ., x2i + yi2 = d2
. .
) d2 , (xi , yi ) ,
, xi + yi , i-
xi + yi xi1 yi1 = 2ki , . .
. , , .
(
d x0 + y0 (mod 2)), .
) d2 = 4c + 2. xi , yi ,
i- xi xi1 = 2ki yi
yi1 = 2li , . ,
(
x0 y0 ), .
) d2 = 4c. xi , yi .
,
, . ,
), ) ).
 4 (- ), ) .
.
.
d2 , ,
, .
10
153. . b = 0, 0  a < 4.
x0 , f (x0 ) = 0 f (f (x0 )) = 0.
, f (0) = 0, . . b = 0. , f (x) =
= x2 + ax, f (x) = 0 0 a. , f (f (x)) =

19971998 , 10

157

x = 0,
f (x) = 0,
x = a,
,
f (x) = a
f (x) = a.
f (x) = a 0 a. a (0, 4), a = 0 , f (x) = a
, 0. a
f (x) = a , 0 a.
154. OA = OB = OC (. . 94). BAC =
= , OBC = 12 (OBC + OCB) = 12 ( BOC) = 12 (
 
2BAC) = 2 . KEA = KEC = 12 KC =


 


= 12 KBC = 12 ( + CO) = 2 + 2 = . ,
KE AD. , KD||AE, , ADKE .
= 0

K
A

B
K

d
C

O
A

D
L

C
B

. 94

. 95

155. A B M ,
d .
, P M , P
, d A
B (. . 95). , AKC BLD
M , . . K
= A, L
= B, KL > d.
, BAK = , LAK = , > ,

KL2 = AK 2 + d2 2AKd cos > d2 ,
AK = 2d cos > 2d cos .
, , AC M A. , A
AB, , AB , 
A B d.

158

156. . .

.
, .
1995- , .
,
. 21995 , . , , . .
1 1995.
1 + 2 + . . . + 21994 = 21995 1.
21995 1 , .
,
.

157. . x = 3 + 69 + 12n , n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
, 0  x3 < 1, . . 0  x <
< 1. , {a + b} = a ,
b .
{x3 + 3x2 + 3x + 1} = x3
2
, 3x + 3x , . . 3x2 + 3x = n.
y = 3x3 + 3x [0, 1], y(0) = 0, y(1) = 6,
0  n < 6 3x2 + 3x n = 0
[0, 1).
158. . .
A3
,
H2
B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 .
X B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 .
A2
X A1 A2 , A2 A3 , . . . , A5 A1
B1
H3
XH1 , XH2 , . . . , XH5
B2
(. . 96). H1
X
X B5
A4
Ai , XH1 < XH2 <
B3
B4
< XH3 < XH4 < XH5 < XH1 ,
H4
.

.
A1
A5
159. . (n 2)3 .
H5
, . 96
.

19971998 , 11

159

. (n 2) (n 2) (n
2), (n 2)3 .
(n 2)3 + 1 , . , 1.
1,
(n 2)3 .
:
.
160. . 11 .
a1 = 2, a2 = 3, ai = ai1 + ai2 i  3. a10 = 144.
, , ai ,
, , i + 1 .
i = 1 i = 2 .
, ai . M , , ai2 ( ),
, M , ai1
( ), , M ,
2 , , ,
(i 2) + 1 , , . .
i + 1 . , M ,
1 (i 1) + 1
, . . i + 1 .
:
M ai , ,
M1 ai2 M2 ai1 ,
M1 .
11
161. . 1260.
.
1 36, 37 72. Ki (i = 1, 2, . . . , 36)
, i- . i Ki
Ki i 1 , S = (K1 1 1) + (K2 2
1) + . . . + (K36 36 1). K1 , K2 , . . . , K36
. S = (37 1 1) + (38
2 1) + . . . + (72 36 1) = 36 35 = 1260.
. 96.
162. S C, l (. . 97).
l AE ABC ( -

160

), ABC AED ( ). ,
l||DE, OC DE.
163. . 155.
164. . .
1) , O
B l
2 2, A
. E
C
,
( n, n 1). ,
,
,
D
. , ,
. 97
, . ., . . . , , ,
. .
2) 2 2:
a, b,
c d, a1 ,
b1 , c1 , d1 .
D = (a + d) (b + c) D1 = (a1 + d1 ) (b1 +
+ c1 ). :
) ,
, .
c a b, a1 = a+ 1, b1 = b +
+1, c1 = c, d1 = d D1 = (a+1+d)(b+1+c) = a+dbc+11 = D.
) ,
, , .
a1 = a, b1 = b, c1 = c, d1 = d D1 = (a + d) (b + c) = a + d b c = D.
) .
, a1 = a1,
b1 = b + 1, c1 = c + 1, d1 = d D1 = (a 1 + d) (b + 1 + c + 1) = a + d
b c 1 1 1 = D 3. ( , D1 = D 3,
D1 = D + 3.) , , D1 D
(mod 3) ( ).
22, D 1, 1, . . D 1

19971998 , 11

161

(mod 3) D 2 (mod 3), ,


, . . D 0 (mod 3).
: .
165. . .
,
7. b . 10a +
+ b, a + 5b.
5(10a + b) (a + 5b) = 49a 7, 5,
. . 7, ,
, 7. , 19987
.
166. , ,
: . 4(a b),
, ,
, +
. : +  ,
.
. ,

. , , .
,
( , :
, ).
167. . 56 .
O , KLM N K1 L1 M1 N1 (K K1 , L L1 , M M1 , N N1 O ).
u, u . ,
P Q , X P Q,



P P = u, QQ = u, P  X + Q X = P  P + P X + Q Q + QX = u +

+ (P X + QX) + u = 0, , X P  Q .
,
2, 1. ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1 1 O u, T1 =

162

= ACB1 D1 . u T1 T2 = C1 A1 DB.
, ,
ACB1 D1 C1 A1 DB.
U , . 98 ,
. , = U .
B1
C1
D1

A1

P
G
B
R

S
N

Q
H

P
. 98

. 99

. , 1 2 .
. M N EF GH,
E, G 1 , F, H 2 , S [M N ]. M , EG F H (. . 99). ,
P [EG] Q [F H] , S [P Q]. ,
M, N S [M N ], S , . . .
, .
U (, Q AA1 ), U
. , [GH], H T2
T2 , T2 b = 12 G.
T2 A
P QR. , , AP QR,
.
, , , = U .
8 = 5.
, V () = 1 8V (AP QR) = 1 48
6
|a a |

m
1 , 168. |nn m|
> 1998
.
. i > n ai < an , i n < 2000000.

19981999 , 8

163

. i > n ai < an . [1, an ] , ak


k an . i
j, aj < an < aj+1 . |a a |

m
aj aj+1 , |nn m|
< 1998, 1998,
an aj < 999, aj+1 an < 999. ,

jn
< an aj < 999,
1998
i  j < n + 1998 999 < n + 2 106 , , , i  j <
< n 1 + 1998 999 < n + 2 106 . .
, , an , [1, an ]. , [1, an ],
n n, n, , , 2 106 . an < n + 2 106 .
, , i < n 2 106 , ai < an ,
[1, an ] n 2 106 .
, n 2 106 < an < n + 2 106 , |an n| < 2 106 ,
.

19981999 .
8
x
169. x . 20
x 15 = 3 x .
, 20
4
x .
34 x : 30 = 40

x

x
3x
20 + 40 5 = 8 ,


33 3x
8 . , ,

, . . x = 33 3x
8 ,
x + 33 x = 24 + 9 = 3
x = 24 . , 20
5
20
5
.
170. . 1999.
B, 0  B  999.
, , 1000A + B,
1 + 2 + . . . + A = 12 A(A + 1). 1000A + B = 12 A(A + 1) A(A 1999) = 2B, 0  A(A 1999)  1998.

164

A  1999,
A < 2000, A = 1999.
171. . CA1 : A1 B =
B
= BC1 : C1 A = AB1 : B1 C = 2 : 1.
M
A1
B3
A1 B1 C1 A3 , B3 , C3
B
2
, ABC (.
C2 C3
C1
. 100). ,
M
M C3 CB1 , A2
M C3 = CB1 .
A
C
A3
B1
, C1 C3
. 100
A1 B1 AC, M C3 A3 A1 C A3 C =
= 2M C3 A3 B1 = B1 C. A2 A3 AB1 C1
AA3 = A3 B1 , , AA3 = A3 B1 = B1 C, B1
AC 2 : 1, A. , CA1 : A1 B =
= BC1 : C1 A = 2 : 1.
172. . 5.
k = 5 . 8 5 ,
. 5 ,
8 , . ( , 40
) , ,
, .
, k  4 .
2,
1;
(2 + 39 1) : 40 = 41
40 .
, 5. , - 5
,
, , , , 5. 40 5, .
173. A x y, x < y.
B 1 + 2 + . . . + 15 x y = 120 x y, . .

19981999 , 9

165

xy = 120 x y. (x + 1)(y + 1) = 121,


, x + 1 = 1, y + 1 = 121, x + 1 = y + 1 = 11,
.
174. BC A1
B
AA1 , . . AB = BA1
A1 BC = ABC. , C1 B = BC C1 BA =
= ABC. , 3ABC = 180 , C1
. . ABC = 60 .
A
CBA1 . CBA1 = 60 ,
C
. 101
CB = C1 B = 2BA1 .
CA2 BA1 . CA2 B BCA2 = 30 , BA2 = 12 BC, . . BA2 = BA1 . A2 A1 , ,
CA1 B = 90 .
175. . .
I .
0 : 0, II 0 : a, I a : a. II
0 : n, a : n. I
n : a , n, n : 0 .
I 0 a.
, II 0 : m (a : m) I m : a (m : 0).
0 : n a : n (n
= 0, a) ,
.
176. . .
: . , ,
9 . .
(, ). ( ) -, . ,
. 1 1
, 1 1 ,
(, ),
.
4 , 3 , . .
4. .

166

9
177. . 29.
, N > 9.
, 9,
, , 19,
, 29. , N  29.
N = 29 , , , 1 29 : 1,
11, 10, 20, 21, 12, 2, 22, 23, 3, 13, 14, 4, 24, 25, 5, 15, 16, 6, 26, 27, 7, 17, 18,
8, 28, 29, 9, 19.
178. BDA . B
(. . 102) BAD = 180 2,
 
 
(AB = AD), CBF = 12 F C = 14 BC =
= 12 CAB = 90 . E F F
B C, F E
- A
BC, , BF E = 90
E
CBF = . , BDE = =
D
C
= BF E, . . B, F , D, E
.
179. xyz = 1,
. 102
1 1 1
x + y + z  x + y + z (x 1)(y 1)(z

1 = yz, 1 = xz,
1)  0 . , , x
y
1 = xy xyz 1 = 0 ,
z
yz + xz + xy  x + y + z.
, t1 tk 1 k > 0 .
1 1 1
k
k
k
x + y + z  x + y + z (x 1)(y 1)(z 1)  0 (x 1)(y 1)(z

1)  0 1k + 1k + 1k  xk + y k + z k .
x

180. , . 1 (. . 103)
( 4), , , . , ,
1, 2. ,
, k,
1  k  14, k + 1. , ,

19981999 , 9

167

. ,
.
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
ab c
11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4
12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5
ab c
13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6
14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8
. 103

. 104

181. , 1 5
, , ( . 104 ). , ,
( ,
). , , a c, 2
. .
182. . 175.
183. n , . . n = 2m,
k = 4m l = 2m.
n , p1 , . . . , ps p
, {p1 , . . . , ps }.
k = pn l = (p 1)n, , p,
p 1 2, , , -
p1 , . . . , ps .
184.
Q
OR AC.
KM ,
B
P , P
OR
Q (. . 105).
, M Q ||BO,
K
O
, Q
Q . KM ||BC,
M P C = BCP = C
2 . A
C
MDR
M P C: M P C =
. 105
= P CM = C
2 ,
M P = M C = M A, P
AC AP C = 90 .

168

AP OR AP O = ARO = 90 ,
, RP O = RAO = A
2 (RP O = RAO ).
M P Q R M P Q = M RQ = 90 , 

, , Q M R = RP
 Q = RP O + OP Q =
A
A
C

= 2 + (90 OP M ) = 2 + 90 2 . BO AC

A
C

D, BCD: BDC = 180 C B


2 = 90 + 2 2 =


= Q M C. M Q ||BO.

10
185. . 170.
186.
XA AY
B
XY
d. AB C , X
d , A B C.
AC = AB
A
Y
AB AC = XA AY = d, C
X, B, Y C . , , . 106
BXY , B C, BC.
187. M n . A
n 3 . x M , A. x M
n 1 , A.
n 2 M n 2 .
A, n 2, A n 3 . .
188. . 180.
189. . .
x1 , . . . , x10
S.
S x1 = n21 ,
S x2 = n22 ,
............
S x10 = n210 ,

ni N

19981999 , 10
2

169

, S = n1 + . .9. + n10 . nk = 3k (k = 1, . . . , 10).


9. , xi = S n2i
.
190. D1
C
B1 C1 , CD1 AB. D D1
CD1 B1 AC1 B1 , CD1 = CB1 . ,
K
D1 A1 K, . . D = D1 .
A1
B1
CD1 A1
1
B
CA1 D1 = 2 ( D1 CA1 ) = 2 .
I
, A1 K A1 C1
( C1 K ) A1 C1
BI, I
A
B
C1
. CA1 K =
. 107
= CBI = B
2 , .
191. (n + 1)- . , . , . k- (k = 1,
. . . , n) , k- . (n + 1)-
.
192. 1999. . , ,
,
.
, , . . . [1, 1999].
, , x1 .
x1 . ,
x1 , ( x1 ), - x2 .
x1 x2 . , x1 x2 (
x1 x2 ),
x3 .
x1 x2 x3
x4 . t x1 . . . xt
t .

170

1999 , ,
.
11
193. :
(i) ;
(ii) g(x) , g(ax) .
, f (x) + f (2x)
f (x) + f (4x), (ii) f (x) + f (2x) f (2x) + f (4x). , (i)
(f (x) + f (2x)) + (f (x) + f (4x)) (f (2x) + f (4x)) = 2f (x),
, , f (x).
194. . 179.
195. n .
n = 3 . ,
n  N . n = N + 1. ,
. . A
B1 , . . . , Bk . n 1 k
, . . M ,
M n 21 k .
, B1 , . . . , Bm 1
M , Bm+1 , . . . , Bk . , m  k +
2 ,
1
M B1 , . . . , Bm , m < k +
2 , M Bm+1 , . . . , Bk A.
, .
196. . ,
, , (
. 108 , , ). , ,
,
( . 108) .
,
7. 7 n1 , . . . , n7 ,
90 ( 180). P ,
P 7 .
4 (, n1 , . . . , n4 ).

19981999 , 11

171

: ni = ai +bi , ai , bi (.


. 109)). , b1 = b2 = b3 = b4 = b, |b| = 1.
(ni , nj )  0,
.
n2

n2

. 108

n1

a2

n1

b

a4

a3

a1

. 109

, (ni , nj ) = (ai + bi , aj + bj ) = (ai , aj ) + 1,


(ai , bj ) = (aj , bi ) = 0, (bi , bj ) = b2 = 1. ,
a1 , . . . , a4 , , (ai , aj ) < 0, ,
. , ,
7 . 6
.
. R .
, ,
,
.  
(. . ,
) h = R(1 2/2).
 2Rh = R2 (2 2). 
,
.
n, n(2 2)  4,
4 . ,
4 < 7.
. . n 
2

197. . .
, a, b c . x > 0
y > 0 , x + a  0, x + y + b  0, y + c  0.
a + b + c. x < 0 y < 0 ,
x+a < 0, x+y +b < 0, y +c < 0, abc.
, , a + b + c > 0, a + b + c < 0.
.
198. , n n , -

172

.
, .  ,
, ,
. 4n 4, 4n. , n2
, . .
n2  4 4n.
, n = 50. ,
n  17, , , 17
17 .
. , , , 4n 4,
15 15.
199. . 184.
200. , . , P (x) ,
. , P (x) ( P (x)). P (x) ,
x , , ,
. P (x) .
x ,
x , , ,
,
, . : a1 <
< a2 < . . . xk , yk ak .
, P (xk ) = P (yk ) = ak .
, k xk + yk .
P (x):
P (x) = axn + bxn1 + . . .

P (c x) = a(c x)n + b(c x)n1 + . . . =


= axn ancxn1 bxn1 + . . . = axn + (anc b)xn1 + . . .
( (n 2)- ; n). , xn
P (x) P (c x) ; xn1

19992000 , 8

173

2b , .
c: c0 = an
c > c0 , P (x) P (c x) n 1
, , x
. k xk + yk <
< c0 +0.1 ( P (yk ) > P (c0 +0.1xk ) > P (xk )). , ,
c < c0 , P (x) P (c x) n 1
, x
. k xk + yk > c0 0,1.
xk + yk , , k, :
xk + yk = c, c .
P (x) P (c x) (
, x P (x) P (c
x)
; , xk ,
P (c xk ) = P (yk ) = P (xk ).)
, P (x) = P (c x) x. , x
= c/2, c x
= x.
, , P (c/2), , c/2 .

19992000 .
8
201.
(a4 2b2 )(b4 2a2 ) = 0
 2 2
 2 2
, 2 = ab , 2 = ba , .
202. .
n , ci
i, n+c1 , n+c2 , n+c3 .
, , c1 , c2 , c3 . ,
c1 + c2 + c3 = 3. , c1 = c2 = c3 = 1.
203. . 7.
n = 7 . 110.
, , .
, .
. 110
. ,

174

,
, . . . ,
,
2- . 5 3 + 2. , 3
, , 2 , , .
. (, .)
204. . ,
1, , .
,
, , . ,
.

, , ,
, , ,
.
, 1, m , 3m
3m 1,
.
205. . .
, 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 =
= 15, 7 + 8 = 15,
. ,
, ,
, ,
6.
206. . 48.
, . O , TA TB ,
A B ,
MA MB , .
, X X
2 , 6X .

19992000 , 8

175

360 6X

MA

X
O

TA

X
2

MB

6X
O

TA
TB

TB

MA
MB
. 111

. 112

, , TA , TB , MA
MB , . 111.
6X = X + X + X
2 , X = 0,
.
, TA , TB , MA MB ,
. 112, 360 6X = X + X X
2,
X = 48.
207. KE KD K
AC M
N .
CBE CM E CE,
, KM C = B. B
, KN A = B, . . M KN .
, BE = M E EC
D
E
M EB. ,
EC
O
BM , , O
,
M BN . O - A M
C
N
P

. 113
M N . .
208.
 ,  .
2ni (i = 1, . . . , 2000) , i- . ,

176

. , x ,
x x(x 1) ( x 1 ),
x+x(x1) = x2 . , 22n1 + . . . + 22n2000 = 4n1 + . . . + 4n2000 .
3 1,
3 , 2000, . . 2,
100 000 1.
9
209. . .
, x2 + ax + b = 0
c, d x2 + a1 x + b1 = 0 c1 , d1 ,
, .
(1)
a + b + c + d = a1 + b1 + c1 + d1 .
c + d = a c1 + d1 = a1 ,
(1) , b = b1 . ,
a
= a1 . , a
=

= a1 = c. a = c1 d = d1 , a = d1 d = c1 , . . d
. , d2 + ad + b = 0 d2 + cd + b =
= 0. , (a c)d = 0.
a
= c, d = 0. , b = 0, ,
.
. , : x2 + 2x = 0 x2 2x = 0
.
210. . .
, a, b c . a = 3. b = 9, c = 19.
.
, : c , 2c + 1 .. 3.
211. ,
. , n. , .
. , ,
,
1, 2, . . . , n+ 1, , n + 1, n + 2, . . . , 2n + 1.
212. ( ..). S1 S2 M N . M , -

19992000 , 9

177

S1 E, S2 D, N ,
S1 A, S2 C. AE CD.
T
S1

A
S2
M

K
E

S1

L
S2

E
. 114

. 115

. ,
. 114, .
.
AN M E N CDM , AEM = 180
AN M = M N C = 180 M DC, . . AEM + M DC = 180 ,
, AE CD.
, . 115.
AN B EN D. , AB =
= ED, N AB = N ED, N BA = N DE. AN = N E BN =
= N D.
N K N L S1 S2 .
KM N = LM N = 90 , . . K, M , L ,        
N M . , AK = KE, BL = LD, ,
AM K = DM L, AM N = DM N . AF N M DCN M , AF N = DCN , . .
A, F , C, D .
, KL.
KN S2 P , LN S1
T . , KP AE (AN = N E) AE CD () ,
KP CD. N P P L, P L CD.
CD P L . ,
AF KT . ,
KL, KP L KT L .

178

. ,
A, E, F, D, B, C.
213. , .
1993 .
.
a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 ab + b2 ), a + b = 200
. , 200.
200. ,
, 100- , ,
, 2.
214. . .
- 667 667 .
, .
, . 666 ,
, 666 .
, k , 666
k k 1. 666 , , 1000 2k .
, k = 1000 2k, k 1 = 1000 2k
k.
215. . ADC BDC ,
. ADC  90 . , ACN D , N D
AC, AN C = ADC. ,
ACN AN C  90 , , C
. , O C M N , , M ON = 2C
, CM N (. . 116;
, O CM N , O CM N
).
ADN C BDM C ,
ADM = BDN = C, M DN = 180 2C = 180 M ON ,
. . DM ON , M DO = M N O.
M ON (M O = ON ) , M N O = 12 (180 M ON ) = 12 (180 2C) = 90 C.
, ADO = ADM + M DO = C + (90 C) = 90 , . .
OD AB.

19992000 , 9

179

C
C
O

O1
N

D
. 116

O2

O3
A

D
K Q

. 117

. m1 , m2 , l1 , l2 CN , CB, CM CA , O = m1 l1 , O1 =
= m1 l2 , O2 = m2 l1 , O3 = m2 l2 ,
CM N , AN C ( ADC), BM C ( BDC), ABC (.
. 117). O, O1 , O2 O3 AB. K, P , Q R

. OO1 O3 O2 , QK = RP .

RP = 12 (BA DA) = 12 BD = QD. QD = QK K = D,


.
. ,
,
AC BC, AC BC.
216. , . 2 2 , . .
, ,
-, .
, .
, (
), ,
, (
-). .
, - , , . ,
: , .

180

a ,
b.
ab + (200 a)(200 b),

a(200 b) + b(200 a).
404, . .
4ab 2 200(a + b) + 2002 = 404,
(a 100)(b 100) = 101.
|a 100|  100, |b 100|  100, 101 ,
.
.
10
217. p n, 10n + 1 =
= (10n/p )p +1 10n/p +1. , 10n +1
k
n = 2k . 102 + 1 10
11: 11, 101, . . . , 102 + 1. : 11 <
1 2000.
< 100
.  :
104 + 1 = 73 137, 108 + 1 = 17 5 882 353.
218. ,
( ,
, , ).
, 2 .

1 ,
2 
3 .
4 , 
5 . , 
5 . ,
, .
219. . 1 : 2.
B
C
,
O1
ABD, BOD
, BOD =
O
K
= 2BAD = 120 BOD +
M

+ BCD = 180 (. . 118). A


D
, B, C, D, O
. 118
, OCK = OCD + DCK = OBD + DCK = 90 .
O1 BCD. ,
BOO1 , BO = BO1 O1 BO = 60 . M
OC AK.

19992000 , 10

181

AO = OO1 = O1 C, OM = M C = M K (
BOO1 , OCK ). O O1
ABD
CDB, AOCO1 .
, AOCO1 , O1 C OM , ,
OO1 CM , AO = OM = M K.
220. . n = 2000.
-, , n = 2000 = 40 49 + 40
(. . 119). , n
n, n < 2000, .
(), 40 40, 49
49; , , . 120
.
40
49
40
49

49
49

49 40
. 119

. 120

a 40 40, b 49 49.
40a + 49b = n, a  1 b  1. i-
(1  i  n) n n ai 40 40 bi
49 49. 40(ai a) + 49(bi b) = 0 ,
ai a 49, bi b 40, ai
= a, bi
= b.
, b < 40, bi  41 n  2009, b  40,
n  49 40 + 40 = 2000, a  1. , n < 2000,
i, 1  i  n, ai = a, bi = b. a
40 40 40 40 40
. , a 40 40
4180. 49 49 5098, . . 40 49.
40 49 . , n 40 49, . . n = k 40 49, k
. 40a + 49b = 40 49 a  1, b  1
. , n  2 40 49 > 2000. ,
n 2000.

182

221. . .
f (x) .
x = 2 , y = 2 , |f ()+2| < 2,

. . f () < 0. x = 3
2 , y = 2 |f () 2| < 2,
. . f () > 0. .
222. ,
. an , . . an = 2k + 1. an+1 = (2k + 1)2 5 = 4k 2 + 4k 4,
an+2 = 2k 2 + 2k 2 an+3 = k 2 + k 1. an+3
, k > 2, an+3 = k 2 + k 1 > 2k + 1 = an .
, , a0 < a3 < a6 < . . . < a3m ,
n a3n  n.
223. O K
AB, L BC, M CD. BAK = DAN = ,
CBL = ABK = , DCM = BCL = , ADN = CDM = .
, 2( + + + ) = 2 ABCD.
AKB CM D L
, AKB + CM D = , . .
C
KLM N . M
, LO CB, CLO = 2
B
CM O = 2 . OLM , LO = OM ,
O
D
LO = OK. , O

KLM N .
A
N
LOM LOK K
2 2 .
. 121
, LN M =
= LN K = . X AB CD
( , , X BA). L AB, BC CD AB CD,
ABCD; , N AB, AD CD. ,
LN , CD AB CD
AB CD AB. LN
AB CD. , LN M CDM = LN K BAK, . .
= , + = + = 2 . , BAD+BCD = 2
2(a + ) = . , ABCD ,
.
224. G , . ,

19992000 , 11

183

2N + 2 (. . ,
). .
G.
, . G
, , .
.
.
. .
A , A.
( ).
, , .
, G (
a b) , .
G N
, ,
N . ,
G N + 1 ,
G . (
. A, , , N ,
, A , , A .)
, G 1, 2, 3, . . . , (N +1) ,
.
,
a, , b.
2N + 2 ( )
.
11
225. : a1 = 7, a2 = 6, . . . , a10 = 2 y = (x
a1 ) . . . (x a10 ) y = (x + a1 ) . . . (x + a10 ) 5
: x = 0, 1, 2. , [2; 2] .
:
(x + 7)(x + 6) . . . (x + 3) = (x 7)(x 6) . . . (x 3),
. .

184

. 122


2 (7 + 6 + 5 + 4 + 3)x4 + (7 6 5 + 7 6 4 + . . . + 5 4 3)x2 +


+7 6 5 4 3 = 0

, .
226. . .


.
. 3/2 . ,
. , 1, , , ,
, .
, , , , , , , 180 ,
.
, .
227. n, n Sn = a1 + . . . +an
12 bn (bn + 1), bn .
: a31 = a21 S1 = a1 = 0 1, . . S1 = 12 0 1
S1 = 12 1 2.

19992000 , 11

185

2
: Sn+1
= (a1 + . . . +an +an+1 )2 = (Sn +an+1 )2 =
2
2
= Sn + 2Sn an+1 + an+1 , (a1 + . . . + an+1 )2 = a31 +. . .
. . . + a3n + a3n+1 = (a1 + . . . + an )2 + a3n+1 = Sn2 + a3n+1 . 2Sn an+1 +
+ a2n+1 = a3n+1 , . . an+1 = 0 Sn+1 = Sn = 12 bn (bn + 1),
2Sn + an+1 = a2n+1 bn (bn + 1) + an+1 a2n+1 = 0, . . an+1 = bn + 1
an+1 = bn . Sn+1 = 12 bn (bn + 1) + bn + 1 = 12 (bn +
+ 1)(bn + 2) Sn+1 = 12 bn (bn + 1) bn = 12 (bn 1)bn .
, n Sn , .
228. . 220.
229. ,
1
2
1
4

.
+
+

2
2
2
1 + x2
1
+
y
1
+
xy
1+x 1+y
,
1
1
2
.
+

1 + x2
1 + y2
1 + xy
,

2(1 + x2 + y 2 + x2 y 2 ) (1 + y 2 + xy + xy 3 ) (1 + x2 + xy + x3 y) =
= (1 xy)(x y)2  0.

2
1
1
2

.

+


2
2
2
2
1+x
1+y
1 + xy
1+x 1+y
.
230. L M , B

F
AB BC (. . 123). E
M
AK = AL, BL = BM , CM =
P
= CK
L
OKB1 , OKB2 , OLE, OM F
O
B1 K = B2 K = EL = F M ,
BE = BF , AE = AB2 , CF = CB1 .
P1 P2 , A B1
C
K
B2
B1 F B2 E . 123
BK. :
KB2
BP2
AE BP2
CF BP1 KB1
BE KP AB = 1 BF KP CB = 1, KP =
2

BE AB2 = BE BP1 = BF CB1 = BF .


= AE
KB2
KB2 KP1
CF KB1
KB1

186

BP2 = BP1 , . . P = P = P . .
KP
1
2
KP1
2
231. . N  8.
k  3 ,
(k 2, k 1, k) ,
, , , 1 2, .
2 , N  8 (2, 5, 8), (5, 6, 7) (6, 7, 8) ( ); , ,
1 ( (1, 4, 7), (4, 5, 6) (5, 6, 7)).
N = 1 N = 2 , 3  N  7 ,
, {2, 3, 5, 6},
. ,
2 , , .
232. , . , N .
,
N + 2 , .
, .
, k . G k , N
. A
, G k 1 . ,
G N . G N + 2 ,
(
).
k ( 2  k  (N + 2)) G1k G , 1 k,
G. G1k , .
G1k , G1k A
G1k .
k G1k A
, .
(. 224),
G1k ( 1 k),
.
G , 1 k,

20002001 , 8

187

G
.
, k ( 2  k  N +2)
G1k A .
, 1
k, k. ,
A N + 1 , . , ,
.

20002001 .
8
233. . .
l n k (n, l
, k ).
100n + nk
n(100 + k)
nk
=
=
.
l =n+
100
100
100
, n 100 , l n. n = 7, l 7,
1, 2, . . . , 10 . 7 .
, 9 . , .
.
234. . 14.
1 2
2
1
, 1111, 2112 2122
2
1
, 2222,
1
1
1221 1211 . ,
1
1
,
2
2
2 2
14 7 7
. 124
. N = 14 ,
. 124.
235. . ABCDE,
. , ,
A , D ( ).
, EAC = ABAC = AACB > C BCA =
= ACD.
, AE CD X.
ACX CX AX,

188

. DX = CX CD = CX AE > AX AE =
= EX, 180 E > 180 D,
D.
, AE CD C
ED, . AE CD B
. D
, ACDE , ABC , D < E A =
= 60 + D < C = 60 + E.
A
E
236. . n m
.
X

. 125
.
,

m  n. m = 2,
, , .
n  m  3. n m + 1
, ,
m 1 .
, , ,
. ,
, , ,
. ,
,
,
, .
237. x0 = fe .





f

|ex0 + f | = e
+ f  = |f + f | = 0.
e
,
0 = |ex0 + f | = |ax0 + b| + |cx0 + d|  0.
|ax0 + b| = |cx0 + d| = 0. ax0 + b = 0 cx0 + d = 0,
x0 = ab = dc , ab = dc ad = bc.
238. . .
, n = c1 . . . ck 8, c1 , . . . , ck
, ck
= 9. n + 1 = c1 . . . ck 9, n + 3 = c1 . . . ck 1,
ck = ck + 1.

20002001 , 9

189

n + 1 n + 3 , c1 + c2 + . . . + ck +
+ 9 c1 + c2 + . . . + ck + 2 .
7, .
. .
239. . .
, 5 1 2
55, . 4 1 3
(. . 126). 3 4 1
, 2 4 1
1
. a b c d e
(, -
. 126
). , ( 1)
. ,
, a b. ,
1 a4 a5. b4 b5 - ,
1. 2 3, 1 b, , b2 b3
1. a3. 3 4 a b,
, a3 1 3. 3 5 a b, , a3
1 2. a3 4.
, a2
4. , a3, a2, b3 b2,
.

240. AC
B
Q
ABC, A1 C1 - P
, AC, M M
A1 C1 . A C
C1
A1
, M
AC, B1 (. . 127).
A
C
B1
2 B1 C1
. 127
B1 A1 . B1 M
A1 B1 C1 , C1 B1 = A1 B1 . Q B1 A1 , P B1 C1 . BQA1 =
= CB1 A1 , AC1 B1 = BC1 P . B1 C1 B1 A1 P B1 Q, , .

190

9
241. . 233.
242. . .
. b
, b [2, 0]. 1 .

1) b = 0, ( f = x2 + ax );
2) b = 1, , , b = 2,
b = 1, b = 0.
.
3) , b = 2, ,
b = 1 b = 3 0.
3 a ,
[1, 1].
a = 1, : f = x2 x 2
. a = 0, .
. , , 2. (x1 + x2 =
= a) , . : f (2) = 4 + 2a + b = 0, . . 2a + b = 4.
A = 2a + b 2 ( a), 1,
b, 2, 6, 1, 3. b 3,
A [3, 5]. A = 3 A = 5, 1 , 4 (), 2 A = 4. A = 5
A = 3, 7, 4 (), 6 A = 4.
243. P AN DC (. . 128).
Q
: P
QA =
D
= P
DA . AB = CD = a, AD = BC = b, AM = CN = c CP = x.
x = c ,
N CP ADP x +
a
b
ab
x = b ac
c P D = x+a = b c . , AM Q

Q
PC
x
P CQ P
QA = AM = c .


ab
x
a
PQ
PD
= =
=
.
:b=
QA
c
bc
bc
DA
244. . 25.

20002001 , 9

191

P
N

Q
M

. 128

. 129

, 25  .
25 2 2, . . (. . 129). ,
,
, 25  .
, . ,
- . 25,
.
245. .
B
ABCDE 5 : ABC,
BCD, CDE, DEA, EAB (. . 130). , - A
C
, ,
. , E
D
.
. 130
.
.
( ). .
246. . . , 5 22000 2 52000 .
, . , :
5, 5 2, 5 22 , 5 23 , . . . 5 22000 .
5 2001-
5 2002 . ,
5 22000 10 2001- 5 102001 .
2001 .

192

247. OAK = . A
LK OA :

LKM = OAK = . O
: KBA = OAK = .
K
L
LKM LBM

, LBM = LKM = .
B
OAM =
M
= OBM = , . 131
OABM . OM A = OBA.
OBA = KBM , KBA = OBM = . , OM A =
= KBM , ,
OM M .
248. .
x21 , x22 , . . . , 2n1 , 2n2 , . . . (n1 <
< n2 < . . .) . , y12 , y22 , . . .
, 2m1 1, 2m2 1, . . . (m1 < m2 < . . .) .
x2k nk 0, x2k >
> 102nk 1 , xk > 10nk 1 . x2k+1 xk 2a
. 102a x2k < x2k+1 < 102a x2k + 102a .
10a xk +1  xk+1 , , 102a x2k +210axk +1  x2k+1 <
< 102a x2k + 102a , 2 10a xk + 1 < 102a , . . xk < 10a . , xk a , . . nk  a,
10a xk + 1  xk+1 a + nk  nk+1 , 2nk  nk+1 .
{yk }:
2
yk+1
yk2 2a , yk < 10a , a  mk , . .
mk+1  2mk . , mk
nk 50 ( m1 , n1  1 m50 n50
, 250 > 1000000).
, 100.
10
249. , f (a) = f (b) a =
= b, a b
x0 , . a + b = 2x0 .

20002001 , 10

193

a1 < a2 + . . . + an , a1 + a2 + . . . + an = 2x0 .
A + B = 2x0 , , f (A) = f (B).
250. H
B
C
K k = CK
AK .
H(A) = C, H(AD) = l
K
AD,
D
. H(AD) = A
.
132
= CB. , H(AB) =
= CD. , H(s1 ) , BCD
K (H(K) = K). , H(s1 ) = s2 ,
, s1 s2 K (. . 132). ,
K , .
K  AC
s1 s2 . s1 s1 BAD, , A, , , ,
K K  , . .
251. . : ) ; ) 3k 2,
k Z A, 3k 1, k Z B, 3k, k Z
C.
c = 2000(2d + 2). c = 2000((d + 1) +
+ (d + 1)), , d + 1 c (a = d + 1, b = d + 1,
c = 2000(a + b)).
, c = 2000(d + (d + 2)), , d, d + 2 d +
+ 1 , (a = d, b = d + 2, d + 1
c ). ,
, . 1, 2, 3 ,
2, 3, 4; 3, 4, 5 . ., ,
. 1 A, 2 B, 3 C,
2, 3, 4 , 4 A; 3, 4, 5: 5
B, . .
a = 3k1 +r1 , b = 3k2 +r2 , c = 3k3 +r3 (r1 , r2 , r3
a, b, c 3). 2000(a + b) = 2000(3k1 + r1 + 3k2 +
+ r2 ) = 3M (r1 + r2 ) = c = 3k3 + r3 ,
r1 + r2 + r3 3, . . r1 , r2 , r3 ,
. ,
.

194

252. . 150.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
100 1
2
3
. 10 :
4
, 5
6
.
7
( ,
8
) . . ( . 133 9
).
10
, . 133
,
, 100
. , 10 2 25
,  25 .
,
, . ,
, 10 2 5. , 100 + 50 = 150. 150
. 133.
253. . ,

ax2+ bx + c ((c b)x2+ (c a)x + (a + b)) = (a + b c)(x2+ x 1).
, a + b c = 0,
x2 + x 1. a + b +
.
+ 2c = 3c .. 3. , x0
ax2 + bx + c = 0 x2 + x 1 = 0, ax20 + bx0 + c + c(x20 + x0
1) = 0, ((a + c)x0 + (b + c))x0 = 0. x0 ,
a+ c = 0 b + c = 0.
, a = b = c , , a + b + 2c = 0.
254. A1 A. B B1
AA1 , ABA1 = AB1 A1 = AQ1 C,
Q1 AA1 (. . 134).
, B1 , C, A, Q1 , . . Q = Q1 .
, Q BC, . . QB = QC,
, B B1 AQ, , QB1 = QB =
= QC, . . CQB1 (. . 135),
, , .

20002001 , 10

195

A1

C
. 134

A1

B1

B1

. 135

255. n
X, 2n . (n = 1) .
X.
, , .
- , , ,
A B, , X  .
X  , X  . , X 
M , N , L,
A,
B, (, M , N , L ). ,
M , X  , A; N X 
, B; L
X  , AB.
, - M , N , L ,
; .
M , N , L , AB . , , M N ,
2n 3, L
2n 2.
M {A}, N {B} L. .
256. . 2001.
, 2001.

196

1. x y . xy = x + y,
x = y = 2, xy < x + y, x, y 1.
xy  x + y
(x 1)(y 1)  1.
2. xy = c, x > 0, y > 0, x  y, x + y
x.
f (x) = x + xc =

2
c x + 2c, c > 0, (0, c).
=
x

( ) . . ,
+ b . 1 ,
a ab
(2, 2), (1, k).
.
. :
(1, k + 1), (1, k + 2), . . . , (1, k + 999).
.
.
, k + 1000 .. k, 1000 .. k. k  1000 k + 999  1999.
. (1, l) ,
(a, b) (1, l + 1).
ab s1 = 1 + l. ab = l + 1,
2
l+1
.
()
s2 = a + b  2 +
2
1
ab  l +
2 , 2
l+1
.
a+b1+
2
, ().
c, d 2
l+1
s3 = c + d  cd + 1  3 +
,
2
. . s1000 , (1, l), :
l+1
s1000  1000 +
.
2
..
, s1000 . l, , s1000  l.
: l  2001. , , (1, l), s  2001. ,
2000.

20002001 , 11

197

, 2001 .
: (1, 2001), (2, 1001), (1, 1003), (1, 1004), (1, 1005),
. . . , (1, 2000).
11
257. . p = 5, q = 3.
p q = n, p + q = n3 .
(n 1)n(n + 1)
n3 n
=
.
q=
2
2
3,
q 3. 3 3. , q = 3.
q n = 2.
23 + 2
n3 + n
=
= 5.
p=
2
2
258. . .
, f (x) = (xa)(xb), a
= b.
f (x) . , f (f (x)) = (xt1 )2 (xt2 )(x
t3 ). , t1 , t2 , t3 f (x) = a f (x) = b,
, ,
f (x) = a x = t1 .
f (f (f (x))) = 0. , , f (f (x)) = a f (f (x)) = b.
f (f (x)) = a f (x) = t1 , f (f (x)) = b (
). f (f (f (x))) = 0 6
.
259. . ,
ADB ADC O1 O2 ,
BD, DC, M N , DO2 O1 O2 A1 , A2 , K, E O (.
. 136). BAD = CAD = . A1 O1 D = A2 O2 D =
( ,
). OK ( O2 N = O1 D +
) O1 M N O2 , , OK l, OK = O1 M +
2
2
+ O22D = OE + EA2 . , E, O A2
, OEO2 + O2 EA2 = O1 DO2 + O2 EA2 = O1 AO2 +
+ (180 DO2 C) = 2 + (180 2) = 180, . . OK = OE + EA2 =
= OA2 . , OA1 = OK. , A1 , A2
K O, OK l, l.

