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2003

621.382.8.037.33
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89, 11, . 10 .
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200700, 201100, 200900, 201000
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, 2003 .

..................................................................................................3
...............................................................................................6
..................................................7
.........................................................................................................9
1.
.................................................11
1.1 .........................................................................12
1.2
.
........................................................13
........................................................................18
2.
.............................................................................................20
2.1
............................................................................21
2.2 ...............................................................22
2.3

.............................................23
2.4
...................................................................................27
2.5

.....................................................30
2.6

...........................................................................38
........................................................................48
3.
.......................................................................................49
3.1 ,
..........................................................................................50
3.2 ............................................51
3.3 ..................................................53
3.4 ............................................56
3.5
................................................60

3.6 .................................................69
........................................................................71
4.
.........................................................................................72
4.1 , ........................74
4.2 ......................................................75
4.3 .........................................................77
4.4 ................................80
4.5
............................................................................................82
4.6
..................................................87
4.7 ...........................88
4.8
....................................92
4.9
........................................96
4.10
.........................................................................97
4.11 11-
.
.............................................101
4.12

.................................................................104
4.13
..........................................108
......................................................................110
5.

.................................................111
5.1
..............................................................112
5.2 ...............................................................116
......................................................................118
6.
....................................................119
6.1
................................................................120
6.2 ...............................................................124

......................................................................126
7.
......................................................128
7.1 .

............................................................................129
7.2 ........................133
7.3 ,
......................................................136
......................................................................142
8.
..................................................143
8.1
...............................................................144
8.2 ................................145
8.3 ,
................................147
......................................................................149
9.
....................................................................................150
9.1 ................................................................................151
9.2
...........................................................................151
9.3 ...............................152
9.4 .......................................................................154
9.5 ...............................................................156
......................................................................157
10. .................................................................159
10.1 ..........................................................................160
10.2 ..........................................................................160
......................................................................166
...........................................................................167



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1.1

1.2

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12

1.1

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( 1.1).
1.1

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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
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1.2
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14

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( 1.1)
(), . ,
r,
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=

1.1


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.

P
2

4r

(1.1)

= [ E H ] , : E H
.

, E H
Z,
:

,
=
Z

Z=

, .

,
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, .

,
= 0 = 8,861012 /, = 0 = 4107 /.

:

1.
Z=

a
a

15

= 120 377, .

, :

4r2

E2
120

(1.2)

E m2

240

(1.3)

, m
.
m, :
Em =

60
.
r

(1.4)

(1.4),
.
,

, .


. :

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( )
D . ,
:
60D1

m =

(1.5)

D1 .
(1.5):
m =

245 PD1
,
,

(1.6)
=

, r .

173 D1
r

16

,
,
:
2
S= D2 ,
4

(1.7)

D2 .

:
2 = S,

(1.8)

D D 2
2 = 1 1 2 , ,
(4r)2

(1.9)

(1.1) (1.7):

1 .
(1.9) .
,
,

.
,
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, .
,
(1.1).
.
.
.
(1.8) :
1

1
4r
L =
=

,
2 D1D2

(1.10)

"" ,
. D1=D2=1 :
2

4r
L =
.

(1.11)


, . (1.10)
(1.11) :

1.

17

L () = 10lgL = 20lg(4r) 20lg D1() D2(),

(1.12)
L () = 20lg(4r) 20lg.


.
(1.12) 1.2.
1.2
r ()
()
L
L ()
10
10000
160
22
7
27
810
0,03
10
270
: r = 8107
.
, ,
, ,

.

, .
. ,
:
L = L + L , .

(1.13)


,
,
F:
F=

E
E0 ,

(1.14)

0 ,
.
, (1.6)
:
Em =

245 PD1
r

F.

(1.15)

:
D D 2
2 = 1 1 2 F2 .
4r2

(1.16)

(1.16) F ,
.

18

(1.10)
:
P
( 4r) 2 1
L= 1=
.
P2 ( F) 2 D1D2

(1.17)

, ,
:
L () = 10lgL = 20lg(4r) 20lg 20lgF D1() D2() .

(1.18)

(1.16)
.
,
. ,
, .
,
, .
(1.16) ,
1() = 2() + 20lg(4r) D1() 20lg 20lgF ,

(1.19)

1 2 1.
,
(1.18):
1( ) = 2( ) + L () .
(1.20)
(1.19) ,

,
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

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1.

19

20

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.


.


.

.

.

2.

21

2.1


.


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(
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( 2.1).
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2.1




80
80
10
4

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4
10 3
10 2
10 3
10 3

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22

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. 2.5.

2.2

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h .

h
<<1,

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h
>>1,

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h>>, ,
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2.

23

2.3





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= 6 =
102

( = 50 ),
:

60
=
=5


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24

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2.1

2.2
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:
=

60I

(2.1)

.
:
=

60 I
r

(2.2)

I , , r , .


:
=

120 I
r

(2.3)


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2.2,

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2.

25

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= 0F(),
(2.4)
0 ,
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x=

( 1)2 +( 60 )2 ,
2 +( 60
)2

,
.

(2.5)

26

(2.5) .
>> 1. ,
,
60 >> .
:
x=

r
602

(2.6)

, 60 << ,
:
x=

(2.7)

2.3
=
.

60

2.3

.

, ..
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.

2.

F = 2

27

jxts
2

ts + q

(2.8)

q ,
. :
q = j3

j60

(2.9)

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, q 0.
0, q .
ts :
(2.10)
h(t) ,

, h (t) .
,

:
h/(t) qh(t) = 0,

r7 ,

(2.11)

2.4


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( 2.4).
,

E .

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28


( ), , :

E
E

(2.12)

z
2
2
~
>> 1.
= + 60

X
2.4
,
.

sin =

sin


, .

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:
sin

1
2 ,
2
+ + 60

(2.13)

n .
>>1, (2.13) ,
~
, ..
.
,
n , :
=

0
n

<< 0 .

(2.14)

(2.14)
,

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,
.
(kr >> 1)
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.

:

2.

H
2y =

E 2x

29

~
.

120

(2.15)

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, ..:
=H
.
E 1x = E 2x , H
1x
2x

(2.16)

C (2.15) :
=
H
1y

E 1x

~
.

