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..

3
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2007

517
K93
: III / .. ,
.. , .., .. , .. / .
. . , ..-.., . .. -.:, 2006, 7-e
., 627 ., 78 ., . . 23 .
: .. , .-. , .,
.


.
. III 34 34 : ,
,
.

: .. , ..
16.09.2002 17.09.2002
60x90/16
.
... 30,25
.-.. 32,25 . 2002., N1-22/02
500
N939
ISBN 5-276-00299-7
c .. , .. , ..

.. , .. , 2001,2002
c , 2001, 2002

69

XI


69.

.
.
. . .

69.1.
. , , .
X
. ,
, , .
. :
(69.1)

(69.2)

(69.3)

U
U
+y
= 0;
x
y

xz

U
= yU 2 ;
x

U U
= yz;
x y

z
z
+x
= (x y)z;
x
y

z


z
x

z
z
x
= z;
x
y

2

z z

= x2 ;
x y

(69.4)

2U
+
xz

U
y

3

= 0;

z
x

2

2z
z 2 z
+
= z2;
2
2
x
x y


 2
2
3
U 3 U

z
z
U
z
3
(69.5)
=
z
;
= 0.

x yz 2
x
x2 y y
x
, .
(69.1)-(69.5), , U
x, y, z: U = U (x, y, z);
(69.1)-(69.5) z x
y: z = z(x, y).

.
(69.1), (69.2), (69.3) , (69.4)
, (69.5) .
,
1 U .
(69.1) .
, .
, , .
. ,
(69.2), (69.4) .
.
1/2

69.1. , z = (x2 + y 2 ) 2z
= 0.

xy
2z
:
:
xy
2z
x
xy
z

.
= 2
=

x
(x + y 2 )1/2
xy
(x2 + y 2 )3/2



U U U 2 U
f U,
,
,
,
,

x y z x2

:

 U 2 ,
U
U
U U U U
,
,
,
,

=
a
(x,
y,
z)

U
+
a
(x,
y,
z)

+
a
(x,
y,
z)

+ ,
f U,
1
2
3
x y z x2
x
y
ai (x, y, z) u .
1

69

( x y),
2z
= 0.
xy
,
.
69.2. , z = z(x, y),
: xz ln(yz) = 1, :
1 z
z
+z
= 0.
y x
y

z z

,
x y
F (x, y, z) = 0, :
: ,

F
F
z
F
z
y
;
= x ;
=
6= 0.
F
F
x
y
z
z
z
: F (x, y, z) = xz ln(yz) 1, :
z
z
z2
=
;
=
y
x
1

xz
x
yz

z
z
z
yz
=
.
=
y
y
y(xz

1)
x
yz

, :
1 z
z
1 z2
z
+z
=
+z
= 0,
y x
y
y 1 xz
y(xz 1)
. . .
.
, ,
, .
, :
Z
U
= f (x, y, z) U = f (x, y, z)dx + F (y, z);
x

Z
U
2U
= f (x, y, z)
= f (x, y, z)dx + F (y, z)
x2
x


Z Z
U =
f (x, y, z)dx dx + F (y, z)x + (y, z).

f , F
. ,
1-
, 2- ..
2U
69.3.
= 0.
xy
:

x y,


R
U
U
= 0 dx + 1 (y) = 1 (y)
=0
x R y
y
U = 1 (y)dy + F (x) = (y) + F (x).
, : U (x, y) =
= (y)+F (x), F . :
U
2U

U (x, y) = (y) + F (x)


= (y)
=
( (y)) = 0.
y
yx
x
, ,
, . - ,
.
.
, , . , ,
, .
. , .
, ,
. ,
,

69

69.2.