198

K
D

A1

N l

M1

O1

A2
C

O2
N1
l1
. 136

, l l1 , .
. 1 2 ,
ADB ADC, R1 R2 .
, l O1 O2 O (.
. 137). OD B  C  , OA 1 A . H O



1
k=R
R2 C , D A D, B A , 
 
, DAC = B A D. , B  A D = B  AD,
B  AD = C  AD. , B  C 
B C, BAD CAD
, ( = B  AD = C  AD).
A
1
A
2
O
C

O2

O1
D

N
E

B

M
. 137

H1 O, 2 , E M N . ,

20002001 , 11

199

l O 2 l, , l
E. , ON C OM D
( H) , N C M D. , H1 (C) = C1 ,
EC1 N C. EC1 CN M D, . . H1 C DC. , D
BD. , BD
DC.
R1 = R2 ,
12 O2 O1 .
260. . 252.
261. , T ,
xm+T = xm xm+T +1 = xm+1 m  m0 .
m  m0 sin xm
= 0, xm+T +1 = (m +
+ T ) sin xm+T + 1 = (m + T ) sin xm + 1
= m sin xm + 1 = xm+1 .
sin xm = 0, xm+1 = 1, sin xm+1 = sin 1
= 0,
xm+1 . , .
262. A1 S
SBC, B1
SAC, AA1
BB1 A, A1 , B1 ,
B ,
B1 P A1
AB1 BA1
B
SC. - A
P . AP
BP A B,
AC
BC
CP
P S = AS = BS .
C
AC =
AC BS = BC AS, BC
. 138

AS , ,
= BS
S ASB C ACB AB, . .
S, C ASB ACB
. , , S C
, .
263. . , A B S
X S , |XA| < 0,999|AB|, |XB| <
< 0,999|AB|.
: I S l I  S

200

0,999l,
I. , , I  I.
I1 l I2 ,
I3 , . . . , Ik+1 Ik |Ik+1 | < 0,999|Ik |.
S. , ,
Ik I1
1 0,999k+1
l + 0,999l + . . . + 0,999k l =
l < 1000l.
1 0,999
, 2000l 2000l
I1 S.
.
.
264. . . 61 ,
.
. 61 61 2 60 = 1830
, 200 2000, , - . , , , , x + y = x + z,
y = z . .
15 (
4 , 61 ). 15
, 4 4 ,
.
15 , N1 N2
: N1 ,
N2 . . 215 . 30 000 ( 30, ).
215 > 30 000, , ,
, , . , M1
M2 .
N2 ,
M1 M2 M3 M4 . , M1 ,
M2 , M3 , M4 .
. , , , -

20012002 , 8

201


97 .
. , , . , ,

. , 106 . . 106 106 2 105 = 5460 ,
200 2000. ,
1800 3 = 5400, . , . , ,
, , x + y = x + z, y = z
.

20012002 .
8
265. . .
, .
,
2. ,
2. 9 , . . , ,
2002 , . . . .
266.
:

. 4
1
2
3
4
5
1

, , 6
. 2,
. 139
,
, . 3.
,
( 3 ,
6 ). ,
, 5 . .
267. . .

202

: 1, . . . , 11
, . , 1. , , , 2, . . . , 11. 10 . ,
( A), 2 11
. , 11 A
20 , .
11- , A . , .
268. , . . A1 B1 C1
. A B1 C1 ,
C1 B1 A1 = AB1 C = 60 , C B1 A1 .
BAC = 180 BAC1 CAB1 = 60 . , ACB = 60
ABC . . , A
B1 C1 .
A1
A1
C1
B
B
C1

B1
B1

. 140

. 141

A1 BC1 , B1 CA1 , C1 AB1 .


, ABC (, . 140
A1 BC1 C1 AB1 , . 141 A1 BC1 ); . A1 , B1 , C1
(. . 140), (. . 141).

20012002 , 8

203

A1 B1 C1 60 , . .
269. . .
. 2 ,
a a +
+2 . ,
, 2. , , 2, 1. , ,
( , 9). ,
4 2 1 2, 2312,
2002.
. abcd. M = (d + b) (a + c),
() ,
. 1234 M1 = (4 + 2) (1 + 3) = 2,
2002 M2 = (2 + 0) (2 + 0) = 0. .
270.
ABCD

B2
C1

B1

C2

D1

O
A2

A1

D2
. 142

A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2 D1 D2 , O
(. . 142). O
A1 B2 , . .
AB (AA1 = BB2 ). , O

ABCD, . . .
OA1 = OC2 = R, OA = OC = r , , OAA1

204

OCC2 . , OA1 A = OC2 C.


, OA1 B2 OC2 B1 ,
A1 B2 = C2 B1 , . . AB = CB. BC = CD = DA,
. . ABCD . ( r), ,
.
271. O,  
 Z0 N0 . Z1 M1 ,   , , M2 N2 ,  ,
. OM2 = ON2 ,
.
Z0 Z1
ON0
1
ZZ0 ZO1 = OM
OM Z O = ON ,
0

OM1 ON = Z1 O ON0 .
OM2 = Z0 O
2
Z0 Z1
Z0 Z1
OM2 = ON2 ,
Z0 O = ON0 OM1 = Z1 O.
272. .
1, 2, . . . , 18, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, 13, 14, 15.
.
1) 800 , . .
99-. 1, 2,
3, 8, 9. 497 ( 99
1, 2, 3), 498 ( 99 8, 9, 10), 499 (9, 10, 11) 500 (16,
17, 18).
2) 799 , . .
99-. 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 12.
597 , 598 , 599 600 , 99 (2, 3, 4), (7, 8, 9), (10, 11, 12) (15, 16, 17).
3) 798 , . . 99. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, ,
597 , 598 , 599 600 , (3, 4,
5), (6, 7, 8), (11, 12, 13) (14, 15, 16) .
4) 797 , . . 99-
. 4, 5,
6, 12. , 397 , 398 , 399 400 ,
(4, 5, 6), (5, 6, 7), (12, 13, 14) (13,
14, 15) .

20012002 , 9

205

. , 99 , .
, . 16

1 16.
, .
 ,
, . 0 3 (
16) 1 ,
.
.
1
0
0

2
0
1

3
0
2

4
0
3

5
1
3

6
1
2

7
1
1

8
1
0

9
2
0

10
2
1

. 143

11
2
2

12
2
3

13
3
3

14
3
2

15
3
1

16
3
0

, , .
: , ,
1 3 , ( 2 4) , , 4 ,
5 ( 5 7), ,
7, 7 . 6
, 7, 8 . : ,
, .
, ,
: 7, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, 13, 14, 15.
9
273. . 266.
274. f (n 1) = p1 , f (n) = p2 , f (n + 1) = p3 .
f (a x) = f (x), f (x) = x2 + ax + b ,
, x0 f
, a x0
. , K(n, f (n))
y = f (x).
K(n, f (n)) , . . f (n c) = f (n) + c2 ,
f (n 1) = f (n + 1) = f (n) + 1. f (n) f (n + 1)
, f (n) = 2, f (n + 1) = 3. f (n + 3) = f (n) + 32 = 11
.
275. L BO, L , AB , AL O = BL M

206

(. . 144). , BKO +
+ BLO = 180 , CLO = BKO,
BL M = BKO.
O O
B
D AB.
M OM  O
M M  OO D ,
L
L
M
, M OM  O O
D
.
O O
ABC, OO AB.
K
L - M 
OO , ODL O DL . A
C
, O L D = OL D = BL M .
. 144
, L




O M . O M M O, : L M KO, BL M =
= BKO, .
276. k.
( , , d, P ). , k n 1
, d,
P . . ,
. , k > 4(k n1)
( 3k < 4n + 4), A, -, -, - . . : - B, - ,
- B A. , ,
a A , B A, .
.
277. . .
.
7. 8-, 15-, 22-, 29-, 36-, 43-, 50-, 57-
7. 9 , 7. 1 60
(7 1, . . . , 7 8). .

20012002 , 9

207

278. AD , BC , M
P Q. CM AD C  (. . 145). M Q
CC  D, C  D , , , CC  D
. , AD
, , . .
C  , .
B  , AD.
B
C
B
C
P
M
A

C

D
. 145

A

T
A

C
. 146

C  , AC, CD A (. . 146). ACA C  ,


AA CC  T , AT C  CT A
. , , , CC  D
AA D , ABCD. , . , ABCD A B  C  D , M , CC  ,
AC A C  ( BD B  D ), , A C  B  D AC BD
ABCD. ABCD A B  C  D M ,
M .
279. . , .
, . , ,
. ,
.
AB BC, . ,
. AC ,
. ,

208

B; AB = BC. , .
l. l 2002, ,
1001. l 1001; l = 1, . . .
280. . 272.
10
281. . n = 3.
.
a = 5m 2 , a2 + 1 .. 5,
p = a2 + 1, p = 5 a = 2.
, b, b + 2, b + 4, . . . ,
5m 2. ,
2, n  2. a1 = 2, n  3, a4 = 8 = 5 2 2. a1 = 2,
a2 = 4, a3 = 6 : 5, 17, 37 .
282. m2 + 1
(k, l) (k1 , l1 ), k k1 (mod m) l l1
k i, l + l1 l i), 0  i  m,
(mod m). m + 1 (k + k1m
m
, (k, l) (k1 , l1 ).
.
m2 + 1 m3 + 1.
283. , KM AC. B
KM K
O2
ABC K 
=
M
O
1

= K (. . 147). KBC =


= K KA = M KA,
K
.
M AK M KB - A
M
.
C
AKM (O1 ) . 147
KBM (O2 ). , O1 M O2 KM B
M /2.
O1 O2 KB /2, ,
O1 O2 KA /2, , O1 O2 AKB.

20012002 , 10

209

284. . n = 1 .
, n .
n + 1 . ,
 n
2
n+1 2
n



ak
= a2n+1 + 2an+1
ak +
ak

k=1

k=1

k=1

 a2n+1 + 2an+1
, ,
a3n+1  a2n+1 + 2an+1

n

k=1

n


ak +

n


a3k .

k=1

ak ,

k=1

,
a2n+1 an+1  2

n


ak .

k=1

,
ak+1 + ak  (ak+1 + ak )(ak+1 ak ) = a2k+1 a2k .
k 0 n,
n
n


ak 
(a2k+1 a2k ) = a2n+1 ,
an+1 + 2
k=1

k=0

.
285. . f1 = (x x1 )(x x2 ), f2 = (x
x1 )(x x3 ), . . . , fn1 = (x x1 )(x xn ), fn = (x x2 )(x x3 ),
. . . , fm = (x xn1 )(x xn ), xi Xi Ox.
f1 + . . . + fm =

n(n 1) 2
x (n 1)(x1 + x2 + . . . + xn )x +
2

+ (x1 x2 + x1 x3 + . . . + xn1 xn ) . :

D = (n1)2 (x1 + . . . +xn )2 2n(n1)(x1 x2 + . . . +xn1 xn ) = (n1)[(n


1)(x21 + . . . + x2n + 2x1 x2 + . . . + 2xn1 xn ) 2n(x1 x2 + . . . + xn1 xn )] =
= (n 1)[(n 1)(x21 + . . . + x2n ) 2(x1 x2 + . . . + xn1 xn )] = (n 1)[(x1
x2 )2 + (x1 x3 )2 + . . . + (xn1 xn )2 ] > 0.
.
. 2S = 2(f1 +. . .
. . . + fm ) y1 = (x x1 )2 , . . . , yn = (x xn )2 , 2S1 =
= (x x1 )[(x x1 ) + (x x2 ) + . . . + (x xn )] + . . . + (x xn )[(x

2
x1 ) + . . . + (x xn )] = n2 x x1 + . n. . + xn . , S1
x0 = x1 + . n. . + xn . S < S1 , yi  0

210

yi . , S(x0 ) < 0,
.
286. . 278.
287. . , .
, . ,
, n,
n . ,
.
n A1 A2 , A2 A3 , . . . , An An+1 , .
n A1 Ak (2  k  n + 1) , , n; ,
, A1 Ak A1 Al , , Ak Al n.
, - Ai Aj (i < j) n.
n n 1 .
, Am i < m < j;
i = 1, j = n + 1 A1 A2 = A2 A3 = . . . = An An+1 .
, .
l.
l; , l = 1, . .
.
288. . 41.
41
1 2 3 4
. 148 (
5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12
41- ). , 41 13 14 15 16
.
17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24
4 , 40.
25 26 27 28
29 30 31
A 5 . 32
33 34
35 36
38 39 40
37
4 , A, .
148
, 5 + 4 9 = 41. B, 5 ,
A. 10 A B ,
. 2
( A B), 3. ,
10 30 , 40.

20012002 , 11

211

11
289. x +y q , xr +y q , xs +y q
xr xp , xs xr . p = 3, r = 5, s = 7. a = x7 x5
b = x5 x3 . b = 0, x = 0 x = 1, . .
x . b
= 0, x2 = ab .
b = x2 (x2 1) x x. , y
.
290. SO S
, ,
A1
C1
SO, AA1 CC1 ASC,
H1
H1 ( . 149 ASC
. , .
B
,
C
).
O
ASC , S, A1 C1 , . . A
SH1 ,
D
. 149
H1 A1 S H1 C1 S . , H1 SO . , H2 ,
H2 SO, BB1 DD1 . , H1
= S
H2
= S, , H1 = H2 .
291. . n = 1 .
, n .
n + 1 . ,
n+1 2
 n
2
n



2
ak
= an+1 + 2an+1
ak +
ak

p

k=1

k=1

k=1

 a2n+1 + 2an+1
, ,
a3n+1  a2n+1 + 2an+1

k=1
n


ak ,

k=1

,
a2n+1 an+1  2

n


n

k=1

ak .

ak +

n

k=1

a3k .

212

,
ak+1 + ak  (ak+1 + ak )(ak+1 ak ) = a2k+1 a2k .
k 0 n,
n
n


an+1 + 2
ak 
(a2k+1 a2k ) = a2n+1 ,
k=1

k=0

.
292. , , . ,
n , .
. ,
.
. , -
;
n. a b,
x y (. . 150). , a S1 D x S2 D ,
a S1 x S2 ; ,
S2 y S1 b. S1 b, x S2 ; S2 y
, y b ; x
a. , , ,
a, , b. ,
n - ,
-, , , .
b,
, . .
,
x
S2
y
,
. ,
..
.
D
. . a
S1
b
, ;
a.
. 150
- a ; a.
.
. , , , ,
, n , -

20012002 , 11

213

n. .
n , ;
n . , .
1. ,
n .
2. ( !)
, - n2 n +
+ 1 .
293. x1 , . . . , xN P (x) = 0.
, P (P (x))
N .
N : P (x) = x1 , P (x) = x2 , . . . , P (x) = xN .
, P (x) . a1 , a2 , . . . , aN N -.
i j (i
= j) ai aj , P (ai ) =
= xi
= xj = P (aj ). ai P (P (x)) = 0, P (P (ai )) = P (xi ) = 0.
P (P (x)) = 0 N a1 , . . . , aN .
294. . .
,
, , ,
, .
, ,
, ( ). ,
, . , , , . , (. . ).

, AB, CD.
A D , AC DB ,

, AB ( AC),
. A D ,

( A = D, B = C); AC, DB AB
, - ,
, - .

214

295. P BC AD ( AD BC ). , P BC B (. . 151). BK AK
P BA P AB, K ABP . ,
M CDP ,
, K M m, CP D.
L
C
B
A
M
P

O1

O2

A
D

N
. 151

O1 O2 ABK CDM . K 
ABP P , A B. KAK  KBK 
, AKBK  , O1
KK  , . . m. , O2 m
M K  , K 
DM C.
( AD BC , K M , O1 O2
m,
ABCD.)
, ABK CDM ,
. O1 O2 m,

20012002 , 11

215

I m K  K  . , I ABCD.
ABCD I .
, ABCD I
, AIlA , BIlB , CIlC DIlD . I ,
ABK, K, I , CDM , M . , I m
, ABK
CDM .
, ,
ABK CDM , ABCD.
, BCL DAN , .
296. . .
M [0, N ]. , . A1 , A2 , A3 , A4 ,
, .

M . ,
M , ( M ). ,
, M .
: B1 , B2 , B3 ,
B4 . ,
B1 B2 , B2 B3 , B3 B4 . ,
- , .

3; Ai Aj . C
D , Ai C = CD = DAj . C D ,
Ai C = CD = DAj = 1, M , Ai Aj . C , D ,
Ai Aj ( M ) D;
, C
2. D,
.

216

C, D . M Ai
C ( ), Aj C;
Ai Aj , . , , M CD. Ai Aj , Ai D Ai Aj ,
Aj D . Ai Aj , Am
Ai Am , Aj Am . , , Ai Am
. Aj D; Ai Aj
2,
2, Ai Am .

20022003 .
8
297. . 7.
1 10 7 . ,
, 7. 8 . , ,
, 7: 1325469710

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 = 28 34 52 7,
. . , 24 32 5.
298. , OX OY .
OX , ,
OX .
, . , , OX,
OY , , . , OY ,
,
- ( ).
299. . .
, - 500
999 ( ),
1000 .
500 999? -, 1
499 ( 499). -, 502 998 ( 497),
502 251. , 501

20022003 , 8

217

500. 500
999 499 + 497 = 996 . ,
.
300. ABC (BD . 152). BC > BA, DC >
> DA. , ABC BDEF , DE = 12 AC, E DC,
DC > DA. GF E, ADB (G BF ). BG =
= BF GF = DE AD = (AD + EC) AD = EC,
BG CE HBG = HCE, BGH = HEC. ,
BGH = CEH. : ABD, BDEH, CEH
( ). ABD GEF
CEH BGH, .
B
E
G

F
F
H
G

C
A

. 152

. 153

ABC (AB = BC . 153),


BD, BF G ,
BDC AEB, .
301. . 3.
: , ,
1 ( 8). , , . 2 . 1, 2, 3, 4, ,
, 5, 6, 7, 8. : 1 3. : 1
5, 2 6 . .
+1
1
302. . ac = db = ab
cd + 1 = (. . c = a,
+1
b = d). ab
2

ab + 1

1 , ab + = 2 ab + 1. (ab
=

1)( 1) = 0. = 1 ( a = c b = d), ab = 1.

218

ab = (a)b = cb = 1, . . c = b = 1; a = d = 1.
, a = c b = d.
A = C , A =
. B
D
B
A + C = A C ( ).
= B
+D
BD
+1
a
b = d, . b
= d, ac = db = ab
cd + 1 c =
(a + 1)(b + 1)
+1+a+b
= ab
cd + 1 + c + d = (c + 1)(d + 1) , . . a(c + 1)(d + 1) = c(a + 1)(b + 1).
.
a a + 1 , c(b + 1) .. a. , a =
c

(a 1)(b 1)
+1ab
= ab
cd + 1 c d = (c 1)(d 1) , a a1 ,
.
c(b 1) .. a. b + 1 b 1
.
.
2, c .. a, c .. a2 . ac = db =
.
.
= cd + 1 , , a .. c, a .. c .
ab + 1

+1
4cd + 1
a = c, a = 2c 2a = c. a = 2c, b = 2d ab
cd + 1 = cd + 1
= 2.
2a = c.
303. DC
B
C CM = CD (.
. 154). BD = BM (
BDM ).
BAK =
K
= AKD ABK = ABC
ABK = KBC = CBM ,
BAM = BAK + KAC =
= CBM + ABC = ABM . ,
ABM A
C
M
D
AB, . . AM = BM .
.
154
, BK = BD KD = BM
KD = AM KD = AM AD = DM = 2DC,
.
304. : 0 < a1 < a2 <
< . . . < a2003 . a2003 + a1 , . . . , a2003 + a2002
, a2003 a1 , . . . , a2003 a2002 .
2002 , a2003 . a2003 a1 =
= a2002 , a2003 a2 = a2001 , . . . , a2003 a2002 = a1 . ,
a2002 + a2 > a2002 + a1 = a2003 , a2002 a2 .
a2002 a3 , . . . , a2002 a2001 .
2000, , a2001 (
a2001 = a2003 a2 > a2002 a2 ). a2002 a2 = a2000 , . . . , a2002
a2001 = a1 .

20022003 , 9

219

2  k  2001. a2003 ak = a2003k


a2002 ak = a2002k , a2003k a2002k = a2003 a2002 = a1 .
, a1 = a2003 a2002 = a2002 a2001 = a2001 a2000 = . . . =
= a2 a1 , .
9
305. a < b < c . ,
x, a + x, b + x, c + x
. P (x) = (x + a)2 + (x + b)2 (x +
+ c)2 . : P (c a b) = (c b)2 + (c a)2 ((c a) + (c b))2  0.
, P (x) . , a + x1 > 0, x1
P (x). , a + (c
a b) > 0. x1 > c a b, a + x1 > c b > 0,
.
306. . 298.
307. B
C
( CI) (. . 155).
C C, A A , B
B  , B0 B0 , F F  , , B0 A
CA , , B0 F 
A B  C, M F
ABC, B0
BC, F 
F I
AB .
M AB A B  
A
C
B0
, , B
. 155
C,
AB , F ( A B  ).
308. . .
, ,
a1 , a2 , . . . , ,
. 11
S0 = 0, S1 = a1 , S2 = a1 a2 , . . . , Sk = a1 a2 + a3 + . . . + (1)k1 ak .
11, k-
, 11, , Sk
S0 , . . . , Sk1 . 11

220

0 10 11
0 = S0 , S1 , S2 , S3 , . . . i-
Si1 ai 1 9, 1 9. , ,
1,
1. i- 10 i . ,
, , , 11-
.
( ),
3 .
1) : i 1, i, i + 1.
i ( i), i + 1,
i 1 .
2) : i, i + 1
j. i, i + 1,
i + 1, j , j,
i, i + 1 .
3) : i, j, k.
,
.
309. A1 , B1 , C1
B
A
ABC . A , B  C  I ABC, IA = B 
B1
A1
= IB  = IC  = 2r, r I
. , I C1
A B  C  , C
A
R = 2r = BI. BA1 I C
BI 2 IA1
. 156
, IBA1 =
= 30 , ABC = 2IBA1 = 60 .
310. . 98.
, , A
B, , ,
A B, . . 98 . , 99 .

20022003 , 9

221

, A, (k),
. ,
( A) k A k + 1
. A , . . k = 99,
k.
311. M = {a1 , . . . , a6 } , Mi M ai , Ai
Mi , i = 1, . . . , 6. Ai
Aj , i
= j, a1 , . . . , a6 , . .
1, , A1 , . . . , A6 .
1, pi Ai . Ai , pi ,
, p1 < . . . < p6 A1  2, A2  3, . . . , A6  13.
a1 M2 , . . . , M6 , , a1
A2 . . . A6  3 5 7 11 13 = 15015. , a1 . , Ai 1
Mi .
312. n-. n = 3.
n  4.
n- ; n-
.
, n-.
:
(i) .
, n-, . . (n 2). , n2. n
n 2 ,
n-. (i).
(ii) n- .
, , , n-
4 , , 4 2 =
= 2. , n- 2. .
.

222

, 1 , 2 n-. A
n-.
T 1 . n-. T ,
A. 1 ( (i)), A 1 .
2 .
(ii), A . , A T1 1
T2 2 . , T1 T2 ,
. . 1 2 . , (n 1)-.
, , 1 2
.
10
. = 8 + n
2 .

313.
. ,
sin x + sin 2x + sin 3x = cos x + cos 2x + cos 3x, . .
sin 2x(1 + 2 cos x) = cos 2x(1 + 2 cos x).
) 1 + 2 cos x = 0 cos x = 12 x = 2
3 + 2n sin 3x = 0,
0
{cos x, cos 2x, cos 3x}.
) sin 2x = cos 2x tg 2x = 1, x = 8 + n
2 . ,
3x + x = 2 + 2n cos 3x = sin x, sin 3x = cos x.
. 3 ,
Ox , 2, 3 .
x y,
. , , ,
, /4 Ox.
, 2, . , 2 = 4 + k,
= 8 + k
2 . ,
.
,
. ,

20022003 , 10

223

2
4
2
3 , = 3 + k = 3 + k. ,
sin 3 = 0, cos
= 0, cos 2
= 0 cos 3
= 0.
314. . 307.
315. . 870.
. 45 = 1 + 2 + 3 + . . . + 9,
45 1, 2, . . . , 9 . , , , ,
, . k-
45 k . , ,
,


45

44
2

1
2 2 + 3 2 2 + . . . + 9 2 8 =
= 870.
, .
k, 0  k  44. , k . k . , k , 45 k.
A0 , A1 , . . . , A44 ,
0, 1, . . . , 44 . , Ak  45 k,
, A0 + A1 + . . . + A44 = 45.
S = 12 (0 A0 + 1 A1 + . . . + 44 A44 ) =
1
= 2 (A44 +(A44 +A43 )+ . . . +(A44 +A43 + . . . +A36 )+ . . . +(A44 +A43 +. . .
. . . + A0 ))  12 (1 + (1 + 2) + . . . + (1 + 2 + . . . + 9) + 45 + 45 + . . . + 45) =
= 12 (45 44 ((9 + 8 + . . . + 2) + (9 + 8 + . . . + 3) + . . . + 9)) = 870.
316. 2n ,
, , , , . , ,
( ). 90
O, . ,
, , ,

90 O, , .
,
,
90 . ,
, , , , = = .
90 , , -

224

, .
, , ,
, .
317. . x = 1.
z : z 2 + 2xy z +
+ x2 + y 2 1 = 0. D = 4x2 y 2 4x2 4y 2 + 4 =
= 4(x2 1)(y 2 1). x2 1 > 0, D < 0, , y = 0,
x2 1 < 0, D < 0, , y = 2. x = 1 y
D = 0, .
318. . F (. . 157). A0 F BC, F
BC. I ABC, F B = F I = F C,

=
F BI = F BC + CBI = F AC + CBI = +
2
= BAI + ABI = BIF ,
A B ABC.
IA BC, A0 A = A0 F , IA F = 90 + 45 = 135 .
, BA F = 135 . BA F IA F
BA = A I = r IBA = 45
ABC = 2IBA = 90 .
, , , ,
.
B
A
I

F
A0

. 157

.
. F BC, F BA0 =
2 , F A0 =
a tg . , A A = |BA
= BA0 tg
=
BA | =
0
0
2
2
2
= 12 |b c|. AC 

IB
r
S
B  . tg
2 = AB  = p a = p(p a) . -

20022003 , 10
225
p
p(p a)(p b)(p c)
, F A0 = A0 A a
=
p(p a)
(p b)(p c)
(a + c b)(a + b c)
= (b c)2 , a2 (a + b + c)(b + c a) = (b c)2 ,
= |b c|, a2 p(p a)
a2 (b c)2
= (bc)2 , a4 a2 (bc)2 = (bc)2 (b+c)2 a2 (bc)2 , a4 =
a2
(b + c)2 a2
%
%

a2 = b2 c2 , a2 + c2 = b2 ,
a 2 = c2 b 2
a 2 + b 2 = c2
B, C . ,
, , .
319. . , ,
, ,
,
.
. M = {a1 , . . . , ak }
, Mi M ai , Ai Mi , i = 1, . . . , k. Ai Aj , i
= j,
a1 , . . . , ak , . . 1, A1 , . . . , Ak
. 1, pi
Ai . Ai , pi , , p1 < . . . < pk A1  2, A2  3,
A3  5, A4  7, A5  11.
a1

M2 , M3 , M4 , M5 , a1
A2 A3 A4 A5  3 5 7 11 = 3003. , a1 .
, Ai 1,
Mi .
,
, , .
320. . .
, .

. , .
,
, , . ,
, , ,
. , , .
= (b2 c2 )2 , a2 = |b2 c2 |

226

, ( ), .
,
, . , , , (
) 2 .
17 16 = 136 , 2 136
2
1 = 271, 35 = 243 < 271. .
11
321. . 2 3.
. : y + 1 = p , y 2 y + 1 = p , > 0,
 0. = 0, y = 1, p = 2 (x = 1). > 0. p
y + 1 y 2 y + 1, , y + 1 (y + 1)2 (y 2 y +
+ 1) = 3y. , (y, y + 1) = 1, p = 3. :
32 = 23 + 1.
. px = (p 1)3 + 1 = p (3 + A), A
p. 3 + A = p (  0), p = 3, = 0.
px = p, x = 1. , y = y 3 , y = 1, p = 2.
.
. px = y 2n+1 + 1
O
(x, y, n ) y > 1,
B

2n + 1 = pz , z .
K 2
C
322. KDC A

AB O.
3 : 1) O AB
B; 2) O = B; 3) O [AB].

1) = ADK. AOCD ,
OAC = ODC = . , DOC =
D
= DAC = , ADO = ACO =
. 158
= OCK = + . DO KDC KD = DC,
DO KC. KOD = COD =
= , OKC = + . KBOC ,
KBC = KOC = 2. BCA = KOA = OKC OAC =
= ( + ) = , . . BCA = KDA.
2) , KB = BC (. . 159). CKD = 2 , KDA =

= 2 ; , ABK = 2 , . . KDA = KBA.

20022003 , 11

227

B=O

O
2

2
K
A

. 159

. 160

3) , . .
, OAC = ODC = . AOCD
, , COD = CAD = , KOC = 2COD = 2 =
= KBC. , KOBC ,
KOC O ,
B . B . .
, KDA = BCA, KDA = KBA.
323. f (x) x . , f (x)
x > f (y) y x > y > 0. ,
f (x) f (y) > x y.
()
, f (x2 ) x6 ,
()
f (x) f (y) > x3 y 3 .

, f (x3 ) 23 x6 ,
, f (x) f (y) > 23 (x2 y 2 ) x > y > 0.

() (). -

max{1, x2 + xy + y 2 }  23 (x + y).
,


3
2
2
2
2
max{1, x + xy + y }  x + xy + y 
(x + y),
2

4(x2 + xy + y 2 ) 3(x + y)2 = x2 + y 2 2xy  0.

, 23 (x2 y 2 ) x y
x3 y 3
= (x y)(x2 + xy + y 2 ). , f (x) f (y) > max{x y, x3
y 3 }  23 (x2 y 2 ).

228

324. O
n

S =
OAk OBk . Bi , k=1

S . B,
Bi Bj Bj Bi S  .
S  S  ,
S S  = OAi OBi + OAj OBj OAi OBj OAj OBi  0.
,
()
(OAi OAj ) (OBi OBj ) = Aj Ai Bj Bi  0.
, S ()
i j. .
325. P (Q(x)) = Q(P (x))
(x2 + cx + d)2 + a(x2 + cx + d) + b =
= (x2 + ax + b)2 + c(x2 + ax + b) + d
2(c a)x3 + lx2 + mx + n = 0,
l, m n ,
. , c a
= 0.
,
, . c = a.
b = d, P (x) = Q(x), P (Q(x)) = Q(P (x))
x. , b
= d.
326. . 310.
327. M , M  , 
ABD, N , N  ,  ACD (. . 161). D
AD A.
,
, : DM = DN , D M  = D N  , BM = BT , CN = CT ,
BM  = BT  , CN  = CT  , AM = AN = AT , AM  = AN  = AT  . ( ): DM A =
= DN A, D M  A = D N  A, ABM = ABT , ABM  =
= ABT  , ACN = ACT , ACN  = ACT  .
: BAT + BAT  = BAM + BAM  =
= M AM  = 180 DAM D AM  = 180 DAN D AN  =
= N AN  = CAN + CAN  = CAT + CAT  .
, BAT CAT = CAT  BAT  , BAT = CAT  ,
.
328. . 320.

20032004 , 8

229

M
N
B

T
T
C

M
N

. 161

20032004 .
8
329. . 17.15 17.45.
17.00  () x, ()
y = 2x (), z ,
1 . 17.00 , 18.00
x + z 2x + z , 2x + z
= 2(x + z)
z
= 0. , , 18.00
. , -
17.00 18.00. , ,
17.00 , ; , 18.00
, . , 17.00 18.00
, . 18.00 z x
, 2x z ( 18.00 ),
2x + z . 2x z = 2(z x) 3z = 4x.
2x + z = 2(z x) z = 4x. , 18.00
13 x, 3x ,
17.45, 17.15.
330. . 13.
A , B ,
A. , {A, B}
. A B. {A, A}

230

. A
4. 4 E D. ,
C, A B D
E. , , 4 + 4 + 2 +
+ 2 + 1 = 13. C , , 13 :
{1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 5} .
331. A1 , B1 , C1
B
BC, CA, AB ABC, B2 B3
B1 BA BC (.
. 162), AA , BB  CC  ABC.
A
C
B1 B2
B3
B2
ACC  , . . B1 B2 = 1 CC  . ,
2

B1 B3 = 12 AA , , BB1 = 12 (AA +


C
B1
+ CC  ). , CC1 = 12 (AA + BB  ), A
1


. 162
AA1 = 2 (BB + CC ), AA1 + BB1 +
+CC1 = AA +BB  +CC  . AA1 , AA , . . AA1  AA , A1 A .
, AA1 +BB1 +CC1 > AA +BB  +CC  , .
A1 A , . . , BA =
= CA. , AB = BC. .
332. . .
, , . , a b .
, a < b. , a b 10 3 9, 10 3 (
10 ). ,
.
a, a+8, a+16, a+24, . . . , a+72, . . . , b.
a, a + 9, a + 18, a + 27, . . . , a + 72, . . . , b.
. ,
a . ,
. , a, a + 18, a + 36, . . . , a + 72 ,
a + 8, a + 24, a + 40, . . . , a + 72

20032004 , 8

231

. a + 72 ,
. .
333. . .
a, b, c ,
a ( ). a > b,
a2 /b > a. a = b > c, b2 /c > b = a. ,
a, b, c. ,
a, b, c.
.
a, b, c , a = b = c = a2 /b = b2 /c = c2 /a.
334. () . , M N - B
C
O AC (. . 163).
O1
M
N
O
, . . O1 O AC
O2
O2 O AC, O1 O2 A
D
ABC ADC.
O1 O2 O, M N , . 163
O1 O2 (
O1 O2 M N ). , AO1 CO2 O ,
, . O1 C O2 A , , O1 CB =
= O2 AD. BO1 C = DO2 A ( ). , AD = BC , , ABCD . ,
O1 O2 .
335. . 1.
, 13579.
, a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 , a1 < a2 < a3 < a4 < a5 . , a1
= 1,
2  a1 < a2 . a2
= 3, 4  a2 < a3 . , , a3
=

= 5, 6  a3 < a4 . , a4
= 7, 8  a4 < a5 ,
. . a5 = 9, .
336. . .
. A
, a. a n
. A1 -

232

. AA1 B1
(, B1 , A A1 ).

, A, A1 B1 , ,
1, (, , a) p1 .
A2 ,
AA1 . AA2 B2 .
, A, A2 B2 ( , a)
p2 . , p1
= p2 ,
, A, A1 A2 , p1 = p2 ,
. , AA3 ,
AA4 , . . . , AAn+1 , a. , , a n + 1
. .
9
337. . 330.
338. AM = M A0 . B
A0
2 : 1, A
C0

, 2M A = AM . C
M
2M A = M A0 , M A = A0 A .
C
BM CA0 B
A

A
, BM CA0 , , A0 CM =
= A0 BM .
B0



A0 BC
. 164
 0 = 2A0 CM = 2A0 BM =
= A0 CB0 .
A0 B0 A0 C0 , .
339. . 332.
340. a, b c. x = (b, c), y =
= (c, a) z = (a, b). , a, b c

,
. x, y z . a = kyz, b = lxz c = mxy,
k, l m .
, ky lx .
.
.
(kyz lxz) .. (kyz + lxz), , (ky lx z) .. (ky + lx). ,
(ky, ky + lx) = (ky, lx) = 1 , , (lx, ky + lx) =
.
= 1. , z .. (ky + lx). , z  ky + lx  x + y.

20032004 , 9

233

, , x  y + z y  x + z.
. .
341. . .
, .
11: 11 , , ,
11, , . .
, ,
11, , .
, ,
11, , .
99 , 11
. , ,
, 11,
, . , , ,
11, , .
, 11.
2
2
2
2
342. |xy|
< 2 x 2xy+y < 4 x +2xy+y < 4(1+
+ xy) x+ y < 2 xy + 1,
x y . ,

y +z < 2 yz +
1,
z
+
x
<
2
zx + 1
2x + 2y+ 2z < 2 xy + 1 +

+ 2 yz + 1 + 2 zx + 1 x + y + z < xy + 1 + yz + 1 + zx + 1.
343.
B
C

BA M M  (.
. 165). BM C M
AM  D. AN DM  , AM  D+
N
+ AN D = BM C + AN D = (180

M BC M CB) + (360 M N A
M N D) = 180. M  N D =
D
= M  AD, M N D + M N D = M N D + A


+ M AD = M N D + M BC = 180 . , M , N M  ,
M


. 165
,! M"N M M = BA.
n
344. . 2 + 1.
1 n, ki , i- (i = 1, 2,
3, . . . ).

234

! "
n
k[ n ]+1 = n
2 + 1 ,
2
!n"
ki = 2i 1 i  2 , ( ! "
, m- m  n
2 ,
!n"
m- ; m > 2 , ).
,
.
! "
, n
2 , m =
!n"
= 1, 2, . . . , 2 + 1 ,
m- , ki = m + i 1
i.
! " . ,!

n "; ,
+
1,

k
=

m
+
i

i
=
1,
2,
.
.
.
,
m0  n
i
0
2
2
! "
n
2 (, , ) ,
.
10


345. a + b < 2 , cos a > cos 2 b = sin b,
! "
cos x 0; 2 . , cos b > sin c cos c > sin a.
, .
346. . 338.
347. . 340.
348. A1 , A2 , . . . , AN , Ai Aj (1  i < j  N ) n
r1 , r2 , . . . , rn . , i (1  i  N )
, Ai , n
O(Ai , r1 ), O(Ai , r2 ), . . . , O(Ai , rn ) ( O(X, r) r X).
,
Ai Aj (1  i < j  N ). , A1 . A1 A2 , A1 A3 , . . . , A1 AN ( )
, A1 A2 . A3 , A4 , . . . , AN
A1 A2 .
A3 , A4 , . . . , AN O(A1 , rk ) O(A2 , rl ) k, l
{1, 2, . . . , n}. n2 , . -

20032004 , 10

235

, N 2 A3 , A4 , . . . , AN n2 . N 2  n2 , N  n2 + 2  (n + 1)2 .
349. an1 an . p, . . an1 = pm, an = pk, m, k Z. x1 , x2 , . . . , xn
. xn + a1 xn1 + a2 xn2 + . . . + an1 x +
+ an = (x x1 )(x x2 ) . . . (x xn ) (
x):
x1 x2 . . . xn = an = pk;
x1 x2 . . . xn1 + x1 x2 . . . xn2 xn +
+x1 x2 . . . xn3 xn1 xn + . . . + x1 x3 x4 . . . xn1 xn +
+x2 x3 . . . xn1 xn = an1 = pm.
, p.
x1 p.
, x2 x3 . . . xn1 xn , p. , x2 x3 . . . xn1 xn p, . .
x2 , x3 , . . . , xn x1 . .
350. . 2.
. : N = abcde N G = ggggg, g ,
a, b, c, d, e. , N1 = 13579 N2 =
= 12468 , .
A = a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 ,
1  a1  a2  a3  a4  a5 . , A
N1 , N2 , a5  7 , , a4  7;
, a4  5 a3  5. ,
, , a3  3, a2  3;
, a2
= 2 a2
= 3, a1 = 1, A N1 ( N2 ) .
351. A k, 1 1 , 2 .
. B1 ( A) 1 2 .
1 2 AB1 ,
T1 T2 , t1 t2 , M1
M2 . , AM2 = AM1 = kAM1 (k
T1 T2 ). AM1 M2
A ( M1 M2 l1 l2 , A,
AB1 , AM2 : AM1 ).