120

(2.17)

(2.17)
.
() :
=
H
1y

E 1z

(2.18)

120

(2.17),

.
E 1x =

E 1z
~

E 1z

j60

(2.19)

(2.16) E 1x
E 2x , :
E 2x =

E 1z

j60

(2.20)


:
E 2z~
2 = E 1z~
1,

1= 1,
~

:
E 2z = E 1z

1
j60

(2.21)

(2.19, 2.20, 2.21) ,


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30

(2.19) ,


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( 2.5).

, 2.5

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2.5



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h >> . ,

( 2.6).
2.6


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, .
2.6, , ,
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.
.

= 1 + 2
. , h1 h2 << r, ,

2.

31

,
1 2.

() , E1, E 2
. ,
j(t kr1)
j(t kr2 )
E = E 1 + E 2 = E m1 e
+ E m2e
,

(2.22)

r1 = , r2 =, 1 2
.
,
:
E
= ej = m2 ej ,
E m1

(2.23)

,
. :
r2 = = r1 + r.

. (2.23) (2.22)
:


j kr +
j

r
1

,
E = E m1e
1+ e

j t kr1

E m1e

(2.24)

0. (2.4)

1+ j kr + F:

j kr +
F = 1+ e
= 1+ cos(kr + ) j sin(kr + ) .

(2.25)

:
2

F = 1+ cos (kr + ) + 2 cos(kr + ) + sin (kr + ) .

(2.26)



.
(2.26) .
:
F = 1+ 2 cos(kr + ) +

(2.27)

32

,


: ,

r.

,

.

2.7
,



. ,

, 2.7.

h +h
tg = 1 2 .
r

(2.28)



h +h
1 2.
r

(2.29)

r :
2

r1 = AB = r + h1 h2

2
h 2h1h2 + h2
h1 h2
,
= r 1+
r+ 1
r
2r
2

2
h + 2h1h2 + h2
h1 + h2
r2 = ACB = A B = r + h1 + h2 = r 1+
r+ 1
r
2r
:
2

r = r2 r1

2h1h2

(2.30)

(2.30) (2.27)

4h h

1 2
F = 1+ 2 cos
+ + .
r

(2.31)

2.

33


,
. F(r)
r,

4h1h2
r

+1,

, 1. F
(1 + ), (1 ). , F
,
.
2.8

.
(2.23)
.
,
. ,
,

2.8
. .


2.
.
, ,
, F ,
.
(2.31)
.

, 180. (2.31) = 1
= 180 :
F = 2sin

2h1h2
r

,
, :
2h1h2
r

(2m+1) ,

m = 0, 1, 2, .., :

(2.32)

(2.33)

34
r=

4h1h2

( 2m+1)

(2.34)


:
4h1h2

r=

(2.35)

:
2h1h2
r

= (1+ m) , r =

2h1h2

m+ 1

(2.36)

,
rm = 0 =

2h1h2
r

(2.37)

2.9,
, ,

( = 1),
, .
2.1.
2.9
( = 1)
:

h1 = 180 .
h2 = 20 . = 4,8 .
(2.35):
r =0=

418010

= 1,5 .

4,8

(2.32)
.
, 20,
, (2.32) :
F=

4h1h2
r

(2.38)

2.

35

(2.4) (1.6)
, :
=

2,18 1D1 h1h2

(2.39)

1 , h1 h2 , , r .
(2.39) 1928 . . .
.
,
,
.

r

2 h1h2
:
r
9

18 h1h2
,


.
.

.

.

2.10
.


. 2.10
,
.
, 0, ..
(r = 0, = ).
(2.32) , r0 (r 0,7
r0), r0 . r 0,7 r0
( 2.3).

36

. 2.10,
r =r +r
0

10

20

( a + h1 ) 2 + ( a + h2 ) 2 a 2 =

2ah1 + h1 + 2ah2 + h2 ,

, h1 h2 .
h1 h2 << , :

r0 = 2a h1 + h2 .

(2.40)

, = 6370 , (2.12)

r0 = 3,57 h1 + h2 ,

(2.41)

h1, h2 .
(2.41) ,
(h
) .


,
. 2.11.
, ,





. 2.11.
h1 h2
h1 h2 .
2.11

h1/ h2/
.
,
,
,
.

h1 h2, r.
:
(2.42)
h1 h1 h1,

2.

37

h2 h2 h2.

r10
h1, r20 h2,
(2.40) :
2

h1 = h1

r10

2a

h2 = h2

2.12
m
h2/h1 .

(2.43)

2
r20

2a

,
,


h1h2.

,

.

h1`h2`.

2.12,


m :
h1 h2 = mh1h2 ,

2.

h1
, ,
.
:
p=

r
2ah1

2.13
n
.

r, , h .

m .

2.13,

n
:

38

h +h
n 1 2
r
.

2.6


,
,
.

.
.

,
, .
,
.

.

1
.
1
2
2

,
.
2.14

h

. 1,
g

(), 2.14
2,
.
, 1
:
= k2AB = k2hsin =

4
hsin ,

(2.44)

2
, h .

,
.
k =

2.

39

= 2 , (2.44)
h, :
h=

8sin

, <

(2.45)

, ,
2

. (2.45)
2
.
(2.45),
h

.
.

( 2.15). ,

.
.

.
>

2.15

= 46,5

= 22

= 36,5

= 46,5

0
34

= 36,5

= 22


,
,
( , ,
..).
2.2
.
2.2

0,30
0,40

0,50
0,44

0,58
0,47

0,86
0,50

0,78
0,55

0,74
0,56

40

9 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
12 18 23 33 65 58 49
20
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
2
06 10 17 32 39 41
5
35
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
4
04 05 11 19 26 28
0

2.16
.

. () ,

,
.
, .

.
( 2.16)
.
,
.
PQ.
, PQ ,

2 + . .
N1.

, BN2 = 2 + 2

BNn = 2 + n .
2


PQ
.

2.17. ,

2.17
.

2.

41

, ).
,
.
,
, ,
, , ,
N0, (
= kr =

2
2

= ).

, ,
2- ,
N0 2. ,
, 2- ,
, , .. 2.17
.
, ,
:
= 1 2 + 3 4 + 5 6 +
(2.46)
, kr>>1, ,
,
:
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
= 1 + ( 1 + 2 ) + ( 3 + 5 ) + ( 5 + 7 ) + ...+ 1 .
2
4
6
2
2
2
2
5
5
2
2

(2.47)

,
. , ( )

2.18 ,

,
. ,
. ,
, ,
( 2.18).