, , :
(69.6)

a1 (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , U )

U
+ +
x1

U
= b(x1 , x2 , . . . xn , U ).
xn
,
. . z = z(x, y) . (69.6)
:
+an (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , U )

z
z
+ Q(x, y, z)
= R(x, y, z).
x
y
P , Q, R
. P , Q, R:

(69.7)

(69.8)

P (x, y, z)

F = P (x, y, z)i + Q(x, y, z)j + R(x, y, z)k.

: (
58) , , .. , F ,

d
r = dx i + dy j + dz k,
, F :
dy
dz
dx
=
=
.
P (x, y, z)
Q(x, y, z)
R(x, y, z)
, , (. . 69.1).
(69.9)

F
N

. 69.1.

, N
F .
:
N F = 0.


z =f (x, y), , 
z z
, , 1 ; ,
, :
x y
z z
N =
i+
j k F N = 0 :
x
y
z
z
+ Q(x, y, z) R(x, y, z) = 0,
P (x, y, z)
x
y
.. z = f (x, y) (69.7).
, (69.7)

(69.8), . (69.7).

, (69.7) :
(1) (69.9) , .
(2) : 2
(69.10)

1 (x, y, z) = C1 ,

2 (x, y, z) = C2 ,

(69.9).
.
2,

(69.9)
, .

69

(3) ,
C1
C2 : (C1 , C2 ) = 0, .
(4) C1 C2 , :
(69.11)

(1 (x, y, z), 2(x, y, z)) = 0.


,
.

69.1. z = f (x, y)
U (x, y, z) = 0, U U U
= 0 :
,
,
F N
:
x y z
(69.12)

P (x, y, z)

U
U
U
+ Q(x, y, z)
+ R(x, y, z)
= 0.
x
y
z

,
(69.12).
z
z
69.4. a
+b
= c, a, b, c x
y
.
: (69.9):
dx
dy
dz
=
= .
a
b
c

bdx = ady

cdx = adz.

, , , .. , :
bx ay = C1

az cx = C2 .

(bx ay, az
cx) = 0, .
z :
cx
+ (bx ay), .
z=
a
. .

10

a1
a2
an
=
= =
= t, k1 , k2 , . . . , kn
b1
b2
bn
k1 a1 + k2 a2 + + kn an
= t.
k1 b 1 + k2 b 2 + + kn b n

69.5. : (z + y x)

z
z
+ (z + x y)
= z.
x
y

dy
dz
dx
=
= .
z+yx
z+xy
z
:
: (69.9):

dz
dx + dy
=
d(x + y) = 2dz x + y = 2z + C1 x + y 2z = C1 ;
2z
z
dx + dy
dz
d(x y)
dz
=

= 2
2(x y)
z
xy
z

ln |x y| = 2 ln |z| + ln C2 (x y)z 2 = C2 .
:
(x + y 2z, (x y)z 2 ) = 0 .
(69.7) :
(69.13)

1 (x, y, z) = 0,

2 (x, y, z) = 0.

(69.13) , , .
(69.7) (69.13)
, ,
(69.13). (69.9) (69.10)
(69.10) (69.13):

(x, y, z) = C1 ,

1
2 (x, y, z) = C2 ,
(69.14)
1 (x, y, z) = 0,

(x, y, z) = 0,
2

x, y, z C1 C2 :
0 (C1 , C2 ) = 0.
0 () .
(69.7), (69.13), C1 C2 (69.10):

69

(69.15)

11

0 (1 (x, y, z), 2(x, y, z)) = 0.

69.6. x
: x = 0, z = y 2 .

z
z
y
= 0, y
x

: :
dy
dz
dx
=
= .
y
x
0
:

dy
dx
=
,
y
x
dz = 0.