236

, M1 M2
, A.
352. 1
A
: 2
(k + 1) n T2

T1
T1
k (n + 1), O2
O1
.
M2
M1
(k + 1) n,
B1
- M1
k (n + 1) (
1 n), . 166
k (n + 1),
(k + 1) n (
k 1). .
-
, , k (n + 1), p .
.
k : , , , , . .
k n, . . p
. . k > p, ,
, , .
11
353. n . . , .
, . , . . , , n-
. n ,
n .
(. . - m , m 1
). , n . , n. ,

20032004 , 11

237

n, - . n
n , .
. , k = n .
354. O1 , O2 , O3 , O
T1
1 , 2 , 3 , .
M
1 , O, O1 , T1
O1
, OO1 = OT1
O2
T2
O1 T1 = R r. , OO2 = OO3 =
S
= R r, O ,
O3
O1 O2 O3 . SO1 = SO2 = SO3 = r, S - T3
,
. 167
O1 O2 O3 . ,
S O .
M T1 T2 . OM OT1 T2 , M ,
OT1 , . . M 1 . , M
2 .
355. .
1) ( , ),
,
.
2) x
.
x
, ,
, . , 1),
.
,
, . P (x) = axn + bxm +. . .
. . . + c (a, b
= 0) , xn xm
x P (x) (c = P (0) c
= 0). n m ,
P (x) bxm axn , , .
,
. , n m .
1, a > 0. c < 0,
P (x) ,
, P1 (x)

238

c x = 0 x, ,
. c > 0.
P (t) = 0. b > 0, P (x) bxm .
x P1 (x) , P1 (t) = P (t) btm < 0 ( t
= 0, m ), P1 (x) . b < 0, axn ,
P1 (x) x, P1 (0) = P (0) =
= c > 0, , .
, ,
P (0). .
356. . .
,
, ,
,
.
,
, .
, , .
, u v .
, (
, u v), , (u, v) v u.
,
, u
v, .
, ,
u v , (u, v).
U ,
u, (u, v) ( u). , U , v. , , (u, v). ,
U u,
(u, v). U , (u, v).
v V .
, , (u, v).

20032004 , 11

239

,
U V . , ,
,
(u, v), U V
, (u, v). u1 U
v1 V ( , , , , u1 v1 , ).
u u1 , u1 v1
v1 v, (u, v), .
.
357. . 341.
358. . 101105.
x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5
, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 . 10,
9 , , :
x5  9.
100,
x4 + x5  100 1 = 99,
:
x3 + x4 + x5  999,
x2 + x3 + x4 + x5  9999,
x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 = 89999,
, 5-
, 1. , :
x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 + 4x4 + 5x5  101105.
,
.
, . n =
= a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 n = a5 a4 a3 a2 a1 (
, ) n
. n.
, n ( n) 9 , 99 . .,
k n -

240

. ,
.
359. . 4.
T , , fn (T ) =
= sin n + sin n + sin n.
. x + y + z = k, k Z.
| sin x|  | sin y| + | sin z|.
y
= l, z
= l, l Z, .
.
| sin x| = | sin(y + z)| = | sin y cos z + sin z cos y| 
 | sin y| | cos z| + | sin z| | cos y|  | sin y| + | sin z|.
y
= l, z
= l, l Z, .
, fn (T ) , : , , sin n > 0, sin n >
> 0, fn (T )  sin n + sin n | sin n| > 0.
, f1 (T ) > 0. ( )
T f2 (T ) > 0. ,
< 2 , < 2 , sin 2 > 0, sin 2 > 0.
n = 3. : x = = 4 2
3
3x 3
4 2 . , sin 3x (
f (T )) , .
n = 4,   . , >
> 4 (  4 ,  4 ,  2 ). , < 4  4 < 4 2 = 2,
sin 4 < 0, sin 4 < 0. f4 (T ) < 0.
n > 4. n = 3, :
x = = 4 2 y = nx ,
. , x1 x2 , sin nx1 > 0,
sin nx2 < 0. fn (T1 ) > 0, fn (T2 ) < 0, T1 T2 ,
x1 x2 .
360. KL P Q, ABD ABC,
, ,
, . . AB. ABLK
ABQP , , , . DAB = DBA, CAB = CBA ABD ABC
. ABCD
AB,
ABD ABC . -

20042005 , 8

241

K L, P Q , M
; KM Q LM P .
,
C
CD, M ; C, D ,
; CBD. Q
P
BLM C DM QB ,
DM L = 180 CM L = CBD =
M
= 180 DM Q = CM Q. ,
M L M Q .
B
, M K M P L
A
.
K
M K, M L, M P , M Q 



D
M K , M L , M P , M Q .
. 168
K  L , P  Q , K  P  , L Q ; K  L P  Q , K  P  L Q , . . K  L Q P 
. O .
M O , , , K  M Q L M P  , .

20042005 .
8
361. , 90 , . ,
  
 . , ,
60 /. 180 . .
362. . .
, 1, 4, . . . , 1024. , 1024 ( , 2048, ).
, 1 + 2 + 4 + . . . + 128 < 256, . . 5-
256 .
5- ( 256 )
.
256. ( 512
)

242

256, 256 + 1002 > 1024,


1024 ( ).
363. . .
2,
1. , 11
, S,
, 11. , 2
1, 7  S  11.
( 21), S . 7 11 , 11 11. S = 11
,
.
364. M O1 N O2 AB
AC (M , N AB AC, O1 , O2 AC AB) (. . 169).
C

O2
B
M
P

O
A

N O1

B
. 169

O M O1 N O2
ABC
AO1 O2 . B B  AC, AC BB  . , O1
A, B, B  , . . O1 ABB  . , O2
ACC  . AP O1 O2 . AP
AO1 O2 , , AP O.

20042005 , 8

243

365. s(A) A.   A B , s(A + B)  s(A) +


+ s(B), ,
. ,
, 5N + 5N = 10N ,
s(10N ) = s(N ) = 100. 5N 5 0
N . ,
.
366. R
Q
BP AQ. BR
C
ABQ, , , AB = BQ. B
P
R
BP A BP Q
,
D
BQP = BAP = BCD, ,
P Q CD , A
BC.
. 170
k k
367. . (2 , 2 ), k  0.
a2n = x2 + y 2 + 2xy = am + 2xy. a2n >
> am , , a2n am . , 2xy am =
= x2 + y 2 . , 2xy  x2 + y 2  2xy. x2 + y 2 = 2xy,
x = y. , 2x = an , 2x2 = am , 4x2 = a2n , 2 = a2nm .
, a = 2, x = y = 2k , k  0.
368. . xi i- . (. .
x1  x2  . . .  x99 ). 2- 99-
49 , , x1 . , ,
, , , 50 . 98 .
. 2, 4, 6, . . . , 98,
3, 5, . . . , 99. , ,
2 , .
, , x2  x1 .
. .
, x2 , , ,
, ,
, (, ,

244

). - , . . ,
x2 .
. ,
. , ,
.
. , A, xA
yA , B, xB < xA yB < yA . A , xA , yB ,
B  , xB yA . ,
50 , .
,
A B  , A,
A B 
A B.
,
: X ,
Y , , Y . , , (A, B)
.
. 1, 3, 5, . . . , 99. , , , ,
, , . . , , , 99- ,
98-, 97- , 96- . .
9
369. . .
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 15 , ,
. , - , ,
.
, , : 1 2, 2 5, 4 5
, 3, 4, 5 1.
370. . .
. 363.
371. . .
.

20042005 , 9

245

, , , , . .
25: (1, 24), (2, 23), . . . , (12, 13).

, .
,
4 25 = 100.
372. N P . N BP =
= N AP = 90 , P AC, ABP = CBP ,
. . BP ABC. , I BP (.
. 171).
N P AC,
, N P M . AIP
+ ABC
= IAC +
AIB, AIP = BAI + ABI = BAC
2
2
+ CBP = IAC + CAP = IAP . , AP I (AP = IP ). AM
AP = N P IP = N P . N AP , M
P
AP
MP
IP
P M I P IN , P M I = P IN .
IM A = P M I 90 , BN I: IN B =
= P IN IBN = P IN 90 .
D
B N
B

I
O

M
A

C
B
P
. 171

D
. 172

373. . 365.
374. ABCD AD BC,
A , B  , C  D (. . 172).
BD B  D AC,
AC, O
BO = B  O . , AC
ABCD. , OD

OD

246

CO
BO
CO
O CO
OA = OA . OD = OA


AOD COB. B O = C O , , A OD
OD
OA
C  OB  , B  C  A D .
. 390 , 60 ,
.
375. . .
, . An =
= (2an ). . .(2an+9 ) Bn = an+4 +an+5
n. , d ,
An = (Bn 9d)(Bn 7d) . . . (Bn d)(Bn + d) . . . (Bn + 7d)(Bn + 9d).
, An = Bn Cn + D, Cn , D = d10 (1 3 . . . 7 9)2 .
, An Bn Bn > D. .
376. . xi i- . (. .
x1  x2  . . .  x100 ). 2- 100-
33 , , x1 . , ,
, ,
, 34 .
99 .
. 2, 5, 8, . . . , 98,
3, 6, . . . , 99, 4, 7, . . . , 100. i-
Ai , A1  A2  A3  A1 x2 . ,
, x2  x1 .
. .
, x2 , ,
, , ,
, (, , ).
- , . . ,
x2 . . ,
. ,
, .
. , A, xA
yA , B, xB < xA yB < yA . A , xA , yB ,

20042005 , 10

247

B  , xB yA . ,
34 , .
,
A B  , A,
A B 
A B.
,
: X ,
Y , , Y . , , (A, B)
.
. 1, 4, 7, . . . , 100. ,
, ,
, , . . ,
, , 100-
, 98- 97-, 96- , 95- 94-
. .
10
377. . 135 .
, 1 , 2 , 3 (cos i = sin i > 0, 1 , 2 , 3 , ).
i = 2 i , i = 1, 2, 3. = 1 + 2 + 3 = 3
2 +
+ (1 2 3 ), 1 + 2 + 3 = , ,
+, .
, ,
+ .

3
, = 3
2 + (1 2 3 ), 1 = 4 , . . 1 = 4 =

= 135 . ,
; , .
. , ,
, 70 , 65 , 45 20 , 25 , 135.
378.
1 + xn+1  2x

n+1
2

1 + x  2x 2 .

(1 + xn+1 )(1 + x)n1  2x

n+1
2

(2x 2 )n1 =

= 2 2n1 x
(1 + x)n1 , .

n+1
2

n1
2

= 2n xn .

248

379. . 372.
380. . N ! (N ! = 1 2 . . . N ).
N , 1, 2, . . . , N ,
.
1.
, .
. , ,
. .
N . N = 3 . N > 3. , ,
. N
.
. .
, , , . . , . ,
(, A1 A2 . . . Ak A1 ).
Ak1 Ak A1 , Ak2 Ak1 A1 , . . . , A3 A4 A1 , , Ak1 A1 , Ak2 A1 , . . . , A3 A1
A1 . A1 A2 A3 .
2. .
.
,
.
. . , . , A < B < C . A B C A,
A C B A. ABC
, AC, .
, , .
, A C1
Ck B () A D1 Dl B (). AD1 . . . Dl BCk . . . C1 A,
.
. ,
, N -

20042005 , 10

249

; , , , N ,
. . N ! .
381. . .
.
d .
an+31 .. 5,
.. n
..
..
..
d . 5. n an+31
. 5, an . 5 an+62 . 5, ,
.
.
an+62 an = 62d ..5. d ..5, 5 62 . ,
.
..
d . 5. a2n = an an+31 31an d .. 5, , 5
..
, an . 5.
.
, 401, , an .. 401.
5 401 , an 5 401 = 2005
n.
382. . 374.
383. . (2, 2).
. , . .
. ,
cn , an + bn = cn+1
n
n+1
n
>
(a
+
b)

(a
+
b)
=
an +. . .
cn  a + b, cn+1
n
n
n
n
. . . + b  a + b . , cn
c {1, 2, . . . , a+b} , . . an +
+ bn = cn+1 ( a, b, c)
n.
a  b.

a n  b n
n
n
n+1
a +b =c
c + c
= c.

n  n
a n
> c =
a > c, ac = 1 + d, d > 0. ac + bc
= (1 + d)n = 1 + nd + . . . + dn  1 + nd, c n > c/d, . .
.
 n

n
 1, c = 2 c = 1.
a  c, ac  1 bc

ac = bc = 1, . . a = b =
= 2 . , ,
.
. 1. (z, t) = 1, z 2 + t2
3.
. 3
.
.
.
0 1. , z 2 + t2 .. 3, z .. 3, t .. 3.
2. (z, t) = 1, (z + t, z 2 zt + t2 ) 1, 3.
. * z 2 zt + t2 = (z +
+ t)2 3zt.
. d = (a, b), x = ad , y = db .
, x = y = 1. , xk + y k > xm +
n
n
+ y m k > m; , Dn = x23 + y 23 ,

250

Dn+1 > Dn n. pn
1 DDn+1 . 1 pn
=
n

= 3. 2 Dn pn ,
Dl , l  n + 1, pn
(
.
D
Dn+k+1 , pn , Dn+k .. pn ).
n+k
pn
= pk n
= k. ,
p1 , p2 , . . . p = pn0 , (p, d) = 1.
l
d23 Dl , l  n0 + 1,
p . , , 2 3l + 1
l  n0 + 1. .
a = b = d. d. , d
= 1;
p d . p
=
.

= 2. , n .. n + 1 n;
..
..
, (n + 1) . n + 1, . n + 1, . p = 2,
.
.
.
1 + n .. n + 1 n, 1 + (n + 1) .. n + 1, 1 .. n + 1.
= 1. : d = 2.
384. . .
. ,
ABCD.
AB y
D
. Dy
, t4
, C
A Cy
s
2
, A
B . Ay
Ax , Bx , Cx , Dx Ay , By , Cy , Dy t2
(.
B
By
. 173). Ax , Bx , Cx ,
t1
s1
t3
Dx Ay , By , Cy , Dy
0
Ax
Bx Dx
Cx x
, A, B, C,
. 173
D .

Dx Cx = Ax Bx Ax Dx = AD cos 45  AB cos 45 = Ax Bx ,
Ox Ax , Bx , Dx , Cx . (Bx Dx ). , Oy By , Ay , Cy , Dy .
Ax Bx = Dx Cx = By Ay = Cy Dy = AB cos 45 , Bx Dx = Ay Cy = (AD
AB) cos 45 .

20042005 , 10

251

t1 , t2 , t3 , t4 , s1 , s2 Ax Bx , By Ay , Dx Cx , Cy Dy , Bx Dx ,
Ay Cy . Ax Bx t1 , AB t1 ; Ay Dy
t4 + s2 , , AD t4 + s2 , . . ,

t1 + t2 , t3 + t4 , t1 + t4 + s1 + s2 , t2 + t3 + s1 + s2 .
. d , ,
, 1.
, a
b k n, n + 1, . . . , n +
+ k 1, n 1 < a < n n + k 1 < b < n + k, k 1 < d =
= b a < k + 1 d 1 < k < d + 1, . . k = [d] k = [d] + 1.
.
, t1 , t2 , t3 , t4 ,
1, . . t t + 1, s1 s2 s s + 1.
t1 + t2 , t1
= t2 . t1 = t, t2 = t + 1.
1) t3 = t, t4 = t + 1, t3 + t4 . s1 + s2 =
= (t1 + t4 + s1 + s2 ) (t1 + t4 ) = (t1 + t4 + s1 + s2 ) (2t + 1) .
s1 = s2 . (t2 +s2 +t4 )(t1 +s1 +t3 ) = 2
Ax Cx By Dy .
2) t3 = t + 1, t4 = t. s1 + s2 = (t1 + t4 + s1 + s2 )
(t1 + t4 ) , . . s1 = s, s2 = s + 1, s1 = s + 1, s2 = s.
Ax Dx
By Cy , Bx Cx Ay Dy .
. ,
ABCD
2.

AB CD
.
AB


BB  = CC  = 2[AB/ 2]. BB  CC  , B  C 

BC BB  . AB  C  D . ,
, 2 ( ABCD).
, . .
, .
A , B ,
C , D . AB BC
, CDA ,

252

, , .
ABCD 1 ( A C
), 1, .
AB BC ( !)
, ABCD ,
AD DC , .
( ) AB
CD v, BC AD
h. A B h, C h,
BC > AB. , B C v, D v,
BC < CD. , AB < BC < CD, .
11
385. . .
, x  1, sin(xy)  sin y < sin x + sin y; , y  1. x, y > 1 > 6 , sin x, sin y > sin 6 = 12 , . .
sin x + sin y > 12 + 12 = 1  sin(xy).
386. . 2.
a, b, c, d ,
a1 , 1b , 1c , d1 , ,
1 + 1 + 1 + 1 =
, . . a
1 b1
c1
d1
= S 1 1 + 1 1 + 1 1 + 1 1 = S. ,

1 c 1
1
d
1
1
4 = 2S, a 1 + 1
= 1, S = 2.
a 1
a 1

. , :
a + b + c + d = 2 a1 + 1b + 1c + 1d = 2 (a, b, c, d

1 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 2.
), a
1
c1
b1
d1
.
387. . N ! (N ! = 1 2 . . . N ).
. 380.
388. ABC A0 , B0 BC
CA, H , O ABC.
A, B, A1 , B1 ( AB), CB1 A1 = CBA = CA0 B0 , , A1 , B1 , A0 ,
B0 1 . 2

20042005 , 11

253

CH, 3 CO. , A1 , B1 2 , A0 , B0 3 .
C  C
1 2 ,
1 3 , ,
A1
2 3 , . .

B0
C
. A0
2 3 CH CO
O
B1
. CC  H
,
A
B
HO.
. 174
. X
R O OX 2 R2 . , . , , .
389. , P (r) P (mk + r)
k. , P (1) + P (2) + . . . + P (k 2 )
r = 0, 1, . . . , k 1 k P (mk + r),
k. k
k; k 2 k ,
k.
390. . ,



 sin(3) 
3, 3,  sin . 

, , SS = |3 4 sin2 | <
< 3.
391. . , 7.
, 1020 ,
( ,
). ,

7 ,
8 , .

254

[(A 1) 1016 ; A 1016 )


[A1016 ; (A+ 1)1016 ) ( A < 104 , ),
. .
[ A 1 108 ; A 108 ) [ A 108 ; A + 1 108 ).
[a; b)
b a , 1, , , 2.
:

( A 108 A 1 108 ) ( A + 1 108 A 108 ) =

= 108 (( A A 1) ( A + 1 A)) =


1
1

= 108

A+ A1
A+1+ A

A+1 A1
8

=
= 10

( A + A 1)( A + 1 + A)
2 108

=
>

( A + 1 + A 1)( A + A 1)( A + 1 + A)
2 108

>
= 25 > 2.
2 104 2 104 2 104
392. . 2n (ai , bi )
n , ai ai ,
ai , bi bi , bi .
. * 1. .
n = 0 . .
2n + 2 , ai .
(a1 , b1 ) (a2 , b2 ) (a1  a2 ).
n , .
a a ai , b b bi .
|a a |  a2 ( ai a2 )
|b b |  max bi . , b  b .
i

b1  b2 . ,
. ai a + a2
a + a1 , |(a + a2 ) (a + a1 )|  |a a | + |a2 a1 |  a2 + a1
a2 = max ai ; bi b + b2 b + b1 ,
i

20052006 , 8

255

|(b + b2 ) (b + b1 )|  max(b b, b2 b1 )  max bi , b2 b1


i

b b . . b1  b2 , ,
, , |(b + b2 ) (b +
+ b1 )|  max bi |(a + a2 ) (a + a1 )|  a1 . .
i

. * 2. ai (. .
a1  . . .  a2n ). 2i 1 2i . , ,
, ai
(a1 a2 ) + (a3 a4 ) + . . . + (a2n1 a2n )  a1 .
.
, bi , . - bi , , bj , . ,
, , , bi , , 2b1 .
, - .
. , , ,
. 49 ,
,
.
, . ,
51 ,
.

20052006 .
8
393. , , 391524680. ,
, ( 5, 2).
, 391.
39 91 .
394. . .

256

, ,
.
, .

. 175

, .

. .
, , (. . 175).
395. ,
, ( ,
) , ;
. a , b .
a , b , ab .
396. . .
54 , 18 . .
, ,
. , 16 . . 6 ,
.
,
19 . .
397. . 33.
ai
ak . , i k 1,
( ,

;
). , k i = 32. ai ak ,
.
, ai ak . 33.
398. . .

20052006 , 8

257

. A B ( A) ,
3 3 A.
A B . ,
A 3 3 B,
A B. , . ,
992 . .
399. . A1 B1 C1 , 60 .

C1

A1
B
C0
A

A0
B0

B1
. 176

ABC , BB0 AC. , B1 CB0


BB1 . BCB1 B0
BB1 , BC = B1 C, B1 BC = 12 ABC = 60 . ,
B1 BC , A0 , BC B1 BC. ,
A1 B1 BC. , C1 B1 AB. ,
C1 B1 A1 = 180 ABC = 60 , B1 A1 = B1 A0 +A0 A1 = B1 A0 +A0 A =
= B1 C0 + C0 C = B1 C0 + C0 C1 = B1 C1 , . . A1 B1 C1 60 .
400. . .
m1 m2 , m3 , m4 m5 -
. :
m1 m3 ,
m4 + m5 m2 + m3 .
, m1 < m3 m4 + m5 > m2 +
+ m3 . , m1
, m3 , m4 m5

258

, m2 m3 . , , m4 m5
, m2 .
, , ,
, m1
m2 .
9
401. . 393.
402. . .
, .

4
4
4
1 4 4 1N 4 4 1 4 4
4M 2P 3H 4
4
4K 2F 3C 4
4
1 4 4 U 1G 4B 4A 1D 4V 4
4
4
E 4
4
4
4
. 177

A 4, A , , B, 4, C, D, E
1. 1 C, F 4
: B 4. , 1 E. , 1 D.
, 1 G, U V .
, 4  . . . 1 4 4 1 4 4 . . ..
, K 4, , M 4, N
1,
(. . 177).
, 2 2 3.
, , 3 C. F H
1 4, , 2 3. ,
2 F , 3 H. H, ,
P 2. F 2
. .
403. x1 , x2 , . . . , x6
, .

20052006 , 9

259

. , , , ,
.
x1 x2 . yk = |xk |. y12 + y22 + . . . + y62 = 6 y1 + y2 =
= y3 + y4 + y5 + y6 . s.


2
s2
y1 + y2
y1 y2 
=
.
2
4
,

4
y3 + y4 + y5 + y6
s4
= 4.
y3 y4 y5 y6 
4
4
6
, y1 y2 . . . y6  s5 .

2(y12 + y22 )  (y1 + y2 )2 = s2


2
2
4(y3 + y4 + y52 + y62 )  (y1 + y2 + y3 + y4 )2 = s2 ,

( ). ,
s2
3
s2
+
= s2 .
6 = y12 + y22 + . . . + y62 
2
4
4
, s2  8
s6
83
1
x1 x2 . . . x6 = y1 y2 . . . y6  5  5 = .
4
4
2
404. C0
B
I.
B0 B A0
.




IBC0 = 12 (AC0 + AB0 ) =
   
I
P
= 12 (BC0 + CB0 ) = BIC0 ,
. . BIC0 A
C
, BC0 = IC0 . B0
, BA0 = IA0 ,
. 178
A0 IC0 A0 BC0
(. . 178). , B I C0 A0 , . . A0 P BI.
, , P C0 A0 . A0 P , : A0 BP = A0 IP = A0 AC =
= A0 AB. , A0 B BP ,

260

A0 B. , ,
, BP
ABC.
405. . 33.
. 397.
406. K, L, M
A
, D AB,
E
AC, BE (. . 179). ( K, L,
M AB, AC, BE,
M K
L
, ABC
P
.) DK
BE P . , DLEM C
B
D
, D . 179
AB AC,
AD. EM = DL = DK > DP > DM . EDM
, EDM > DEM = 90 EDM , EDM > 45 .
EDM = CED, .
407. . .
. 400.
408. N = 9a2 + 9b2 + 9c2 . a, b, c 3, N
81, . a 3.
a + b + c 3, a a. ,
, a + b + c 3. N = 9a2 + 9b2 + 9c2 = (2a +
+ 2b c)2 + (2a + 2c b)2 + (2b + 2c a)2, 2a + 2b c = 2(a + b +
+ c) 3c 3; .
.
10
409. 100, 101, . . . , 200. 101,
- .
200, , , . ,
, .
410. , 1 3. ,
, 13 , 3! = 6 ( ABCABCAB,
ABC 6 ). , ,

20052006 , 10

261

,
.
, 68 .
. , ,
, , , (
1 3
). 68 .
411. . 404.
412. . .
. 2n , ,
. i , i x2 ai x + bi .
ai = i + i , bi = i i .
{a1 , . . . , an , b1 , . . . , bn },
n
n
n
n
n





ai =
(i + i ) =
(ai + bi ) =
ai +
bi .
i=1

i=1

n


i=1

i=1

i=1

bi = 0.
i=1
, 2i + i2 = (i + i )2 2i i = a2i 2bi .
n
n
n
n
n





(a2i + b2i ) =
(2i + i2 ) =
a2i 2
bi =
a2i .
i=1
i=1
i=1
i=1
i=1
n

2
bi = 0, . . bi . ,
i=1

, .
413.  2,
, 0 < x < .
3  x  2
3 , n = 1.
0 < x < 3 , , x, 2x, . . . , nx,

. . . , - 0; 3 ; 
3 ,


; 2 .
3 3


x 2
;

, , | sin nx| = | sin n( x)|,


3

x 0; 3 .
414. H (. . )
ABC, H1 , H2 , H3 BC, CA, AB

262

, A1 , B1 , C1 .
BC
B
, H
H1 HH1 BC, HH1 ,
H1
.
.
H3
H
,
C1
A1
HC1 H2 + HC1 H1 = 90 + 90 =
= 180 , . . C1 H1 H2 .
A
C
H2
, A1 H2 H3 . B, H2 ,
. 180
H3 , C BC, , HH2 A1 = BH2 H3 = BCH3 = 90
ABC. HH2 C1 = 90 ABC.
, HH2 A1 HH2 C1 , A1 C1 HH2 . , A1 C1
HH2 , A1 C1 AC. B1 C1 BC A1 B1 AB,
.
415. . n.
n
n , a = 12 , b = 2 2 1 . a + b ,
an + bn = (a + b)(an1 an2 b + . . . + bn1 ) = 2n1 (an1 an2 b +. . .
. . . +bn1); 2n1 , an +bn
.
n , n = 2k. , a, b . ,
, . . : a = pd , b = dq ; p + q
d. pn +q n = (p2k q 2k )+2q 2k = (p2 q 2 )(p2k2 +p2k4 q 2 +. . .
. . . + q 2k2 ) + 2q 2k = (p + q)K + 2q 2k , K = (p q)(pn2 + pn4 q 2 +. . .
n
n
. . . + q n2 ) . , an + bn = p d+n q , . .
pn + q n dn ; , d. p+ q d, 2q n d. dq ,
2 d, . . d = 2.
pn q n , ,
1 4. pn + q n 4,
22k
4. .

,
.
416. . 2n
3
, 3 , .

20052006 , 10

263

, .
A B
ABC. AB ABD.
A , AB, AC, AD , A. A 3 ABC, ABD ,
AC AD, . . ACD. ,
BCD . , ABCD, n  3.
, , , . , 2n
3 .

2n-,

2n
3 .

N
K
P
R

X
M

. 181

L
Q

T
. KLM , KLP , LM Q,
M KR , KLM ,
KL, LM , M K ( P , Q, R ) (. . 181).
X KLM . KLM , X, T N , K N
LM Q, L N M KR, M N
KLP ( , XN
). T  , T KLM N . T  .
, T  T KLM .
n = 3, ,
.
n  4. 3,
n n = 3k, n = 3k 1 n = 3k 2

264

k  2. ; ; . .
2, (k 2)
2k-, .
n k
.

2n
n k = 3 ,
.
11
417. . 409.
418. , P (x) > 0 x  0, P (x) . k bk  0,
x2 + ak x + bk . , bk > 0
k.
, c1 = a1 + a2 + . . . + an > 0, ak > 0
k.
419. . 13.
, 12.
( A) 11 , . A 12
11a1 + an ,
an + 10a2 + a1 ( 12 ),
, 11a1 + an . , A
.
13.
13,
a1 = 1011, a2 = 1010, . . . , a12 = 1000, a13 = 1. , 11 (
A). 12 , (
B). , A 1011 11 = 11121 , B
1000 11 = 11000 . 11 A B
121 . , 11 A
. , 12 A ,
B 12 999 , A
. A . , -
11 .
420. I. ,
   
   
IAC0 = 12 (BC0 + BA0 ) = 12 (AC0 + CA0 ) = AIC0 , . . -

20052006 , 11

265

 
AIC0 , C0 A = C0 I. , C0 AC1 = 12 C0 B =
 
= 12 C0 A = C0 CA, C0 AC1 C0 CA
C0 I
C0 C
0C
. CC0CA = C
C0 A , . . C0 C1 = C0 I .
0 1

C0

B
C1

A0

A1
I

P
C

l
Q

. 182

I l m, AC A1 C1 . P  l A1 C1 , Q
m AC. , C0 , C1 I, I C,
l A1 C1 AC m ; P  Q.
, C0 P  Q. , A0 P  Q, P  Q A0 C0 , P  A0 C0
P , .
421. . 413.
422. AB 
A
BCD B  .
(BCD) (ACD) , AB  = B  B  .
D
C  D C  D .
D
A - B

1
  
D
2 (B C D ) C
(B  C  D ), (B  C  D ) (B  C  D ) =
. 183
= (BCD), .
423. , N
()
9n (a2 + b2 + c2 ),
n N, a, b, c Z, a 3.
. ()
9n1 (x2 + y 2 + z 2 ), x, y, z Z, x, y, x 3.
. ,
a + b + c 3 ( a a). :

266

9(a2 + b2 + c2 ) = (4a2 + 4b2 + c2 ) + (4b2 + 4c2 + a2 ) + (4c2 + 4a2 + b2 ) =


= (2a + 2b c)2 + (2b + 2c a)2 + (2c + 2a b)2 .
2a + 2b c, 2b + 2c a, 2c + 2a b
3 3 2(a + b + c). ,
3. .
n .
424. . 30000.
2-, 5-, 8-, . . . , 299-
, . , .
, b w . .
. , 1.
2 . ,
, .
2w.
, A
, 4. ,
X Y
A
B A C
,
Z T
1. A
, 2.
. 184
4 , 1 3 (. . 184).
C A ,
X Z . C A ,
Y T Y . X (
X) ,
1, Z 2. C A , A
4, X Z.
, 4,
4b, . . 2w  4b, ,
, .

19921993 , 9

267

19921993 .
9
425. . .
2n + 1 = k 2 , 3n + 1 = m2 , 5n + 3 = 4(2n + 1) (3n +
+ 1) = 4k 2 m2 = (2k + m)(2k m) ,
2k m
= 1 ( 5n + 3 = 2m + 1 (m 1)2 = m2 (2m +
+ 1) + 2 = (3n + 1) (5n + 3) + 2 = 2n < 0, ).
426. CB1 , C
ABB1 C , AC = BB1 . BB1 D , BB1 + BD  B1 D , - A
, AC + BD  B1 D. ,
O
CB1 D (CD =

= CB1 = 1, B1 CD = AOC = 60 ), , D
B1
, B1 D = 1. , AC +
+ BD  1.
B
427. . .
. 185
2
. f (x) = Ax +
+ Bx + C, B 2 4AC.
f (x) (A+B +C)x2 +(B +2A)x+A
(B + 2A)2 4(A + B + C) A = B 2 + 4AB + 4A2
4A2 4BA 4CA = B 2 4AC, Cx2 + (B 2C)x + (A B + C)
(B 2C)2 4C(A B + C) = B 2 4BC + 4C 2 4CA + 4CB 4C 2 =
= B 2 4AC. ,
. x2 + 4x + 3 16 4 3 = 4, x2 + 10x + 9 100 4 9 = 64,
, .

1 + 1, =
. = 52+ 1 . =
1 , 1 = 1 .
=

1
2 .
, 2 + 4 + 3 2 +
+ 10 + 9 ( ).
. , ,
, . . .

268

428. . 16.
1
2
,
3
4
5
6
, .

7
8
9
10 11 12
. 0 ,
, 13 14 15 16
. 186
k + 1 k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , , k.
rk k, tk k. k + 1 ,
1r
2 k+1 + tk+1 , . ,
, ;
. , k + 1 rk , .
, rk  12 rk+1 + tk+1 , k = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,
1  12 r0 + t0 . , ,
1
(r0 + r1 + . . .) + (t0 + t1 + . . .)  (r0 + r1 + . . .) + 1,
2

3
3
(r0 + r1 + . . .) + (t0 + t1 + . . .)  (r0 + r1 + . . .) + 1 = 10 + 1 = 16.
2
2
, 16 . . 186
16 10
( 1 10).
,
( ) .
: (3, 1, 2); (5, 2, 1); (7, 3, 4); (9, 4, 3); (11, 5, 6); (12, 6, 5);
(13, 7, 8); (14, 8, 7); (15, 9, 10) (16, 10, 9);
429. , x, y z
3. , x + y + z 27.
x, y z ,
(x y)(y z)(z x) 3, x + y + z, ,
3. , , x, y, z
3. x + y + z =
= (xy)(yz)(z x) 3, ,
3, .
430. ,
A1 A2 , B1 B2 , C1 C2 D1 D2 , (.
. 187). , + = . A1 B2 ,
B1 C2 , C1 D2 D1 A2 , A1 D1 B2 ,

19921993 , 9

269

B1 A1 C2 , C1 B1 D2 , D1 C1 A2 , .
 




2 = A1 D1 B2 A2 B1 = A2 B1 ,


 


2 = C1 B1 D2 C2 D1 = C2 D1 .
, ,

 

 


2 + 2 = 2 (A2 B1 + C2 D1 ) = 2 (B1 A1 C2 + D1 C1 A2 2) = 2,
, + = .
B2
C1
B1

C2

A2

A1

D1
D2
. 187

. 188

431. . 48.
, 16 ,
. ,
, 64 16 = 48. 48 ,
,
(. . 188).
1
432. . n +
2 .
,
1
n +
2 , .
. , ,
, 1 x.
a x2 ,
, a1 . (D = 1 4a a1 =
= 3) , .

, . ,

270

1
n +
2 ,
, .
, , , 1
n
2 , . ,
n 1 , 1 x2 . ,
2
,
. , , 1,
.
 c, x b > 2 |c|,
.

10
433. a, b, c. :
(1)
16S 2 = P (P 2a)(P 2b)(P 2c),
S , P = a + b + c . ,
S . (1) , P (
P , (1) ). ,
a, b, c , .
,
a, b, c , a = b = c = 2,
3, . . . ,
a = 2, b c . b
= c, |b c|  2,
. , b = c. (1)
, S 2 = b2 1, (b S)(b + S) = 1,
b S. , , . . S
.
434. . A1 A2 ,
, B1 B2 , . , . 189 (,
. 190 ).
A3 , B3 B4 B2 , A1 A2 O.
B3 O OB1 = B2 O OB4 , OA1 OB1 = OB2 OA2 , B3 O =
= OA1 OB4 = OA2 . , A1 , B1 , B2 A2
.
 


. , . 189, B2 B3 = A1 A3
O. A3 A2 A1 =

19921993 , 10

271

A2

B2

B1
B3

B2
A1

B3

O
B4

A3
B4
. 189

A2
A1
B1

A3
. 190

= B3 B1 B2 , . . A1 B2 B1 A2
, , A1 , A2 , B1 B2 .




, . 190, B2 B3 = A1 A3 , A3 A2 A1 =
= B3 B1 B2 , A1 A2 B2 = 180 A3 A2 A1 , B3 B1 B2 +
+ A1 A2 B2 = 180.
435. . 427.
436. . F = 8.
F = 0, , .
F
= 0. ;
2k (k k ).
i- wi , i-
fi (1  i  k). f1 + f2 + . . . + fk  F .  x, . wi
wi 1, x
. x i- ,
fi 1. , max wi >
i

> max fi , , ,
i

, . max wi 
i

30 (f1 + . . . + fk )
 30 k F ,
k

max fi  (f1 + . . . + fk ) k + 1  F k + 1,
i

30 k F > F k + 1 k 1
F , , . :
k 2 (F + 1)k + 30 F > 0.

272


k, D = (F + 1)2 + 4(F 30) < 0, . .

F < 3 + 128 < 3 + 12 = 9. , F  8


.
F = 9

. ,

, ,

. 191 (

: ,

; -

).

60 , 120 , 180 , 240

, , 300 .

, ,
,
. 191
, .
.
437. . 429.
438. . .
D1 D2

h
: A1 B1 C1 D1 C2
C1
a1 b1 A2 B2 C2 D2 b2
b1
a2 b2 . - h1
h2
, a1 < b2
a1 E1 E2
a2 A2
a2 < b1 ( a1 = b2 , - A1
a2 = b1 ,
B1
B2
);
.
192
a1 < b2 , b1 < a2 ,
a1 b 1 = a2 b 2 .
, . 192. . .
, A1 A2 C1 C2 . , , hh1 = b1 a2 a2 hh2 = b2 a1 a1 (. . 192).

a1 b1 = a2 b2 , b1 a2 a2 = b2 a1 a1 , , h1 = h2 A1 A2
C1 C2 . , A1 E1 C1 C2 A2 E2 C2 C1
(, A1 E1 = A2 E2 ), . ,
, A1 B1 E1 A2 B2 E2 , A1 E1 = A2 E2 , .
B1 B2 A1 A2 = a1 . , A1 B1 E1

19921993 , 10

273

E2 B2 A2 . , , , . A1 E1 C1 C2 A2 E2 C2 C1 C1 D2 C2
C1 D1 C2 , .
. , , .
.
439. . n = 7.
, n , , . , n  3 (, n = 2
), A,
, B, A, C,
A ( B),
. 193
B ( A).


1
b B. b  n n +
2


n
+
1
b 
+ 2, A B 2

n,
, ,



n
+
1
n
+
1
<b<
+ 2.
n
2
2
,



n
+
1
A, B C 2, 3, . . . , n

2


1 , . . . , n. 2 + n +
2
A B. n > 7,
n, C , . .
. , , n  7. 7 7, ,
. 193.
. n = 6 , .
440. m-,
m . ,
, {xk }
, {x2k } m- m. .
, {xk } , -

274

{x2k } 0-. ,
{x2k } m-, , (m + 1)-.



2
x2 + x2
xk + xk+1 2
xk + xk+1
k 2 k+1 =
+

x
,
k+1
2
2
x +x

x +x

k 2 k+1 k 2 k+1 xk+1


, , , m- , . . {x2k }
(m + 1)-.
1.
, , : 1, 3, 5, 7, . . .
2.
a + ak+1 + . . . + ak+p1
, p N. : ak = k
p
( {xk } , {xpk }
) p = 3. , p . : p.
11
441. . 425.
442.
C C
C C  ,
C B
(. . 194). - A
B
E
E CE
, - A
, ,

. 194
,


( . 194 : AEA = 2ACA ).
, .
443. . f (x) 1, f (x) x.
, f (x) 1 ,
.
f (a)
= 1 a > 0. f (a)f (xy) =
= f (axy ) = f (ax )f (y) = f (a)f (x)f (y) ,
f (xy) = f (x) f (y)
(1)
x, y > 0. f (a)f (x+y) = f (ax+y ) =
= f (ax ) f (ay ) = f (a)f (x) f (a)f (y) = f (a)f (x)+f (y) ,

19921993 , 11

f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y)
x, y > 0.
(1)

275

(2)

f (1) = f (1 1) = f (1)2 ,
. . f (1) = 1, (2) (1)
f (n) = f (1 + . . . + 1) = f (1) + . . . + f (1) = n,
m
m
n= f
f (n) = f (m) = m,
f
n
n
. . m, n N
m m
f
.
(3)
=
n
n
, x > 0
f (x)
= x, , f (x) < x ( f (x) > x ). y = m
n ,
f (x) < y < x,
(2) (3) .
f (x) = f (y + (x y)) = f (y) + f (x y) > f (y) = y.
, , f (x) = x
x > 0, , , .
444. n
A
. BC
3 , . 195, C AB
A, B, C. ,
ABC A
BC ABC
C ABC AB
, . , , - A B C A B C A
. 195

( , A) 60 ,
, A, , B C C
B ( ,
).
, , . .
2
2
23 n2 ( , n2 ).

,

, 3.