42

C
,
,
bn
A
B

C
l1
l2

,

2.20
.
.
,
, , ..
2.19, ,
, ,

.

.
2.20. :

= + = + + n ,
1
2
2

(2.48)

n n- .
:
=

+b

, CB = 22 + b2n .

(2.49) (2.48), :

2.19
.

(2.49)

2.
12+ bn2 +

bn2
21

bn2
22

22+ bn2

43

2
2
bn 1
b
1

= 1 1+
+ 21+ n
2
2
1
2

= 1 + 2 + n

,
2

n- :
n
1 2

b =
n

+
1

(2.50)

:

b =
1

1 2

+
1

(2.51)

1 = 2. , 1 = 2 = , :
2
b

(2.52)


2.3
, 10 .
2.3
()
b1

100
500

10
160

1
50

0,1
17

0,01
5

0,001
1,6

. ,
,
.
.


.
. ,

.

44

2.21

.

,
, , ,
, , ,
,
,
( 2.21).
,
, ,
,

.

,
2.22.
. , ,
.
2.22 ,
.
2b. ,

,
MN
2b.

, X
(
2.22),

b

,
2.22
:

.

2.
2

+
2

45

= 1.

(2.53)

,
r
, r .
2

MN :
y = x tg ,

(2.54)

MN :
ab

x=
2

, .

(2.55)

b + a tg

x
N .
, ,
b.
,
, ,
.
2.2. ,
,
, : r =
50 , h1 =h2= 50 . (2.51)
, 1 = 2 = 25 :
3

b=

25 10 25 10 0,1
50 10

= 35 .

(2.29) :
h + h 2 50 + 50
3
= 1
=
4 = 2 10 ().
r
5 10

(2.25)
r
, , a 2 = 25103 , :
3

x=

25 10 35
2

35 + 25 10 4 10

17 10 = 17 .

,
, 35 .
,
,

46

.
.
,
, ,
. ,
,
,
.
, ,
,
.
.
, (
,
..).

. - 2.23
. 2.23

.
.
, .
( < 0) (>0).
,
:
F=

1
2

[C(V) jS(V )] ,

(2.56)

(V) S(V) , :
1
C(V ) =
2

x2
cos dx,
2

(2.57)

S(V ) =

(2.58)
x2
sin
dx.
2

2.

V=

47

H 2
, b1
b1

.
2.24 F
V.
,
, ,
( 2.25).
, ,
, ,
2.24

2.25
.
..



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. ,
, ,
.
.


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,
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,
, ,
,
.
.
, .
, , 240 ,
1690 80 .
,
,
.


.
( , ..)
.

, , ,

48

-
.

( ) .
. .
,
.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

?
?
?
?
?

?
7. ?
8.
?
9. ?
10. ,
?
11. ?
12.,
?

2.

49

3.1
,

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.

.

.


.
.

50

3.1 ,

,
14 .
, . ,
, ,
.
, . -

, ,
.
.
, .
,
8-10 , 18 .
20
. .

().


,
, .

6
.


55, 80.
4

.
5
1014 ,
5 , 11
225 .
90 . , 1 ,
1 .
,
,
:
1 .. = 1,332 .

3.

51


, .
, .
. , 1,5
,
, .

(), ,
, = t + 273, ( ).
,
1 3.
,
.
,
1 3.
1925 .
, ,
, .
,
.
: = 1013 ,
t = 15, S = 60%.
100 12 ,
0,55.
.
11 . , ,

.

3.2

.


.

1,0006,
1,0003.

,
, ,
:
N = (n 1) 106.
(3.1)

52

,
:
N=

77,6
4810
e
P +
.
T
T

(3.2)

0,1 .
, ,
,
. N :
N

77,6
( P 0,167e) .
T

(3.3)

, ..


. () ,
.

3.1

dN
dh

= const


,
300.
, 3.1.
8
(
). , 7 ,
, .

,
.

.

3.

53

, , , ,
.

3.3

.

,
, ,
.
. ,
. ,

ni,
dh.
.
:
n1 sin 1 = n2 sin 2 = n3 sin 3 = . . . nn sin n.

(3.4)


. ,
, ,
( 3.2).
. ,

R.
3.2


.
n n + dn,
dh ( 3.3).
b = R sin d R d . - b
, b .
dh

dh

b: b= cos( + d ) cos , :
R=

d cos
:

(3.5)

dh
.
d cos

b
3.3
.

n sin = (n + dn) sin ( + d ).


:

n sin =n sin cosd + n cos sind + dn sin cosd + dn cos sind .

54

- d : sin d d , cos d 1 dn d 0
. d cos =
R=

dnsin
,
n

n
dn
sin .
dh

(3.6)

,
90, n ,
:
R=

1
dn .

dh

(3.7)

(3.7) ,

, .. n N (3.7)
:
R=

106
dN .

dh

(3.8)
dN
dh

, ,
.
, -.

.
. , .
.
()
,
.
,
.

:
(3.9)
dN
1
1.
< 4,310 2,

dN
2.
= 4,310 2,
dh
dN
3.
= 0,157,
dh
dh

3.

55

4.

dN
>
dh
0,157,
1

3.4

.

3.4.

,
1
, 0,157 . ,

,
,
. ,
.
( 3.4).
,
.

, . ,
,
. ,
, 2 , .. .
,

:
1
dN
= 4,3 10 2 , .

dh

25
( 3.8).


,

.. .
,
3.5
.

56


.

. 3.5.
:
1 1
1
1
=
,
R a

, :
=

a.
R

(3.10)

= 8500 .
, ,
. ,
(2.12). :

r0 = 2a h1 + h2 .

r0 = 4,12 h1 + h2 , ,

(3.11)
(3.12)

h1 h2 .

3.4
.

.

.
,
- .
3.6

, .

,
.

,
,
3.6

.

3.

57

() . ,

,
.

, , , .
, .
, ,

.

.

.

().

( ) , .
,
:

c() =

( (t) (t))
1

( t )2

1(t) 2(t)
.
.
:

c()d , .

(3.13)

l
,
.