,

x 2 + y 2 = C1 ,
z = C2 .

x 2 + y 2 = C1 ,

z = C2 ,
x = 0,

z = y2 .
x,
y z C1 = C2 . : z = x2 + y 2 .
, . ,
.
69.7. a

z
z
+b
= c, x
y

: x = 0, z = f (y).
: 69.4 bxay =
= C1 az cx = C2 . x = 0, z = f (y) . x, y, z, C1 C2 ,

12

af (C1 /a) = C2. C1 C2 , ay bx


af
= az cx.
a
:


b
c
z = x+f y x ,
a
a
f .
69.2. (69.7) (69.13)
,
(69.7).
, , :
(69.16)

x = 1 (t),

y = 2 (t),

z = 3 (t),

0 (C1 , C2 ) = 0 (69.16) (69.10)


t .
z z
69.8.

x x
z z

= 1, : x = t, y = t, z = (2t2 1)1/2 .
y y
:
ydy
dz
xdx
ydy
ydy
dz
xdx
=
=

=

= .
z
z
1
z
z
z
1
, :
x 2 + y 2 = C1

y 2 + z 2 = C2 .

x, y, z t, :
t2 + t2 = C1

t2 + (2t2 1) = C2 .

t2 :
1
1
t2 = (C2 + 1).
t2 = C1 ,
2
3
, C1 C2 :
1
1
C1 = (C2 + 1).
2
3
:
1
3
1
1 2
(x + y 2 ) = (y 2 + z 2 + 1) x2 + y 2 z 2 = 1.
2
3
2
2

69

13

.
(69.7) . , .
, (69.7) :
u
u
+ Q(t, x, u)
= R(t, x, u).
t
x
: t , x , uu .
, , (69.17), ().
- ,
t = 0, .
() , - , . , . ,
, .

P = a > 0, Q = b > 0, R = 0:
(69.17)

P (t, x, u)

u
u
+b
= 0.
t
x
69.7 , b
V = 3:
a


b
(69.19)
u=f x t .
a
(69.18)

(69.19) ,
(69.18) :
I. :
(69.20)

u(0, x) = 0 (x),

< x < .


f x ab t f (x)
b
b
t, .. .
a
a
3,

14

t0
x

x
x0

x1

x1

(a)

(b)

. 69.2
II. , :
(69.21)

u(0, x) = 0 (x),


(69.22)

u(t, 0) = f0 (t),

0 6 x 6 ;

t > 0.

. 69.2,a ,
t > 0
(69.18) uu x.
(. 69.2,b) (t > 0, x > 0)
(69.18),
x t.
x
(b/a)t = C = const. (69.19), uu
uu x t. , , [x0 , x1 ], ,
[0, x1 ] [0, t0 ], D, . [x0 , x1 ],
[0, x1 ] [0, t0 ] (x) = 0 (t) = 0, D
uu 0
x (b/a)t = x0 x (b/a)t = x1 , x (b/a)t = (b/a)t0
x (b/a)t = x1 .

69

15

(69.17)
u
u
+b
= c,
t
x
69.7


c
b
u= t+f x t ,
a
a
(69.23)

x (b/a)t = const
u (c/a)t, uu .
(69.17) . , .

69.

1
(1) :
a)

4x3 + 2x2 + x + 1
;
lim
x
8x3 + 4x 2

b)

lim

x+1
x+3

x3

n+1
P
(2) :
.
n
n=1 n + 2
(3) :
3

a)y = 2x ln(sin x);

b)y 2 + 2x3 y xy 2 + x = 0;

c)z = x2y sin y .

(4) x(t) =
= sin2 t + 3t 1 t = /12 .
(5) : y = x4 + 4x3 + 4.
(6) a
= (1, 1, 2) b = (0, 1, 1).
, .
(7) , , : A(1, 2, 1),
B(0, 2, 2) C(1, 3, 1).
(8) :
Z
Z e
Z
x3
4
x ln xdx.
dx;
b) cos xdx;
c)
a)
2x4 + 3
0

16

(9) :
b)y 3y = cos x.

a)xydx + (x + 1)dy = 0;
2
(1) :
x2 2x 15
lim
;
x5 2x2 7x 15

x sin x
.
x0 tg2 5x
n+1
P
.
(2) :
3
n=1 n + 3
(3) :
p
a)y = tg3 (2x)e3x;
b)y sin2 x + x ln y + xy = 0;
c)z = 3 x2 + y.
a)

b)

lim

(4)
x(t) =
= 16 t2 t = 1 .
4
(5) : y = x + .
x

(6) a = (1, 2, 1), b = (1, 0, 2) c = (1, 3, 1). c (a + b).