, 3,

276

.
 2 2
2
n2 , 3

( 3)2 . ,  k 2
k- , 23 n2 ,

. ( 3)k .
n = 3m , k = 2m + 1 , , ,
 m
 m
 2m+1 2
2
n = 4
n  1993 n, 4

 3 1993. 3
2
3
3
3
, m > log 43 (3 1993).
445. . {0, 0, 0, 0}, {1, 1, 1, 1}, {1, 1, 1, 1}, {1, 1, 1, 1} (
).
:
a  b  c  d. , a  bc, a = bc, a =
= bd  bc, a = cd  bc. , d  bc. ,
bc  a  b  c  d  bc, . . a = b = c = d = bc = x. x =
= x2 , x = 0 x = 1. ,
, .
446. n
( n = 1993).
n = 1 1.
n 1 . n .
n , (n 1)
, n .
n ,
. , , . , n
, , .
, (n 1) .
447. . n = 8k + 1, k N.
. , n .
, .
,
= 8k.

n(n 1)
, n 1 =
2

19921993 , 11

277

, k = 1, 2, . . .
A9
A8
n = 8k + 1 A1
.
k = 1 - A
7
A2

A1 A2 . . . A9 .
. 196 A1 , A2
A6
A3
A3 , A5 , . A5
A4
. 196
2
. 9 ,
. Ai Aj ,
A2 A3 , A1 A3 , A2 A5 A1 A5 . k > 1 8k + 1 , k 8 . ,
9 .
. 4 2
.
448. C1

D

1
C
ABCDA B  C  D
B1

A

A1 B1 C1 D1 A1 B1 C1 D1


D
1
B
,
A
.
C D1
a, b, c a1 , b1 ,
C1
D
c1 .
M1
M
B1

B
A1
A
,
a = a1 , . 197

, a a1 ,
bc = b1 c1 . ,
. S V
.
, AA A1 A1
M M1 , SMBD = SM1 B1 D1 VAMBD = VA1 M1 B1 D1 . -

278

, , M BD M1 B1 D1 (. . 197), .
.
1. ABCD A
, BCD, ABC, ABD ACD S0 , S1 , S2
S3 . S02 = S12 + S22 + S32 .
.
ABC, ABD, ACD BCD (. . 198).
, ABC, ABD ACD BCD
1 , 2 3 .
Si = S0 cos i (i = 1, 2, 3), S0 = S1 cos 1 + S2 cos 2 +
+ S3 cos 3 , cos2 1 + cos2 2 + cos2 3 = 1 S02 = S12 + S22 + S32 .
1 .
D
C
S3 cos 3
C
A

D
B

S1 cos 1

S2 cos 2

A
B
. 198

. 199

EABCD (ABCD ), EAB (.


. 199). EAB, CD EAB .
EABCD , H.
2. , . . V = 23 H.
. DEAB
DEBC. , SABD = SBCD
E . V = 2VDEAB = 23 H.
3.
( ) . , , .
. (. . 200)
2
2


x
x , , S =
SS2 = H H
, SS1 = H H
1

19921993 , 11

279

H x

x2
H2

x
S1

S2

x
S

S
. 200

. 201

= S2 . , 2
(. . 201). , x = x 2 =
H


2
= 1 x 2 , .
H
M M1 . AM = xc,
A1 M1 = xc1 , x (0, 1], AM BD
A1 M1 B1 D1 , M BD M1 B1 D1 f (x) = (a2 c2 + b2 c2
2
= 14 (x2 a2 c2 + x2 b2 c2 +
a11 c21 b21 c21 )x2 + (a2 b2 a21 b21 ) = 0, SMBD
1
2
+a2 b2 ) SM
= 4 (x2 a21 c21 + x2 b21 c21 + a21 b21 ) 1. ,
1 B1 D1
f (0) > 0, f (1)  0 ( ). x (0, 1] , f (x) = 0, , ,
M M1 .
2 2 2
2 2 2
, f (0) = a2 b2 a21 b21 = a b2 c a1 b21 c1 = 12 12 ,
c

c1

c1

, f (1) = 12 + 12 + 12 12 12 12 , abc = a1 b1 c1 = 1.
a

a1

b1

c1

: a1 , 1b , 1c d, a11 , b1 , c11 1
d1 : , ,
. , , d  d1 , f (1)  0.
,
, - ( ,
). ,
, 1c > c11 . f (0) > 0, .
, . , , , . . ABDA B  D A1 B1 D1 A1 B1 D1 .
M ABD M1 A1 B1 D1 3.

280

D

B
F

A

M
A
. 202

A F E M BD (.

. 202)
A B  D F E

A1 F1 E1 M1 B1 D1 .
A1 B1 D1 F1 E1 , ( 2)

1
2 1
2 1
axc b = x = a1 xc1 b1 = VA1 B1 D1 F1 E1 .
3 2
3
3 2
,
, 3 .
. M BDA EF M1 B1 D1 A1 E1 F1
(, ,
),
.
1.
, , (. 438 ).
2. . .
, , .
VA B  D F E =

19931994 .
9
449.
x

.
x x2 + 1. , x2 + 1, , y y 2 + 1 = 
2

 y y + 1,

x x2 + 1 = y y 2 + 1. , (x + y) = x + y, x + y = 0.

. , f (x) = x + x2 + 1 x  0; x < 0 , f (x) =

19931994 , 9

281

1
, , . x2 + 1 x

y ; , x = y , .
450. .
K
B
l A
S2
B C ,
BC , BF C =
S2
= 90 . , AF B = S
1
F

= 90 . F
(. . 203), C
l K.
. 203
,
, ,
AKF BKF . ,
180
= 90 .
AF B = AF K + KF B = F AB + F BA =
2
. F , rr21 , r1 r2 S1 S2 .
S1 S2 , l S1 S2 . ,
A C, F AC.
451. . .

2n a, 2n b 2m c, 0  n < m, a, b c ,
, , .
k, ,
.
k = 0 : 100 = 22 25, 300 = 22 75, 200 = 23 25.
, k = l 1. ,
l- , 2n a,
2n b 2m c . l- 2n a , 2m c 2n
2n (2mn c 1) .
2n a1 , 2n a2 , 2n a3 , a1 , a2 a3 .
, 2n a1 , 2n a2
2n1 b1 2n2 b2 , b1 b2 n1  n2 .
2n a2 = 2n1 b1 + 2n2 b2 . n1 < n, n1 = n2 < n,

282

; n1 = n, n2 > n, n1 > n, n2 = n,
, k = l.
452. .
, . N 2n
.
N = 1 , , .
N S1N
, S2N
.
, S1N 1  S2N 1 , , S1N  S2N .
, : A1 ,
A2 , . . . , AN . A1 k s . , A1 , A2 .
S1N S2N . , S1N S1N 1 = (k(n
k) + s(n s)) A1 A2 , S2N S2N 1 = (k(n s) + s(n k)) A1 A2 ,
(S1N S2N ) (S1N 1 S2N 1 ) = (S1N S1N 1 ) (S2N S2N 1 ) =
= (2ks k 2 s2 ) A1 A2 = (k s)2 A1 A2  0,
. . S1N S2N  S1N 1 S2N 1  0, .
. . ,
, ,
, ( , , ).
k l ( ). k(n k) + l(n l), k(n l) +
+l(n k), n(k + l) (k 2 +
+ l2 )  n(k + l) 2kl, .
453. :
a1
a2
an
+
+ ... +
=
a2 (a1 + a2 ) a3 (a2 + a3 )
a1 (an + a1 )





1
1
1
1
1
1
=

+
+ ...+
=
a2
a1 + a2
a3
a2 + a3
a1
an + a1





1
1
1
1
1
1
=

+
+ ...+
=
a1
a1 + a2
a2
a2 + a3
an
an + a1
a3
a1
a2
+
+ ...+
.
=
a1 (a1 + a2 ) a2 (a2 + a3 )
an (an + a1 )

19931994 , 9

283

454. , 1 . ,
2 , 3 , . . , n  1000
n n 1 (
n 1, , ,
n 2 ). ,
1 + 2 + . . . + 999 = 999 1000
2 = 499 500 < 500 000.
455. S1 , AP B,
S2 , CP D, Q1
, P . Q1 P , B
C (. . 204).
AB CD, CDA + BAD = 180 . , CQ1 P +
+ CDA = 180 P Q1 B + BAD = 180. ,
CQ1 P + P Q1 B = 180 , , Q1
BC. CP D = CQ1 D AP B = AQ1 B ( , ). AP B = CP D, , AQ1 B = CQ1 D. , Q1
Q, Q BC , AQB = CQD,
BC AD1 ,
D1 , D BC. (
Q1 ; , Q BC BC, Q .)
S2
S2
C
C
D
D

Q1

O2
O

O1
B

S1

S1

. 204

. 205

AP B CDP (.
. 205):
DC
AB
= 2R2 ,
= 2R1 ,
sin
sin

284

= AP B = CP D, R1 R2 S1 S2 . AB
1
, R
R2 = CD . , O , S1
S2 . O
, . . P Q.
456. 1, .
, 100 ,
100 , ,
( ). ,
.
, (, A B) , (C D)
.
100; . 100, . ,
98 98,
. , ,
.
10
457.
P1 P2 P3 . 8, ,
x2 1 1 1, . . .
, . ,
|P1 (x)| + |P2 (x)| = |P3 (x)|
. , .
458. . 451.
459.
A1 , B1 C1 (. . 206). , AA1  D, BB1  D,
CC1  D, . .
ma + A1 A2  D, mb + B1 B2  D,
(1)
mc + C1 C2  D.
A1 A2 . A1 A2 AA2 =
2
a2 . , B B =
= BA2 A2 C, . . ma A1 A2 = a4 A1 A2 = 4m
1 2
a
b2 C C = c2 .
= 4m
1 2
4mc
b

19931994 , 10

285


A
(1) :
B1
C1
4m2b + b2
4m2c + c2
4m2a + a2
B7
C2
+
+
 3D,
4ma
4mb
4mc
4m2a + a2 = 2b2 + 2c2 , 4m2b + b2 = 2c2 + 2a2 ,
4m2c + c2 = 2a2 + 2b2 ( B
A5
C

), ,
A1
b 2 + c2
c2 + a 2
a2 + b 2
. 206
+
+
 3D,
2mc
2ma
2mb
.
460.
(6n + 1)-.
, M ( , 6 1 5).
CC, CK KK M , , , , CCC, CCK, CKK KKK , 3, 2, 1 0 .
3 CC = 3 CCC + CCK, ( ) M ,
,
, .

3 KC = 2 CCK + 2 CKK 3 KK = CKK + 3 KKK.
,
1
CCC + KKK = KK + CC KC =
2
1
1
1
= K(K 1) + C(C 1) K C,
2
2
2
C , C = 6n + 1 K.
.
461. , p
. p
k , m
n . -

286

,   . p
2, + 2,
.
462. a , f (x), na
ka x, f (x) = a g(x) = a
(, ka = 0). na ka (x, y)
f (x) = a, g(x) = a, n2a f (x) = a, f (y) = a,
ka2 g(x) = a, g(y) = a. , a, b, . . . , u
, f , m = na ka + nb kb + . . . + nu ku ,
n = n2a + n2b + . . . + n2u , k  ka2 + kb2 + . . . + ku2 .
2pq  p2 + q 2 , .
463. .
. H k1
k2
HO
( O1 O2 ,
HO
1
2
k1 k2 ).
k1 k2 = 1, H , k1 k2
=

= 1, H k = k1 k2 ,
O1 O2 .
k1
k1
. X1 = HO
(X), Y1 = HO
(Y ), X2 =
1
1

k2
k2
= HO2 (X1 ), Y2 = HO2 (Y1 ), X1 Y1 = k1 XY X2 Y2 = k2 X1 Y1 .

, X2 Y2 = k1 k2 XY . , H
, k1 k2 = 1, k1 k2 , k1 k2
=

= 1.
k1 k2
= 1.

O2 X2 = k2 (O2 O1 + O1 X1 ) = k2 O2 O1 + k2 k1 O1 X =

= k2 O2 O1 + k1 k2 (O1 O2 + O2 X) = (k1 k2 k2 )O1 O2 + k1 k2 O2 X.


O X X2 , ,
k1 k2 k2
O1 O2 .
O2 O =
1 k1 k2
, O O1 O2 . .
.
J r, ABC;
O S; X , OJ,
OX : XJ = R : r, R S (. . 207).
X H (
R/r), S. , H = HA1 HA , HA A
k1 = r1 /r (r1 S1 ),
S1 , HA1 A1 k2 = R/r1 ,

19931994 , 10

287

B1
X
A1

J
C1

A
C
. 207

S1 S. k1 k2 = R/r
= 1,
X AA1 . ,
BB1 CC1 .
464. . 25.
, ,
. x , k .

k ,
1
, k2 + 1  k +
2 (
).
1
, k + (x 1) k +
2 .
, 30k
2 =

1
= 15k. k + (x 1) k +
2  15k,
k
x  28
+ 1.
(1)
k+1
,
k+1
 30 x,
(2)
2
,
, 30 x.
(1) k, (2)

k  59 2x.
(3)
2x + 1,
(1) (3) , x  28 59
60 2x

x2 59x + 856  0.

(4)

288

x, (4) x  30, x = 25. , 25.


, 25. 1
2
3
4
5
1 30 6
7
8
9 10

11 12 13 14 15
6 5 ,
16 17 18 19 20
. 208.
21 22 23 24 25
,
26 27 28 29 30
: ) . 208
; ) ; ) . ,
, .
11
465. :

a2 + b 2 + a + b
a+1 b+1
+
=
.
b
a
ab
d a b. ab
2
2
2
2
d2 , a2 + b2 + a + b
d . a + b d .
a + b d2 a + b  d.
466.
, . , .
M = A1 A2 . . . An k
(n  k), O M A1 , A2 , . . . , An .
OAi Ai
Bi . , M M  B1 , B2 , . . . , Bn .
A1 A2 . . . An . , , O Ai Aj Ak , O Bi Bj Bk , , , O
B1 , . . . , Bn .
Ai OBi , Ai M  , M M  .
Bi , . . m  2n  2k
. 2k m 2k- .
, B1 , B2 , . . . , Bn , ,
M  M .

19931994 , 11

289

467. , A, F C (. 450). , 1 2 ,
ABC BDE , AC. ,
, (BF F C, BC S2 ).
, 1 AC, ABC .
, 2 A.
, AE = AD, , AD = AB.
S1 S2 R r .
BAO1 O2 , O1 O2 S1 S2 ,
AB = 2 Rr (. . 209).
A
B
B
l A
r

R
Rr

O1 R

r O2

E
. 209

S2

S1 O1
D

. 210

O1 N O1 M ED AD (. . 210).
AD = AN
AN D AM O1 : AO
AM
1

AD = 2r , AD = 2 Rr.
R
AD/2

468. O. O, , , .
- I II A1 , A2 , . . . , Am B1 , B2 , . . . , Bn .

OAi = ai , i = 1, 2, . . . , m, OBj = bj , j = 1, 2, . . . , n.


c , X
, g(X, c) ,
, X
c. ,
(1)
g(Ai , bj ) = g(Bj , ai ) = g(O, ai + bj ),
i = 1, 2, . . . , m, j = 1, 2, . . . , n.

290

SI (X) (SII (X)) , ()

, OX.
m
n


SI (X) =
g(X, ai ) SII (X) =
g(X, bj ).
i=1

m

i=1

SII (Ai ) =

i=1
m 
n


g(Ai , bj ).

i=1 j=1

(1),
m
n 
n
m



SII (Ai ) =
g(Bj , ai ) =
SI (Bj ).
i=1

j=1 i=1

j=1

n


j=1

SI (Bj ) ,

,
, ,
m

SII (Ai ) , .

i=1

469. b1 0 5, b2 2, 4,
6 8, b2 , b3 , . . .
4:
. . . , 2, 4, 8, 6, 2, 4, 8, 6, . . .
n > 1 an+4 = an + (2 + 4 + 8 + 6) s > 1
an+4s = an + 20s.
an = 10m + 2 an+1 = 10m +
+ 4 4, an1 = 4l.
an1 +4s = 4(l + 5s), , l + 5s
.
, 5 :
1, 2, 4, 3, 1, 2, 4, 3, . . .
, ,
5 , l.
470. . 462.
471. E = CHD AB, F = AHD BC, G = BHD CA.
CC1 AB DD1 AB, AB CED, . . DE CE
ABD ABC.
, A1 , B1 , C1 D1 (
) ABCD.
,
. ,

19931994 , 11

291

(), . . ,
.
H , ABC.
K = DE, L = DF , M = DG, N1 = D1 C1 , N2 =
= D1 A1 , N3 = D1 B1 (. . 211).
D1 N1 N2 N3 , D1 . X, Y , Z
(. . 212).
D
D1
B1
C
N 3 A1
N2
C1
H
L
G
N1
K
N1
D1
F
M

N3

Z
Z1
X

Y
Y1

X1

N2
B

. 211

. 212

ABC, H . KLM .
, , N1 N2 N3 . D1 HX,
D1 HY D1 HZ (HX = HY = HZ
, D1 H ).
XD1 H, Y D1 H ZD1 H D1 HX1 , D1 HY1 D1 HZ1 , HX1 = HY1 =
= HZ1 .
M KL = , KLM = , LM K = (. . 213).

180 = 90 + .

M HL = 180
2 2 = 180
2
2

N3 N1 N2 = 1 , N3 HN2 = 90 + 21 = M HL, , 1 = , , N1 N2 KL. , N2 N3


1
LM N3 N1 KM . , KN
N H =
1

292

N3
C1
K
H

N2

N1

K
. 213

H
N1

D1

. 214

LN2 = M N3 (. . 214) KN1 = ED1 , LN2 = F D1 , M N3 =


= N
N3 H
N1 H
D1 C N2 H
D1 A N3 H
2H
GD1 . ,
=D
1B
ED1
F D1
GD1
=
=
.
(1)
D1 C
D1 A
D1 B
(. . 215)
(2)
ED1 D1 C = F D1 D1 A = GD1 D1 B.
(1) (2) , ED1 =
C
= F D1 = GD1 , D1 C = D1 A =
= D1 B, . . ABC
G
F
,
. ,
D1
ABCD,
, .
A
B
E
472.
, 19942 ,
. A
, B,
. 215
, A. , . ( A
, B ; , 90 ,
). A x
y. A y B

19941995 , 9

293

. B
. B
, A
, . . , B
x, B , x.
A ,
B . B , .

19941995 .
9
473. . 0 12.
, z x + y,
x + y 60, x + y < 24 + 24 < 60, z = x + y.
k .
y = x + z 24k.
, x = 12k, x < 24,
x = 0, x = 12.
x , : x = 0, y = z = 15 x = 12, y = 15, z = 27.
474. : AE OC M , DE BC N ,
CM = CN ( 1/2).
CO
CB
(. . 216).
C
, AC AD E
AB; M
, N
. AEC AED,
- A
B
O
. AEC ABC , AC, ABC OCB ,
OCB .
, AED = OCB, . .
D
. 216
M EN = M CN , ,
M , N , E C . M N C =
= M EC = OBC. , M N C OBC CN
, , CM
CO = CB .

294

C
E

M
A

N
B

D
. 217

E
M

N
K

D
. 218

(. . 217). AOC
DBC. , , ACO = CAB
DCB = CDB. CAB = CDB ,
. , CAM =
= CDN (, CE), M OC , N BC.
(. . 218). , F D AB. , F DC = 90 . 1 ,
ABCF DE, , M N AB,
.
. . 216. 218 CD
B, A. , , ,
, .
475. . .
, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 8
f (g(h(x))) = 0. x = a , y = h(x), h(x1 ) = h(x2 ) , x1 + x2 = 2a.
f (g(x)) , h(1), h(2),
. . . , h(8) , , a = 9/2 h(4) = h(5),
h(3) = h(6), h(2) = h(7), h(1) = h(8). ,
h(1), h(2), h(3), h(4) .
, f (x) g(h(1)), g(h(2)),
g(h(3)) g(h(4)), , h(1) + h(4) = 2b, h(2) + h(3) = 2b,
x = b , y = g(x).
1

, ABCF DE
( ), Q, N , M AB DF ,
BC ED, CF EA (, ), .
Q.

19941995 , 9

295

h(1) + h(4) = h(2) + h(3) h(x) = Ax2 + Bx + C ,


A = 0. .
476. . .
1 4 7 1 4 7 1 4 7
, - 2 5 8 2 5 8 2 5 8
.
3 6 9 3 6 9 3 6 9
T , . 219, 7 1 4 7 1 4 7 1 4
1, 2,
8 2 5 8 2 5 8 2 5
. . . , 9 , 9 3 6 9 3 6 9 3 6
3 3 36. ,
4 7 1 4 7 1 4 7 1
Q,

90 , . 5 8 2 5 8 2 5 8 2
, - 6 9 3 6 9 3 6 9 3
. 219
T Q, 9 9 (a; b), a, b = 1, 2, . . . , 9.
9 9 , (a; b),
9a + b 9, 1 81
, 3 3
( 369).
477. , 459 + 495 = 954, 1995 3.

 
  
, , 459 459
. . . 459, 495 495
. . . 495
665

665

.
, 459, 495 954 51 , 55 106 . , 111
111
111

2 = 0,(153846), 5 = 0,(384615),
(, !): 13
13
7 = 0,(538461), ( , 153846 + 384615 = 538461); 1 =
13
13
3 = 0,(230769) . .
= 0,(076923), 13
, . . . 9 5 =
. : 15384 99 
. . . 9 6 + 38461 99 
= 53846 99 
. . . 9 1.
1989

1989

1989

478. . 180 .
. M AB (. . 220).
, M A2 M B2 AA1 B AB1 B. , , -, A2 M B2 =
= ACB (

296

), -, HA2 M = HB2 M = 90 ,
M , A2 , H B2
M H. M C1 H = 90 ,
C1 . , A2 M B2 = A2 C1 B2 ( , A2 B2 ).
, A2 M B2 = ACB A2 M B2 = A2 C1 B2 ,
A2 C1 B2 = ACB. , B2 A1 C2 = BAC
C2 B1 A2 = CBA. ,
ABC.
. , ABC, A1 B1 C
A1 B
1 C1
A1 BC1 , BA1 B1 = C1 A1 C A
A1 C = A1 B1 . A1 CC1 A1 B1 B ,
A1 CA1 B1 , . , C2 A1 B2 = B1 A1 C,
CC1 B1 B; B2 C1 A2 = A1 C1 B A2 B1 C2 = C1 B1 A;
CA1 B1 , BC1 A1 AB1 C1 , ,
B1 A1 C + A1 C1 B + C1 B1 A = 180 ,
.
C
C

B2
A2
A

B1

C2

B1

M
. 220

C1

A2

A1

C2

A1

M C1
. 221

B2
B

. , . 220,
, . 221. .
479. . 0.
. ,
.
.
, , , , .

19941995 , 9

297

. , A = ab + bc + ca + S,
a, b c , S ,
. ,
, .
A = (a 1)(b + 1) + (b + 1)c + c(a 1) + S  = A, S  =
= S + (b (a 1)). ab + bc + ca
, , ,
, . . .
, B = a2 + b2 + c2 2S.
. ,
, S . , : A
B, B A, .
: A B, B C, C A.
, , ,
, A B C A
A B A, .
480. ,
, 1000 .
, 1000 1.
A B 2000 1000,
1000 1000 .
A1 1000 A
, A2 1000 .
A1 1000, .
, A1 1000. ,
A2 . ,
A2 , A1 . , A1
1, , A1 1000. . , A2 ,
2, . ,
A , 1000 + (2) 1000, . .
1000. B 1000.
B1 1000 B , B2 1000
B . , B1 1000. ,
B2 .

298

B2 ,
B1 . .
10
481. . .
, x R
cos cos cos cos x > sin sin sin sin x.
(1)
x [0, 2]. x [, 2],
: x cos cos cos cos x > 0,
sin sin sin sin x! 0. "
x 0, 2 . cos x, sin x, cos cos x, sin sin x,
cos cos cos x, sin sin sin
x 1. sin x + cos x  2 < 2 , x 0  cos x < 2 sin x. ,


cos cos x > cos
sin x = sin sin x,
(2)
 2

sin cos x < sin
sin x = cos sin x.
(3)
2
(2) , cos cos cos x < cos sin sin x, cos cos cos x +
+ sin sin sin x < cos(sin sin x) + sin(sin sin x) < 2 , cos cos cos x <
< 2 sin sin sin x , ,


cos cos cos cos x > cos
sin sin sin x = sin sin sin sin x.
2

x 2 ; . y = x 2 , y 0, 2 ,
(1)
cos cos cos sin y > sin sin sin cos y.
(1 )


y 0, 2 cos sin y sin cos y


0, 2 , (2) , cos cos(cos sin y) >


> sin sin(cos sin y). sin sin t, t 0, 2 , ,
(3)
sin sin(cos sin y) > sin sin(sin cos y).
(1 ) ( (1)) .
482. . 474.
483. . .
.
a1 1. n
a1 , a2 , . . . , an , m
, M . Sk k (k = 1, 2, 3,. . . ). an+1 = m[(n + 2)t 1] Sn , an+2 = m,
t , -

19941995 , 10

299

an+1 > M . , Sn+1 = Sn + an+1 = m[(n +


+ 2)t 1] (n + 2) 1 = n + 1, Sn+2 = m(n + 2)t
(n + 2). , , , .
484. . An A1
l1
Bm
( ) Cm
Bm+1
A1 A2 . . . An d1
. An A1  A1 A2
d2
An A1  An1 An . , Bm1
, An A1
l
, O
(B
)
s
. Am Am+1 (C1
B2
B1
) .
Bn
An A1 < A1 A2 < A2 A3 < . . . < Am Am+1 ,
. 222
Ak1 Ak  Ak Ak+1 , Ak Ak+1 , . . . , Am1 Am .
An A1 < An1 An < . . . < Am+1 Am+2 < Am Am+1 .

Ai Ai+1 , i = 1, . . . , n : OBi = Ai Ai+1

(. . 222). OB1 + . . . + OBn = A1 A2 + . . . + An A1 = 0, ,

, OCi , i = 1, . . . , n, l1 0. l1 , l B1 OBm . , B1 OB2 =


= . . . = Bm1 OBm = 2
n , [OB1 ) [OBm ), [OB2 )
[OBm1 ), . . . l. m, m =
= 2s 1, [OBs ), l. ,

OCi i = 1, . . . , m, , OC1 < OCm , OC2 < OCm1 , . . . ( m =

= 2s + 1, OCi = 0). , OC1 + . . . + OCm = d1 , d1


. , OCn + OCn1 + . . . + OCm+1 =
= d2 , d2 d1 d1 d2 .

OC1 + . . . + OCn = d1 + d2


= 0. ,
An A1 ,
.
485. ai (ai , a2i ) = (i, 2i) = i,
.
ai .. i i N. , i
ai > i. , , (aai , ai ) = (ai , i) =
= i, , aai ai , (ai , aai ) =
= ai > i. .

300

486. . O1 O2 , OP OQ w1 w2 ,
AOC DOB (. . 223).
O1 O2 E
F
OK
C
, , P
, K
D
P OQ,
O
1
Q
P Q K M
O
2
OK. A
O
B
. 223
, M KO ,
M P Q. .
P O w1 , A,
P AO , , P A . , P C, QB QD .
F P C QD, E CD , P
QD. F C F D , QDM =
= F DC = F CD = P CE. QDM = P EM , P E QD.
, P E = P C, P C = P A QB = QD, , AP E BQD
AP BQ, P E QD. M k = M A : M B B A, D
E, , Q P ,
BQD AP E . , P Q M .
K
A

D
M
B

Q
. 224

K
A

M B
. 225

.
O AB. A, C, B, D ,
K K  AC BD (. . 225).

19941995 , 10

301

M M  ,
COD, AB, O. COD
9 AK  B ( O AB, C D
), AB M 
, , K  M  AB.
OK OK  = OM OM  , OKM OK  M  ,
, OKM = 90 .
. O1 O2 , OP OQ , AOC DOB (. . 223). , O K O1 O2
(. 1).
O 2.
O1 O2 P Q,
OK K. , K P Q.

OA, OB, OC OD A, B,
C D .
ABBCDDA ( ), . 1 AB CD ( M ),
BB DD ( Q) BC DA ( L) . , Q
LM . , P LM . , P , Q M , (. 1),
OKM = 90 .
487. . 480.
488.
R(x) = cn xn + cn1 xn1 + . . . + c1 x + c0 .

c2n + c2n1 + . . . + c20 .
R =
R (x) = c0 xn + c1 xn1 + . . . + cn1 x + cn .
. P (x) Q(x) P Q = P Q .
. P (x) = an xn +an1 xn1 + . . . +a1 x+a0 ,
Q(x) = bm xm +bm1 xm1 + . . . +b1 x+b0 . P (x)
Q(x), , ( ) :
xk P (x)Q(x),
, 1 .

. 294.

302

.
xnm
xnm1 xnm2 xnm3
an bm1 an bm2 an bm3 . . .
an b2
an1 bm an1 bm1 an1 bm2 an1 bm3 . . . an1 b2

an b1
an1 b1

an b0
an1 b0

an2 bm an2 bm1 an2 bm2 an2 bm3 . . .

an2 b2

an2 b1

an2 b0

an3 bm an3 bm1 an3 bm2 an3 bm3 . . .


..
..
..
..
.
.
.
.

an3 b2
..
.

an3 b1
..
.

an3 b0
..
.

a0 b2

a0 b1

a0 b0

an bm

a0 bm

a0 bm1

a0 bm2

a0 bm3

...

. 226

( ;
). ,
P (x)Q(x) .
, , P (x) Q (x),
,
, i- i-
, : , . .
P (x)Q (x), , , ( ),
. , P Q 2 P Q 2
. ,
P Q 2 ,
P Q 2 , .
, ax by au bv ,
( x + y = u + v) P Q 2 . 2ax by au bv , ,
P Q 2 ax bv au by ,
( x v = u y; ,
ax by , au bv , ax bv , au by ). .
P (x) = xn + an1 xn1 + . . . + a1 x +
+ a0 Q(x) = xm + bm1 xm1 + . . . + b1 x + b0 ,
1. P Q = P Q , Q (x) = b0 xm + b1 xm1 +. . .
. . . + bm1 x + 1. P Q (x) = b0 xm+n + . . . + (a1 + a0 bm1 )x + a0
, , P Q 2  a20 + b20 . , P Q 2  a20 + b20 .
11
489. . , .

19941995 , 11

303

f(
x)

(x)
y = f1

,
.
: p1 < p2 < p3 , p1 =
= a1 q k1 , p2 = a1 q r1 , p3 = a1 q m1 . pp21 = q rk = q s , pp32 =
= q mr = q n . ps+n
= pn1 ps3 , , n
2
s .
, 1
100 25 ,
.
490. f (x) . , f1 (x), x = 0 f2 (x), x = a, a > 0. f1 f2
[a, a], [a, 3a], [3a, a],
[3a, 5a] . .
[a, a] f1 (x) = 0 (y
f1 (x) 4a
[a, a] ,
), f2 (x) =
= f (x) f1 (x) = f (x). [a, 3a]
f2 (x) ,
[a, 3a] - 3a a 0
a
x
3a
x = a, . . f2 (x) =
a
= f2 (2a x). f2 (x) , x
[a, 3a], (2a x) [a, a].
f1 (x) [a, 3a] f1 (x) = f (x) f2 (x). 7a
[3a, a] f1 (x) = f1 (x),
. 227
f2 (x) = f (x) f1 (x), [3a, 5a] f2 (x) = f2 (2a x), f1 (x) =
= f (x) f2 (x), . .
. 227
f (x) = x.
[a, a]: f1 (x) = 0,
f2 (x) = f (x) f1 (x) = f (x) = x;
[a, 3a]: f2 (x) = f2 (2a x) = 2a x,
f1 (x) = x (2a x) = 2x 2a;
[3a, a]: f1 (x) = f1 (x) = 2x 2a,
f2 (x) = x (2x 2a) = 3x + 2a;

y=

)
f 2(x

304

[3a, 5a]: f2 (x) = f2 (2a x) = 3(2a x) + 2a = 8a 3x,


f1 (x) = x (8a 3x) = 4x 8a; . .
491. ) , (2n )  n. , d
,

2d .
n
, (22 )  2n .
n
) , (22 )  5(n + 1). A B . BAC,
BA = 1, AC = 2 (. . 228): 1
A, B T , AB AT .
F
IV

III

m2

T
V
A

II
. 228

III M

IV

II

V
m
A B K

. 229

, m2 ,
m (. . 229): 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 m A, B, K
(K = 1 AB), L (L = 3 AB) , , EM , E = 2
AB, M = 3 4 .
F = EM AC. D = 1 3 , D AC.
, DF = m2 .
, ADK KM L AD = KM = m, DAB = M KE = 60 , AB = KE = 1,
DBA = M EK, , EM BD. AB : AD = BE : DF , , DF = m2 .
n
, (2)  5, (4)  2 5, . . . , (22 )  5(n + 1).
n
, 5(n2+ 1) n .

492. . 484.
493. , a1 , a2 , . . . , an ,
, an+1 , An+1 = a21 + a22 + . . . + a2n +

19951996 , 9

305

+ a2n+1 Bn+1 = a1 + a2 + . . . + an + an+1 . An+1 =


= An + (an+1 Bn )(an+1 + Bn ) + Bn2 , An+1 Bn+1 ,
An + Bn2 Bn+1 , an+1 + Bn = Bn+1 .
, an+1 = An + Bn2 Bn (
An + Bn2 = Bn+1 ). , an+1 > an .
Bn2 Bn > 0 (1 < a1 < a2 < . . . < an ), an+1 > An  a2n > an .
494. . n.
n . n 1 1 +
1
+ 2 + . . . + (n 1) = n n
2 , . . n. ,
n 1 ,
, , , - .
n . : 1, n 2, 3, n 4, . . . , n 5, 4, n 3, 2, n 1
(. . 1, 2, n, 3,
n
n n
n
n 1, . . . , n
2 1, 2 + 3, 2 , 2 + 2, 2 + 1).
495. AA1 , BB1 , CC1 , DD1
D
ABCD, H
, A2 , B2 , C2 , 2 : 1,
, M A1 H A 2
AA3 , BB3 , CC3
A
ABC ( . 230 ). ,
C
M , A2 , B2 , C2 , D1 H
C3
D1 M
M H.
A3
M AA2
B
A3 AA1 (M A : A3 A = A2 A : A1 A =
. 230
= 2 : 3) , M A2 A3 A1 , . . M A2 A1 A, A1 A
, , AA1 A3 A1 . ,
M B2 B1 B M C2 C1 C. , DD1 ,
M D1 D1 D. .
496. . 488.

19951996 .
9
497. . .
n = k 2 + m3 , k, m, n N, n  1 000 000. ,
k  1000, m  100.
, 100 000 (k, m). n,

306

, , ,
n, 1 000 000,
n.
O3
Z2

Z1
E
D

F
X1

O1

Y1

X2

Y2
O2

. 231

498. , . 231.
, X1 O2 = O1 Y2 , Y1 O3 = O2 Z2 ,
Z1 O1 = O3 X2 , X1 A + AB + BO2 = O1 B + BC + CY2 , Y1 C + CD +
+ DO3 = O2 D + DE + EZ2 , Z1 E + EF + F O1 = O3 F + F A + AX2 .
,
X1 A = AX2 , Y1 C = CY2 , Z1 E = EZ2
( , )
BO2 = O1 B, DO3 = O2 D, F O1 = O3 F
( ), : AB +CD+EF =
= BC + DE + F A, .
E
O3
F

O1

D
B
. 232

O2

C
. 233

1. , . 232.

19951996 , 9

307

2. . 231 . 232 AB CD EF = BC DE F A, , AD,


BE CF .
3. , (. . 233).
499. m = (x, y). x = mx1 , y = my1 ,
mn (xn1 + y1n ) = pk , m = p
. ,
xn1 + y1n = pkn .
n ,
xn1 + y1n
= xn1
xn2
y1 + xn3
y12 . . . x1 y1n2 + y1n1 .
1
1
1
x1 + y1
, , A.
p > 2, , x1 , y1 1 (
.
x1 + y1 .. p), n > 1, A > 1.
, A(x1 + y1 ) = pkn , x1 + y1 > 1,
A > 1, p; , x1 + y1 = p
.
xn2
(p x1 ) + xn3
(p x1 )2 . . . x1 (p x1 )n2 +
A = xn1
1
1
1
+(p x1 )n1 = nxn1
+ Bp .
1
A p, x1 p, , n
p.
n = pq. xpq + y pq = pk (xp )q + (y p )q = pk .
q > 1, , , q p. q =
= 1, n = p. , , n = pl
l.
500. ,
. . ,
,
16003 . , ( )
, 16000 803 .
, i- , ,
i 1 .
16000 (16000 1)

) (
2
, ,

16000 (16000 1) 3
3 , .
2

308

, , , ,
, , . .
16000 (16000 1) 3
3 ,
16003  16000 803
2
16000 (160001) 3
16000 (160001) 43
16000803
3 > 16000803

=
2
2
2
16000 43
+ 213 106 212 106 > 212 106 = 16003.
4
.
501. , n 1081n 1
729. , 1081n 1 = (1081 )n 1n = (1081 1) A,
. . 9 = 9 .
. . 9 1 0 .
. . 0 1 0 .
. . 0 1 . . . 1 0 .
. . 0 1 =
1081 1 = 9 .
=

81


8

. . 0 1 0 .
. . 0 1 . . . 1 0 .
. . 0 1.
= 91
. . 1 1 0 .
 .
9

9 , 9, . . 9.
, 1081 1 93 = 729. , , k , 10k 1
729, .
502. C
( O I ),
. O I C (. . 234). CE.
,
D
1

EIB = 90 ABC
O
2
1
ODB = 90 ABC,
2
I
, OIB + ODB = 180 , . .
B, I, O D .
B
IDB = IOB ( , - A
E
1
.
234
IB), IOB = 2 AOB =
= ACB. , IDB = ACB, ID AC.
, I O C (. . 235,
. 236) .
503. n x1  x2  . . .  xn ,
m y1  y2  . . .  ym ,

19951996 , 9

309

D
I

O
A

E
. 235

O
. 236

x1  . . .  xs  x  xs+1  . . .  xn
y1  . . .  yt  x  yt+1  . . .  ym ( , x, , ).
, xs + xs+1 + . . . + xn  xt + yt+1 + . . . + ym . x1 +. . .
. . . + xn = y1 + . . . + ym = A,

xs + (A (x1 + . . . + xs ))  xt + (A (y1 + . . . + yt )),
, :
x1 + . . . + xs + x(t s)  y1 + . . . + yt ,
.
t  s,
x1 + . . . + xs + x(t s) = (x1 + . . . + xs ) + (x + . . . + x) 



ts

 (y1 + . . . + ys ) + (ys+1 + . . . + yt ),
x1 + . . . + xs  y1 + . . . + ys ( ),
ys+1  x, . . . , yt  x.
t < s, x1 + . . . + xs + x(t s)  y1 + . . . + yt
x1 + . . . + xs  y1 + . . . + yt + (x + . . . + x) .



st

,
x1 + . . . + xs  y1 + . . . + ys = (y1 + . . . + yt ) + (yt+1 + . . . + ys ),
yt+1  x, . . . , ys  x.
504. . .
, . 237.
2, 1. , , , , ,
. 237
k , -

310

, S ,
, .
s, S = ks = k(2 12 + 23 1) = k > 0. .
. , , ,
3 (2n + 1) 5 5. 2 3
, 5 9 , 2 2 .
, , m n
(m, n  2) , .
10
505. EAF F DE AEF D . AEF + F DA = 180 . BAE
CDF
ADC + ABC = F DA + CDF + AEF BAE = 180 .
, ABCD . BAC =
= BDC. F AC = EDB.
506. .
, .
. A B,

C AB BA , C
AB; .
,
(
, ).
, ,
.
.
A, B, C, D . , , . .,
, . A B, C
. A B
X ( X A, B
; -
). X C. (A, B C)
, . . -

19951996 , 10

311

. , .
.
507. . n = 2.
3n = xk +y k , x, y (x > y), k > 1, n
. , x, y . ,
k , xk y k 3 1, ,
3 2, . . 3.
, k k > 1. k 3 (.
499), x1 = xk/3 , y1 = y k/3 , k = 3.
, x3 + y 3 = (x + y)(x2 xy + y 2 ) = 3n , x + y = 3m . x + y = 3,
x = 2, y = 1 ( ), n = 2.
(x + y)2

> x + y (
x + y  9. x2 xy + y 2 
4
). , x2 xy + y 2 x + y (
), 3xy = (x+y)2 (x2 xy +y 2 ) x+y.
x, y 3, 3xy ,
. .
508. , am > 0, a1 , a2 , . . . , am 1. b1 , b2 ,
n

cj ij , c0 , c1 , . . . , cn . . . , bn , bi =
j=0

(. . bi  n n
).
m
m
m 
n
n
n
m
n







ai b i =
ai
cj i j =
a i cj i j =
cj
ai i j =
cj 0 = 0.
i=1

i=1

j=0

i=1 j=0
m

i=1

j=0

ai bi = 0.

i=1

j=0

()

, a1 , a2 , . . . , am k
, , i1 , i2 , . . . , ik (1  i1 < i2 < . . . < ik < m).
k < n + 1.
bi = f (i) = (i x1 )(i x2 ) . . . (i xk ), xl = il + 12 (l = 1,
2, . . . , k). f x1 , x2 , . . . , xk ,
bi bi+1 ,
xl = il + 12 , . . i = il (l = 1, 2, . . . , k).
, a1 , a2 , . . . , am b1 , b2 , . . . , bm
.