,
() 1. ,
.
()
0. , .

,
,
,
, .

58

3.7

.

,
,
.

().

.
3.7,
.
h1 D1,
h2
D2.
r. BN
, .
, BN,
,
.
, .
,
,
() , .
,
. -
,
, .
, ,
, .. , ,
.
,
.
Q. AQ QB ,
. ,

3.

59

.
Q :
PD

Q = 1 1 ,
.
2
4r1
2

(3.14)


Q :
dPQ =

Q()

P D ()
dV = 1 1
dV , ,
4r12
4r12

(3.15)

() .
,
, ,
,
.
:
d =

dPQ

P D ()
= 1 1
dV , .
4r22 ( 4r1r2) 2

,
, :

dP2 = dS2=

P1D1D22()

( 4) 3r12r22

(3.16)

dV ,

(3.17)

S2 ,
:
S2= D2

2
,
4

(3.18)

, ,
3.17 V:
P D D 2
P2 = 1 1 2
643

()

dv
r12r22 ,

(3.19)
r
2

r1 = r2 = . :
P2 =

P1D1D22
43r4

()dv

, .

(3.20) :

(3.20)

60
D D 2
2 = 1 1 2 F2 ,
( 4r) 2

(3.21)

F .
F :
F=

2
( ) dv .
r v

(3.22)

,
, F :
F=

2
( ) v
r

(3.23)

(3.20) ,
, ,

.
.

,
.

.
()

().
.

.

3.5

,
.

,
.

,
.
,

.
.

3.

61

.
, ,
. -
. ,
50% .
(. 3.8).
,
.
,

. ,
.
0,1 0,9, .
:

= 0,1 0,9 , .

(3.24)


. ,
10, f 5
5
. :

T =

f .

(3.25)

.

3.9.

,

,
.

,
3.9

3.9,
,

3.8
.
.

62

,
. ,
,

.
,
,
.

:

( )2

1
() =

(3.26)


, , ,
2 .
,
, :

= ()dE ,

(3.27)

() .

, 16% 84%.

:

(lgE )2

1
( ) =

(3.28)

= lgE, = lg.
.
,

:

( ) =

(3.29)

, ,
( ) . ,

3.

63

90%
, 103.
,
,
. (3.26) (3.29)
.
:
() =

1
2

(E E)2
2 2

(3.30)

3.10.

(
3
2

.

.
3
2
() =
1
)

90%.
3.10

3.11,
() .
3.11, +8
, .. 2,5 .

. ,

,
.


3.11

64

k2,
:
P(r) =

2
k2

re

1+ r2
k2

I 0(

2r
k2

)dr,

(3.32)

r ,
I0(x) .

.

,
.

.
, ,
,
.
.
,
f(t). f(t+)
, .
R() ,
:
R () = f (t)f (t + ) ,

(3.33)

.
,

, .

, . 0,
R (0) = f 2(t) .
, R() .

,
:
( ) =

f ( t) f ( t + )
f ( t) 2

(3.34)

= 0 (0) = 1
.

3.

65

, f(t)
f(t+ ) .
.
,
,
,
. ,
. ,
, ,
.
f1(t) ,
, f2(t) ,
.
(
) :
R1,2( t) =

f1( t) f 2( t)
f ( t) 2

(3.35)

= 0 R1,2(0) = 1, l
.
,
=100

.
,

f, , ,
, .
, f = 2,3 , f = 2
R(f) = 0,4, f = 4
R(f) 0,1.
.


, .
S1 ,
,
. S1
() :
S1 = 1 P(E) .

(3.36)

, , S1 = 10%, ,
90% .

66

,
,

3.12

.
.

,
, .
, S1, S2 ..
,
.

n :
Sn = S1n .

(3.37)

3.12 ,
,
,
.
( ) .

, , .
,

.

, .
,
(
), ,
. ,
,
f,
.
,

3.

67

,
(, , ..).
,


2,
D1 D2,
r. 1,
( ) :
P1D1D22 2
P2 =
F
(4r)2

(3.38)

(3.38)
. ,
F
F.


100 4 ( 3.13).
, ,
(3.38), 50%
.
.
,
(- ),
(- ).


.

,
3.14,
.
3.14 ,

320

, , ,
99%, 17
.
3.13

.
F,

68




3.12.
,


99%

10
3.14
.
.
3.12
3.14

.
3.1. ,
99,9%
400 : 800 ( = 37,5 ),
D1[] = D2[] = 40

(D1 = D2 = 104).
( )
( ),
. ,


,
2 = 51013 .
3.13
: F = 83
4
F = 0,714 10 , 3.14 ,
400 ,
99,9%,
15 .
3.12 ,

99,9% 5,5 .
(3.35),
,

3.

1 =

( 4r ) 2 2
2

D1 F2

69

= 24


99,9%
15 + 5,5 = 20,5 , .. 110 . , 1 = 24110 2600 .
,
,
, ,
, .
( )
,
.


, ,
.
, , ( 20
50 )
( 20 ),
1
1000 . 5 .

,
.
300-400 .

3.6

.

, , 10
.
, , , , ,
. 10
,
, .


, . ,

70

3 ( = 10 ) 1000

( = 0,3 ), , ,
, .
:
,
, , , ; ;
, , ;
.
,
,
.
.
1,5
. .
,
, ..
,
.
,
.
,
. ,
.. ,
.
: = 0,5
, = 0,5 02 , = 0,25
02, = 1,5 , = 0,75
.

.
,
. ,
(0,40,75
).

.
,
, .
,

3.

71

, -

.
,
.


1. (, , )
?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ,
, .
6.
?
7. ?
8. ,
.
9. .
10., .

72
4.1
,

4.2

4.3


4.4


4.5



4.6


4.7


4.8


4.9


4.10



4.11
11-

.

4.12




4.13


4.


.

.

3.

73

74

4.1 ,

.

10-14 .
. ,
.
,
, .
50-60 .
90
, . 90
,
.

,
90 , , 200
.
, .
500 , (
4.1). ,
-
.

.
60

.
,
()
.
,
,
. ,
4.1
.
,

4.

75

,
.

.
,
. ,

= t + 273,13. ,
.
,
.
.
,
, .
.

.
. , , 1000
,
, .

4.2
.


().

. ,

.

.
,
.
.
.
, . ,
,
.
.