(7) , , : A(1, 2, 1)
B(0, 2, 2).
(8) :
Z
Z
Z 1
cos x
a)
x2x dx.
b) x arcsin xdx;
c)
3 dx;
sin x
0
(9) :
a)y + y cos x = cos x;

b)y 2y = e2x .

3
(1) :
a)



2
x +1x ;
lim

b)

lim

5
1
3x 2

x

(1)n
P

.
(2) :
3
n2
n=1
(3) :

a)y =

tg3 x
;
x2

b)y tg x + xy 2 sin(xy) = 0;

c)z = sin x2 + y.

69

17

(4) x(t) =
= t21+1 t = 1 .
(5) : y = x3 +x2 .
(6) ABCD,
A(2, 3, 1), B(1, 4, 0), C(4, 1, 1) D(5, 5, 3).
(7) ,
M(1, 2, 3) a = (2, 3, 1) b =
= (3, 1, 2).
(8) :
Z
Z 2
Z tg x
e
2 x2 dx.
dx;
b)
cos3 xdx;
c)
a)
2
cos x
0

(9) :
x
b) y 6y + 9y = 9x2 12x + 2.
a) xy = y ln ;
y
4
(1) :
a)

x2 9
;
x3 x2 5x + 6
lim

b)

lim 9x arcctg x.

(1)n n
P

.
3
n7 + 1
n=1
(3) :
p
log33 x
4
xy
3 4
x2 + y.
a) y =
;
b)
y
sin
x
+
xy

2
=
0;
c)
z
=
xy
2
x
(4)
x(t) =

3
= 4 t2 t = 1 .
(5) : y = x4 x3 .
(6) ABC. A(2, 1, 2), B(1, 2, 1)
C(3, 2, 1).
(7) :
A(2, 1, 2), B(1, 2, 1) C(3, 2, 1).
(8) :
Z
Z
Z 0
x2 + 4
x+1
2
3
a)
dx;
b)
sin
x
cos
xdx;
c)
dx.
x(x + 2)2
x

3
1

(2) :

(9) :
p
b) y 2y = e2x + 5.
a) xy = y + y 2 x2 ;

18

70.
. . .

70.1.

, ,
P (x, y, z),Q(x, y, z) ,
R(x, y, z) . , - .
.
(69.17) , (69.23).
.
-, D t, x, ,
, . . ,
u, t, x, , tn , xm ,
. .
, t x
.
-, , ,

. , ,
.
, , , .

70

19

n=N

n
2
1
n=0
-3 -2 -1 m=0 1 2

(a)

x
m

3
2
1
n=0
m=0

n=n

x
1 2 3

(b)

1
n=0
m=0

x
1

m=m m=M

(c)

. 70.1
.
(69.23)
D,
(. . 69.2,a) , (. . 69.2,b). ,
D, , ().
, , . .
x h, t .
,
: tn = n , xm = m h, n = 0, 1, 2, . . . ; m = 0, 1, 2, . . . .
u(t, x) (n, m) u(tn , xm ) =
= u(n, mh) = unm .
- D,
n m n = 0,
n = N m = 0, m = M. , n m, . ,
= (h) , h 0 0.
= rh, r = const. ,
(. 70.1) h;
Dh .

u(t, x)
h i
Dh u h

20

.
. (69.23)
1- , ,
.
- (n, m) .
.
, , (n, m) (. 70.2).
h
(n+1,m-1)

(n+1,m)

n+1

(n+1,m+1)

(n,m-1)