312

, am > 0 bm > 0, , ai bi (i = 1, 2,
m

. . . , m) ,
ai bi > 0, ().
i=1

509. . .
, a b a > b,
(a, b)  b 2 (a, b)  a. a
= b 3 (a, b)  a+b.
12 , 12 , , ,
b
(a, b) = a +
3 . a b . a, b
; , , a = 2b. c d,
, a.
a. , b, ,
. , .
510. . , .
, .
, ,
( ,
). , , . , - ,

( ).
511. , , a, Pa . O. ,
, O
- Pa Q, Q a, , a (. . 238).
k
Pa
Pa
l

a
a
. 238

A
. 239

19951996 , 10

313

, , ,
. l O (!) , a. , Pa , a A. Pa k,
c, a (. . 239). Pa , k c. ,
, Pa ,
k. Pa A
, , l ( ,
Pa A). l , b, , , ,
Pb B (B b), l,
,
, l.
, A B , ,
a b . , ,
.
,
A
.
b
. O, . m,
c
P
. ,
. 240
m,
, . , , ,
. , P , A a.
P c, b, a. ,
P , b c, , m ,
P A, (. . 240). ,

314

b c, , P
b, a, . , m a,
m. ,
, ,
360 . , ,
, , .
512. . , . , 1/4, 1/2, 1, 2, 5, 52 , 54 ,
58 , 516 , 532 .
1.
1) a > 4 a > b, x2 +ax+b
.
2) a < 4 b > 0, x2 + ax + b,
2
x + bx + a .
. , D = a2
4b > 4a 4b > 0. , b  a,
b2 4a < 0, b > a, a2 4b < 0. .
2. 0 < a < b < c < d x2 + dx + a
2
x + cx + b .
.
. : x0 . x1 ,
x2 . , x0 , x1 , x2 .
d = (x0 + x1 ) > c = (x0 + x2 ), x1 < x2 . x0 , x1 x0 > x2 x0 ,
. . a > b. . .
, 10 .

,
4. ,
() . .
5, 52 , 54 , 58 , 516 , 532 , 12,
, .
x2 + px + q,
p < q, , ,
.
12 : n1 , n2 , . . . , n12 .
6 : x2 + n12 x + n1 , . . . , x2 + n7 x + n6 .
12
4. 1 -

19951996 , 11

315

. 2 . ,
12 .
x2 +2x+1. 1. , . ,
. ,
1/2 1/4 ( 1) , . 11.
, , , , , , 4 (
4). 1 , .
.
11
513. . .
N = 123 . . . 321 m- , 1 n (, m > 18), A B
k N ,
! " ,
p
.
,

10

,
k = m
2
A, n < 2 10p+1 , . . n , (p + 2)-. . . . 0 1, , B
, A 99 
. . . 9 1 00
 
p

1 00 
. . . 0 1 99
. . . 9, , , .
 
p

514. n , P1 , P2 , . . . , Pn .
Vij Pi Pj ( 1  i, j  n; i = j, Vij = 0).
, ( ).
, Vij
( Pi Pj ).

:

Vij > 0,
1i<jn

Vij = Vji ( 1  i < j  n),


n
n

1 
1 
Vij =
Vij =
Vij > 0.
2
2 j=1 i=1
1i<jn

1i=jn

316

, Pj ,
n

Vij > 0.

()

i=1

Vij ,
() ,
.
515. (n+ 1)- B1 . . . Bn+1
SA1 . . . An , A1 . . . An n-. : n = 5, n = 2k 1 (k > 3) n = 2k (k > 2).
n- (n + 1) ,
.
, B1 , . . . , Bn+1 , . 241 . 242 ( ).
S
S

B4
B5

B3

A4

Q
A3

A5
B6

O
A1

B3

Bn1

B2
B1

B2
A2

Bn
An1

T
. 241

An

Bn+1
A1
. 242

A3

B1 A2

1) n = 5. B1 . . . B6
B2 B3 , B5 B6 B1 B4 , A2 SA3 A1 SA5 B2 B3 B5 B6 , ST (T = A1 A5 A2 A3 )
, . . ST B1 B4 . ST
B1 B4 . B1 A4 ,
ST , . . T . ,
A1 A5 , A4 B1 A2 A3 . , A1 A2 , A3 B6 A4 A5 .
, A4 B1 A3 B6 A1 . . . A5 , , O -

19951996 , 11

317

. , Q
B1 . . . B6 , SA3 B6 , SA4 B1 SB2 B5
SQ. , A3 B6 , A4 B1 A2 A5
SQ
. , A2 A5 A1 . . . A5
O, .
2) n = 2k 1 (k > 3). ,
2k- B1 . . . B2k B1 B2 , Bk+1 Bk+2
Bk Bk+3 , A1 A2 , Ak+1 Ak+2 Ak Ak+3
, ,
(2k 1)- A1 . . . A2k1 Ak+1 Ak+2
Ak Ak+3 , A1 A2 Ak+1 Ak+2 .
3) n = 2k (k > 2). ,
A1 A2 , Ak+1 Ak+2 Ak Ak+3 , , B1 B2 ,
Bk+1 Bk+2 Bk Bk+3 , , Bk+1 Bk+2 Bk Bk+3 , B1 B2 Bk+1 Bk+2 .
1. n = 3, 4 .
, , ,
, .
2. , ,
, ,
( ), , ( ). .
516. . 508.
517. . .
a  b  c , .
a2 1 b, a b . c2
1, a b,
, c2 1  ab. , a  c b  c,
. . ab  c2 . .
518. O ,
ABC, K BO CD (. . 243, . 244).
BOE DCA , BOE = KCE (CD ) , ,

318

B
B

O
A

C
O

K
A

. 243

. 244

K, O, E, C ( . 243 KOE + KCE =


= 180 , . 244 KOE = KCE, K
O ). , OKE = OCE (
. 243 ), OKE + OCE = 180
(. 244). OCE = OBE, OB = OC, , BKE =
= KBE, . . BE = KE. , BKE = KBE = KBA,
KE AB, , F EKD DF =
= KE. , DF = KE = BE.
519. . .
: M = {a1 , a2 , . . . , ak }
. m = min{|a1 |, |a2 |, . . . , |ak |}, M = max{|a1 |, |a2 |,
. . . , |ak |}, , M  m > 0.
P (x) = bn xn + bn1 xn1 + . . . + b1 x + b0 ,
b0 , b1 , . . . , bn x1 , x2 , . . . , xn
M. x1 + x2 + . . . + xn = bn1
x1 x2 +
b
n

2
2
+ x1 x3 + . . . + x1 xn + x2 x3 + . . . + xn1 xn = bn2
bn , x1 + x2 +. . .

2
2
2
2
. . . + x2n = bn1
2 bn2
b
b . , nm  x1 + x2 +. . .
n

. . . +x2n

2
2
b2
bn2
= n1
 M2 +2 M
, . . n  M4 +2 M3 = A.
2 2 b
m
n
bn
m
m
m

: A.
. ,
{0, 1}.
520. . .
a1 , a2 , . . . , a100 , (ai , ai+1 ), i = 1, 2, . . . , 99,
, ,

19951996 , 11

319

a1 , . . . , ai , ai+1 , . . . , a100
a1 , . . . , ai+1 , ai , . . . , a100 . , ,
( )
. k1 , k2 , . . . , k50 
, , k1 , k2 , . . . , k50

, .
a1 , a2 , . . . , a100 , , , . , , , ,
.
, ki , ki
{a2i1 , a2i }, i = 1, 2, . . . , 50, , ,
(a4m3 , a4m2 , a4m1 , a4m ), m = 1, 2, . . . , 25,
. , . X ,


, k2m = k2m
,
. : 1) k2m1 = k2m1




2) k2m1 = k2m1 , k2m
= k2m , 3) k2m1
= k2m1 , k2m
= k2m , 4) k2m1
=



= k2m1
, k2m = k2m
.
(a4m3 , a4m2 , a4m1 , a4m )

), 3)
: 1) (k2m1 , , , k2m ), 2) (k2m1 , , k2m , k2m



(k2m1 , k2m1 , k2m , k2m ), 4) (k2m1 , k2m1 , , k2m ), X,
.
, (
) , (ai , ai+1 )
i, 4, . 100
, , ,
.
,
; 100 .
(a4i3 , a4i2 , a4i1 , a4i ), i = 1, 2, . . . , 25, ,
,
( ).
, , 4. 50 4, .
, 4 1, 2,
. . . , 100 . , 5 .

320

M1 = {1, 2, . . . , 50},
M2 = {51, 52, . . . , 100}. M3 25
M1 25 M2 , M4
25 M1 25 M2 .
M3 , , a1 , a2 , . . . , a25 ,
M4 a76 , a77 , . . . , a100 .
50 .

19961997 .
9
521. P (x) = ax2 +bx+c. (P (xy))2 P (x2 )P (y 2 ) = (ax2 y 2 +
+ bxy + c)2 (ax4 + bx2 + c)(ay 4 + by 2 + c) = a2 x4 y 4 + b2 x2 y 2 + c2 +
+ 2abx3 y 3 + 2acx2 y 2 + 2bcxy a2 x4 y 4 b2 x2 y 2 c2 abx2 y 2 (x2 + y 2 )
ac(x4 + y 4 ) bc(x2 + y 2 ) = abx2 y 2 (2xy x2 y 2 ) + ac(2x2 y 2 x4
y 4 ) + bc(2xy x2 y 2 ) = abx2 y 2 (x y)2 ac(x2 y 2 )2 bc(x y)2 .
a  0, b  0, c  0
, (P (xy))2  P (x2 )P (y 2 ).
. .
522. O , R O , A1 , , OA1 =
= R. A1 A2 , A2 A3 , A3
A4 , , , A1 A2 A3 A4 O; ,
,
M .
2, M , M
R, .
. :
M ( < 180),
, 2,
M , M . .
523. ab
c c 2(a + b),  ,
. (  , .)

 - S 1
c . , -

19961997 , 9

321

, , , .
, S . (, , ) ,
S.
,
( ), , .
524. . , , , .
, , ,
, . , ,
( ,
 ).
: ,
( ), ; , , , (
, ), .
, .
525. . .
: b c . , k l
x2 + bx + c = 0, m n 2x2 + (b + 1)x +
+ c + 1 = 0,
k + l = b,
(1)
kl =
2(m + n) =

c,
b 1,

(2)
(3)

2mn = c + 1.
(4)
(4) , c . (2) k l
, ( b) .
(b 1) (3) . .
526.
( , ,
).
. , .

322

, , 1, 2, . . . , 11 ,
, 1 + 2 + . . . + 11 = 66 = 2 33, . .
, , .
(, ).
, , , .
- , . . , .
527. AD AE
A
BC F H (.
. 245). ,
DE D
E
AF H.
K
M BN (BM =
M
= BN ) M N AH,
AM N H , . . N H = AM . , F N = H
F
C
N
B
. 245
= AK. AK = AM ,
, F N = N H, . . N F H.
D AF , E AH.
528. . 106.
, S = 106, . 246.
46 55 47 54 48 53 49 52 50 51
60 41 59 42 58 43 57 44 56 45
36 65 37 64 38 63 39 62 40 61
70 31 69 32 68 33 67 34 66 35
26 75 27 74 28 73 29 72 30 71
80 21 79 22 78 23 77 24 76 25
16 85 17 84 18 83 19 82 20 81
90 11 89 12 88 13 87 14 86 15
6
95 7 94 8 93 9 92 10 91
100 1 99 2 98 3 97 4 96 5
. 246

, S  106 .
.
. 2 10 n  9
, () , , n.

19961997 , 10

323

. 10 1 2,
2 10, . , , .
n , n  9, ( n  1)
, , , 1 2
, 1 2. , , , n. .
, S  105 .
, ,
100 .

10 2 2 10 . n0 ,
,
; . 33 100 68, . 64 ,
, 32 1 2;
, ,
68 + 69 > 105. , n0  68, .
, 10 ( , , , 10 , n0
9 ,
, n0 ).
,
, .
101 n0 ,
, , , (101 n0) +
+ 5 = 106 n0 . , ,
, , 106 n0, ,
, n0 . ,
106 n0 + n0 = 106, ,
S  105.
10
529. . (1; 0); (4; 3); (4; 5).
, , ,
y  0, (2y 1)2 ,

324

y 2 ( y  0 )
|2y 1|. (2y 1)2  1 + 16y, y  5. ,
1, 17, 33, 49, 65, 81,
1, 49, 81.
%
% 3 :
y = 0,
x = 1,

1)
(x2 )2 = 1,
y =0.
%
%
y = 3,
y = 3,
x = 4,
2
=
16,
x
2)
.
.

(x2 9)2 = 49,


y = 3.

2
x = 2,
%
%
y = 5,
y = 5,
x = 4,
2
3)
. .

x = 34,
(x2 25)2 = 81,
y
= 5.

x2 = 16,
530. . ,
.
. n. n n
1, 2, . . . , n, . n 1, 2, . . . , n,
n.
,
n (
). 0 n 1,
0 n 1 .
n;
1
(0, 0). , (i, i) (n i, i), i > 0, .
n , , 0,
, n 1 .
n = 2m, m m n 1 (
). , (m, m),
1.
n, 0, ,
.
531. . N1 , N
K (. . 247). KCN1 = KDN ,
CN1 = N D N1 CK = N DK = ABN . ,
M CK = ABM . , ,

19961997 , 10

325

N1 CM = M BN . , , CM = M B
BN = N D (. . BN = CN1 ). , M CN1 = M BN ,
M N1 = M N . M K
M N N1 , M KN = 90 .
. D
N1
A
K
( , C D A), C
,
B
N
.
M

RN
,
RM
. 247
= DN B, = BM C (
). , + = 180,

RN
= ZX
RM
X.

RN
)(D) = RM
(B) = C,
ZX (D) = (RM
X CD, . . K.

RN
)(N ) = RM
(N ), . . N M N1 N1 = ZK (N ), N1 = (RM

M KN = 90 .
. . ,
M EK KF N , E F
BC BD .
: EK F N , M E KF ; , .
532. , ,
.
. 2k- ,
k 1 .
. S = (2k 2)180 ,
, , 90 270. 90 ,
. A 270 .
. ,
( A 90 , ,
180 , , ;

90 , -

326

). , 270 .
, . n 270 , . . n
S = 360 n  (2k 2) 180 , n  k 1. .
, 200, 99 .
m : S = 180 m.
S, , . 90 (
270 180 ,
- ), S = 180 m > 200 90 ,
m > 100, .
. :
100 100, , ,
, 101
.
533. . .
. kx2 + lx + m
x1 x2 , m l k,
l
x1 x2 = m
k , x1 + x2 = k . a a + 1 .
, a. b c .
(b + 1) (c + 1) . y1 y2
1
b+1
(a + 1)x2 + (b + 1)x + (c + 1). y1 y2 = ac +
+ 1 y1 + y2 = a + 1
. :
.
534. . L KO
M N , , L AC, AB
BC A1 C1 (. . 248).
, A1 L = LC1 . , BA1 L = M OL
.
A1 M LO , M LA1 = M OA1 = .
C1 LN = C1 ON = . OM A1 = ON C1 , OA1 = OC1 . , A1 OC1 , OL
. , A1 L = LC1 . L, , BB1 , . . L D .
(. . 249). D
C1 A1 AB BC AC. C1 D = DA1 ,
, , D B.

19961997 , 10

327

M
A1

L
O

B1 K
. 248

M
C1

C1
N

A1
N

O
C

. 249

, M DC1 = A1 DN , C1 M D =
= 180 BM D = 180 A1 N D (BM = BN ).
1 M D C D sin M DC
SDMC1
MD
1
1
.
= 21
=
SDN A1
ND

N
D

A
D

sin
N
DA
1
1
2
,

1 M D M C sin C M D
SDMC1
M D M C1
1
1

= 21
,
=
SDN A1
N D N A1
2 N D N A1 sin A1 N D
M C1 = N A1 . , OM C1 = ON A1 (
OM = ON ). OC1 = OA1 , , OD OA1 C1 . , OD AC (A1 C1 AC), OK AC, , O
DK.
535. . m = n = l = 2.
d = (m, n, l). m = dm1 , n = dn1 , l = dl1 .
d(m1 + n1 ) = d2 d2mn , dmn = (m1 , n1 ); m1 + n1 = d d2mn .
, :
(1)
2(m1 + n1 + l1 ) = d (d2mn + d2ml + d2nl ).
, d m1 + n1 + l1 . ,
d d1 > 1, m1 , n1 l1 (
d). d d1 m, n l,
d. , d 2 ( (1)), d  2. , dmn , dnl ,
dml ( m1 , n1 , l1
, 1). m1 = dmn dml m2 , n1 = dmn dnl n2 ,
l1 = dnl dml l2 , m2 , n2 , l2 . :

328

dmn dml m2 + dmn dnl n2 = d d2mn ,


. . dml m2 + dnl n2 = d dmn .
, , dmn
dmn , dml dnl . :
dml m2 + dnl n2  dml + dnl  2dmn  d dmn
( d  2). , , m2 = n2 = 1, d = 2 dml = dmn = dnl . dml ,
dmn , dnl , , 1, m = n = l = 2.
536. ai i. A = (ai )
2

.
1.
 x i= x + 1,
A w(A) = ai . , . , n+1 n n1 =
= n1 (2 1) = 0, n+1 2n +n2 = n2 (1)(2 1) = 0.
k , . k = 1 . , k,
 . ,
A = (ai ) ai = k.
,
n, n > w(A). , -
, , , . , .
,
. ,
A = (ai ) B = (bi ) . n
, ai
= bi ; , ,
an = 1, bn = 0. A B , n
( A B ). A B  :
w(A )  n ;
1
= n .
w(B  ) < n1 + n3 + n5 + . . . = n1
1 2
, ; .
11
537. . 529.
538. . 99 .

19961997 , 11

329

100 ,
.
, 99 .
, 0, 1 2 . , , , 3 ,
, . , ,
, 98 , ;
. ,
98-, , , 97 ,
, , . .
539. . 531.
540. P Q .
CP Q , P Q, .
nP Q CP Q . P Q , nP Q , , nP Q
. , . . ,
.
,
.
P QRS P Q RS . P QRS, CP Q
CRS . P Q
RS , , ,
. P QRS,
nP Q nRS 1 , , .
P Q RS , .
P QRS . CP Q , CQR , CRS CSP , , P QRS. (  ,  ).
, . P QRS , .
-

330

. nP Q + nQR + nRS +
+ nSP . P QRS,
, .
P QRS , P QRS.
nP Q + nQR + nRS + nSP , ,
P QRS .
541. . , , .
m  n x2 + ax + b = 0.
m + n = a, mn = b, , m, n < 0, 0 < mn  1997,
|n|  |m|  1997. x2 nx + mn = 0. 1 1997, . . , , D = n2 4mn = n(n
4m) < 0. ,
, ; . , x2 + cx + d, c ,
d D < 0, x2 nx + mn = 0. ,
, , .
542. ,
l, , l , . , P ,
.
l
, l (
l) .
, P l . , , P , l
, ,
. .
543. . O , O1 ABC, H ACD, M ABD O1 , H, M (. . 250).
O1 , ABC. BC, CA AB A1 , B1 , C1 . O1 A1 = O1 B1 = O1 C1 , , OO1 A1 , OO1 B1 , OO1 C1 , OA1 O1 = OB1 O1 =

19961997 , 11

331

= OC1 O1 = . , O1 A1 BC,
, OA1 BC, . .
BOC BO1 C. , BOC BDC BAC (O ),
BDC ABC 2. , ADC
ADB ABC 2. ,
O D ABC AB, BC CA
, , O C AB, O B
AC, O A BC, , O = O1 , . . DO1 .
AB O1 C1 AB
D
DO1 , AB DO1 C1 .
O OH1
OM1 DB1 DC1 . OH1
ADC, OH1 DB1
H
OH1 AC (AC DO1 B1 ). C
M O
, H1 = H, . . H DB1 . A1
, OM1 ADB, . . M1 =
= M , , , M DC1 . , B
O1
B1
DM C1
ADB, , AD =
A
= DB. AO1 = BO1 , . 250
, AC = BC C, O1 , C1
.
CO AD (OH ADC CH
AD), , CO AB (AB CDC1 ), CO ADB.
OM ADB, , O CM . , M
, ADB ( C,
, ADB ,
CO ADB). CDC1 . DO1 CM , C1 O
, C1 D = C1 C, C1 O1 : O1 C = C1 M : M D =
= 1 : 2. ABC ADB , ABC ADB .
, , ABC, , .
. ABCD (.
. 251). ABC O , ACD ( ACD1 . 251) M , BCD ( BCD2 ) H .
, , AM = AO,

332

D3

P
H

D1

M
T

D2

. 251

CM = CO, AM C AOC AC
. M AC = OAC M CA = OCA.
, OAC = OAB = ,
OBA = OBC = OCB = OCA = , CAM = , CBH =
= , ACM = BCH = . , ABC: 2 + 2 + 2 = 180 , . .
+ + = 90 , BKC: + + HCK = 90 , , HCK = .
KBD2 = , HD2 C = , HD2 B = ( ), M CD1 = HCD2 = , M D1 C =
= HD2 C = . D1 P C: D1 P C = 180 ( + + ) = 90 ,
, D1 P AD1 C. AD1 = D1 C
= (M AC = M CA). , AD1 T = CD1 S ,
, D1 AT = D1 CS = ; , D1 P
AD1 C. , AT D1 AC,
. . AD1 C = ACD1 , 2 = + = 2. , = = = 60 .
, ABC, ACD BCD
, . . AB = BC = CA = AD = DC = BD, , .
544. , ,
, . , . ,
.
A , B; A B.

19971998 , 9

333

, B , , , A.
( ).
A , A,
, , . .
, . , , ,
.
, . ,
, 2.
. , .
k
k 1 , ,
2 4 .
, . ,
, . . ,
.
, , ,
.

19971998 .
9
545. x1 x2 y = x

x2 + (p 1)x + q = 0.
x1 + x2 = 1 p. , x3
x4 y = 2x
x3 + x4 = 2 p.
x1 < x2 , x3 < x4 , x1 x3 ,
x4 x2 (. . 252). (x4 x2 ) (x1
x3 ) = (x3 + x4 ) (x1 + x2 ) = (2 p) (1 p) = 1.
546. , . n .
180 (n 2). -

334

y=

2x

x3 x1

x2 x4

. 252

x
. 253

(. . 253), , ,
180. ,
180 n, . ., 360 ,
. ,
, , . 180 ,
.
.
547. . .
, , a = 5555554445, b = 5554445555, c =
= 4445555555. : S(a + b) = S(11110000000) < 5, S(a +
+ c) = S(10001110000) < 5, S(b + c) = S(10000001110) < 5, S(a + b +
+ c) = S(15555555555) = 51 > 50.
? , S(2(a + b + c)) = S((a +
+ b) + (a + c) + (b + c))  S(a + b) + S(a + c) + S(b + c)  12, . .
n = 2(a + b + c) 2
. , ,

. , , n = 31111111110,
S(n) = 12, S n
2 = 51. n
4 n
:
n
= 11110000000 + 10001110000 + 10000001110,
2
a + b = 11110000000, a + c = 10001110000, b +
+ c = 10000001110.
548. . .
, . . (, ) . 1

19971998 , 9

335

. , 2. 1 ,
, ,
. 2 .
2 3- , . .
549. . 24 .
x1
x2

. 5 .
(. . 254). x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 - x 5
( , ,
x3
). , x4
, , . 254
. ,
, .
Si ,
i- . ,
xj . , x5 x2 + x3 + x4 + x5
.
S1 = (x2 +x3 +x4 +x5 )+(x3 +x4 +x5 )+(x4 +x5 )+x5 = x2 +2x3 +3x4 +4x5 .
Si .
S1 + S2 + S3 + S4 + S5 = (1 + 2 + 3 + 4)(x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 ) =
= 10 12 = 120 .
120 : 5 = 24 .
, (, 12 ,
2 24 , 4 48 , 7 12 9 36 ), Si 24 ,
, 24 .
550. E , AB. BL AC P Q . QE EL
AB BC ,
MQ
MQ
ME
ML
MA
M A = M B = M C , M L = M C = 1. ,

Q
DP
M D P Q, M
M L = DL = 1, . . ED
P EL. EP EL AB BC : EP L = ABL, ELP = LBC,
ABL = LBC, EP L = ELP . ,

336

LEP , ED , .


(
551. . 3N
B
4
[x] x).
, , , P
, E
D
. A
C
Q M L
,
. 255
.
,
( ),

. , , 4 , 1234,
2413. : 123, 13 ( 2
), 12, .
, 1, 2
3 , ,

,


3N ( ).
4
, ,
,
.
, .
552. . x, ,
ab
x (a b
 ).
(x, y), x > y, x, x xy
y ,





ab ab(x y)
ab ab ab
ab ab
,
,
,

=
,
x y
x
xy
x y
x
. ., , .
, - , (a, b).
ab
, . . (a, b).
(a, b)

19971998 , 10

337

10
553. . 16 , a > 0. y = p y = q
, A, D E x1 < x2 < x3
ax3 + bx2 + cx + d p = 0, B, C F X1 <
< X2 < X3 aX 3 + bX 2 + cX + d q = 0.
x1 + x2 + x3 = ab = X1 + X2 + X3 . x2 X2 = (X1 x1 ) +
+ (X3 x3 ), .
554. F1 F2 . ,
. .
1) , , F1
F2 . A F1 . , , P , Q, R F2 , P QR
A (, A P QR,
). P AQ, QAR,
RAP 90 . , , P AQ  . :
1  P Q2  AP 2 + AQ2 . , , , AP AQ 1 .
2

2) . ,
, AB F1 P Q F2 . AP BQ (, A, B, P , Q , ,
). , , P AQ,
90 . 1  P Q2  AP 2 + AQ2 , , AP
AQ 1 . .
2

555. 1. , Ka Kb Kc ABC. AC > AB.


P OL = Ka OL P OB = ROB (. . 256), Ka OR =
= 2LOB. LOB AOB, Ka OR =
= 2(/2 + /2) = + . AC < AB .
, Kb OR = + . , Ka Kb OR,
Ka Kb AB .
, Ma Mb Mc Ka Kb Kc
(Ma , Mb , Mc ),
.
Ma Ka , Mb Kb Mc Kc .
2. Ma Ka
ABC T . , AC > AB. ,
T Ka L -

338

T
R
O

Ka

LP

Ka
Ma L P

. 256

. 257

H ABC. Ma L Ma H = Ma P 2 , Ma P 2 = Ma Ka Ma T
(. . 257).
, Ma P , Ma L Ma H ABC. ,
P  BC : P  P Ma AP  , P . AP  Ma O (O , . . 258).
A
A
T
Mb

Ma L P
. 258

Ka
Ma L
H

. 259

AH OP , Ma P  =
Ma P 
OA
PH
aP
= Ma P , M
Ma L = Ma L = OL = LP =
a + PH
aH
= M
= PMML
Ma P , .
a + LP
T Ka LH , Ma T H Ma LKa
. Ma LKa ABC:
Ma LKa = 180 2ALB = (. . 259). Mb T HMa. , HCA = CHMb =
= ( CMb H ), CMa Mb = . -

19971998 , 10

339

Ma Mb H = , Ma T HMb (Ma T H =
= Ma Mb H) , , Ma T Mb = Ma HMb = .
K T Mb
. Ka T K ,
RKa + ( ),
Ka K OR. Ka Kb ,
, . K Kb , , Ma Ka Mb Kb
T .
. :
(. . Ma Mb Mc ) ( T ).
556. . n (n > 1), n 1 n A1 , A2 , . . . , An ,
. A1 , A2 , . . . , An Ai . , xi . ,
xi
= xj i
= j. Ai {x1 , x2 , . . . , xn }, xi , , Ai
{x1 , x2 , . . . , xn }, 2k
n + 1 ( , n  2k + 1). ,
A1 , A2 , . . . , An n + n(2k n + 1) =
= n(2k + 2 n) . n(2k +
+ 2 n) (k + 1)2 . , , Ai
. .
557. . .
, , . ak , bk ,
19 98 k- , s . as = bs = m
as1
= bs1 ( ). ,
as1 bs1 , . , m = n2 (s 1)-
as1 = n bs1 = n2 1 ( ; ). s ,
n 18, s 1 n, 1. n2 1
, (n 1)2 n2 1 2n 2 . , b1 > (n 1)2 ,
b1 , . . . , bs1 . bs  100, as = a2s1  192 . .

340

558. ((x y) z) t ,
(x + y + z) t = (x y) + z + t. x = y = 0,
z t = z + t + C, C = 0 0. (x y) z = (x + y + C) +
+ z + C = x + y + z, C = 0.
559. , n- (n > 3), , . , , . . . 1)
2) .
1)
. , A1 B1 C1 A2 B2 C2
, S1 S2 ,
A1 , B1 , C1 S1 ,
S2 , A2 ,B2 , C2 S2 , S1 (.
. 260) . ,
.
2) ABC
AB n-, AB
A2
.
A1
S
1
, n-,
B2
C AB.
B1
C2
D,
C1 S2
ADB ( , . 260
, ).
, , A, B D,
n-, ABD .
( ),
(). , B
,
( ). n n-
,
, , .
:
2 + = n.
(1)
n 2 ,
+ + B = n 2.
(2)

19971998 , 10

341

(2) (1), B = 2, .
560. . +1.
. n :
2n 1 k (k+1 3) 1 , ,
+1. n = 1 k.
a1 , a2 , . . . , an . a1 = a2 ( ), a2 = a1 a3 , a3 = 1, 1 = a3 = a2 a4 ,
a4 = a2 = a1 . . , , , , 1,
a1 . k + 1 3, :
1) ak1 = a1 , ak = 1;
2) ak1 = 1, ak = a1 .
ak , . . ak = ak1 . , a1 = 1, . . A, B
, A B ,
A
B. A , A :
,
. , A B ,
A B A. ,
, 1.
, k (2n+1 1) , : A = A. , A A = 1. A A
( 2n ) , A A
. ,
AA , . k (2n 1), , .
AA. , AA = 1. , A ,
.
, , . A
. , ,
. , . .
k (2n 1) ( k + 1 3) -

342

. k = 2n 1, k + 1 = 2n ,
.

R
R

1 1 1 1
1
1
1
1 1 1 1
1
1
1
1 1 1 1

R
R

1 1 1 1
1
1
1
1 1 1 1
1
1
1
1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1
1
1
1
1 1 1 1
1
1
1
1 1 1 1

R
R

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

. 261

. R
(2n 1) (2n 1). , . 261 ( R , R,
). (. . ) , , 2n+1 -, . .
2n+1 . n, 2n - .

a31

a22
a32
a42

a13
a23
a33
a43
a53
. 262

a24
a34
a44

a35

n = 0 : a = a4 , a . n  1. ,
. 262. : a23 = a13 a22 a24 a33 , a32 = a22 a31 a33 a42 , a34 =
= a24 a33 a35 a44 , a43 = a33 a42 a44 a53 , a33 = a23 a32 a34 a43 =
= a13 a31 a35 a53 a222 a224 a242 a244 a433 = a13 a31 a35 a53 , . .
 , ,
. 2n1 , .

19971998 , 11

343

,  , .
11
561. . 553.
562. . A2
ABC .

A
AB
= AC (. . 263).
O, I . IA1 BC;
OA2 BC O A2
BC.
P O
I
, OA2 IA1 OA2 IA1
.
P
OI C
B
A1
OP : P I = OA2 : IA1 = R : r,
R, r . 263
. OB2 IB1 , OC2 IC1 (
ABC , ) , A1 A2 , B1 B2 , C1 C2 OI R : r
P .
. lA A2 BC. lB , lC B2 , C2 ,
: lB AC, lC AB. ABC , lA , lB , lC . A1 A2 , B1 B2 , C1 C2 . A1 A2 ,
B1 B2 , C1 C2 .
563. ABC S.
. S ,
2, AB.
, , BC CA, H 120
, 2. , a b (. . 264).
a  b, S H (. . 264).
a > b, lX , lY , lZ , .

344

lX

b
a
b

lZ

a
. 264

lX
lY

. 265

lZ
T
X

lY

Y
Z

. 266

X, Y Z , (. . 265).
, T , T S, -
M = {X, Y, Z}.
, T lX , lY lZ (. . 265),
T , . : T X, Y Z, , T lX X, lY
Y (. . 266). T XY Z, ,
T XY Z, , T lZ .
564. , - A
B
, . , .
O
, , , (
) (. . 267). O, . ,
, .
C
OA, OB, OC. . 267
, ,
, A, B C.
.
, . . ,
,
,
, , , . . .
, n 43 n .
, .
, . , n .  . -

19971998 , 11

345

. , -
, , . ,
, .
, n n 1 . ,
4n
, (n 1) + n
3 < 3 . .
N = 1998 , 32 N . , . , x .
N x 32 N 3x . ,
3 N 3x  4 (N x), . ,
2
3


N , . . 1998 + 1 = 200 .
x  10
10
.
565. . r1998 = 1997,5.
rn n- , Sn = r1 + r2 + . . . + rn .
(n + 1)- :
2
.
x2 + (y (2Sn + rn+1 ))2 = rn+1
2
, y +(y (2Sn +rn+1 ))2 = rn+1
2
,
D = (2rn+1 1) 8Sn = 0,

. . rn+1 = 8S2n + 1 , rn+1 > 0. r2 = 32 , r3 = 52 .


, rn+1 = n + 12 . , rn+1 =
= n + 12 n  k,
 




+1
8 12 + . . . + k 12
k(k + 1) k
1
= 2

rk+1 =
+ =
2
2
2
2
=k+

1
1
= (k + 1) .
2
2

566. . .
N = {a1 , . . . , an } ,
U . N1 = {b1 , . . . , bn , bn+1 }, b1 = a1 ,
. . . , bn = an , bn+1 = 0 U . bi
c = (b2 b1 )2 (b3 b1 )2 . . . (bn+1 bn )2 . N2 ,
U ,
((bi + c) (bj + c))2 = (bi bj )2 (bi + c)(bj + c) = bi bj + c(bj + bj + c)
(bi bj )2 .

346

, N = {1, 2}, N2 , , N4 , . . . , N2n4 n .


567. M 1,
T . M ,
T , 1/2, M , T , . . M T . , k
r 1/2

, r , T .

r
, ,
1, ,
M , , 1.
1 ( T 100), . . 1
, k  100
1  1 , 2r  100 > 1, 01. , ,
2r
100
99
T , 1,01, . . ,
T.
568. 1 , . . . , k
. :
i di , i = 1 ,. . . , k
(di ), i 1.
, . , ,
, ,
, .
: j, j = 1, . . . , m n,
, i, i = 1, . . . , k,
.
Pij = 1, j- i , Pij = 0, . 
{di }
j = 1 di Pij ,
i

. , j .

dj  0 , || , ||2 = j2 . , j
j

1 .
1 {d }, || ?
i

19981999 , 9

347

di di = di + x, x  di . j = j xPij ,

 2  2

| |2 =
j =
j 2x j Pij + x2 Pij2 , . . | |2 =
j
j
j
 2j 
Pij =
Pij = N , N
= y(x) = ax2 2bi x + c. a =
j

, c = ||2 . y = y(x),
x  di , x = 0
bi = 0, di > 0, bi  0, di = 0. , ,
 || {di }, , di > 0,
bi = j Pij = 0, di = 0, bi  0. , , j

i ( j Pij ) ; j

, ,



 2
 2



j ,
j =
j . ,
j =
j 1 di Pij =
j
j
j
j
i

j



 

=
j
j Pij =
j ,
j di (j Pij ) =
j

i,di >0 j

di > 0 bi = 0.

19981999 .
9
569. . 9.
, 9A = 10A A.
, ,
. , 10A A ( ) 9.
||2 =

X
j

!2
=

di Pij

X
i

d2i

2
Pij
+

Mik di dk + m n 2

i,k

X
i

di

Pij ,

Mik  0. ,
||2 = N

X
i

(di 1)2 +

Mik di dk + m n N,

i,k

N ` . , , di > 2 i,
||2  N (di 1)2 1 + m n > m n, ||2 = m n, di = 0. ,
||2 , 0  d1 , . . . , dmn  2,
. . (m n)- . .
,
, . .
.

348

570. , ,
.
, . 1
N . : ,
. . : . ,
.
. , , ,  . ,
, , .
571. I B
IK S1 ,
S2
A0
IK A0 C (.
S1
. 268). - C0
IL S2 .
D
L
I
AI BAC
K
BC 2 . A, I,
A
A0 . ,
C
C, I C0 .
. 268



 



1
1
ICA0 = C0 CA0 = C0 BA0 =
C0 B + BA0 ,
2
2
1      1     
A0 IC =
AC0 + A0 C =
C0 B + BA0
2
2
, A0 IC = ICA0 A0 I = A0 C.
, D BC, S1 BC D.
A0 KI A0 DC A0 K A0 D
A0 I = A0 C . , A0 KI = A0 DC.
A0 IK = A0 CD = A0 CB. A0 CB = A0 AB ( ) A0 AB = A0 AC. , A0 IK = A0 AC,
IK AC. , IL AC, L, I, K , AC.
572. . .
. p1 , . . . , pn .
,

19981999 , 9

349

, .
. ( ). , . , , , 2n 1, , , , . k
, , p1 .
, ,
p1 . : , p1 , ,
p1 . k
, .
k .
.
. , 1 000 000, ,
. . ,
k . k m
, 2m 1 , . .
.
. ,
. , . ,
,
. , , .
( , ).
. .
. .
, .
573. . n(n + 1).
n(n + 1)
. ,
1 3
2
, , , -

350



n(n + 1)
= n(n + 1)
. , 23 3
2
1 .
, .
1, . 269.
1,
.
,
. ,
. 269
23
.
574. n = 1 0 = 0. n > 1
,

2
m
+2m
2m + 1
.
(1)
{ k} 
2
k=m2




m2 + a + m2 + 2m a  2(2m2 + 2m) < 2m + 1 0  a  m.
,

 

m2 + a +
m2 + 2m a  1.
(2)

a
=
0,
1,
.
.
.
,
m



m2 + m  12 ( 2 (2) a = m),
(1).
(1) m 1 n 1, :
2
n
1

  n2 1
.
k 
2
k=1
 
,
n2 = 0.
575. , BCF = 180 BEF = AEF ,
EAF = F DC, AEF DCF . K L AE CD . AKF = F LB
,
B, K, F , L . , AE CD O, K L
BO. F
, BF O .
576. . .

19981999 , 10

351

B
D
E
L
K
F

. 270

: A, B, C
D. 1 500.
, k
Ak , Bk , Ck Dk .
, , .
.
.
, , Ai Aj , Bj Bj , Ci Cj Dj Dj . , ,
Ai Bj , Aj Bi , Ci Dj Cj Di .
, , Ak Bk , Ck Dk .
, , ,
, .
.
, Ak , Bk , Ck
Dk ;
. ,
, . , .

352

10
577. , , ,
1998 . ,
(, , ) I.
II 999 , , III
999 ( ).
III , 1998
, 500 , III
, .
I , 500 , , II III,
1998.
578. . a1 = a2 = . . . = 2.
- ak ak+1
1. (ak , ak+1 ) = (ak + ak+1 , ak+1 ) =
= (ak+2 , ak+1 ), . . 1. , k- , an = an1 + an2 ,
, .

ak+1 + ak
 max{ak+1 , ak }
ak+2 
2
max{ak+1 , ak } . , - : max{ak+1 , ak } = max{ak+2 , ak+1 } = max{ak+3 , ak+2 } = d.
ak+1
= ak , ak+2 < d, ak+3 < d, .
ak = ak+1 = ak+2 = . . . = d, d = 2.
ak1 + 2
= 2,
(ak1 , 2)
ak1 = 2, .
579. O1 , O2 , O3 (. . 271).
KO1 M = 90 + 12 A, KLM = 90 12 A, KO1 M +
+ KLM = 180 , O1 KM ABC
. O2 O3
KL LM . 571, ,
, KLM , .
580. , , , :
n n , .