,
. () ,

76

, ,
.
. ,
w > w ,

(4.1)

w = hf , h , f ,
w .
,
, f,
, :
f =

(4.2)

(4.1) .
, , ,


. ,
, ,
9,25 , .
, , ,
.

()
.
.
mV2
> w
2

(4.3)

mV2
. (4.3)
2

,
:
V>

2w
.
m

(4.4)

,
, ,
. , ,
,

2100
.

.
( )
6000

4.

77

, 6105
, ,

.

,
( ).
, ,
.
,
,
,
. 0,4 4 ,
1039.
, ,
,
.
,
.

4.3

.

,
.

,
. ,
,
. ,
, ,
,
.
,
,
, - . ,
.

. .
.
,
, ,

78


,
f. ,
. S
h , Is
,
.
.
,

,
:
IS =

1 dS
,
hf d

(4.5)

d ,
dh. 4.2:
d =

dh
,
cos

(4.6)

dh

,
:
dS= BSpd = BSe bh

dh

dl

4.2

dh
,
,
cos 2

(4.7)

= bh .
0
,

. b
b=

G
RT

, G , R
, .
(4.7)

, :

4.
S

79

dS
dh
= B e bh
,
S
cos

(4.8)

:
S
B
ln =
e bh.
S bcos

(4.9)

,
,
(h ),
S.
S (4.9) :

S = Se

e bh .
bcos
2

(4.10)

(4.10) (4.5), :
B
I S = S
hf

bh

e
+ bh

e bcos

1
c3

(4.11)

h0, IS ,

:
/
bh
B

e
+ bh0 = 0,
bcos

:
h0 =

1 B
, .
ln
b bcos

(4.12)

(4.11)

3
1 1
. (4.12)
.
4.3 (4.11)
h
.

. -,
. -,
,
.

80

,
,
.
,

,

, ,
4.3


,

4.4

.


. , , , Nm
IS
Nm

, t I
S
.

.

,


.

.
.
.
. ,
1


e
. , , ,
. ,
N2, N
.

4.

81


, :
dN
dt

= I S eN2 .

(4.13)

,
,
(4.13) :
s e 2 = 0 ,

(4.14)

, :
N=

IS
,
e

1
3

(4.15)

N .
(4.15) ,

.
(,
) .
(4.13) :
dN
dt

= eN2 .

(4.16)

N0 N,
0 t,
N=

N0
1+ N 0 et

1
3

(4.17)

(4.17) ,
, .
,
,
.
.

,
.

82

4.5

.
.

,
.
, :

= .

(4.18)

(4.18),
.


. ,
. :

= V,

(4.19)

V ,
,
:
= N,

(4.20)

= 1,6 . 1019 .
,
,
:

rotH = + = 0
+ V ,

(4.21)

,
:

e = ma = m
,
t

(4.22)

4.

83

eE , ma .
,

,
:
V
e = m .
t

(4.23)

, , (4.23)
:
V
e sint = m ,
m
t

(4.24)

V:
V =

e
E m cost .
m

(4.25)

(4.25) (4.21) :

Ne
E
rot = 0
cost .
t m m

(4.26)

E
= m cost ,

(4.27)

, :

(4.21) :
2

Ne E

rot = 0

,
2 t

(4.28)

:
2

= 0

Ne
m

(4.29)


. :
=

0 =

109 ,
.
36

= 1

Ne

m 0

(4.30)

84

, = 1,61019 ,
m = 9,11031 ,

0 = 8,851012
, = 2f,

:
= 1

1
c3

80,8N
f

(4.31)

, f .

(4.31) ,
,

.
, , :
V =

. (4.31),
.
, ,
.
, ,
,
,
.


.
,

, .
,
,
.
,
.
, ,
, ,
, .
,

4.

85


. ,
.

. ,
,
,
.

:

e = m

+ mV

(4.32)


. ,
,
-
.
,

.
(4.32)
. ,
:
e = m

.
+ mV

, :

t

= j

= jV ,

(4.33) :
V = j

.
(
)
m + j t

(4.34)

(4.34) (4.21) ,
:
(4.35)
2


Ne

rot = 0 j
m j

86

:
~
= 0 j

Ne

m + j

(4.36)


.
, (4.36)
:
~
= 0

Ne

2
2
m +

Ne
2
2
m +

(4.37)

(4.37)
:

~
= j ,

,
:
2

= 0

Ne

2
2
m +

Ne

.
2
2
m +

(4.38)


,
0, :
N
= 1 3190
2
2
+
N

= 2,82 10

(4.39)
.

, << , (4.39) :
N
= 1 3190
2

= 2,82 10 8

(4.40)

,
.

4.

87

.
. << ,

.
, ,
.

.
, >> , (4.39) :
N
= 1 3190
2

N
= 2,82 10 8
2

(4.41)

(4.41) ,
,
, , .
. >> ,

.

,
.

4.6

.

, ,

:
=

p=

1
2 1
2
2
.
+ + 60 ,

(4.42)

, 60 >> << , (4.42)


:
= 2

30

= 2,82 210

1
.

(4.43)

88

(4.43) ,
.
, 60 << >> ,
:
=

60

1.

4.4



N = 105 /3,
= 105 1/

= 60 2,82 10

8 N

(4.44)

(4.44) ,


.
,

,
( 4.4) ,
, .
71
= 10
=
c
200 .

,

200

4.7

.

,
n = .

,

.


.

,

4.5

4.

89

,
n = ( 4.5).
, , :
n1 > n2 > n3 >...nn.
,
, :
n0sin 0 = n1sin 1 = ...nnsin n.

(4.46)

(4.46) ,
. 90,
,
.
, ,
, ,

.
(4.46) , :
(4.47)

sin 0 = nn ,

sin 0 = 1

80,8N
f

(4.48)

,
, ,
.. .
(4.48) ,
, ,
:

80,8N

0 arcsin
1 2 .

(4.49)

, (4.48),
, ,
:
f

80,8N
cos 0

(
(4.50)

90

(4.50) ,
,
:
f=

80,8N
cos 0

(4.51)

, (4.49) (4.50)
.

:
sin 0 = 1

80,8N
f

= 0,

(4.52)

f= 80,8N , .

,
. ,

, :
f = 80,8N ,

(4.53)

(4.53) , (4.51) :
f = f sec 0.