(n,m)

(n,m+1)

(n-1,m-1)

(n-1,m)

(n-1,m+1)

m-1

n
n-1

m+1

. 70.2
(n, m), 4
( 68).
(70.1)

(70.2)

u(t, x + h) u(t, x)
.
h0
h
lim

u
t

n

n
un+1
m um
=
+ O( ),

u
t

n

unm un1
m
=
+ O( ),

(70.3)
4,

u
t

n

u(t, x)
t

n1
un+1
m um
=
+ O( 2 ),
2

u(t + , x) u(t, x)
;
0

lim

u(t, x)
x

70

(70.4)

(70.5)

u
x

n

unm+1 unm
=
+ O(h),
h

u
x

n

(70.6)

21

u
x

n

unm unm1
+ O(h),
h

unm+1 unm1
=
+ O(h2 ).
2h


:
(70.7)
un+1
m
un1
m
unm+1
unm1

1
= unm +
1!
1
= unm
1!
1
= unm +
1!
1
= unm
1!

u
t
u
t

n

1
+
2!
m

n

u
x
u
x

1
+
2!
m

n

1
h+
2!
m

n

1
h+
2!
m

2u
t2
2u
t2

n

1
2 +
3!
m

n

2u
x2
2u
x2

1
2
3!
m

n

1
h2 +
3!
m

n

1
h2
3!
m

3u
t3
3u
t3

n

3 + O( 4 ),

n

3u
x3
3u
x3

3 + O( 4 ),

n

h3 + O(h4 ),

n

h3 + O(h4 ).

, ,
, ( 68)
(70.7) (70.1) (70.6) ,
- .
, (70.1) (70.4), , ( ), (70.2) (70.5) ( ), (70.3) (70.6) () .
- , , .

22

70.2.
- (69.23) (69.20).
1) (70.1) (70.4):
(70.8)

n
n
n+1
n

a um um + b um+1 um = C; m = 0, 1, 2, . . . ; n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

u0m = 0 (mh),
m = 0, 1, 2, . . .

n+1
, n .
(70.8) u , .
C
b n
(um+1 unm ) +
; m = 0, 1, 2, . . . ; n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .
ah
a
. u u0m = 0 (xm )
, .
, , , .
, , ..
, , .. t
( ): , ..
(70.8) (n, m),
(n, m + 1), (n + 1, m), . 70.3,a, , ,
(70.8) .
2) (69.23) (70.1) (70.5), :
(
n
unm unm1
un+1
m um
+b
= C; m = 0, 1, . . . ; n = 0, 1, . . . .
a
(70.9)

h
u0m = 0 (mh); m = 0, 1, 2, . . .
un+1
= unm
m

,
. 70.3,b .

70

23

(n+1,m)

(n+1,m)
(n+1,m)

(n,m)

(n,m+1)

(a)

(n,m-1)

(n,m)

(b)

(n,m-1)

(n,m)

(n,m+1)

(c)

. 70.3
3) I (u/x)nm (unm+1 unm1 )/ (2h), ..
(70.6), , , . 70.3,c:
(
n
unm+1 unm1
un+1
m um
+b
= C; m = 0, 1, . . . ; n = 0, 1, . . . .
a
(70.10)

2h
u0m = 0 (mh); m = 0, 1, 2 . . .
(u/t)nm (70.3), ,
.
() .
, , ,
.