19981999 , 10

353

,
B
,
k
O2
l .
K
,
;
L

n

2
O1
n n2 O3
. , C
M
, A
. 271
 ( )  ( ),
 .
, 1,
, 2,
 2
n
k + 2l 
.
(1)
2
2

, n , n4
, , ( ) , .
, , , ,
n2
.
(2)
2k + l  2
4
2
2
(1) (2) k + l  n3  n3 , . .
.
, n = 1 n = 3.
n = 2m + 1, m > 1, ,
, 2m
, m2 .
, m2 + 2m , .
(3)
2k + l  2m2 + 2m,
,
,  .

354

(1) (3) , 3(k + l)  4m2 + 4m = n2 1.




2
2
n
2
2
n 0 (mod 3), , , 3(k + l)  n k + l  3 = n3 ,
2
2
n2 1 (mod 3) k + l  n 3 1 = n3 .
.
. ,  > 0

n , n2 12 . .
.  2,  , , . .,
k = [n/8] . , 2
2
2



 n (1 /2) > n (1 /4) .
2
n2 12 n2

 12 n2 (1 )

; , 12 n2 ,
2; ,
.


3
2 1
n 2 2

12 n2 (1) ; , n2 ,
2;
. ,
2n2 , . . . , k- 2k2 n2 . n
2k2 n2 = 2[n/8]2 n2 > n2 , . . , . .
581. , 44n 4 n 4 10n. , n
. , n 8 ,
800.
, , ( 10, 1).
. , ,
n 2. n 3 3 , , , .
3n 300.
582. 575, E D
B ( K F 575).
583. ,

19981999 , 10

355

x + y 2  x2 + y 3 .
(1)
2
2
3
: x + y < x + y , ,
x3 + y 4  x2 + y 3 , (x+ x3 )+ (y 2 + y 4 ) < 2x2 + 2y 3 ,

x + x3  2x2 y 2 + y 4  2y 3 .
(1)

2x + 2y 2  x2 + y 3 + x3 + y 4 .
x + y 2  x2 + y 3  x3 + y 4 ,
2
4
2
, (1 + x ) + (1 + y )  2x + 2y  x2 + y 3 + x3 + y 4 ,
2 + x2 + y 4  x2 + y 3 + x3 + y 4 , .
584. 12 , ,
, .
,
,
(., , 224 ), 6
.
, . . :
) 3. , 9 , ,
, 7 4
. , 7
.
, 4 .
, , , 6 .
) 5. , , 7 4 3
, 7 6 .
) 7. 5 ,
A
, .
, 5, .
D
, - B
C
. 7 > 5,
. 272
A , B, C.
, , ,
 D (.
. 272). D ,
D A, 7,
7 .
) 9 .

356

) 11. ,
7, ,
. 5 ,
. (,
.)
11
585. . .
, 19
S = 9k + n, n {0, 1, . . . , 8}.
n 9, 19n = 18n+n 1999
(mod 9), n 1 (mod 9), . n = 1.
1) k = 0, . S = 1. 5
, 1. 1, 10, 100, 1000 10000.
1999.
2) k = 1, . . S = 10. 19
, 10. 19, 28, 37, 46, 55, 64,
73, 82, 91, 109, 118, 127, 136, 145, 154, 163, 172, 181, 190.
1990 < 1999. , 10,
208, 18 19 ,
, 1990 + 18 = 2008 > 1999.
3) k  2, . . S  19.
19 199, 19
1999.
, , 19 , , .
586. , . . , AB C b
c < a +
2 , a, b, c ,
A, B C. A, B, C, An , Bn , n = 1, 2, . . .,
1, 1, 0, 21n , 21n , a, b, c, an , bn , b
a+c
. , , c < a +
2 , a1 < 2 ,
a2 < a1 2+ c , . . , max{a, c} > a1 , a1 <
max{a, c} + max{a, c}

c
< a+
= max{a, c}. , max{a1 , c} >
2 
2
> a2 , max{a2 , c} > a3 , . . . , max{b, c} > b1 , max{b1 , c} > b2 , . . . .
, am > c, c < am  am1 1  . . .  a m,
m  a c ; m  max{1, a c, b c}
am  c, bm  c, am + bm  2c, .

19981999 , 11

357

Q
F
R

N
E

A
K
. 273

587. (. . 273). 571, RQ KM EF , RE LN QF . ,


. ,
, , AB + CD = AD + BC,
RQ + EF = RE + QF , (RQ + EF ) (RE + QF ) =
= (a12 + a34 ) (a23 + a41 ), aij
Si Sj .
, RQF E .
588. . 580.
589. , ,
.
 .
, (a, b, c, d) 
a
b
c
d
, k , k , k , k , k =

= (a, b, c, d). ,
(a, b, c, d) = 1.
(1)
, a, p. b + c, c + d, b + d , , b, c
d p (, , 2d = (b + d)+ (c+ d) (b + c)), (1). , a, b, c, d .
, a = 2m , b = 2n , c = 2r ,
d = 2s , 0 = m  n  r  s, r  1 ( m = n = r = 0, ,
a = b = c).
(a + c)2 = (1 + 2r )2
bd. .

358

590. A, B, C
. , .
: X, Y , Z A, B, C,
. , Y ,
X Z. , B A C,
Y , X Z,
, .
.
.
1) X A, Y B, Z C.
Y
X0 Y0 Z0 (, ?). , , B, A C,
, , ,
Y0 .
2) A C.
B. ,
B, B, ,
B A C.
591. , A
, AB,
M
AC AD B1 , C1 D1 . ABC B1
, . 274. ,
C1
ABC = CAM (
), CAM = AC1 B1
( - B
), . . ABC = AC1 B1 . ,
C
AB1 C1 ACB.
. 274
AB1
AC1
B1 C1
=
=
.
BC
AC
AB
,
C1 D1
AC1
AD1
=
=
CD
AD
AC
AD1
AB1
B1 D1
=
=
.

BD
AB
AD
,
C1 D1
AD1
B1 D1
AB1
B1 C1
=
=
=
=
AB CD
AB AC
AC BD
AD AC
AD BC

19981999 , 11

359

, A1 B1 C1 , AB CD =
= AC BD = AD BC.
, , , A1 B1 C1 .
592. . .
A, B, C D. 1 500. ,
.
, k Ak , Bk , Ck Dk ,
,
. ,
, .
.
. ,
. , , Ai Aj ,
Bi Bj , Ci Cj Di Dj . , , Ai Bj ,
Aj Bi , Ci Dj Cj Di . ,

.
, ,
. ., , . Ak , Bk , Ck Dk .
. , , , Ak Bk ,
, , (, Bk Ck
Ck Ak , Ak Dk , Bk Dk Ck Dk , ). -
, Ak , Bk Ck k, ,
- . ,
k , ,
k, .

360

,
. , , ,
, .

19992000 .
9
593. . a + b + c = 3.
x21 + ax1 + 1 = 0 x21 + bx1 + c = 0, (a b)x1 + (1 c) = 0
1
x1 = ac
b.
, x22 + x2 + a = 0 x22 + cx2 + b = 0
b (, c
= 1), . . x = 1 .
x2 = ac
2
x1
1

, x11 .
, x2 x2 + ax + 1 = 0 x2 + x + a =
= 0, (a 1)(x2 1) = 0. a = 1
. , x2 = 1, x1 = 1 a = 2, b + c =
= 1.
594. X + 1 2, X. X ,
X + 2 4, , X + 1 4. ,
X 4. , , k (k  5), rk X 2k . (k + 1)-
X + 2k rk 2k+1 (, 0 < 2k
rk < 2k+1  64 < 100). (X + 2k rk , 2k+1 ) = 2k+1 ,
X 2k+1 2k + rk , (X + 2k rk , 2k+1 ) = 2k ,
rk .
, 6 , X 64. , 64
2. 2 , a a+64,
 X + 3 r 3?, r
a 3. , X = a, 3,
X = a + 64, 1. , X .
. , X.
595. M  N  BC AB AB BC . ABC =
= N  AB = M  CB, A, M  , C, N  -

19992000 , 9

361

. , AM  C = ABC + M  CA = 2ABC = AOC,


O , 1 ,
 
M = M  , N = N  . , M N
2ABC, M N (
L) BM N .
LBN = 2 BM N =
B

= 2 BCA, .

596. , ,
, L

3. G
M
O
. ,

Z, N

K

A1 , A2 , . . . , A3k . A
C
S, Am An
Z. Z1 Z2 , S
. 275
 Z. 3, ,
S 3. , , X, Z, Z. , ,
Z, , .
A1 , A2 , . . . , A3k Z A,
,
Z. , G1 ,
G, - .
, G1
3. : G
.
, ,
, , 3.
,
, .

362

597. , n = 5m 1 n , a5m = 5m 2 k  5m
ak+5 = ak + 5. : 1 4 2 5 3 6. :
n = 5m 1 5m a5m = 5m 2,
: a5m+1 = 5m + 1, a5m+2 = 5m + 4,
a5m+3 = 5m + 2, a5m+4 = 5m + 5, a5m+5 = 5m + 3. .
, , 5 4, 1 0, 3.
5 .
598. ,
, . ,
, ,
,
.
a b , , 2na 2nb .
ab, (2n a)(2n b).
ab(2n a)(2n b) = a(2n a)b(2n b)  n2 n2 = n4 ,
, n2 .
599. S1
C
Q
CD F . , E
D F (, F = E).
N
M
DA2 = DF DE
2
DB = DF DE, , , F
S2 F (.
. 276). , CACM =
E
CM
=
= CECF = CBCN ,
P
CN
CB
A
D
B
=
, CM N CBA,
. 276
CA
CM N = CBA, CN M = CAB.
S1 M
P Q , P B AC, Q . , P M A = BAM .
QM C = P M A = CAB = CN M , ,
, C M S1 ,

19992000 , 10

363

N . , , C N
S2 , M .
600. an+100 = an n =
= 1, 2, . . . , 100. ,
.
. a1 , a2 , . . . , an d .
k , (a1 + kd, ai )  d
i =2, 3, . . . , n.
. ,
a2 a3 . . . an , , la2 a3 . . . an , a1 .
k, a1 + kd > la2 a3 . . . an ,
k0 . a1 = a1 + k0 d. 0 < a1 la2 a3 . . . an  d,
a1 ai d. .
M > 1
ai . , , ,
, M . , a1 , a2 ,
. . . , a100 ,
ai ai+1 , M , . d =
= (ai1 , ai+1 ) < M . , ai
d, ai
d. - M , , M , ,
. , ,
, M , , ,
M .
,
1, . 1,
.
21001 2
3

10

500.
601. .
0
1000
23
21000
2 22
+
+
+ ... +
.
3
3
3
3
1001
, 2 3 2 . . ,
,
k
k+1
k
( 23 + 2 3 = 323 = 2k ). ,

364

,
1 ([ + ] = [[] + {} + [] + {}] = [] +
+ [] + [{} + {}] = [] + [] + [1] = [] + [] + 1).

1,
1000 ,
500.
602. ti = x13
i xi . 1 < xi  0 ti  0; 0 <
< xi < 1, ti < 0. , ,
n

ti yi < 0. , y1 > 0

i=1




( (yi + c)ti = yi ti + c ti = yi ti ).
k , x
k  0, xk+1 > 0. t1 , . . . , tk 0,
tk+1 , . . . , tn < 0. ti yi :
n
k
n



ti y i =
ti y i +
tj y j 
k
n
n
i=1
i=1
j=k+1



ti + yk+1
tj < yk+1
ti = 0.
 yk
i=1

j=k+1

i=1

.
603. H ABC, M AC. AH CH S T , P S AB T Q
BC (. . 277). K P S QT . BP K = BQK = 90 ,
BP KQ . , K R .
P BQ B
(BP = BQ), HP B =
= HQB. K
B. ,

HM . , (P, Q)
A1
(S, T ) C1
H
P
AC1 H
Q
CA1 H,
S
HS
HA
A
=
,
T
R
HT
HC
M
ST AC. C
ST
. 277
HM . HSKT , K HM . K

19992000 , 10

365

HM B.
K R .
604. . .
A, B, C, D, E. 5! = 120 . m(A) <
< m(B) < m(C) 5!
3! = 20 . -
, 20 . , 20 5 = 100 . (
) . 6- 10
, 7- 5 , 8- 3,
, , 9- 2 . , ,
,
.
605. . 7.
7 : {3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3}.
, m  8 m A = {a1 , a2 , . . . , am }
. , a1 > a2 > a3 > . . . > am a4 > 0 (, 1
). a1 + a2 > a1 + a3 > a1 + a4 > a1 , . .
a1 + a2 , a1 + a3 a1 + a4 A .
, a2 + a3 a2 + a4
A, a2 + a3 > a2 , a2 + a4 > a2 a2 + a3
= a2 + a4 . , (a1 , a2 , a3 ) (a1 , a2 , a4 )
A .
606. , 3n, n
3. 3n ( )
d 3d, d 3. ,
3n ( 6n) 4. n 2.
n
, 3n
2 , n, 2 1 3n,
3n + 1 > 3n, , 3n
. .
607. , Q B1
BK, P B1 BM
(. . 278; ).
QK P M N , Q P -

366

K M N ( K

AB; ). , KQB + M P B =
= . , KB1 B + KQB = M B1 B + M P B = .
, KB1 B + M B1 B = , . . B1
KM . , BQB1 = BKB1 = KN M = B1 M B = B1 P B.
QBP + QN P = , ,
BP B1 Q ,
, , BP B1 Q .
608. B

n.
P
n = 2.
K.
, - Q
M
, , C
K B1

K, ,

N
.
A
.
. 278

n , (n + 1)- .
K. (n + 1) . , K, , , .
(n + 1)- , K. n .
n ,
( K n + 1
, ). , , i
2n 2 .
i K, , ,
K.

19992000 , 11

367

11
609. x = y = z, f (2x) + f (0) + f (0)  3f (0),
f (2x)  f (0).
, x = z = y, f (0) + f (0) +
+ f (2x)  3f (2x), f (2x)  f (0). , f (0)  f (2x)  f (0),
. . f (2x) const = C. , C R
f (x) C .
610. .
i-
(1  i  99) , 99
i 1, . ,
a, b c, a + 99b = c,
. ,
() , a c ,
99.
611.   .
.
S, (
, ). , AC1 D1 , A, C1 D1 . , K, KBCDE S,  KBCDE
A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 , , , .
(M, P Q) M P Q. ABC, BCD, CDE, DEA
EAB . ABC.
(A, BC)  (D, BC) (C, AB)  (E, AB). O , ABCO (, ).
(O, BC) = (A, BC) (O, AB) = (C, AB)  (B1 , AB), O AB1 C.
, A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 , . .
612. . 1  i  j  n [i, j] i j.
ai + ai+1 + + aj
.
S(i, j) =
ji+1
, S(i, j) > S(j + 1, l) > S(i, l) > .
[1, n] [pi , qi ]
: i- p , ap
( ,

368

); q,
j [pi , q] api aj . pi+1 > qi + 1.
k , mk > . ,
. k, . mk > , l  k, S(l, k) > .
, [l, k]
- [pj , qj ]. [pi , qi ]
, k. k > qi + 1, S(qi + 2, k)  ,
S(l, qi + 1) > , k. k = qi + 1. , l
= pi (
qi ). l > pi , S(pi , l 1) > , S(pi , qi + 1) > ,
. l < pi , S(pi , qi + 1)  S(l, pi
1) > , . . pi 1 ,
[pj , qj ] k, . , k .

, (qi pi +
+ 1). , [pi , qi ]



ak >
(qi pi + 1),
ak 
k[pi ,qi ]

.
. bi = a1 + + ai . ,
b1  b2  . . .  bn .
al+1 + akm+2 + + ak
bk bl
=
.
m
kl
B0 (0, 0), B1 (1, b1 ),
bk bl
B2 (2, b2 ),. . . , Bn (n, bn ).
kl
Bl Bk . , mk > , , Bk arctg (
lk ) Bl l < k (a1 + a2 + + an
Bk ).

bn /, (n, 0) ln .
n,
. . Bn , , , ( bn1  bn ). , Bk -

19992000 , 11

369

( ) , ln .
Bk+1 Bn ( ),
n k, , n k.
613.
sin2n x + (2n 2) sinn x cosn x + cos2n x  1.
sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 n,
1 = sin2n x + cos2n x + n(sin2 x cos2n2 x + cos2 x sin2n2 x)+
+Cn2 (sin4 x cos2n4 x + cos4 x sin2n4 x) + . . . 

 sin2n x + cos2n x + (2n 2) sinn x cosn x,


2 sinn x cosn x, 2n 2
.

2
614. , 7n, n
7. 7n ( )
d 7d, d 7. ,
7n ( 14n) 8. n 4. 7n
n n
, 7n
2 , 4 , n, 2 , 4 1
7n, 7n + 1 > 7n, , 7n
. .
615. O O
AB B (. . 279).
P , Q KL , M , N BC AD
c . l1 , l2 P , Q.
B K
l1 (
l2 ) P Q.
O, l1
P M C
1 , BC K - l
2

D
l2 ; , 2 , AD l1 .
Q
N
BC l2 , AD l1 , , LKC =
L
A
= KLD = . BM N = AN M
. , KLN M
N M C = M N D = . , P Q M N
2. , . 279
. KM BC ( -

370

, , ), LN
AD.
616. : . 1 4. () , ( ).
() ,
( ). 6 : {1, 2}, {1, 3}, {1, 4}, {2, 3}, {2, 4}, {3, 4}.
. ,
25 , . , . ,
,
,
: (, 1)
{1, 2}, {1, 3} {2, 3} ( ).
.
1, , 1 , . ., 50.
, 50 .
{1, 2}, {1, 3} {2, 3}.
4 , 25
.
, , 25 , 25 =
. , 2 99100
2
= 25 99 100 .
25 , 200 2524
2 4 =
= 24 1002 . , 25 99 > 24 100, .
, ,
.

20002001 .
9
617. . .

20002001 , 9

371

n2 (n + 1)2 1 An = {n2 , n2 +
+ 1, . . . , n2 + n} Bn = {n2 + n + 1, n2 + n + 2, . . . , n2 + 2n}.
An n2 , Bn
(n + 1)2 . An
Bn
S(B
n ) S(Bn ) .

S(A

2
n)
2
2
2
S(A
)
=
(n
+
n
+
1)

(n
+
1)
+
(n
+
n
+
2)

(n
+
2)
+. . .

n
. . . + (n2 + 2n) (n2 + n) n2 = n n n2 = 0 ,
An Bn . ,
1 999 999 A1 B1 , A2
B2 , . . . , A999 B999 .
618. , Q(x) = (x x1 )(x x2 ), x2 x1 > 2
P (x) = (x x1 )(x x2 )(x2 + Ax + B), P (x1 ) = Q(x1 ) = 0,
P (x2 ) = Q(x2 ) = 0. , P (x) Q(x)  0, . . (x x1 )(x
x2 )(x2 + Ax + B 1)  0 x.
, x2 + Ax + (B 1) = (x x1 )(x x2 ),
x = x1 x = x2 P (x)
Q(x) x = x1 x = x2 . ,
A = (x1 + x2 ), B 1 = x1 x2 , x2 +
+ Ax + B D = (x1 + x2 )2 4(x1 x2 + 1) = (x1 x2 )2 4 > 0.
P (x) = (x x1 )(x x2 )(x x3 )(x x4 ) ( x3 x4
x1 x2 , x3 x4 x2 + Ax + B, x1 x2
; , x3
= x4 , D
= 0). , P (x)
I =
= (x1 ; x2 ). . , P (x) Q(x)  0
x .
619. M CD, L AD.
ABCD BA1 C1 ,
AC BA1 C1 (. . 280).
D , AC A1 C1 BC
BA . ACA1 D CAC1 D
. A, M A1 ,
. , AKA1 K ,
M A, A1 K. ,
CKC1 = 90 . ,
CKA1 = 90 A1 KC1 = C1 KA.
CN KA1 , CN KBA1 . AN KC1 . ,

372

A1

N
K
M

C1
. 280

N CK = CKA1 = C1 KA = N AK.
620. A2000 A1 A2 . . . A2000 .
A1 A2 . . . A1999 , , 999 1000.
, 1999 . ,
,
. 1999 > 2 999, , .
.
621. . 500 501.
. , . . ,
, .
,
. , 2000 500 . , 501
500. , ,
3121312131213 . . .31213 2131213121312 . . .21312.
622. , n + 1 . , , k
( k  n), ,

20002001 , 9

373

k . , n + 1
A1 , . . . An+1 .
n . ,
Ai , . Ai .
623. P Q B
AB BC
, P1 , K1 ,
K
Q1 , M1
Q
P
M
P , K, Q, M
AC (. . 281).
P1 Q1 = 12 AC , N
P1 K 1
C
Q1 M1
, K1 M1 = 12 AC, - A
O
P1 Q1 = K1 M1 , . 281
, K
B, P , Q B, M .
, OP AB, OQ BC P OQ = B.
KOM = P OQ,
. ., , OP K OQM .
BAC = , BCA = . P K = P1 K1 : cos , QM =
= Q1 M1 : cos . P1 Q1 = K1 M1 P1 K1 = Q1 M1 P K : QM =
= cos : cos .
, AOB = 2 BOP = OP = R cos ,
R . OQ = R cos
OP : OQ = cos : cos = P K : QM , , OP K OQM .
624. . n = pm , p , m N.
, n . p
n. n pm k,
p k. l = p + k 1
n. , l k. .
(l, k) > 1, (p1, k) = (lk, k) = (l, k) > 1.
, k - d, 2  d  p 1.
p. , p + k 1 = p . ,  2,
k > 1. , p2 k n,
. . p2 + k 1 n. p2 + k 1
k, k p2 1 =
1
= 2(p 1) p +
2 , p. ,
p2 + k 1 = p ,  3. p = p2 + k 1 = p2 + (p + k 1) p =

374

= p(p+p1 1), p2 . , , k =
= 1. , .
10
625. . 617.
626. . A B m n . A B m + n 1 .
. , A B .
k. A B
A B. , A B,
:
2k  2m + 2n.
()
A B
A B, A B. ,
() 1. , A B, () 1.
2k  2m + 2n 2
. .
k  m + n 1.
.
: A1 A2 , A3 ,
. . . , A100 , , 100 + 100 1 = 199, 199 + 100 1 = 298, . . . , 9802 + 100 1 = 9901,
.
627.
N
, ,

BKM 1 ,
A

R, r r1 .
BN K
P (. . 282). P
l
H N , . H(P ) = B, H(AB) = l,
l , AB,
M
B
. . M . 1
, H(K) = M , . . N , K,
. 282
M . , 2r1 sin
r1
BK
=
=
, = BM N . ,
,
BN
2R sin
R

20002001 , 10

375

2

 r 2
BK
r
NP
BP
1
= . , BK 2 = BP BN
=
=
=
BN
R
R
BN
BN
NP
r
r1
=1
= 1 . ,
.
BN
R
R
628. , , . , , (
). , 100 , ( )
A1 , A2 , . . . , A100 . Ai Aj
,
d(Ai , Aj ). 100
50 ,
.
50 ( ). ,
(. ., ).
, B C , .
, , B, C. ,
, , .
, Ai Aj , Ak Am .
,
d(Ai , Aj ) + d(Ak , Am ) < d(Ai , Ak ) + d(Aj , Am ),
.
, BC
.
629. P (x) = (x x1 )(x x2 )(x x3 ), ,
P (Q(x)) = (Q(x)x1 )(Q(x)x2 )(Q(x)x3 ), Q(x)xi
= 0, i = 1, 2, 3,
. . Di = 1 4(2001 xi ) < 0.
2001 xi > 14 , P (2001) = (2001 x1 )(2001 x2 )(2001 x3 ) >
1.
> 64
630. , S ,
, . -

376

, , .
1,
. ( ) S .
, 1/n
2
, . . n(n2+1) . k
n2 k k 1 . , k
, S (k 1) (n2 k) = 2k 1
n2 . n a1 , a2 , . . . , an ,
, . S
(2a1 1 n2 ) + (2a2 1 n2 ) + . . . + (2an 1 n2 ) = 2(a1 + a2 +. . .
. . . +an)nn3 = n(n2 +1)nn3 = 0. ,
, ,
S . S ,
. S = 0.
631. , H, A1 , B1 , CH C1 . , C1
C1 .
F , B

H (. . 283). HA1 F ,
HB1 F HC1 F ,
H A1
. C1
A1 F BC, B1 F AC,

C1 F AB. B1
F
SBF C =
A
C
= SBA1 C ( BF C
. 283
BA1 C , ), SCF A = SCB1 A SAF B = SAC1 B .
, F ABC: A1
B1 , , F
ACB; F ABC,
SAF C + SBF C = SAB1 C + SBA1 C S
ABC ; , C1
, . S = SAF B + SBF C +
+SCF A = SAC1 B +SBA1 C +SCB1 A , SAC1 B = SAC1 B ,
C1 C1 .
632. . n = pk , p , n = 12.

20002001 , 11

377

,
. , , , .
n 624. n ; n = 2m k, m  1,
k > 1 . , k + 2 1 = k + 1 n.
(k + 1, k) = 1, k + 1 = 2 , > 1. 22 + k 1 =
= k + 3 n. , k + 3 = (k + 1) + 2 = 2 + 2
22 . , (k + 3, k) = (3, k)  3.
, k + 3  2 3 = 6, k  3. , n = 2m 3. m = 1
; m  3 ,
, 23 + 3 1 = 10 n.
11
633. . 97 .
, k = m , k = 100
m . k = 1
, k = 99 97 (k
= 100). k = 1 ,
S , , k = 99 . ,
97.
100 a1 , . . . , a100 2 98 ( 97 ) . a1 = a2 = 1,
an+2 = an + an+1 , n = 1, 2, . . . , 97, S = a1 + a2 + . . . + a98 . a100 = S a99 .
2S , , a100 + a99 = a100 + a98 + a97 =
= a100 + a98 + a96 + a95 = a100 + a98 + a96 + a94 + a93 = . . . = a100 +
+ a98 + a96 + a94 + a92 + a90 + . . . + a6 + a4 + a2 + a1 = S. ,
2, 3, 4, . . . , 51.
100 2 = 98, 100 3 = 97, . . . , 100 48 = 52, . . 2 98
.
634. . 627.
635. ,
P1 , O S. S1
S. P2 S2 S.
, S1 S2 = S.
P1 P2 l (. . 284). ,

378

P1 P2 ,
.
I, A . , , I P1 ,
P2 A. , m,
A l,
P2 . l , S1 S2 = S.
l1

l2

l
. 284

. 285

, P1 P2 , S,
m, S1 , S2 .
P1 P2 , P1 P2 . P1 P2 .
, ,
l, P1 P2 . , , S1 S2
= .
, S1 S2
= . , , S1 S2 (, P1 n, 2Cn2 ,
; . . 285). , , ,
, S1
= S S2
= S.
S1 S2 = , S1 S2
. ,
S1 S2 , ,
S1 S2 = S.
636. . n .

20002001 , 11

379

, n . k-
k- . , a1 , a2 , . . . , an ,
{a1 , a2 , . . . , an } = {1, 2, . . . , n}, k-
n + 1 ak .
, n + 1
. , , . .
n + 1 . , ,
( ),
(. . , ),
.
-, ,
, :
, , ,
.
, ,
, . ,
,
, .
, . , i- ,
, i-
; j- j-
( , , ,
). n n + 1 . , , ,
( ), . ,
. , . .
637. . ,
f (x) < 0 x (x1 , x2 ), g(x) < 0 x (x3 , x4 ), x2 < x3 . y = f (x) x2
y = g(x) x3 . ,
.
f (x) x2 y = ax+ b1 , g(x)

380

x3 y = ax + b2 , a > 0.
y0 > 0. , ,
. f (x) + g(x) > ax + b1 ax + b2 =
= b1 + b2 = 2y0 > 0, .
. P (x0 , y0 ).
f (x) = y0 + (x x )(x x0 ), g(x) = y0 + (x x )(x x0 ), ,
x0 < x0 , x0 < x . , , , x < x < x0 ,
(x , x0 ) f (x) < g(x), ,
g(x) , f (x) , .
h(x) = f (x) + g(x) = ( + )y0 + (x x0 )[( + )x (x + x )] =
= ( + )y0 + ( + )(x x0 )2  ( + )y0 > 0, ,

( + )x0 = x + x , . . = x0 x . ,
x x0
x < x0 < x .
638. d a b, . . a = da1 ,
b = db1 , a1 b1 . da1 b1 (a1 + b1 )
a21 + a1 b1 + b21 = m. a1 + b1 a1 b1
( a1 b1 ),
m = a1 (a1 + b1 ) + b21 = b1 (a1 + b1 ) + a21 , m
a1 , b1 a1 + b1 , d m.
d  m > a1 b1 ,

3
d3 > ab. |a b|  d > ab,
.
639. , ,
. 2001 k
,
( ).
A ,
s (s < 2000). V s ,
A, W 2000 s .
.
1) W B C.
U , A
W , C. 2000 s
U U
( A, B). , 2000 s  k.
, s ,
, s + 1
,
( , , s,
s + 1 ). s + 1 = 2001 (2000
s)  2001 k .

20002001 , 11

381

2) W .
1, A ( W ). ,
W
V (
). , V
( ,
s s 1 V ,
A W ). s V ,
s 1 . , s . s
V A, 2001 s  k,
, s = 2001 (2001 s)  2001 k, .
640. S
, 1 ,
SA1 B1 C1 . B1

,
B
A1 B1 C1 (. . 286).
C1
A1
K1 ,
K

SK1 .
O1
1 = SAK.
C
l - A
1 , S
. 286
(. . 287). 1 = 2 2 = A1 K1 K = 3,
1 = 3 , , AK l. , 1
S, AK . , S , ,
. A, B C , O1 .
, ,
. O ( OA1 , OB1 , OC1 ).
O, O1 S. (.
. 288),
SP1 P = SQ1 Q = 90 ,
O1 P Q. OP1 OQ1
O1 ,

382

S
S

1
A1
A

O
l

2
3

P1

Q1

K1
P

O1

K
. 287

. 288

SP P1 = SQQ1 = OQ1 P1 = OP1 Q,


. . Q1 OP1 Q1 OP1 = 180 2 OQ1 P1 =
= 2(90 SP P1 ) = 2 Q1 SP1 . OP1 = OQ1
, O , SP1 Q1 .
OS = OP1 = OA1 = OB1 = OC1 , . . O 1 .

20012002 .
9
641. . .
1 2001 , 2001
2001 . , ,
2002.
() 20022, . . ,
, .
642. AO1 O2
M

OAO1 .
A
AO1 O2 = AOO1 + OAO1 =
= 12 AOB + 12 OAB = 90
12 OBA = 12 ABC.
O
O1
O2
, M
B
OA
C
A. M AO2 OAO2 .
AO2 O1 = M AO2
. 289
AOO2 = 12 M AC 12 AOC =
= 12 ACO.

20012002 , 9

383

, O1 A = O2 A
AO1 O2 AO2 O1 , , ABC ACB.
, ABC , AB = AC.
643. A, B, C D.
SABC  SABD + SACD + SBCD .
.  12
, -- 4 . ,
 3 --. :  ,
.
. ,
.
644. . 10.
, , ,
, A
A. X 10, , , . .
. , , n (n  9), , n ,
, .
11 , , 10,
, 22, 22 2 11 > 100.
, 9 :
10 100 ,
. ,   A B (. . , , , )
, A B
. , .
9 .
,
; , . ,
. ,
, . , :

384


.
645. , . [1, 7],
( ), 1 7. ,
, 2 1
( A). , , , 1
2 ( B). A
B , .
646. . n = k 1.
, , n  k .
( ) : ( ), ,
2n. k ; , n > k,
, n = k, 2n 1 , , . .
n < k. , . (1, 2), . . . , (2n 1, 2n) ( ; ).
 . , 2i, 2i 1
; 2i ,
2i 1, ,
. , , . , , .
647. K L, AOC, AKO BM O, CLO BN O (.
. 290). KO = OM , LO = ON KOL = AOC M OB
BON = M ON , KOL M ON , , KL = M N . BM N BM +
+ M N + N B = AK + KL + LC  AC.
, , ,
(. . 291, . 292, . 293).

20012002 , 10

385

B
B
M
N

L
N

O
2

A
K

O
C

L
. 290

. 291

M
O

O
N

K
A
C
. 292

C
. 293

648. , a b, 22n . , .
.
.
, a2 .. b. (a b)2 = a2 2ab + b2 .. b.
2n
2n
2
4n ..
a = p 2 + r, b = q 2 + r. (p q) 2 . b, b
.
, (p q)2 .. b, |p q| > 2n max(a, b) = max(p, q) 22n +
3n
+ r > 2 , .
10
649. , R P Q
. , , R Q , P . , , ,
, x3 R Q . P 2 = R2 Q2 = (R + Q)(R Q), R + Q ,
, R Q , . . R Q = t(x x1 ), t > 0 ( x4 P 2 ).
.
.
.
P .. x x1 , R + Q .. x x1 , R Q .. x x1 ,
..
..
R . x x1 , Q . x x1 , . . R = (x x1 )R1 , Q = (x x1 )Q1 , R1
Q1
x2 . P = a(x x1 )(x x2 ).
a2 (x x2 )2 = (R1 + Q1 )(R1 Q1 )

386

, R1 Q1 = t = const > 0. , R1 = Q1 + t,
a2 (x x2 )2 = (2Q1 + t) t,
2

. . Q1 = a2t (x x2 )2 2t ,
. Q .
650. M B 2 = M A M D =
D
= 12 M D2 , KA2 = KB KC = 12 KC 2 .
A
, , M
AK = sin ACK , 1 =
: 1 = KC
sin CAK
2

BM = sin BDM . sin ACK =


= M
D
sin DBM
= sin BDM , ABCD K
B
C
. ,
. 294
sin CAK = sin DBM . ,
.
1) CAK = DBM . CAK BDM . , AB . , CAK
DBM 1, . . .
, AD = M D/2 = KC/2 = BC. , ABCD
, AB CD.
2) CAK + DBM = 180.
CAK = CDA, DBM = DCB. , CDA + DCB =
= 180 , , AD BC.
651. x ,
n: x2  n < (x+1)2 . n , nx2  2x  2 n. ,
, y ,
 n

2
2
2
2 +1 

nx
<
y
.

y
=
(y1)+1

n

x
2 n+
x2 : (y1)

+ 1 = 2 4 n + 1. , m = x2 + y 2 > n, . . m
m n > 0.
,
m n = x2 + y 2 n = y 2 (n x2 )  y 2 (y 1)2 =

= 2y 1  2 2 4 n + 1.
, n > 10 000

2 2 4 n + 1 < 3 4 n.
652. , , , .
, : ,
. , -

20012002 , 10

387

, ,
1. 2002, .
v,
. , (
) . ,

.
G u , . G G .
G, u. G ,
( w). ,
, , , w,
G , u. ,
G u,
.
( w)
, , u G, w ,
. , u G .
,
v . , v 1,
v v .
v , . , v 1.
653. (a + b + c)2 = 9.
9 a 2 b 2 c2
ab + bc + ca =
.
2
, ,

2 a + 2 b + 2 c + a2 + b2 + c2  9.

, 2 a + a2  3a. ,
, 2 a +

388

3
+ a2 = a + a + a2  3 a3 = 3a. 2 a + 2 b + 2 a + a2 + b2 +
+ c2  3(a + b + c) = 9.
654. . 646.
655. A1 , B1 C1 ABC (. . 295). A1
a1 , A. AB1 C1 , A B1 C1 , A1 , B1 C1 , A1 B1 C1 .
A
A
C1
B1
B
C
0

A1

B C
. 295

A0
. 296

A0 , B0 C0 ABC (.
. 296). ABC A0 B0 C0 12 ,
A A0 .
A0 B0 C0 S.
, A1 A
( B1 B  , C1 C  ).
S.
a1 , a. , A1 B1 C1 a, b c, ,
, A1 B1 C1 S ,
A0 B0 C0 .
656. . , .
l; A, B
l , m n , A
B; C m n. C
p, l - D AB, A B
(. . 297).
l , m , n , p , l,
m, n, p (l , p ; m , n ; m , n , p
; p l l
m n ), , l , m , n -

20012002 , 11

C

C
n

p
m

389

q
l

p
m

B
D

D
A

A
. 297

. 298

(. . 298).
D q  , m .
B  C  , A C  (, , B  C  ). n , l ,
p , q  . .
. l, m, n, p -: - l, m, n, p
(, m, n, p )
, D p l
A B.
11
657. . 649.
658. . 3 A, B C, ( ,
). T1 ,
.
, D. T2 , B,
C, D . BC
T1 T2 , T1 T2

. (BC, BD)
T2 , , T1 ,
T1


T2 , . , (BA, BD) .

BC T1 (x, y), BA (z, t), BD (p, q). px +


ny
nx mz
+qy = m pz +qt = n , p = mt
xt yz , q = xt yz
( xt yz
= 0, A, B, C
). , D T1 . , ,
.

390

. , ,
A, B, C, .
, tg BAC , .
,
A, B, C. xA = xB ( xA = xC ), tg BAC =
xA ( ). x
= x x
=
= xyC
B
A
C
C yA

yA
yA

xA , p = xyB
=
q = xyC
. p = tg ,
B xA
C xA
q = tg , , AB AC Ox, tg CAB = tg( ) =
q
= 1p+pq
tg BAC ( ,
pq = 1). ,
.

A Ax, AB.
D tg DAB tg DBA , AD BD . D . , .
659. . 0 <
< x < 4 ( x = 4 , 4 < x < 2
y = 2 x). k  2

cosk x sink x = (cosk x sink x)(sin2 x + cos2 x) =


= (cosk+2 x sink+2 x) + sin2 x cos2 x(cosk2 x sink2 x) 

 cosk+2 x sink+2 x.
n = m + 1, n =
= 3. ,
cosn x sinn x
cosk x sink x

n1
n1
cos
x sin
x
cosk1 x sink1 x
n  k > 1. , ,

sink1 x cosk1 x(cosnk x sinnk x)(cos x sin x)  0,


. n = 3, m = 1
n = 2, m = 1. :
3
cos3 x sin3 x = (cos x sin x)(1 + sin x cos x)  (cos x sin x),
2
cos x sin x = 12 sin 2x  12 ;
3
cos2 x sin2 x = (cos x sin x)(cos x + sin x)  (cos x sin x),
2

sin x + cos x = 2 sin x + 4  32 .

20012002 , 11

391

. ,
0 < x < 4 . f (y) = cosy x siny x, 0 < x < 4 , y  0.
: f (0) = 0, f (y) > 0 y > 0, f (y) 0 y . ,
f  (y) = cosy x ln cos x siny ln sin x = cosy x(ln cos x tgy x ln sin x),
f  (y) y > 0,
g(y) = tgy x . f (2) = f (2)(cos2 x + sin2 x) = f (4) ,
f  (2) > 0, f  (4) < 0. , n > m  3
| sinn x cosn x|  | sinm x cosm x|.
m  2, f (1)  f (2)  f (3)  f (n)
n > 3 , 3f (1)  2f (3), sin x cos x = sin22x  12 , f (3) = f (1)(1 +
+ sin x cos x)  32 f (1).
660. ,
, 13 ,
,
. : , ,
, , . ,
6 . , 13
.
.
, , 13, . , ,
6 , ,
6 . , ,
.
,
13 , , , 12 .
78
, , , . 12,
12 , ,
= 66 , .
1211
2
, 78 . ,
78 13 = 1014 .

392

, . A
a1 a2 , B b1 b2 , a1
, b1 , b2 a2 . , b1 b2
, ,
. , b1 ,
, a2 , , ,
a1 . , 2
, . .
661. . 10010.
n :
n = a1 + . . . + a2002 = b1 + . . . + b2003 .
, a1 , . . . , a2002 9, ; r
(0  r  8), b1 , . . . , b2003 s
(0  s  8).
n 2002r n 2003s 9, , (n
2002r) (n 2003s) = 2003s 2002r = 2003(r + s) 4005r 9.
4005r 9, 2003 9;
, r + s 9.
r = s = 0, n  9 2003 ( b1 , . . . , b2003
9). r
= 0, r + s = 9,
: r  5 s  5; n
n  5 2002 n  5 2003 .
10010 = 5 2002 = 4 2002 + 2002 1, 4 2002
, 10010 .
662. , K AOD ( ).
L , L BC (. . 299).

L BO = OBC L BC = OBC LBC,


OBC = OAD, ABCD , ,
L BO = OAD KAD = OAK = OBK,
ABOK . , L BO = OBK. ,
L CO = OCK.
, BKO = BAO = CDO = CKO, ABCD, ABOK CDKO .
BL CK (. . 300).
N CK BL , M BK CL .