(4.54)

(4.50) (4.52) ,
f f = f sec 0 . (4.54)
.
4.6,

.
)
)
4.6 :
) ,
) .

, ,
(4.48) .

. 4.7,

4.
sin0 =

,
+ h

91

(4.55)

h , .

4.7

4.8

,

,


4.8

0 , h.
:
sin0 =

cos
h
1+ .
a

(4.56)

(4.48)
, :
80,8N
cos2
1
2h
2 ,
1+
f
a

:
f =

2h

80,8N1+
a

.
2h
2
sin +
a

(4.57)

,
N N :

f=

2h

80,8N
1+

.
2h
2
sin +
a

(4.58)

= 0,

f0=

2h

80,8N
1+

.
2h

(4.59)

(4.59),
,
10 , 30 . ,
, ,

92

4.8


.


,
, .

,
. ,
,
, :


F = e0 V ,

(4.60)

V ,

.

, .

.
,

.
:
mV

= e0V ,

(4.61)

R=

,
:
=

mV
0

2R
V

2m
e 0

(4.62)

,
(4.63)

,

.

,
, :

4.

f =

0
2m

93

(4.64)

(4.64)
(4.64) , m, 0
A
= 40
,

(4.65)
f 1,4 .
,
.

,
.

f = 1,4 .

,
.
.
. .
,
,

.
, ,
. .

.
, (
4.9),
.
z.
z
,
:

= 0 + ,

,
:

= Ne ,

Z
H

E
E

4.9

.

,
z.

94

.
, z,
. ,
, ,
z, .
,
z:
y = 1

z = 1
2

2 2

,
2

(4.68)

02 =

Ne2
0m

, =

0eH
m

.
z 0z.


. ,
z 90.
z
90,
, . ,

. z
, .
.

.
z,
( ,
4.10). , -
( ) ,

4.11


(
4.11):
4.10

4.

m
z = 2 cos t ,
A

= m sin t ,
2
y

95

m
z = 2 cos t ,
B

= m sin t.
2
y

(4.69)


,
.
,
,
, 1
( 4.11). 2
.
n1 n2 ,
. z
:
kx

kx

z = m cos
n n cos t
n2 + n1
2 2 1

(4.70)
kx

kx

y = msin
n n cos t
n2 n1
2 2 1

(4.70) , E ,
, .
z
z ,
:
tg =

kx
= tg n2 n1 ,
z
2

:
=

kx
2

(n

2 n1

).

(4.71)

96


-
,
,
.

4.9


.


. 4.6,
, (
) .
, ,
.
(4.68) , = 0
0:
02 = 2

(4.72)

02 = 2 2

(4.73)

4.12

.
1 ,
2 .

(4.72)

.
.
(4.73)
.
.
, 02 ,
,

. (4.73) ,


( 4.12).
.

4.

(4.73)
:


=

2
2

97

.
+

(4.74)

2
2
(
) << 0 , ,
2

(4.74) :

+ 0.

(4.75)

= 1,4 ,
:
f

.
.

=f

f
+ =f
+ 0,7 , .
..
..
2

,


,
-

,

, 4.13.

(4.76)

4.13
.

4.10

.

4.14
(
).

, ,

98

.
, , , ,

, ( ).
4.14 ,

,
.
4.14, 250-400
,
.

.
. , ,
: D, F. F
F1 F2.

D ,
6090 .
1
102103 3 ,
c
0,10,7 .
,
1
107 .
c
. D ,
-
.
D

:
N=N

cos .

(4.77)


.
100 ,
1
50 . 105
,
3
3,5 .
1
105 . D,
c

4.

99

(4.77).
,

.

,

.
F, 250400 ,
.
180240 F1.
1
F1 3105
,
3
1
5 , 104 .
c
F1 ,
,
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240400 .
1
21052106
,
c3
412,7 .
,
1
103
.
c
.

. D,
F1 ,
.
4.1.

F1

4.1
F2

60 90

100 120

180 240

240 400

102 103

105

3105

2106

107

105

104

103

0,1 0,7

3,5

4,5 13

1
3

100

4.15

4.16

0,6 1,5

4.15 4.16
F .
F2 ,
,
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.
.

,
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,

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.
,
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.

4.

101

4.11 11-
.

.


,

11 .
. ,
, .
,
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,
.
,
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F2.

, ,
.

. 4.17

.
1999-2000 . ,
2010-2011 .
.
,
.

. ,
,
.
, ,
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. ,

,
.

F2.
,

102

.
,
.

,
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.
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,
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67,5 10.

. ,
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4.

4.17
.

103

104


.
,
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.
S .

,

.
() S.

,
, 150250
/.

.
,
15-20 .
.
s
,
65 .
( 1000 2000 ).

4.12



.


, ,
,
.


,
.
.
- .

4.

105




,

. -
() 4.18.



. 5

4.18

-

.
1 ; 2 ;

3 ; 4 ;
5
;
.
6 .

.
- ,

.
.
, .
,
,
:
h =

c
t .
2

(4.78)

,
,
- ()
.
100 . 1 20 . 25 .
4.19 .
.
,
.

106

, ,
- .
-
. 4.19 -
.
4.19,
, , -
.
.
(4.52) - ,

.
,
.
, (4.78), ,
, ,
.
V = n,
. ,
.
V = 0,
t = ,
.

. ( 4.20). h
, z = h + z0
, h = h + z
.
h ,
V = n.
,
4.20
,
.
:
t=

2h
c

2
c

Z0

dz
80,8N .

(4.79)

f2


h :
(4.80)
2h 2z 2h
t=
+
=
.
c

4.

107

(4.79) (4.80),
z0 z :
Z0

h = h +

dz
80,8N .

(4.81)

f2

(4.81), ,
,

.
,
, .
-


, .. .
,
.

().
.
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.
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108

.
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.

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,

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F2,

. 4.21

-
,
4.21 -

, ,
.
.

,
- .

4.13


.



. D

4.

109


. F2
,

.
F2
,
. (
4.22. 4.23.).

4.22

F2

0
1990 .
.
.

.
, 12 .
0 ( 4.22) (
) , ..
.
.

.
4000 ( 4.23)
4000 .
( 4.24),
0 4000 .

, , , ,

4.23
11-
.