70.3.

x.
(70.8-70.10)
.
4) "n+1,m" (70.1)
(70.4),

n+1
un+1
un+1 unm

m+1 um
a m
+b
= C; m = 0, 1, . . . ; n = 0, 1, . . .

h
(70.11)
0
= 0 (mh); m = 0, 1, . . .

um
n
u0 = f0 (n ),
n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

5) (70.1) (70.5),

24

(n+1,m)

(n+1,m+1)

(n+1,m-1)

(n+1,m)

(n,m)

(n,m)

(a)

(b)

. 70.4

(70.12)

n+1
un+1
un+1 unm

m um1
a m
+b
= C; m = 0, 1, . . . ; n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

h
0
= 0 (mh),
m = 0, 1, 2, . . .

um
n
n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
u0 = f0 (n ),

, (70.870.10),
(. 70.4), , u
u . . , . 70.4, : "
" " ".
(70.11) (70.12) , .
, un+1
m+1 (70.11):

Ch
ha n+1
(um unm ) +
, n = 0, 1, 2, . . . , m = 0, 1, 2, . . .
b
b
n 0, u
,
.
ha
Ch
u1m+1 = u1m (u1m u0m ) +
, m = 0, 1, 2, . . .
b
b
u
..
"
"(70.12).
,
x, ,
.
n+1
un+1
m+1 = um

70

25

70.

, 69,
.


, ( )
( ):
z
1 z 1 z
+
= 2.
x x y y
y

70.1. z = y ln(x2 y 2 );

2u 2u
+
= 0.
x2 y 2

y
70.2. u = arctg ;
x

2u
2u
=
.
y 2
x2

70.3. u = cos(x y) + ln(x + y);

u
u
=a .
y
x

70.4. u = arcsin(x + ay);


t

70.5. u = e sin x;

u 2 u
+ 2 = 0.
t
x

uxx + uy + y 2 u = y 4 .

70.6. u = cos(xy) + y 2 ;

, z = z(x, y), (
), ( ).
70.7. z 2 x yz + x2 = 0;
70.8.

z x
= 1;
y z

zxy zx + zy = 1.

.
2u
x
70.9.
=
.
x2
y
3u
= 1.
70.10.
x2 y
70.11. y

u
= x + y.
x

zxy (2xz y) + 2xzx zy + 2zzy = zx .

26

x2
2u
.
=
70.12.
xy
1 + y2
70.13.

2u
y
=
.
xy
1 + y2

y
2z
=
.
70.14.
xy
1 x2

3V
70.15.
= xzexy .
xyz

71.

. .
. . . . , ,
.

71.1.
.


(71.1)

Lu = f,

L ,
u, f , u. (71.1)
, .
, II L
f :

u
u

a
+ b , 0 6 x 6 , 0 6 t 6 ,
t
x
Lu =
u(0, x),
0 6 x < ,

u(t, 0),
0 6 t < ,

71

27

c,
0 (x), 0 6 x < ,
f=
f (t), 0 6 t 6< .
0

I Lu f x
(, ).
(71.1)
Lh u(h) = f (h) .

(71.2)

Lh ,
u(h) , f (h) , u(h) .
h (71.2) , (71.2)
h.

(71.2) (70.11):
(71.3)

n+1
un+1
un+1 unm

m+1 um
a m
+b
, m = 0, 1, . . . , n = 0, 1, . . .

h
Lh u(h) =
0
,
m = 0, 1, . . .

um
n
u0 ,
n = 0, 1, . . .

C
(h)
0 (mh), m = 0, 1, 2, . . .
f =

f0 (n ), n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

Lh u(h) f (h)
.
. f (h) ,
(tn , xm ) f (h) (tn , xm ). ,
f h, ,
= (h), , Dh
h.
(h) ,
, , , . ,
.
.
sup |fh (tn , xm )| f (h)
n,m

, .

28

sup |fh (tn , xm )|


n,m

(71.4)

||f (h) || = sup |fh (tn , xm )|.


n,m

, f (h) (h)

||f (h) (h) || = sup |fh (tn , xm ) h (tn , xm )|.
n,m

||f (h) ||
, , : ||f (h) +
+ (h) || 6 ||f (h) || + ||(h) ||, ||f (h) || = || ||f (h) ||, .

71.2.

71.1. u(h) (71.2)
[u]h
(71.1) hk ,
(71.5)

|| [u]h u(h) || 6 chk ,

c > 0,

k > 0.