20012002 , 11

L
B

L


P L Q

O
A

. 299

393

O
T

N
R

K
. 300

CO M CK, BO N BK, KO
M KN , O
M L N K . P , Q,
R, T M L , L N , N K
KM .
CK + BL = (CR + KR) + (BQ L Q)
= CP + KT + BT L P = (KT + BT ) + (CP L P )
= KB + CL .
, CK + BL = KB + CL, BLCK , .
663. . 656.
664.
n

A(n)
1
=
,
S(n) =
i
B(n)
i=1
A(n) B(n) .
, B(n) > n/2 (, , n,
1, 2, . . . , n S(n)).
, n  n0 A(n)
.
. p > n0 + 5 . A(p 1) ..p (
S(p 1) ,
p). , A(p 1) = pk , k N.
, , A(pn 1) p (, ,
p) n.
n.
.

394

n
n1

1)/p + S  ,
 n 1 1 n. : S(p 1) = S(p
S =
.. d (
dpn 1,p . d
, p). S  (
p1
 1
n1
1.
, pn1 )
pl+i , l = 0, 1, . . . , p


i=1

, p, S(p
1). , S(pn1 1)/p
p. , A(pn1 1) = ps ,
s > 1 (, B(pn1 1)  pn1 /2  p/2, S(pn1
1)  S(n0 + 4)  S(4) > 2).
p1

1
. n > k,
Hp (n) := S(pn p)S(pn 1) =
pn + i
i=1

Hp (n) pk , pk+1 ( Hp (n) S(p 1)


, pn ). ,
A(pn 1) A(pn p) p,
pk+1 . , S(pn 1) S(pn p)
2pk
(pn p) < 1 n = k + 2 .

20022003 .
9
665.

a,
b, c M .

a2
+ b 2, b2 + a 2, c2 + a 2, c2 + b 2

1
2
2
a + b 2 (b + a 2) = (a b)(a + b 2) = 2 (a 2 b 2)(a 2 +

2
2
+ b 2 2)
2) = a 2 b 2, . . a 2 + b 2.
c 1+ a 2 (c + b
, a 2 = 2 (a 2 + b 2 + a 2 b 2) .
666. , LAK = BAK + BAL = 1/2(BO2 A +
+ BO1 A) = BO2 O1 + BO1 O2 = 180 LBK, ALBK . BO2 O1 = BAL = BKL,
O1 O2 KL.
667. :
k , , .
. , .
, . ,
k , 
(, , ).

20022003 , 9

395


. ,
, k , . .
k . .
668. . a2003 = 10p.
1/n A m B
k .
A
A(10k 1) + B
1
B
= m+ m k
=
n
10
10 (10 1)
10m (10k 1)
..
m
k
, 10 (10 1) . n. , m, k
.
, 10m (10k 1) .. n (. . m
, n, k ,
.
10m (10k 1)
n
. A =
(10k 1) .. (n,
m ), C =
n
10 )


C
, B = C A(10k 1). B < 10k 1, A < 10m , 1/n
=
k
10 1

A ( , m ) B
(), m k .
p , p
= 2, p
= 5 p , .
, 300, , , . ,
{an } 2. 1/p
(10n 1)/p, n ,
.
(10n 1) .. p. , a2 = 2(10n 1)/p. , a3 =
= 10p. a2 2, 22 , 5,
1/a2 (10k+1 10)/a2 , k .
, (10k+1 10) .. a2 = 2(10n 1)/p (
.
A = 0, a2 > 10 (a2 .. 18),
B = C). , k ,

.
(10k 1)p .. 10n 1.
()
.
, k = n. , n .. k. , n = kq + r, 0 < r < k. ,
.
.
.
(10kq 1)p .. (10k 1)p .. (10n 1) (10n 1) .. (10n 1).
,
.
10kq (10r 1)p = ((10n 1)p (10kq 1)p) .. (10n 1).
.
, (10r 1)p .. (10n 1), , k , (). , n = km (10k

396

.
.
1)p .. (10mk 1). , p .. (10k(m1) + 10k(m2) +. . .
k
. . . + 10 + 1). p , , m
= 1,
p = 10k(m1) + 10k(m2) + . . . + 10k + 1, , p
. , , k = n,
a3 = (10n+1 10)/a2 = 10p.
, 1/p 1/(10p) .
669. .
N , . , ,
, . .
. N =
= k. k + 1 .
M .
k ,
, .
.
1) .
A1 , A2 , . . . , Ak . , A1 A2
M A1 A2 , ,
.
2) .
A1 Am , . . : A1 A2 . . . Am ( ) Am Am+1 . . . A1 ( ).
Am M . ,
A1 A2 . . . Am M Am+1 . . . A1 , , A1 A2 . . . Am1 M Am . . . A1 .
k + 1 .
670. . 1 + 1
4
1
1
4
1
: a +
b
b + c  a + 2b + c , b + c + c + a  b + 2c + a , c + a +
1
4
1
+ a+
b  c + 2a + b , x +
4 x, y. 3 ,
+ y1  x +
y

2 + 2 + 2 
4
4
4
a +
c+a
b
b+c
a + 2b + c + b + 2c + a + c + 2a + b ,
2 a + b + c
1 .
. , ,
a  b  c, 1 c2  1 b2  1 a2 , ,
1
1
1


.
2
2
1a
1b
1 c2

20022003 , 9

397

1
2
3a 1

=
.
1a 1+a
1 a2
,
3a 1 3b 1 3c 1
+
+
 0.
1 a2
1 b2
1 c2
0, ,
,
. a  b  13  c,
1 c2 , , . a  13  b  c,
1 b2 ,
, .
671. . .
A 200 200 .
B 200t 200t
, t ,
A. B \ A
200 200(t 1).
t, B , , A
t, t.
672. 1
P
2 , AC
C1
BD . BB1 ,
B1
H1
CC1 , AA1 , DD1 C
B
BP C AP D, ( A1 C1 1 ,
Q
A1 1
D1
B1 D1 2 ). A, D1 ,
2
A1 , D ,
H2
H1 A H1 A1 = H1 D H1 D1 ,
X
. . H1 1
2 . , H2
A
D
, , H1 H2 . M N . 301
AC BD .
X 1 2 , XM 2
CM 2 = XN 2 DN 2 . XAC XBD ,
XAQ = XBQ, XCQ = XDQ, -

398

0. , AXC = BXD = 90 ,
AB CD ( 90 X),
H1 H2 . , AXC
BXD . AY C DY B,
( ,
AXC BXD) (AC = BD).
, Y 1 2 (
Y M = Y N, M C = N D),
.
10
673. a, b, c, d M . d2 + ab d2 + bc bc ab, a2 +
+ ab = a2 + bc (bc ab) Q. , b2 + ab Q.
2

a, b M q = ab = a2 + ab Q.
b + ab


l
2
2 2
a = qb a + ab = b (q + q) = l Q, b =
= m
2
k , m, k N.
q +q

, b n, n = mk, . c n = cb b n Q
c M .
674. , , ABO  BAO,
D
A

L
Q
P
S1

K
S2

O
B
C
. 302

ABOL DCOM (. . 302). ,


LO S2 , LOD = ABD = OCD; OM S1 . KM O = KOL, KLO =
= KOM . , KOM KLO . KOP KM Q. KP O = KQM =
KQO. , KP OQ .

20022003 , 10

399

675. . l,
xi xj . ki (l) , xi l. , ,
xj l,
ki (l), kj (l)  n 1, ki (l) + kj (l) = n. ,
kj (l). , 1  
i ki (l) n 1 ( l,
l

xi ), xi
n 1 .
, l :

ki (l)kj (l)
kj (l) 2
ki (l) 2

|xi xj |  2xi xj .
()
xi +
xj  2
n1
n1
n1
=

ki (l)kj (l)
=

(ki (l) + kj (l))2 (ki (l) kj (l))2


n2 ((n 1) 1)2

= n 1.
4
4

() , .
. ,
S . .
, . . ,
x1 , x2 , . . . , xn  0.
xi , x1 .
xi , i
1, l, xj , j
= 1, : l,
xi x1 . , -
. S xi x1 xi xj  0. ,
. , x1 , ,
, .
x1 n 1 . , ,
x1 . x1 (
) , . , ,
, x1 . , , .

400

, S = x1 x2
+ x1 x3 +. . .
2

n 1(x
. . . + x1 xn .
 
1 +

2
2

+ x22 + . . . + x2n ) = x1 + n 1x22 + x1 + n 1x23 +. . .


n 1
n1

2

. . . + x1 + n 1x2n  2x1 x2 + 2x1 x3 + . . . + 2x1 xn .


n1

676. :
1. T1 T2 T2
, T1 , T2
T1 .
. .
2. M T T  , T , M - M .
. - , T M . -
M , , M
M . , .
, T , M , T  1.
. 2 T X. , ABC.
BC, AC AB xA , xB xC
X, .
ABC T , . ABA CA , AB BCB
AC BC C, ABC
T . X
XA = X \ ABA CA XB = X \ AB BCB XC = X \ AC BC C.
:
3. - T  , T , xA xB ,
XC . .

20022003 , 10

401

. . T 
xA xB , C
AC BC , T  AC BC .
, T  AC BC C,
AC BC C. , , T  XC .
2 T XA , XB ,
XC , TA , TB , TC ,
{xAB , xAC , xA }, {xBA , xBC , xB }, {xCA , xCB , xC } ( ),
XA , XB , XC .
xA , xB , xC , xAB , xAC , xBA , xBC , xCA , xCB . T1 T2 , T .
- , xA , xB T1 . 3
T1 XC xC , xCA , xCB
T2 . , XC
T2 1; , AC BC C T2 X.
677. . 669.
678. , n an
5. .
, 2 , 5. . n an+1
an 5, an+2 a
n+1
5. , ak+1  5ak , an+2  an 5/5 < an .
, a1 , a3 , a5 , . . .
, .
, , ak ak+1 , 5. ,
ak+2 5. ,
ak+3 , ak+4 , . . . 5, .
ak = m, ak+1
=
ak+1 = [ 5ak ], ak+2 = [ 5ak+1 ].
= 5m, 0 < < 1. , ak+2 = [ 5( 5m)] = 5m+[ 5].
0 < 5 < 3, , 5m 3  ak+2 < 5m, . . ak+2
5.
679. . BC KM (. . AB = AC) . BC
KM .
R , IA rA
a .

402

I
C

O
N
B
K

IA
. 303

AK = AM , AP
KAM , , P BC (. . 303).
, IBIA = ICIA = 90 , BI CI , BIA CIA
ABC. , IA BIC
IIA . BC IIA ( BAC), . .
P . P I = P IA = P B = 2R sin BAP .
AKIA = AP K = 90 , IA KP = BAP , 2R sin BAP = P IA = IA K sin BAP = rA sin BAP .
2R = rA IA N = 2P O. P O IA N (
BC), P IIA IA2N , P O IIA N , O
IN .
. , BC

KM .
IA , IB , IC
, X M N . KM M N A C . P X
IIA IA IB . , P
BC ABC IIA . P X KM N , -

20022003 , 11

403

P X KN IIB , P IIA , P X
IB IA I. XN IA IB , N
IB IA ( IA IC ), N IB =
= N IA = N IC . N
IA IB IC . , ,
I
O.
680. . 209.
, , N  209.
20 10 .
1 200 (
1 10, 11 20 . .).
201 400.
210 1 = 209, 191 1 = 190.
N  209.
, N = 209 . :
1 91 300 400. ,
, , . ,
20 (. . ),
21 ( - , ,
, 30091 = 209,
).
i j .
, ij  91.


i + j  2 ij  2 91 > 19. ,

i + j  2 101 > 20.


11
681. .

+

 0,  0. a = +
2 ,b= 2 ,c= 2 ,d= 2 ,

sin ax cos bx = sin cx cos dx,
a > b  0, c > d  0.
x0 a
, . a = c, cos bx = cos dx , , b = d.
c
2b
2d
.
, a = 2d,
x0 = a . a = 2d
sin 2dx cos bx = sin cx cos dx
2 sin dx cos bx = sin cx.

404

,
c = d ( ) c = 2b.
sin bx = sin dx, b = d. sin ax = sin cx, . . a = c.
=
a = c b = d a = c . , 2b
2d
b = d a = c.
.
sin x + sin x = sin x + sin x
(1)
x = 0:
cos x + cos x = cos x + cos x + = + .
x = 0:
3 cos x 3 cos x = 3 cos x 3 cos x 3 + 3 = 3 + 3 .

%
%
+ = + ,
2 + 2 = 2 + 2 ,

3
3
3
3
+ = +
2 + 2 + 2 = 2 + 2 + 2
%
= ,

(, ) (, ) , .
+ =+
682. . 674.
683. f
= g.
f (x) = cn xn + cn1 xn1 + . . . + c1 x + c0

g(x) = dk xk + dk1 xk1 + . . . + d1 x + d0 .


0  ci  m < b, b- f (b)
cn cn1 . . . c1 c0 . g
b, f (b) = g(b) b-
,
f g , , f = g. i ,
di > b. di = bq+r. g
g1 , di r,
di+1 di+1 + q. g1 (b) = g(b) , g1 (a) < g(a),
di ai + di+1 ai+1 = (bq + r)ai + di+1 ai+1 >
> (aq + r)ai + di+1 ai+1 = rai + (di+1 + q)ai+1 .
i.
i 1, n,
n gj ,
b. f (b) = gj (b) b , f gj ,
, f (a) = g(a) > gj (a). .

20022003 , 11

405

684. , . n, n
( , , ). , , , .
n = 0, 1 , , . n > 1. ,
, . . .
, ,
(. .
, , . .). n 1 .
,
, .
,
, . , x0 , x1 ,
. . . , , k- xk . xi = xk+1i
1  i  k. x0 + 1
, x1 + 1, . . . , , k-
xk + 1 . xi + 1 = xk+1i + 1,
.
, , S T . S  T  , .
T  , S  T  , T 
(T  = T  ), T  . S  T  . T  , S  = S 
(S  ) .
.
685. , , . , a, b, c
, 2p = a + b + c = A, ab + bc + ba = B, abc =
= C . S 2 = p (p3 Ap2 + Bp C)
S 2 . (, f (x) = 0 2
, Sp = f (p), f (x) = (x a)(x b)(x c).)

2S
2S
ha = 2S
a , hb = b , hc = c , ha , hb , hc

406





4S 2
4S 2
4S 2
x2 2
x2 2
x2 2
= 0,
a
b
c
2
2
4S2 + 4S2 +

2
2
2
4
16S 4 +
+ 4S2 = 4S2 (b2 c2 + c2 a2 + a2 b2 ) = 4S2 (B 2 2AC), 16S
2 2 +
2 2

c
C
C
a b
b c
4
6
16(S 2 )2 2
16(S 2 )2
64(S 2 )3
16S
64S
2
2
2
+ 2 2 =
(a + b + c ) =
(A 2B), 2 2 2 =
.
c a
C2
C2
a b c
C2

686. . 671.
687. , ,
. S, A B . , S
99 . , S A B
S ( ).
, A B ,
S
S.
1) , S 98 .
Y1 Y2 , S,
A B.
. A, B S,
A B .
, S ,
S S.
X1 X2 S Y1 Y2 ,
S.
, X1 X2 , Y1 Y2 . , S
S .
.
2) , S .
D. D S,
D S. ,
S . ,
S S.
99 S , S
, S.
D .

20022003 , 11

407

A B , , ,
D S,
.
, S D S.
A, B, D Z (, S). A, B, D , Z
A, B, D. D X
S. X S .
, Y , X B
S. Y D, , A X S,
XD DY S Y B, , . Y
D, , , A, B. DX, S X A, AY Y B,
S B , Y S,
,
, . ,
.
, ,
, .
688. . A2 , B2 , C2 D2 . A1 B1 C1 D1 A2 B2 C2 D2 ,
ABCD A2 B2 C2 D2 . ,
ABCD ABCD.
, A2 : B, C, D
ABCD , ( ). A2 B, C
D. , , A2
BCD, ABCD. , A1 BCD. ABCD
ABCD. .
. O, OA , OB , OC , OD
ABCD, BCDI, ACDI, ABDI, ABCI
(I ABCD ). , O -

408

OA OB OC OD . , OOA , OOB ,
OA OB BCD, ACD, ICD , ICD BCD
ACD; OOA OB , OOA = OOB . . A1 B1 C1 D1
OA OB OC OD .

OA OA A2 = IA1 /2, B2 , C2 , D2 . , A1 B1 C1 OA OB OC
, A2 B2 C2 ; ,
OA OB OC DI,
A2 B2 C2 OA OB OC I A1 B1 C1 ,
A2 B2 C2 , . OA2 =
1
= OOA + IA
2 .

20032004 .
9
689. . , (
1). ,
45 2 3 ( , ). . , .
v,
(, 1 2). C 3, A v, C ( A 1) B 2
v.
v, ,
h, . A 1, h B , 1 (, 2), v C .
690. O ABCD. , OAN K, OBKL. AK1 ABK BK, AK1 OB. , BK1 OA. , AOBK1 , K1 A

AK1 = OB. ,

L1 C OB.
K1 L1 = AC.

20032004 , 9

409

L
K1

L1

B
K

C
O

N
N1

M1
D
M
. 304


, N1 M1 = AC, , K1 L1 M1 N1
.
691. . 4005 .
( )
1 2004 .
.
, 4005 . (1, 2), (1, 3), . . . , (1, 2004), (2, 3), (2, 4), . . . , (2, 2004).
, (, , ; ,
).
(, , ),
; , ( ) , , .
,
. . 4004
- ( , )
, . -
(1, n) (2, n) (, (1, k)) , 4005. 1- k- ,

410

. , . .
692. :
1
1
1
+
+ ...+
>
1 + x1 + x1 x2
1 + x2 + x2 x3
1 + xn + xn x1
1
>
+
1 + x1 + x1 x2 + x1 x2 x3 + . . . + x1 x2 . . . xn1
1
+ ...
+
1 + x2 + x2 x3 + . . . + x2 x3 . . . xn
1
...+
.
1 + xn + xn x1 + . . . + xn x1 x2 . . . xn2
xn ,
xn x1 , . . . , n- xn x1 x2 . . . xn1 ,
x1 x2 . . . xn = 1,
1
1
1
+
+ ...+
>
1 + x1 + x1 x2
1 + x2 + x2 x3
1 + xn + xn x1
xn
+
>
xn + xn x1 + xn x1 x2 + . . . + x1 . . . xn
xn x1
+
+
xn x1 + xn x1 x2 + . . . + xn x1 . . . xn1 + xn
xn x1 x2
+ ...
+
xn x1 x2 + xn x1 x2 x3 + . . . + xn x1 . . . xn1 + xn + xn x1
xn x1 x2 . . . xn1
...+
= 1.
xn x1 . . . xn1 + xn + xn x1 + . . . + xn x1 . . . xn2
693. . .
m = a2 , n = b3 , p = c2 , q =
= d3 , a, b, c, d . :
a + b = c + d, a2 + b3 = c2 + d3 , . . a c = d b, (a c)(a + c) = (d
b)(d2 + bd + b2 ). b d, b = d 1 > 2004.
2

c = d + bd 2+ b 1 , a = d + bd 2+ b + 1 ;
, b d . , a > c >
> b2 > d > b > 2004.
. ,
,
, m, 3 n, p, 3 q .
694. . .
, ,
. ,
. . -

20032004 , 9

411

, ,
, . , .
,
, ,
. , . ,
, ,
. , ,
. , .
695. . 51 .
: , 2 3, 4 5, . . . , 98 99.
1, 3, 2, 5, 4, . . . , 99, 98, 100
(1, 3), (3, 2), (5, 4), (7, 6), . . . , (97, 96), (99, 98), (98, 100).
, 51. ,
. ,
a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 , a5 , (a2 , a3 ) (a3 , a4 )
. , , a1 >
> a2 < a3 > a4 < a5 . , (a3 , a4 ) , , a1 > a2 > a5 , (a2 , a3 ) , ,
a5 > a4 > a1 . a1 > a2 > a5 > a4 > a1 , , ,
(a2 , a3 ), (a3 , a4 ) .
50, 50 ,
. 100, : 100 > (ak < ak+1 ) > ak+2 < ak+3 .
, 100, , .
696. D E , ABC
; AOC = 2ABC  120 , O T
AC.
M E M D AB BC X Y (. . 305). , X Y
BA BC A C . , DXM = 180 ABE BEM = 180 2ABC,
EY M = 180 2ABC, DEY X
BED = BXY .
, AT M = 2ACO ( O, M , T , ,
AC T

412

AOC). AT M = 2(90 M OC) = 2(90 ABC),


O ABC. AT M = 180
2ABC = AXM , AM T X . AM T =
= 90 , AXT = 90 . CY T = 90 . BXT Y , T BY = T XY = 90 BXY . BED + T BE = BXY + (90 BXY ) = 90 , .
10
697. . 689.
B
698. . 2003 .
( ) 1
2004 O
D
E
.
.
A
C
M
, 2003 . - X
Y
(1, 2), (1, 3), . . . , (1, 2004).
,
( , T
. 305
).
, ; , ( ) , .
, .
. 2002 - ( , ) ,
. - (1, n) (,
(1, 2)) , 2003. 1- 2- ,
. ,
. .
699. ABCD (, AB CD), L L
N  N
AB, K, K  , M M  . AB CD E, BC AD F (. . 306). ,
K  M  CF D (

20032004 , 10

413

BC AD). AB CD P Q .
E
L
C

B
F

K

L
M

P
A

M

D
N
. 306

, ABCD F P CF D,
F AP = F CQ P F A = CF Q F P A = F QC EP Q =
= EQP , . . AED EP Q; L N  ,
K  M  L N  . AED KM ,
KM K  M  ; LN L N  . KL ABC, , B,
, K  L KL (, L M  LM ). KLM K  L M  , ,
. , K K  ,
M M  , ,
KN M N K  N  M  N  , , N
N  ; , KLM N K  L M  N 
. , KK  , LL , M M , N N 
, . . .
700. . 692.
701. . m = n = 1, a1 +
+ a1 = a1 , . . a1 = 0. .
a2 = p/q, a3 = r/s. , amk = kam ; a2qr =
= qr p/q = pr = ps r/s = a3ps , 2qr
= 3ps . .
702. , ; ,
X Y (X, Y -

414

). A , X (
X), B ( ,
Y ). ,
A B B
A.
A B a b , a + b = 668. A , B, . .
1
a  334  b. B Z, b
2
B. , Z a A.
a + (a + b) 1

1
, Z, a + b
=
2 =
2
a
+
667
1001
 2 > 500. .
=
2
, B , A, 1
A, a
2
A.
703. . O ,
A, B, C T , A , B  , C  T  ;
ABC O A0 B0 C0 (
M ). O = P , . d OP
P , O. d ABC,
, AB.

B0
A0
ABA0 B0 , M .

OP , K
O; B 
A
 
O
A B
P
K
(. . 307). , A B 
A
B
AB A0 B0 , A B 
. 307
(
 
), A B > AB, .
. :
XY Z S, XY Z SXY , SY Z, SZX.
, XY , Y Z, ZX 7 (. . 308). S 1, XY Z = SXY SY Z
SZX; S 2, XY Z SY Z (
3, 4 ); S 5, XY Z SXY
SZX ( 6, 7 ).

20032004 , 10

415

. O
M , A, B, C T ,
A1 , B1 , C1 BC, CA, AB .
D
B
2
X
7
1
Y
3

6
Z

A
O
C1

P
A

. 308

A1

B1
. 309

VA , O, A, B1 , C1 . , VA AB1 C1 .
VB VC O, B, C1 , A1 O, C, A1 , B1 .
VB BA1 C1 , VC CA1 B1 . ,
VA OB1 C1 , VB OC1 A1 , VC OA1 B1 . ,
, , V VA , VB , VC A1 B1 C1 . , V AB1 C1 ,
BA1 C1 , CA1 B1 , A1 B1 C1 , . . V ABC. ,
VA , VB , VC P , , , P VA (. . 309).
A T  , . . ,
A P ; D , A
O. A k = 2 P
A , O D, C1 B, B1 C. , VA U D, A,
C, B, A U . A, B, C M M O, D M . M , U M .
, A M , .
704. . .
. n = 1311 . . . 1 = 144 . . . 43, . ,
344 . . . 41 = 31 11 . . . 1. ,
13 31 = 403,
. , 1000 .

416

1, 101000 , 102000 , . . . , 104031000 . (, 101000m 101000n , m < n) 403. 101000n 101000m = 101000m (101000(nm) 1) 403, 403 90 , 403
101000(nm) 1
= 11 
. . . 1 , .
9
1000(nm)

11
705. . 689.
706. M IA IB . , AIA AIB . AIA IB M IA IB
, M A = IA IB /2. , M B = IA IB /2.
M , AIB IA B, AIA B =
= AM B/2. , AIA B = (180 ABC)/2 BAC/2 =
= ACB/2, AM B = ACB, A, B, C M
. AM = BM , M ACB .

C M


IB

IB

OB

IA


IA

O
OA B

P
. 310



IA
, IB
, M  CIA , CIB , CM 

, IB
, M 
(. . 310). IA
OA , OB , O IA IB ( OA , OB , O IA CP , IB CP , ABC). OA , OB , O
l CP .  
, M  IA
IB .


, M IA IB , IA , IB , M 

20032004 , 11

417

IA , IB , M C 1/2.
707. . P (x), Q(x),
P (x) . P (x) Q(x) n k . ,
, P (x) Q(x) . ,
n > 0, S(x) = P (x) = 1.
. n k.
. T (x, y)
T (x, y)
, x y (, x3 + 3xy 2 + x 2y 2 x3 + 3xy 2 ).
, T1 (x, y)T2 (x, y) = T1 (x, y) T2 (x, y).
xn y n = P (x) P (y) = R(x, y) Q(x) Q(y) = R(x, y)(xk y k ),
. . xn y n xk y k . n = qk + r
n k ,
xn y n = xr (xqk y qk ) + y qk (xr y r ) =
= xr (xk y k )(xk(q1) + xk(q2) y k + . . . + y k(q1) ) + y qk (xr y r ),
F (x, y) = y qk (xr y r ) xk y k .
x , k, ,
, . . r = 0. .
P1 (x) = P (x) Qn/k (x) Q(x).
:
P1 (x) P1 (y) =

= R(x, y) (Qn/k1 (x) + Qn/k2 (x)Q(y) + . . .

. . . + Qn/k1 (y)) (Q(x) Q(y)).
, P1 (x) , P (x); P1 (x) =
= S1 (Q(x)) S1 (x). , S(x) =
= S1 (x) + xn/k , P (x), P (x) =
= P1 (x) + Qn/k (x) = S(Q(x)).
708. . 2003 2 2002 + 1 = 2005004.
, . , ,
, , . ai i- .
S = (a1 1) + (a2 1) + (a3 1) + (a4 2) + . . . + (ai (i 2)) + . . .
. . . + (a2003 2001) + (a2004 2001).

418

, 2003 2 2002 + 1; , S  0. i-
di . , . , a2004  2001, a2  a1  1, . . d1 , d2 , d2004  0.
di < 0, . . ai  i 3. i
1 i, , .
, ai = i 3, ai+1  i + 1, di + di+1 > 0. , di , , ,
, .
, :
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2

1
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3

1
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4

2
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5

3
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
6

4
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
7

k
k+2
k+2
k+2
k+2
k+2
k+2
k+3
k+3

1998
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2001
2001

1999
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2002
2002
2002

2000
2002
2002
2002
2002
2002
2002
2003
2003

2001
2003
2003
2003
2003
2003
2003
2003
2004

2001
2004
2004
2004
2004
2004
2004
2004
2004

( ,
).
709. A1  1. , An+1 < An
1  n  29.
An  A1 An . A1 An , , A1 An = An+1 + Sn , Sn
, xi . Sn > 0,
.
710. . ,
. N ; e1 , . . . , eN .
, , N f1 , . . . , fN ,
s (, 2) s > 0).
, ei , , f1 , . . . , fN , ; ei - N , fi ,
i = 1, . . . , N .

20032004 , 11

419

N fi a1 , . . . , aN 1 , f1 +. . .


. . . + fN = (a1 + . . . + aN 1 ). ei
aj ( e1 ), a1 + . . . + aN 1 + e1 s .
a1 , . . . , aN 1 , e1 N ,
(a1 + . . . + aN 1 + e1 ), . .
s. fi .
711. k. k = 0, :
.
, ,
. E1 , E2 , . . . , Ek ,
, , . . . , k- . ,
i {1, . . . , k} Ei , 
. - Ei A, A . k 1 ,
k + 1 ,
, A (k + 2)- .
, E1 , . . . , Ek . 3k .
,
(. . ).
B1 , . . . , Bn , n  k + 3. , Bi Bj
Bi Bj ,
. ,
n(n 1)
n(n 1)
(k + 3)(k + 2)
. ,

> 3k, 2
2
2

, .
712. ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1 , AB = a, AD = b, AA1 = c, a  b  c.
, KLM N P Q , K AD, L AB, M BB1 , N B1 C1 , P C1 D1 ,
Q D1 D (. . 311).
KLM N P Q ( ). QK M N , ADD1 A1 BCC1 B1 , a.
, KL
N P , LM P Q , , , a.

420

B
L

B1

a
A1

c
K
b

C1

C
P
D

D1

. 311

, M
KLM N P Q , L
,
, a. K
KLM N P Q
N
,
l KN , LP , M Q. ,
, l P
Q
K  N  , K  N  
K
N l
K N .
. 312
, K  , N  , P Q
KN ( l).
K  KN , N  N K , , , K  KN
(. . 312). K  N  = KN sin K  KN  KN sin QKN .
KN sin QKN QK M N ,
K  N   KN sin QKN  a.
KLM N P Q , d1 , d2 . d1 , d2 ,
KLM N P Q , .
(1)
d1  a, d2  a.
, ADD1 A1
LP

AD1 (. . 311), LP  AD1 = b2 + c2 .


, LP
 , LP
d21 + d22 . ,
(2)
d21 + d22  b2 + c2 .

20042005 , 9

421

d1 , d2 b,
(2). d1 , d2
b, a (1). , a, b, ABCD.

20042005 .
9
713. B
P
C
C A , A
. CP = CQ,
Q
P Q. , D
P QA A - A
,
, A A
AP Q
. 313
P Q,
.
714. . .
, . 4.
121 0, 1, 2 3. 121 2 2.
.
, .
,
, . , 121 .
715. :
a21
> S a21 > (a1 + a2 + a3 )(a1 1)
a1 1
1
a1
a1 + a2 + a3 > a1 (a2 + a3 )
>
.
a2 + a3
a1 + a2 + a3
,
1
1
1
a1 + a2 + a3
+
+
>
= 1,
a1 + a2
a2 + a3
a3 + a1
a1 + a2 + a3
.

422

716. . .
. x N 1 , N  3k .
,
k , . . x + k .
. * k.
k = 1 . N  3k1 .
,
N -
2N
A B, N
3 3 . N -
,
. A B N 1
3k1 1 , N 3k1 1 ,
k1 ,
. , .
, , 365 . 1 . 4 9 ( 6 ) 2 .
10 27 3 , 28 81 4
, 82 243 5
244 365 6 . ,
, 1 + 6 2 +
+ 18 3 + 54 4 + 162 5 + 122 6 = 1845 < 2000 . ,
2000 .
717. . , . a.
p a, ap , p . , p a . b1 = p1 a,
b2 = p2 a, b3 = p3 a, b1 + b2 = (p1 + p2 ) 2a ,
, b1 b2 = p1 p2 a(p1 +p2 )+a2 , b1 b3 , b2 b3 .
A3 = a2 a(p1 + p2 ), A2 = a2 a(p1 + p3 ), A1 = a2 a(p2 + p3 )
, , A3 A2 = a(p3 p2 ) ,
p3 = p2 , . . b3 = b2 .
, , c1 = qa1 , c2 = qa2 , c3 =
q2
= qa3 . c1 + c2 = q1 +

a
q3
q2 = q1 . q3
= q2 , , c1 + c3 = q1 +

20042005 , 9

423

. c1 c3 = q1 q23 , a2
a
.
. 6 . 6 :
, ; , ,
,
. ,
. .
1. , . . x, y, z ,
x + y, x + z, y + z . , , (x + y) + (x +
+ z) (y + z) = 2x . x, y, z .
t.
xt x + t t (
). .
2. . x, y, z
(xy)(xz)

=
, xy, xz, yz . , ,
yz
2
2
2
2
= x . x , y , z .
x, y, z ,

. x = m a,

a , m = 1. xy = m ay = b ,

b = b a = ca, c
= m .
y =
ma
m a


t. xt yt ,
t = d a, d , . . t2 .

x + t y + t , (y + t)
(x + t) = (m c) a
. (x + t) (y + t) = (m c) a .
.
, ,
, .
. n  5.
718. . 1003.
x1  x2 , x1 , x2 N x1 + x2 = S(A),
x1 x2 = S(B), (x1 + 1)(x2 + 1) = S(B) + S(A) + 1 = 1 + 2 + 4 +. . .
. . . + 22005 + 1 = 22006 . , x1 + 1 = 2k , x2 + 1 = 22006k , k
1, 2, . . . , 1003.
, x1 , x2 , x2 px + q = 0, p = 2k + 22006k 2, q = 22006 1 p.
p
( ),

424

22005 , q 1 ,
p , p + q = 22005 1. , k , 1  k  1003, (A, B),
x1 x2 .
719. , ,
C
D BC, A (. . 314).
D
H H
B
ABC,
HA HB
P
HA
B
AH BH

Q
.
S A
H
CBHA CAHA
,
A
B
.
, CAA =


= CBB = 90 ACB. . 314


, 


AB H, BA H BA HA , . , BA H BA HA
, , HA = HA A .
B  AQ = CAD = CBD = A BP , AQ BP
AB  H BA HA ,


, B Q = A P . AA S ,

BH

A HA


QS A B  . , A S

AH

BQ
= A P . HA = HA A , , A S = A P , A B 

BH
A HA

P QS, . . P Q.
720. 50 .
( ) ,
. , .
1, , ,
(, , i- ) , i- . . , ;
,
, .

20042005 , 10

425

, , .
10
721. . 11.
82
16 1
25 2
42
, 3=
, 5=
= 3
,
42
42
41
2 2
16 2
27 2
26 1
7=
, 9 = 23 + 1 = 3
= 4
,
42
2 1
2 2
23 22
26 22
2= 21 = 2
, . . . , 10 = 2 5 = 3
.
2 2
2 2
a
b
, 11 = 2c 2d . ,
1=

2 2

a > b, c > d. m = a b, n = c d, k = b d.
11(2n 1) = 2k (2m 1).
, k = 0. , n = 1
. m > n > 1, 2m 1 2n 1 3
4. ,
1 3 4. .
. .
, 2m 1 2n 1 ,
, m n. , , 11
= 1 + 2n +
+ 22n + . . .. , 11
1 + 2, 1 + 2 + 4, 1 + 4, 1 + 8.
722. a1 , a2 , . . . , an .
, a1  a2  . . .  an .
b1 = 1 a1 , b2 = 1 a2 , . . . , bn = 1 an ; ,
1
b1  b2  . . .  bn . a1 + a2 + . . . + an  n +
4 ,
. k , a1 +
1
+a2 + . . . +ak > n +
4 , ak , ak+1 , . . . , an ,
1
b1 , b2 , . . . , bk1 . k a1 + . . . + ak1  n +
4 .
1
, bk + bk+1 + . . . + bn  n +
4 .
+ 1 ,
ak  a1 + . k. . + ak > n 4k
bk + bk+1 + . . . + bn  (n + 1 k)bk = (n + 1 k)(1 ak ) <




n+1
5
(n + 1)2 + (2k)2
< (n + 1 k) 1
= (n + 1)

4k
4
4k
5
2(n + 1)(2k)
n+1
 (n + 1)
=
.
4
4k
4

426

723. . 1003 .
N . ,
, .
k , .
. ,
, ,
, ; , . ,
k  N . . , , , .
3N  k+2(2005k) = 4010k  4010N , 2N  2005, N  1003.
1003 . , 334 6 . 1 6 : (1, 2, 3),
(3, 4, 5) (5, 6, 1). 1, 3, 5
( )
, 2, 4, 6
. 2004
6 3 = 1002 2004 .
.
724. B0 , C0 AC, AB , A


, P Q B
C
.

AB = c, BC = a, CA = b. IA , IB , IC , IB
,


, C
.
IC A , B , C , B
D, E, F A , B , C BC, CA, AB;


, C
CA, AB; X, Y
E  , F  B
A AB, BC (. . 315).
, AD ABC (
, CD = a + 2c b ). ,
 
IC .
(1) A P Q; (2) ADIB

1) , E E B0 . ,
AE  = CE = b + c2 a . , AF  = b + c2 a . ,


C
, A, . A
B


P Q B
C
.

2) , AIB CIB ,


IB
C = AIB . , AIC BIC , BIC =

= IC A. T , BIC T C .




T = IB
C + CT = AIB + IC A = IC IB .
: IC T = BC, IB

20042005 , 10

IC

427

A
IB

F
F  C0

E
B0
IC


IB

X
P
IA

. 315

AIA IB IC
BAC, AIA IB IC . , BIB IC IA , CIC IA IB . , IA B = IA IB cos IB IA IC , IA C = IA IC cos IB IA IC .
, IA BC IA IB IC . , IA D IA A IA BC IA IB IC .
= IBC
.
, IIA D
AA
B IC
 

IB
IC T ADIA . : IB
T IB IC IA A,


IC T BCIA D, IC T = IBC


= IIA D
. ,
B IC
AA
IB T
IB IC T IA DA ,  
IC AD.
. , IB
. (2) , D P Q
.
ABC. , AB AC F  , E  .
I , D BC. r,

428

rB , rC , B , C .
SD (. . 316).

SB

IC

Q
E

F

IB

SC

I
B

D

C

C

P
IA


B

. 316

A, A , D S. , , S P Q.

. E  rrB B
SB S . ,

.
SC S F  , C



, E SSSB = F SSSC . , E SSSB =
= E  S (E  SB E  S) = E  S ( rrB E  S E  S) = rB r r E  S 2 . ,
F  S SSC = rC r r F  S 2 . , ,
(1)
(rB r)E  S 2 = (rC r)F  S 2 .
F  SE  D , SE  F  = SD F  =
= 2 BD F  = B
2 .
, SF  E  = C
2 .

sin C
ES
2 .
=
(2)
F S
sin B
2
BCIB IC ,
C
IIC IB = IBC = B
2 . , IIB IC = 2 . ,

20042005 , 10

429

rB
ID =
r
B , IB B = sin B . IB I = IB B
sin B
sin
2
2
2
r . , I I = rC r .
IB = rB B
C
C
sin 2
sin 2
rB r
sin B
sin B
IB I
2 .
= r 2r =
(3)
C
C
IC I
sin 2
C
sin 2

IB =

(2) (3) (1).


725. . 16.
, a , (a 1) ,
. ,
, , , . . 8. , ,
, 8.
16 , , , 8 .
726. . 719.
727. .
1. a = (t + 1, t2 t + 1), a = 1 a = 3.
. t2 t + 1 t + 1,
2
t t + 1 = (t 2)(t + 1) + 3. ,
d t2 t + 1 t + 1, d 3.
, t4 t3 +t2 t+1 = (t3 2t2 +3t4)(t+1)+5

2. b = (t + 1, t4 t3 + t2 t + 1), b = 1
b = 5.
t3 + 1 = (t + 1)(t2 t + 1) = 2x2 , t = y 5 .
2
t t + 1 , 1 , t + 1 = 2u2 ,
t2 t + 1 = v 2 , t + 1 = 6u2 , t2 t + 1 = 3v 2 . , x > 1
t > 1, (t 1)2 < t2 t + 1 < t2 , t2 t + 1 =
= v 2 . t + 1 = y 5 + 1 = 6u2 .
, (y 5 + 1) (y 3 + 1) = y 3 (y 1)(y + 1)
(y 1)y(y + 1), 3. , y 3 + 1
3, y 3 = 3m 1.
, z = y 3 = 3m 1, z 5 + 1 = (z + 1)(z 4 z 3 +
+ z 2 z + 1) = 2x2 . z 4 z 3 + z 2 z + 1 5,
. 2 ,
. z 4 z 3 + z 2 z + 1
, , z + 1 = 2u2 , z 4 z 3 + z 2 z + 1 = v 2 .

430

z = 3m 1, 3
2, 0 1 .
728. . ,
. ,
( ) ,
, , . ,
,
. .
. ,
, ,
, .  , . .
, , .
V ,
E,
. , .
- .
, , , . ,
C. C . , C. ,  ,
C.  ,
, , ,
. . , .
, .
P , ,
, . P
, .
P K L,
M N.
K L .
K L
, M P N . , K L 1.
K L , .