F2 4000
1990 .

110

4.24
0 4000 .


1. ?
2. ?
3.
?
4. .
5. ?
6. .
7. ?
8. ?
9. ,
.
10. ?
11. .
12.
?
13. ?

4.

5.1

5.2

111

5.

112

5.1


.

(
)
31043105 () 31033104 ().
105 103 .

() ().
.

,

.

.

,
.
5.1,
,
.

,
,
5.1




(2.1). .

h
.
( 5.1)

a a cos
h
2=
=

a1 cos

2 ,

(5.1)

, :

5.
o

r
111,2

113

(5.2)

, r .

5.2
- .

5.2


h


103 105 ,
,


100

800 .
300400 ,

,
,
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5.3
,

( 5.3).

, 103
/3.
D, ,

.
,
7001000
. 3000
.
,

114

.
, .
,
, .. 100 . , 100
.

,
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,
. (
5.4),
5.4

.
,
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,
,
:
D
= 1 1,
S

(5.3)

1 , ,
D1 , S
,
. , h<<a, S :

S = 2(CD)h = 2 a+ hsin ,

(5.4)

CD .

PD

, (5.3)

4r

, :
F=

2r

.
h

2 a+ h sin

F2 ,

(5.5)

5.

115

(1.6) :
173 D
E =

1 1

245 D
F=

1 1

a+ h sin
2

(5.6)

1 , r, a h .
5.5

( ),


. ( )

.
5.5


.
,
,
=90, .
S ,
.

,
.
, ,
, D.
,
,
.
.
,
,
.


, .

116

5.2
.



.

.
- ,


.
2000 ( 5.6

5.6),

(),
. ,
2000 ,
.
,

:
300 D
=

1 1

sin

0,0014
r
0,6
,
.

(5.7)

r , , 1 .

.


.
,
, 2000-3000 .
16000-18000 .

5.

)
5.6 )

)

: =4, = 103 1//

117

118


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.


?
,
?
,
?
?
?

?

5.

6.1

6.2

119

6.

120

6.1


.

( ,
) 3105 3106 ,
1000 100 .
()
() ().

, -

500700 .
(4.53)
,

103
. ,
3
,
D .


. , , .
,
,
( ). , ,
,


, ( 5.3).

.
( )
,
.

.
,
, .
, D,
, ,
. ,

6.

121

. , D ,
.

.

6.1 .
,

= kr ,

,
() ( 6.1).
, ,
, ,
.

,
.

,
,


.


, 6.2 .
( 6.2).
,
-

D.

,



,
6.3
.

()
( ).

122

,
,
, ( 6.3).

,
, .
.
(
1 ) .
,
.
, ,
( ).
, (),

,
( ).
(4.39),

. ,
,
VT
V .
V
, VT.

, , ,
.
V
VT.

.

(4.25):
V =

e
E cost .
m m

(6.1)

, (6.1)
:
V =

e
E .
m

(6.2)

6.

V =

8k
m

123

(6.3)

(6.2):

2
V 2

2
2


V = V +V
V 1+
= V 1+ A
,
T

T
T
2
2

2VT

A =

(6.4)

16mkT

,
:

= 1+ cost E ,
0

(6.5)

, , 0
, .

:
=

(6.6)

.
(6.6) (6.4) (6.5), :
2

0
V
2
=
1+
1+ cost .

2

(6.7)

(6.7) ,

.
:
N

= 2,82 10 8

(6.8)

, , :
=

60

(6.9)

124

, ,

. , .
,
,
.
,
, , , ,
.
.
, ..
,
.
- ,

. (
) 20- .


.

,
.

6.2
.

, ,
.
, 1.

,
, .

.

,
( 6.4).
6.4
, .. , 5%
. ()
0,35 .
PD=1 .

6.

125

, D
.
D
,
PD.

,
,
.

126


1.
2.

?
,
.

6.4

6.

3.
4.
5.

127

,
.
?

?

128

7.1

7.

7.2

7.3

,

7.

129

7.1 .



.

(, )
3 30 ,
100 10 .
,
.
. ,
() ,
.
,
,

.

, ,
. ,
,

,
.

() . 7.1

F. , D,
0,10,7 ,
.
7.1
r ()
200
500
1000
2000
4000
f,

1,6
2,1
2,4

f F2,
4,0
5,5
8,4
12,5
20,7
7.1
, ,

130

2,5105

1
F
3

1
.
3
7.1 ,
, 200 ,
. ,
, ,
, -
2500 . F
,

4000 .
, F
, D .
, F F1 F2,
F2, F1. ,
F1 , F2.

S.
, S
. S
, F
.
4,
:

5103

= 1 3190

N
2 + 2

(7.1)
= 2,82 10

2 + 2

: N ,
.
>>,
:
= 1 3190

(7.2)
= 2,82 10

N
,
2

7.

131

, N ,
F2 ,
:
>> 60 .

(7.3)

,
4 :
=

60

1
.

(7.4)


(7.2) (7.4) :
= 1,35 10

7 N

f2

1.

1
.

(7.5)

. ,
, ,
4. -,

. 4.2,
.
,
F2.
,
.

D. >> , (7.2)
.
. ,

. ,

.
.
-
F2.
0,7 f,
. , ,
().
7.1.
:
r=2000 ,
.

132

0,7f.
f (4.58):
2h
80,8N1+
a

.
f=
2
h

2
sin +
a


4.2 . 2000 ,
F2.
h.
(4.56 ):
h
= arccos[sin
01+ ] .
a

0 :
tg0 =

a sin

h + a(1 cos )
2

(7.6)

(5.2):
r

,
112

r .
7.2.
7.2
r ()

h ()

N ,

2000

300

106

2
9

f
()

70

10,3

12,46

, :
f0,7f= 0,7 12,46= 8,7 .

,
:
( = 1025 ) ,
( = 35100 ) ,
( = 2535 )
.

,

7.

133

, .
.

,
D .

.
,
F2 ,
,
. ,
, .

F2 ,
D ,
.



.

7.2

.

.
()

(
). ,

, .

,
( 7.1).

.

,

7.1
.

134

, .
.

.
F2

, .
.
,

.

( 4.9) .
, , ,
,
. .

( 3),
.
,
, ,
.

7.2 .

.
,
( 7.2). ,
r1 ,
, . ,
r2 ,
() , .
.
- . ,
,

7.

135


,

. ,
,
,

.


7.3

.

.

7.3.

1530.
.
,
( 7.3 ), , .

,
.

, ,
,
.
.
. 7.4
.
7.4.
, , 1.
.
,
2.

136

,
.
, .
,
, ,
1000 0,13 .

3,
( 7.4).
,

. ,

,
, .
.
-

.

.
4.
,
F2,
. ,
.
,
.

,
.
,
.

7.3 ,


.

7.

137


,
.
. ,

.
,
.

.

.

( 4.2, 4.3).

(4.54):
f

=f

sec

0,

(7.7)

0 .
0
,
.
0 (7.6);

a cos
2
tg0 =
,

h + a 1 cos
2

h ,
, (5.2):

112

r .

.

2 ,
,
.

,
.

138


.

.

.

, ,
.
, . . .
. .
:
1 1+ n 1
F =
e ,

2
2

(7.8)

,
n ,
.
n,
r, :
r

(7.9)

4000

r .
(7.8) 2,
6 . 3 . .
, ,

. 3 .

(1+ )
2

.
( 7.5) h
, 1 2
( )
(1+ ) 0 , 0 .

, ..
,
,

(1+ )
2

7.

(1+ )

139

= 1. ..

0,8.

.
n1=1.
.
:
= + +
D

F1

F2 ,

(7.10)

D,
E, F1 F2.
F1, :
= D + E + F .
1

(7.11)


S, :
=

ds.

(7.12)

(7.5)
:
= 1,35 10 7

N
f

1
,

(7.13)

N , ,
.
7.6

D, E F,
. . .

. . 7.6



().
, .

.
: r,
D1 D2,

140

.
,
50%
(2.16),
. . (7.8).
,
. . .

.
3.14,
3.12
.
7.2.
:
r= 3000 ,

2=10 9 ,
=20 ,
D1=20 ,
D2=16 ,
99%.
.
..

1,4.
, 0,8,
(7.8):
F

1 1+ 0,8

2 2

1 1

0,8

1, 4

0,1 .

(2.16) ,
50% .
P1 =

P2 ( 4 r )

2 2

D1D 2 F

10

( 4 3,14 3 106 )2 = 100


2

100 40 20 0,1


3.14, , 18 .
3.12
8 , 26 ,

7.

141

398 . ,
0,2398=78 .

142


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

.
.
,
?
?
?
?
?

?

7.

143

8.1

8.2

8.3

8.

,

.

144

8.1


.

()
30 3000 .
:
( )
( )
( )
( )
.

,
,
30000 . 1000
.
,
, , ,
. ()
,

.
,

.

,
. .

.
,
.
,
.
,
.

.

.

8.

145

8.2

.
.

30 300
, 10 1 . ,

,
.
2 ,
,
.

(2.8).

(2.31), (2.39).

,
.
,
.
2.

.

, .

F2
,
.
60 .
ES
, 70
.
.

.

. ,

146


.

,
.
, 5
. , 10

. , ,

,
5 10.
( )

2000 . 800
,
.

.
.

,

.
. ,

,
-

,
.

. ,
.
,
,
(1.16),
.
( 3.12
3.14).

.
80120
,
.
.
,
.

8.

147


(
, ),

. ,
,

.

.
, ,
, ,
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.
0,1100 .

. , ,
.
.

.

8.3 ,

,
.

300 30000 ,
1 1 .

.
,
,
, .
,
,
.

,
.
.
,

148

.
.

8.

149


1.
2.
3.

?
.

,
.

150

9.1

9.2


9.3

9.4

9.5

9.


.


.

9.

151

9.1

.
,
,
,

.

.
,
.

9.2



.

( 1.13),
.

-
.
,
,
..

3 4. ,
10 (f=3000 ),

200 .
,
4,
.
,
,
.
(,
) .

152

, - ,
. 9.1

.
9.1
f,

100

200

500

,
/

1,7

0,43

710 2

800

1000

2000

3000

2,7102 1,7102 4,3103 1,9103

5000
7104

9.1,
2000 ,

. ,
50010000
.
.
, ,
1 3,

3. ,
. ,


( 1.2).

9.3

.

(
) ,

. ,
t0, :
v
t = t0 t0 ,
c

(9.1)

v
, c
.

. ,

9.

153

( )
.

.
( ),
(
).
, ,
.
,
() ,
-, , , , .

:
v

f = f 0 .
c

,
,


.

,
.
.
,
:
f = f0 + f + f,

(9.2)

9.1
.

(9.3)

f0 ,
f
,
f -
.
f
(), (, ,
), f.

V
, 10 410 5,
c

110 f 0,2 .

154




.
.



.
9.1.
, 10 /.
6000 .
(9.2) :
f = f

V
0

= 600

10
310

= 0,2

( , , ..
).

9.4

.



. ,
.

. , ,

.
9.2


. 9.2,

9.2
.

9.

155

60 5000 270
35000 .


, ,
.

, 250 .

, ,
,
-, .
,
,
.
- 540 .
-
. -
.

, ,
. 9.2


.


,
38010 3
41,410 6
78,310 6
110,110 6
1,1610 9
1,2810 9
2,2510 9
7,210 9
18,610 9

9.2

2,5
4,6
8,7
12,3
1 9,3
2 22
5 02
8 03
10 40

9.2,

, ,
, .

156

,
.

9.5

.


0,210 , .


. , 1114

.
, 10 ,

. ,

,

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4 10 .


. ,
, ,

( .),
.

. ,

.
.

. ,


.

9.

157


,
. D
,
(,
) .
D :
= 16D ,

(9.4)

9.3


10 4 . ,
9.3,
100


1,9
(=16 ). ,
12 9.3
= 10-4.
(
)

16
(=1,9 ).

.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.


?
?
?

?

?

158

9.

10.1

10.2

159

10.

160

10.1
,

, , ,
.
.


.

.
.
,
.
.
,
, .
, ,
, .
, ,
.
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, ) .
,

3 7.

10.2

.

.
,
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,
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,
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10.

161

(

)

,

.
10.1

.
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( 10.1).
.

.

, ().

, ,
.

,
,
.

. ,
,
.

.

.
.

.
. ()

.

,
.

,

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