20042005 , 11

431

K L , , ,
, , .
11
729. . 49.
f (x) = |x a1 | + . . . + |x a50 | |x b1 | . . . |x
b50 | f (x) = 0. c1 <
< c2 < . . . < c100 {a1 , . . . , a50 , b1 , . . . , b50 },
. 101 [, c1 ],
[c1 , c2 ], . . . , [c99 , c100 ], [c100 , +), f (x) . ,
f (x) = m = (a1 + . . . + a50 )
(b1 + . . . + b50 ) f (x) = m , m
= 0,
.
. f (x) 0. , ci ,
2. , , 0. ,

, , . . f (x) , .
, , 50
[c1 , c3 ], . . . , [c97 , c99 ], [c99 , c100 ] .
, ,
. , 49.
, ai 1, 4, 5, 8,
1 ,
. . . , 97, 100, bi 2, 3, 6, 7, . . . , 94, 95, 98, 99 10
f (x) = 0 49 .
730. . 723.
731. A C 
. (I1 I3 )
O (. . 317). I1 I3 B, ABI3 = CBI1 . I1 A B I3 C  B , BI1 A = BI3 C  ,
, OI1 I3 .
I1 I3 P . OI1 = OI3 ,
OP I1 I3 . OB. -

432

I1

B P
I3
C

I1

B P
B

I3

A
C

O
. 317

C
. 318

A , C  P , . . , BA C  .
, P ABC.
, P = B1 , A1 B1 C1 I1 I2 I3 , ,
ABC. ,
ABC ( ).
A C
ABC (. . 318). , . , I1 , C, A, I3
I1 I3 P .
AP I3 . I3 A, I3 CA = 12 C. , I3 P A = 2I3 CA = C.
, BP A = BCA, . . A, B, P , C
.
. , A, B, C, P ,
I1 I2 I3 .
732. (z 1)(z + 1) = xy , (z 1, z + 1) = 1
x, (z 1, z + 1) = 2 x. z 1 = uy ,
z + 1 = v y , u, v N; v y uy = 2. , v > u, y > 1,
v y uy = (v u)(v y1 + . . . + uy1 )  (v u)(2y1 + 1)  3.
: 2  3. , x .
z 1 z + 1 2 4, 2y1
2y . , A = 2uy , B = 2y1 v y (u, v
), A B , , z 1
z +1 ( AB = xy ). |2uy 2y1 v y | = 2, |uy 2y2 v y | = 1.
, , uy 1 = 2y2 v y .
, u > 1. , u = 1, A = 2, A = z 1,
z = 3, x = 2 . , y ,
, y = 2n, z 2 (xn )2 = 1, .

20042005 , 11

433

1. a  2, p .
ap 1 , a 1.
.
ap 1 = (a 1)(ap1 + ap2 + . . . + a2 + a + 1) = (a 1)b.
, a 1 b q,
1 p. , a 1 q, am
1 q m. , b = ql + p, l
. b q q = 1 p.
, , b = pn a 1 p. ,
. b > p, , b p2 . . a = p k + 1, k p,
p 1 2 2
ap = (p k + 1)p = 1 + p+1 k + p
p k + ... =
2
= 1 + p+1 k + p+2 d,
d . ap 1 = p+1 (k + pd). k p,
, b p p2 . .
2. a  2, p
a
= 2 p
= 3. ap + 1 , a + 1.
.
ap + 1 = (a + 1)(ap1 ap2 + . . . + a2 a + 1) = (a + 1)b.
, a + 1 b r,
1 p. , a + 1 r, ak + 1
r k; k = 2m, ak 1
a2 1, , , r. , b = rl + p, l
. b r r = 1 p.
, b = pn , a + 1 p. ,
. , , 1, b >
> p. b  a2 a + 1  a + 1  p. ,
. ,
1, , b p2 ,
.
, uy 1 =
= 2y2 v y q + 1 .
(u, 2v) = 1, u > 1, .

434

. , ,
,
. y n
1 . x n + 2
.
733. . .
x1
= 0 y1 = x11 . f 2 (x1 +
+ y1 )  f 2 (x1 ) + 2f (1) + f 2 (y1 )  f 2 (x1 ) + a, a = 2f (1) > 0.
xn = xn1 + yn1 , yn = x1n , n  2. f 2 (xn +
+yn )  f 2 (xn )+a = f 2 (xn1 +yn1 )+a  f 2 (xn1 )+2a  . . .  f 2 (x1 )+
+ na. , f (x1 ), f (x2 ), . . . , f (xn ), . . . .
734. . .
, . , , .
4 : P1 P2 , P4 P5 , P7 P8 , P10
P11 . , ,
.
( ,
), . 4, 3, (, P1
P2 , P4 P5 ), Ox.
S1 , S2 , S4 , S5 P1 , P2 , P4 , P5
Ox ( Ai Si , Bi ). , S1 S2 , S4 S5 ,
. , ,
A1 < B1 < A2 < B2 A4 < B4 < A5 < B5 . S1
S5 , A5 < B1 . B4 < A2 , S2 S4 .
.
. 10 , 9 .
735. X Y AB CD , AB CD P ( P
AB DC) (. . 319).
, O ABCD. O XY ,
. , P O
XP Y , -

20042005 , 11

435

. 319

BXO = CY O. , XBO + Y CO = 12 (ABC +


+ BCD) = 12 (180 BP C) = P XY = XBO + XOB,
Y CO = XOB, OXB CY O . ,
OB = XB . , OA = XA = XB , OA OC =
OC
YO
OD
YO
YO
= OB OD.
OA OC = OB OD. , AOB + COD =
= (180 OAB OBA) + (180 OCD ODC) = 360
12 (DAB + ABC + BCD + CDA) = 180. , OAB OCD OAKB OCLD,
OA = OA = DO ).
( AK
OB
OC
OXB CY O , . XOB =
= OCY = OCB COY = XBO = OBC. ,
XOB + BOC + COY = OCB + BOC + OBC = 180 , . .
O XY . , O , , .
736. . n
n .
2 ,
.
. 1, , , (, , i- )

436

, i- . .
, ;

, , .
, , . .
X X  X  , . 50
. , ,
50 ,  ( 2 ).

. , ,
, 2 , , . . .

20052006 .
9
737. , . A , . ,
B, .
, A , B , .
, 13
.
,
. , , .
. , 13 , 12 . ,
152 13 12 = 200.
738. - n > 1000000. , n, n + 1, n(n +
+ 1) + 1, n(n + 1)(n(n + 1) + 1) + 1. ,
1 =
1
,
a1 a +
1
a(a + 1)

20052006 , 9

437

1
1
1
1
+
+
+
=
n n + 1 n(n + 1) + 1 n(n + 1)(n(n + 1) + 1) + 1
1
1
1
=
+
+
=
n(n + 1) n(n + 1) + 1 n(n + 1)(n(n + 1) + 1) + 1
1
1
=
+
=
n(n + 1)(n(n + 1) + 1) n(n + 1)(n(n + 1) + 1) + 1
1
,
=
n(n + 1)(n(n + 1) + 1)(n(n + 1)(n(n + 1) + 1) + 1)
.
739. . 117.
, 2006 = 17 118; 2 ,
2 118 = 236 .
k, 2k 1
k 1 .
. k > 2. ,
. , .
235 , , 117 .
, .
17k .
, 17 . k, k 1
. , .
. A B ,
AB, , ,
. AB , .
17l l < k. ,
l 1 , l 1 + 1  k 1,
.
740. M AC. , AT LC . , , A, ABC, M K
CB, , (. . 320). ,
AM K = ACB = ACT ,
AM LK AM K = ALK = ALT . ACT = ALT , . .
AT LC . , CT A = CLA,

438

CLA = LKA, . . CT A = T KA, , BT A =


= BKT . BT A BKT , BT 2 = BK BA. C , BK BA
B.

X
B

A
M
K
B

QY

P
L
A

. 320

. 321

741. , bk = ackk , ck ak .
b9 > b10 , b9 > 1 b9  c9 . a10 > a9  c29 .
ai < ai+1 , bi > bi+1 , ci < ci+1 , . . c1 < c2 < . . . <
< c10 . , c9  23, 23 .
a10 > c29  529 > 500.
742. , ARP < ARP + QRC =
= ABC, X RP ( ARP = ARX >
> RAX = ABC) (. . 321). ACB = XAB AP X =
= RP B = RQC, AP X CQR
. , P X = QR. , P R = QY ,
.
743. . , .
. , . 8 99 , . .
16 99 , ,
2 16 99 < 10 2000 -
. , ,
.
, , .
.
, ,

20052006 , 10

439

. .
(
, , , ; ).
. , 2 (
), . . 6 50002 400
. ,
, . .
744. c1 c2 f (x) = 0, x1
x2 f (f (x)) = 0, 1.

f (x) = c1 f (x) = c2 . x1 x2
, , 1,
a, a = 1. , c1  c2 . c1 + c2 = 1, c2  12 . ,
f (x) = c2 , 1 4b +
+ 4c2  0, b  14 .
, , , x21 +
+ ax1 + b = c1 x22 + ax2 + b = c2 . ,
: x21 + x22 + a(x1 + x2 ) + 2b = c1 + c2 . c1 + c2 = a
, x1 + x2 = 1 ,
: x21 + x22 + 2b = 0. b = 12 (x21 +
+ x22 )  14 (x1 + x2 )2 = 14 .
10
745. . 737.
746.
.
, (x 1)3 + x3 + (x + 1)3 = y 3 , 3x(x2 + 2) = y 3 .
y 3, y = 3z x(x2 + 2) = 9z 3 . , (x, x2 + 2)  2.
, (x, x2 +2) = 1 . ,
x = 9u3 x2 + 2 = v 3 , x = u3 , x2 + 2 = 9v 3
u, v. 81u6 + 2 = v 3 ,
, 9
0 1. , , u6 + 2 = 9v 3 ,
.

440

, (x, x2 + 2) = 2, x(x2 + 2) = 9z 3 . x (, ,
z) , x(x2 + 2) 8. x2 + 2
4, , x 4, .
747. . 117.
. 739.
748. D E AB
AC, DE BC BAC (.
AK
. 322). A AM


.
K, , L ( BAC),  AB AC
D E  .
, M D KD . , BD2 = BK BL = BD2 , BD = BD .
BK = BP , DKD P , , P D KD . , M , D, P
. , M , E Q .
M DE M P Q M , ,
, . . M .

M
D

E
K

C
E

D

. 322

I1

L
I2

P
A

Q
C

. 323

749. . 741.
750. AB = BC, . AB < BC (. . 323). I1 , I2 AKB CLB ,
P , Q BI1 , BI2 -

20052006 , 11

441

ABC, R ABC . P A = QC , .
P AI1 = P AK + KAI1 = P BK + BAI1 = ABI1 +
+ BAI1 = AI1 P , AI1 P , P A = P I1 .
QC = QI2 ; , P I1 = QI2 . , P R = QR
, , I2 QR = I1 P R , . RI1 P RI2 Q
, .
751. . 744.
752.
. . 3 000 3 000 6 6, 3 . 324 . 325.
, , .

2
1

3
2

1
3

2
1

3
2

1
1

3
2

1
3

3
2

. 324

3
2

1
3

3
1

3
1

2
3

1
2

1
2

3
2

3
1

1
3

3
1

2
1

3
2

3
2

2
3

1
3

2
1

2
1

2
1

3
2

1
3

1
3

2
1

3
2

2
1

1
3

3
2

2
1

1
3

1
2

. 325

6 6 ,
3 000 3 000 . , .
.
,
. . 1
, , . 2
. ,
. 1,
, . 2,
.
11

753. x  1 1  x  x < 2 . sin x  sin x.

, 0 < sin x < 1, sin x < sin x. 0 < x < 1.

442

: sin2 t < sin(t2 ) 0 < t < 1. sin2 0 =


= sin(02 ), (sin2 t) < (sin(t2 )) , 2 sin t cos t <
< 2t cos(t2 ). 2 > t > t2 > 0, cos t < cos(t2 ).
sin t < t, sin t cos t < t cos(t2 ).
754. , T 10T 1 . . . . 9.
a b 10T 1 = 99 
T

A = (10T 1)a B = (10T 1)b. A + B = (10T 1)(a + b)


AB = (10T 1)2 ab , a + b ab T ,
10T 1 (10T
1)2 . , ,
, . . . , a b
10T 1, .
755. . .
. ,

1. . - . ,
- ,
(
).
,
( ). , 4, .
,
. ,
,
,
, 2 ( ).
,
, 2.
1 ( ),
,
.

20052006 , 11

443

. , Ox, Oy,
.
1. . ,
,
.
.
Ox. Ox , .
( ) Ox
Ox. 0, 1,
. . . , 69. . , . Oy
. .
2.
49 69.
, Ox 140,
Oy 100.
. : Ox ( A), Oy ( B), ,
( C), ,
( D). ,
, ,
69 Ox 49
Oy ( ). ,
, .
. , (
). , . ,
,
.
, . C D, , Ox
140, Oy 100.

444

. A B , Ox
140, Oy 100.
.
. .
140 1 100
1 ( ). , ,
2 ,
Ox 140, Oy 100. , . 1
,
.
, . 25 35 =
= 875 , 1 (. . 326).
.
240 ,
. ,
. 326
 . ,
. 240 3 = 720 < 875,
240 , .
756. AI, BI, CI A0 , B0 C0 . B0 C0
AC AB. A ,
B0 C0 , IB IC (.
. 327). AIB0 = ABI + BAI = ABB0 + BAA0 =
= B0 BC + CAA0 = B0 AI, B0 AI (B0 A = BI). , C0 A = CI, B0 AC0
B0 IC0 . , B0 C0 AI, AI IIB IC . ,
B0 C0 IB IIC . : R(IB IIC ) = 2R(B0 IC0 ) =
= 2R(B0 AC0 ) = 2R(ABC).
, M N
IB IIC . , AIB I = C0 B0 I =

20052006 , 11

445

= C0 B0 A = C0 CA = ICA, A, I, C, IB , B1 A B1 C = B1 I B1 IB . ,
B1 A B1 C = B1 M B1 N , A, M , C, N . , B1 M B1 N = B1 I B1 IB , IB
IM N . ,
IC , .

IC
C0
N

B1
C1

IB
B0
M
B

A

C
B

. 327

O
E
I F

D
A0

C

S
. 328

757. , ,
: xn+2 > x2n+1 > xn+1 , yn+2 > yn+1 . x3 > 1 + 12 = 2,
y3 > 12 + 1 = 2, ,
, 2. n > 3 xn > 3, yn > 3.
, xn+2 > x2n+1 > x4n n > 1. ,
2
yn+2 = yn2 + yn+1 = yn2 + yn + yn1
< 3yn2 < yn3 n > 3.
 k1
xn+2
4 lg xn
lg x2k
x2
4
, n > 3 : lg
lg
lg yn+2 > 3 lg yn , lg y2k > 3
lg y2 .
k
1, , x2k > y2k , .
758. , SD
SAB. SS  , S, S 
A, SAS  = 90 (. . 328). R r
ABC, S  A2 = S  A2 + AA2 = (SS 2 SA2 ) + AD2 = SS 2
(SA2 AD2 ) = SS 2 SD2 = SS 2 (SI 2 + ID2 ) = (2R)2 SI 2 r2 .

S  B  S  C  , , S  A = S  B  = S  C  =

2
= (2R) SI 2 r2 .
759. (x + 1)n 1 =
= P (x)Q(x), P (x) .

446

f (x) g(x)
f (x) g(x),
f (x) g(x) . ,
2, .
,
(1)
(x + 1)n 1 (xk + xk1 + . . . + 1)Q(x).
x x1
xn ,
1
(x + 1)n xn (xk + xk1 + . . . + 1)xnk Q( ).
(2)
x
 
xnk Q x1 , n k, x. (1) (2),
xn 1 (xk + xk1 + . . . + 1)R(x),
R(x). n k + 1, n =
= q(k + 1) + r, 0 < r < k + 1. xn xr = xr (xq(k+1) 1)
xk+1 1 = (xk + . . . + 1)(x 1), , xr 1 = (xn 1)
(xn xr ) (xk + . . . + 1)R1 (x) R1 (x).
, xr 1
xk + . . . + 1, .
760. .
. G (. . A B , ). , A1 A A1 , , A1 .
(. . ), A.
. , , .
50 100. .
1. k  n  m .
, n m,
,
n k m k.
. ,
k = 1. , ,
m, . ,

20052006 , 11

447

A m
G, B .
G , A B.
. A1 A, B1 , A1 . A1
m|A1 | B1 , B1 m , , |B1 |  |A1 | ( |X| , , X). ,
, A.
G , G1 , n 1 m 1. 1 .
. 1
k = 30, H, 20
70. .
20 20
.
70 , , 70 19 = 1330
.
H  H.
1331 , :
, .
H .
20
.
. 761 .
1
2, .
2. k  n . G n 2n.
, k
2k.

)
2. 987654321. 3. ) . ) . 4. n . 8. 1993. 11. x1 = 2, x2 =
= 12 , x3 = 2, x4 = 12 , . . . , x99 = 2,
x100 = 12 . 16.
. 17. n = 3. 21. . 23.
B ,
ABC. 25. 30 .
27. . 28.
. 31. p = 2, q = 7, r = 3,
s = 11 p = 2, q = 7, r = 11, s =
= 3. 32. 4 . 33. ) ; ) .
37. 5. 38. 208. 50. . 52.
.
53. p = 3. 56. .

57.

1 13 . 61. 3. 63. 19

N . 70. 19952 . 73. .


74. 106 10 95 . 75. . 76. n
= 2k (k N). 77. .
. . 67. 78. = 30 . 79. 4.
81. x2 +ax, x2 ax, a ; x2 +x2, x2 +x2. 83. 8, 9, 10.
84. . 85. n =
= 1996. 91. , B (. .
) B.
98. n.
100. n
2
n
+
1
n, 2 n.
101. 16. 102. n = 2. 104. .
110. 2. 111. p = 7,
q = 3. 112. 14. 114. , . 124. . 126. 12.
)

135. . 136. = 1.
137. . 138. . 145. , 3, 4 5 ( ). 147. 3456. 148. 4. 149.
. 150. .
152. . 153. b = 0, 0  a <
< 4. 156.
. 157. x =
= 3 + 69 + 12n , n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
158. . 159. (n 2)3 . 160. 11
. 161. 1260. 164. .
165. .
167. 56 .
170. 1999.
171. CA1 : A1 B =
= BC1 : C1 A = AB1 : B1 C =
= 2 : 1.
172. 5.
175. . 176. . 177. 29. 189. . 197. .
203. 7. 204. , 1,
,
. 205. .
206. 48. 209. . 210. . 214. . 219. 1 : 2. 220. n = 2000.
221. . 226. .
231. N  8.
233. .
234. 14. 236. n m . 238. . 239. . 242. .
244. 25. 246. . , 5 22000 2 52000 . 251.

, -

: ) ; ) 3k2, k Z A,
3k 1, k Z B, 3k, k Z C. 252. 150.
256. 2001.
257. p = 5, q = 3.
258. . 265. . 267. .
269. .
277. .
279. , .
281. n = 3.
287. , .
288. 41. 294. .
296. . 297. 7. 299. . 301. 3. 308.
. 310. 98. 313. =
= 8 + n
2 . 315. 870. 317. x =
= 1. 320. . 321. 2 3.
329. 17.15 17.45. 330. 13.
332. . 333. . 335. 1. 336.
! ". 341.
350. 2.
.
344. n
2 + 1.
356. .
358. 101105. 359. 4. 362. . 363. . 367. (2k , 2k ),
k  0.
369. .
370. .
371. .
375. .
377. 135.
380. N ! (N ! = 1 2 . . . N ).
381. . 383. (2, 2). 384.
.
385. .
386. 2.
387. N ! (N ! =
= 1 2 . . . N ).
391. ,
7.
394. .
396. .
397. 33.
398. .
399. A1 B1 C1
,
60 . 400. . 402. . 405. 33. 407. . 412.
.
n.
415.

2n
416. 3 . 419. 13. 424. 30000.
425. .
427. .

449

1
428. 16.
431. 48.
432. n +
2 .
436. F = 8.
438. . 439. n = 7. 443. f (x)
1, f (x) x. 445. {0, 0, 0, 0},
{1, 1, 1, 1}, {1, 1, 1, 1}, {1,
1, 1, 1} ( ). 447. n =
= 8k + 1, k N.
451. .
464. 25.
473. 0 12.
475. .
476. . 478. 180 . 479. 0.
481. . 483. . 489. , . 494.
n.
497. .
504. . 507. n = 2. 509. . 510. , . 512. ,
. , 1/4,
1/2, 1, 2, 5, 52 , 54 , 58 , 516 , 532 .
513. .
517. .
519. . 520.
.
524. , ,
, .
525. .
528. 106.
529. (1; 0); (4; 3);
(4; 5).
533. .
535. m = n = l = 2. 538. 99 . 541. , , .
547. . 548.
.
549.
24


3N
. 551. 4 ( [x]
x). 557. .
560.
+1.
565. r1998 = 1997,5.
566. .
569. 9. 572. . 573. n(n + 1).
576. . 578. a1 =
= a2 = . . . = 2.
585. .
592. . 593. a +

450


1001

+ b + c = 3. 601. 2 3 2 500.
604. . 605. 7.
617.
. 621. 500
501. 624. n = pm , p
, m N. 632. n = pk , p
, n = 12. 633. 97 . 636. n .
641. . 644. 10. 646. n = k
1. 661. 10010. 668. a2003 = 10p.
671. . 680. 209. 691.
4005 . 693. .

694. . 695. 51 .
698. 2003 . 704. . 708. 2003 2 2002 + 1 =
= 2005004. 714. . 716. . 718. 1003. 721. 11. 723.
1003 . 725. 16. 729. 49.
733. . 734. .
739. 117. 743. ,
. 747. 117.
755. .

451


[1] .., .., .., ..,
.. . 9 . .: , . . 1997. 208 .
[2] .., .. . . 2-, . . .: , 2006.
320 .
[3] .., .. : / . . .. .: , 2005. 140 .
[4] .., .., .. . .: , 1999. 128 .
[5] .., .., .. . . 2- . -, , : , 2005. 606 .
[6] .., ..
. .: , 1988. 288 .
[7] .., .., .. .
.: , , 2006. 400 .
[8] .., .. . .: , 1986. 303 .
[9] .., .., .. . : , 1994. 272 .
[10] .. , .:
, 2005. 560 .
[11] / . .. .
.: , 1987. 416 .
[12] - .., .. . . 3-, . / .. . .: , 2004. 96 .
[13] .., .., .., ..
. 10 . .: , .
. 1998. 256 .
[14] .., .., .., ..
. 11 . .: , .
. 1999. 254 .
[15] .., .., .. . . -: , 1996. 640 .

452

[16] ., ., ., . . .: , 1976. 543 .


[17] .. .
.: , 1965. 384 .
[18] .. . :
- . . -, 2000. 239 .
[19] . . . 3- . .: , 2006. 168 .
[20] .. . . 5- . . .:
, 2006. 640 .
[21] .., .. . .: , 1989. 288 .
[22] .. . - . .
.: , 1977. 160 .
[23] .., .. . . .: , 2002. 256 .
[24] . 250 . .: , 2004.
160 .
[25] .. - .
.: , 1994. 309 .
[26] .., - .., .., ..
19932005 . / .
.. . .: , 2006. 456 .
[27] .. . . 9 11 . . 2- . .: , 2001. 398 .
[28] . . . . : - , 1996. 76 .
[29] .., .., .., .. . .: , 1992. 383 .


,
. (2): 90, 444
. (2): 63, 141
. (53): 1, 29, 33, 38, 41, 105, 109,
135, 137, 153, 173, 174, 201, 225, 242, 249,
258, 269, 270, 274, 281, 285, 289, 290, 294,
313, 329, 331, 334, 342, 349, 377, 398, 402,
429, 469, 513, 515, 525, 533, 543, 593, 597,
609, 617, 618, 641, 665, 673, 681, 685, 718,
733
. (4): 366, 706, 719, 734
. (2): 170, 172
. (2): 180, 573
. (3): 372, 412, 422
. (3): 577, 688, 758
. (9): 57, 104, 116, 130, 167, 462, 491,
568, 646
. (2): 60, 484
. (61): 34, 39, 40, 178, 181, 192, 195,
211, 219, 232, 247, 283, 310, 315, 322, 326,
340, 343, 352, 360, 426, 466, 572, 575, 582,
586, 589, 598, 600, 603, 610, 616, 619, 622,
623, 631, 637, 638, 647, 648, 650, 658, 662,
666, 670, 671, 672, 674, 689, 692, 695, 699,
715, 720, 736, 737, 738, 739, 742, 744, 750
. (28): 279, 287, 292, 296, 320,
328, 363, 365, 368, 376, 380, 385, 392, 395,
413, 424, 610, 611, 630, 656, 668, 693, 704,
708, 718, 723, 737, 743
. (1): 8
. (1): 707
. (2): 6, 22
. (7): 234, 353, 384, 547, 569,
578, 712
. (1): 147
. (3): 69, 449, 488
. (1): 566
. (2): 416, 759
. (1): 716
. (1): 425
. (1): 728
. (25): 193, 198, 200, 248, 261,
297, 323, 389, 391, 457, 461, 465, 485, 489,

493, 497, 517, 581, 594, 601, 649, 651, 681,


754, 757
. (1): 474
. (1): 145
. (1): 42
. (3): 49, 78, 477
. (4): 235, 610, 624, 632
. (1): 300
. (30): 68, 92, 99, 131, 140, 155,
187, 191, 224, 232, 245, 276, 282, 348, 554,
556, 563, 584, 590, 608, 611, 612, 635, 639,
656, 667, 675, 676, 703, 711
. (3): 64, 102, 202
. (1): 84
. (6): 190, 196, 209, 504, 541,
565
. (39): 36, 124, 136, 165, 203,
213, 218, 240, 243, 254, 278, 295, 298, 306,
307, 309, 314, 318, 338, 351, 371, 374, 388,
390, 396, 399, 400, 404, 414, 420, 640, 642,
655, 672, 690, 699, 706, 731, 756
. (5): 250, 354, 607, 627, 713
. (17): 2, 16, 28, 31, 53, 61, 85,
89, 97, 156, 233, 237, 257, 363, 369, 386, 397
. (1): 14
(4): 221, 545, 691, 698
. (1): 431
. (1): 238
. (1): 220
. (2): 327, 735
. (4): 179, 275, 583, 653
. (1): 221
. (1): 687
. (1): 303
. (1): 187
. (8): 60, 81, 96, 139, 166, 479,
552, 553
. (1): 735
. (5): 5, 18, 46, 450, 467
. (10): 66, 135, 263, 324, 358, 563,
564, 567, 626, 676
. (14): 4, 224, 232, 454, 480, 523,
564, 570, 576, 592, 596, 628, 702, 760

454

. (5): 73, 75, 103, 400, 538


. (2): 499, 507
. (11): 7, 146, 151, 186, 223,
247, 312, 395, 615, 679, 724
. (1): 37
. (2): 408, 423
. (1): 428
. (2): 79, 451
. (1): 30
. (6): 17, 55, 138, 177, 633, 645
. (1): 3
. (4): 361, 392, 722, 725
. (1): 510
. (3): 434, 486, 501
. (1): 26
. (9): 244, 251, 252, 266, 268, 620,
621, 643, 644
. (1): 560
. (2): 436, 488
. (7): 9, 24, 108, 465, 519,
521, 557
. (1): 394
. (3): 87, 94, 547
. (1): 48
. (2): 433, 445
. (4): 406, 409, 419, 741
. (7): 70, 452, 484, 508, 542, 559, 602
. (1): 101
. (1): 494
. (1): 160
. (4): 356, 652, 660, 752
. (1): 255
. (6): 11, 12, 27, 427, 456, 472
. (2): 610, 664
. (27): 150, 164, 239, 258, 265,
279, 287, 296, 299, 332, 341, 362, 393, 395,
410, 424, 549, 585, 604, 609, 637, 669, 694,
710, 714, 717, 755
. (1): 530
. (2): 107, 217
. (1): 701
. (1): 144
. (19): 44, 76, 100, 121, 147, 148,
149, 208, 226, 267, 277, 293, 304, 316, 325,
330, 432, 512, 729
. (2): 40, 523
. (1): 23
. (3): 189, 216, 506
. (1): 259
. (28): 197, 210, 217, 256, 301,
302, 305, 321, 333, 345, 359, 367, 375, 381,

383, 415, 418, 481, 499, 507, 659, 681, 709,


721, 727, 732, 746, 753
. (1): 21
. (3): 59, 133, 500
. (1): 740
. (3): 696, 699, 702
. (2): 122, 158
. (6): 19, 455, 505, 511, 540, 546
. (1): 468
. (34): 15, 35, 43, 51, 54, 62, 71, 82,
87, 91, 94, 119, 127, 128, 143, 154, 162, 184,
207, 212, 215, 230, 502, 518, 527, 529, 534,
550, 562, 571, 579, 587, 595, 599
. (1): 198
. (3): 32, 440, 460
. (1): 158
. (1): 123
. (19): 25, 47, 66, 212, 430, 438,
446, 448, 459, 463, 471, 478, 490, 495, 498,
515, 531, 591, 629
. (27): 20, 52, 58, 80, 88, 111, 134,
183, 206, 214, 231, 271, 272, 335, 344, 350,
443, 447, 464, 473, 475, 476, 520, 535, 580,
636, 661
. (1): 227
. (1): 548
. (1): 442
. (2): 364, 748
(2): 262, 524
. (2): 117, 125
. --(8): 8, 48, 439, 444, 503,
523, 536, 728
. (1): 558
. (19): 222, 229, 246, 253, 284, 291,
336, 369, 378, 403, 413, 522, 574, 606, 613,
614, 668, 678, 683
. (16): 83, 152, 159, 168, 175, 204,
236, 264, 288, 308, 311, 317, 319, 355, 528,
680
. (2): 320, 328
. (1): 735
. (8): 264, 292, 368, 376, 380, 392,
395, 708
. (4): 189, 216, 605, 684
. (1): 704
. (25): 50, 56, 74, 77, 98, 106,
110, 113, 114, 115, 142, 157, 161, 169, 171,
176, 205, 483, 509, 514, 526, 532, 544, 548,
551
. (1): 555
. (2): 112, 126
. (1): 481


, .
, , .
.

, .
.

.
T1 , T2 , T3 , . . . ,
,
1) T1 ( );
2) , Tn , , Tn+1 ( n = 1, 2, 3, . . .)
( ).
.
2): ,
T1 , T2 , . . . , Tn , , Tn+1 ( n = 1, 2, 3, . . .).
 Tn Tk
k < n.
, ,
.
14, 68, 144, 180, 192, 227, 284, 291, 312, 440, 446, 456, 560, 565, 566,
574, 596, 597, 600, 608, 626, 684, 739.

: n n + 1 , ,
.
: nk nk+1 ,
, k + 1 .
28, 55, 140, 181, 187, 191, 239, 264, 282, 396, 409, 489, 526, 530, 573,
616, 620, 622, 641, 645, 648.

456

, . n
. n S, , S/n.
12, 195, 468, 549.

, . :  n
, , ,
, , 
 . .
44, 211, 276, 294, 310, 316, 324, 330, 332, 392, 584.


,
, ( ), , (, )
( ).
4, 33, 139, 164, 165, 269, 394, 427, 479, 536.
:
,   ( ),  .

1.

, , , , (, ), .
1, 18, 57, 73, 89, 102, 117, 125, 128, 201, 237, 289, 302, 361, 386, 408,
423, 425, 449, 453, 521, 565, 617, 665, 673.
, :
70, 168, 222, 261, 375, 381, 578, 678, 701.
, :

457

25, 79, 141, 145, 169, 173, 206, 271, 298, 329, 473.
, :
41, 69, 313, 359, 377, 385, 390, 413, 418, 613, 659, 681.
:
289, 665, 673, 714.

, ,
( ) a1 , a2 , . . . , an :

n
 n a 1 a 2 . . . an 
1 + 1 + ...+ 1
a1
a2
an

a1 + a2 + . . . + an
a21 + a22 + . . . + a2n


.
n
n
. :
a + b  ab.
2
,
a1 = a2 = . . . = an , (. . ,
).
1, 11, 49, 89, 179, 229, 342, 378, 403, 412, 653, 670, 692, 715.

: : 2n > n n > 1 ( , 2n
  n), x2 > 100x x > 100 (   ).
, :
17, 168, 445, 602, 605, 612, 709, 757.
(. ):
134, 197, 345, 488, 583, 586, 675.

:
209, 249, 274, 285, 305, 317, 427, 475, 512, 521, 525, 533, 541, 545,
593, 637, 718.
1 , 2 , . . . , n P (x) = xn + c1 xn1 + . . . +
+ cn1 x + cn ( ):
c1 = (1 + 2 + . . . + n ),

458

c2 = 1 2 + 1 3 + . . . + n1 n ,
...
cn = (1)n 1 2 . . . n .
(. . (1)i ci i ).
n , ,
. :
21, 29, 34, 81, 149, 225, 242, 258, 293, 325, 355, 519, 553, 629, 649,
685, 744.
:
27, 38, 200, 253, 349, 412, 418, 432, 618, 683, 707, 759.

, :
46, 136, 153, 221, 443, 458, 609, 733.
:
22, 101, 225, 729.
: , , , ,
, . . ([x], {x} . .)
21, 100, 128, 157, 193, 323, 490, 574, 601, 678, 753.

2.

n , a, q, r a = qn + r, 0  r < n. q
, r a n. a b, n,
n ( a b (mod n)).
.
. , x, y,
x2 + 1 = 3y , x2 2 3.
, .
r a b, (a, b)=(r, b).

() a b: a = r0 b = r1 ,
r2 ; r1 r2 , r3 , . .,
rk rk+1 ; rk+1 (a, b).

459

5, 18, 31, 36, 37, 111, 164, 165, 208, 251, 281, 296, 429, 469, 494, 552,
597, 648, 714, 721, 727, 746.
, ,
, , , (
). p
, p
.
50, 58, 83, 110, 142, 149, 192, 232, 257, 279, 297, 336, 340, 349, 461,
485, 499, 501, 507, 535, 589, 594, 600, 624, 632, 664, 732, 741.
:
50, 92, 137, 202, 265, 394, 397, 433, 525, 533, 759.

: an bn a b a, b n; an + bn a + b a, b
n. , , P (a) P (b) a b a, b P (x) .
123, 217, 321, 381, 389, 415.

:
137, 147, 170, 177, 238, 269, 335, 350, 365, 393, 477, 513, 547, 569,
581, 661, 668, 704, 754.
11: 11
, ,
, 11. 3 9: 3
9. 4, 5, 8
. .
2, 131, 308, 341, 363, 585.

: , n, n;
a b , a > b > n, a b > 2 n.
:
56, 105, 131, 248, 256, 277, 287, 311, 319, 367, 375, 383, 391, 465,
509, 517, 529, 638, 651, 693.
-

460

,
: , . .
53, 85, 606, 614.

:
141, 183, 189, 210, 246, 363, 393, 477, 483, 493, 547, 566, 610, 738.

3.
.
:
, , , .
, , , :
30, 51, 62, 103, 107, 143, 174, 270, 275, 303, 309, 318, 334, 354, 366,
399, 455, 467, 527, 531, 619, 642, 650, 679.


.
, , ,
.
6, 9, 66, 119, 138, 151, 171, 190, 230, 243, 283, 374, 420, 486, 550,
555, 575, 582, 587, 603, 623, 674, 719, 735.

: AB CD
O ( A, B, C, D),
OA OC . AOC BOD OB
OD
.
15, 94, 278, 390, 631, 643.

, .

.
.

, (

461

180) : , ABCD ,
, ABD ACD.
.
1. ( ) BC ( A)
ABC B, C
.
2. , ABC
, .


.
7, 23, 35, 43, 47, 54, 59, 71, 82, 91, 127, 146, 154, 162, 178, 184, 212,
215, 219, 223, 247, 254, 295, 322, 338, 343, 372, 404, 414, 430, 434, 442,
474, 478, 502, 505, 518, 534, 571, 579, 595, 607, 666, 696, 731, 742, 750.

, , , , : ABC BC BC.
R O X d O. , X,
A B, XA XB (d2 R2 ), +
X ,  X . (d2 R2 )
X .
1 2 .
, 1 2 , , ,
1 2 .
:
, .
122, 186, 388, 498, 555, 615, 662, 672, 724, 756.

: , , :
3, 20, 23, 151, 207, 307, 343, 351, 364, 690, 713.

462

. ,
.
250, 259, 351, 450, 463, 562, 615, 627, 655, 699, 706, 740, 748.

, , ,
. , :
19, 327, 360, 495, 543, 591, 640, 688.
. :
47, 66, 167, 196, 262, 290, 422, 471, 515, 758.

: , , ,
.
26, 39, 78, 135, 235, 268, 331, 406, 426, 459, 647.

, , , , , .

:  ,  , 
(. .
, ), ..)
68, 75, 99, 211, 276, 348, 466, 559, 563, 590, 608, 611, 626, 656, 667,
710, 735.
:
130, 140, 158, 226, 245, 312, 416, 438, 448, 511, 532, 542, 635, 658,
676, 703, 712.
:
109, 113, 155, 187, 263, 316, 484, 491, 522, 546, 554, 567.

, :
90, 203, 240, 300.

463

4.

: A a , a b B, ()
(A, B) ab. , , , , ,
3 , 7 , 4 .
: 3 7 4 = 84.
:
n n! = 123. . .(n1)n;
: k- n- Cnk = k!(nn! k)! (0  k  n).
32, 40, 74, 96, 108, 112, 126, 208, 410, 457, 462, 497, 500, 604, 616.


, , ,

.
106, 115, 288, 304, 320, 358, 362, 369, 392, 419, 424, 428, 436, 439,
444, 454, 464, 480, 503, 508, 514, 520, 528, 556, 622, 633, 636, 680, 691,
695, 698, 708, 722.

.
52, 161, 166, 198, 202, 213, 234, 252, 380, 452, 460, 500, 524, 538,
541, 546, 551, 552, 580, 643, 718, 752.
:
117, 125, 147, 398, 523, 574, 617, 664.

,
( ) , , ( ,
 ).
64, 98, 104, 116, 557.

464

, , :
148, 159, 176, 181, 216, 220, 255, 266, 288, 292, 352, 384, 402, 424,
431, 439, 523, 528, 540, 568, 580, 598, 641, 645, 671, 680, 689, 708, 714,
725.
:
36, 63, 124, 152, 282, 332, 504, 573, 737.

, ,
.
( )
, . , , .
, , . , A,
A; 1 . .
A1 A2 , A2 A3 , . . . , An1 An
( BC , B C); A1 An . A1 A2 ,
A2 A3 , . . . , An1 An , A1 = An ;
, A1 , A2 , . . . , An1 .
A , A X,
A X.
, , ;
, .
,
1. , ,
, ;
2. , ,
, , , .
, , . n n 1.
,
.
:
48, 159, 255, 356, 564, 570, 628, 644, 702.
, :

465

20, 24, 63, 176, 596, 652, 669, 687.


, :
42, 64, 224, 232, 584, 639, 660, 675, 694, 711, 728, 760.

.
, . ,
,
.
76, 84, 156, 175, 204, 236, 371, 576, 592, 755.

. ,
.

( ). . :
8, 16, 21, 114, 150, 242, 267, 294, 299, 308, 356, 362, 432, 451, 472,
577, 743.

:
121, 160, 172, 244, 296, 344, 510, 512, 524, 538, 544, 548, 572, 594,
646, 691, 698, 716, 720, 723, 736.
:
80, 205, 214, 218, 272, 400.
:
27, 33, 60, 77, 144, 231, 301, 353, 368, 376, 447, 476, 506.

466


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3
5


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7
10
13
16
19
23
27
30
34
38
42
45
49
52

19921993 .
19931994 .
19941995 .
19951996 .
19961997 .
19971998 .
19981999 .
19992000 .
20002001 .
20012002 .
20022003 .
20032004 .
20042005 .
20052006 .

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56
58
62
64
67
71
74
77
80
83
86
89
92
95

19921993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

19921993
19931994
19941995
19951996
19961997
19971998
19981999
19992000
20002001
20012002
20022003
20032004
20042005
20052006

467

19931994
19941995
19951996
19961997
19971998
19981999
19992000
20002001
20012002
20022003
20032004
20042005
20052006

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111
120
131
143
150
163
173
187
201
216
229
241
255

19921993 .
19931994 .
19941995 .
19951996 .
19961997 .
19971998 .
19981999 .
19992000 .
20002001 .
20012002 .
20022003 .
20032004 .
20042005 .
20052006 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
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267
280
293
305
320
333
347
360
370
382
394
408
421
436
448
451
453
455








19932006

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. .
-
22.02.2007 . 60 90 1/16. 1.
. . . 29,5.
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119002, , ., 11. . 241-74-83.
.
121099, , ., 6.

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