, k- .
, h 0 ( = (h)
0) || [u]h u(h) || 0, ..
u(h) Dh ,
[u]h .
, ,
. ,
(71.1) ,
h , , .

, , ,
,
.
, (71.2) u(h) . (71.2) [u]h ,

71

29

, , [u]h u(h) . (71.2) [u]h f (h) , ,


(71.6)

Lh [u]h = f (h) + f (h) .

f (h) 0 h 0, 0, , (71.2) (71.1)


u.
(71.2) -
. ,
(71.2) . , , , . , , ..
f (h) 0 h 0, 0,
u(h) [u]h h 0, 0.
, (71.2), (71.1), , , -, (71.1) , -,
.
, 71.4.
,
.

71.3.

, .
-,
. ,
? -, ,
- (, ) .

30

f (h) , (71.6).
(70.170.6).
71.2. (71.2) (71.1) u hk , f (h)

(71.7)

||f (h) || 6 chk ,

k > 0, c > 0 h.

, = (h) h 0 0.
(71.7) , h 0 ||f (h) || 0.
, ,
(70.8) u .
, , . [u] (70.8)
(70.7),

n
n

[u]
[u]
+b
= C + O( ) + O(h).
a
t m
x m
[u] (69.22), ,

n
n

[u]
[u]
+b
= C.
a
t m
x m

, O( ) + O(h),
.. [u]
(70.8)

O( ) + O(h)
.
f (h) =
0

,

h . ,
(70.8) h .
(70.9),
, .
,
(70.10), , h.

71

31

(70.11), (70.12)
, (70.8), (70.9).
, .
, - , , , . ,
.

71.4.
71.3. (71.2) ,
h0 ,
h < h0 ||(h) || <
(71.8)

Lh w(h) = f (h) + (h) ,

(71.2) (h) ,
w(h) , u(h) (71.2) w(h) u(h) ,
(71.9)

||w(h) u(h) || 6 C1 ||(h) ||,

C1 , h.

,
(71.2) u(h) .
, , : (71.2) (71.1) u hk ,
u(h)
[u]h
h i
(71.10)
|| u u(h) || 6 C C1 hk ,
h

C C1 , (71.9) (71.5).
, ,
, , , ,
, -, , -, . , , . ,

32

, .. , , f (h) .
, (71.2),
. (h)
, - . . , ,
,
. .
, (71.2) .
(h) (71.2). ,
, Lh w(h) .
(h) .
, , ,
, , u(h) h. , , ,
. , , . Dh ,

,
, .. h.

71.5.
. , ,
.
, , ,
(), :
, ,
, ,
.

71

33

(n+1,m)

(n+1,m)

(n+1,m+1)

(n+1,m+1)
(n,m+1)

(n+1,m)

(n,m-2)

(n,m-1)

(n,m)

(n,m+1)

(n,m+2)

(a)

(n,m)

(b)

. 71.1
.
a, b, c (69.23) u (c/a)t =
= f (x (b/a)t), u (c/a)t
x (b/a)t = const. , ,
- (tn+1 , xm ) n + 1 -
u (c/a)t , , n + 1 - (. 71.1)
( ).
(70.8) (tn+1 , xm)
(n, m) (n, m + 1) ( ), , , ,
" " (69.22) .
. 71.1,a , " "(70.9)
(n, m 1) (n, m), h 6 (b/a) , ,
, h < (b/a) ,
, ,
(n + 1, m), [(n, m 1); (n, m)].
(70.10).
(70.11) (70.12), . . 71.1,b ,
" "(70.11) , h < (b/a) , , , h > (b/a) .
" "(70.12)
/h b/a (n + 1, m) (n, m + 1), , , .

34

, ,
. , . , ,
.
, .
,
.
, , , . ,
, ,
,
() . ,

,
, .
, , .
, .
, , , .
(70.870.12) , . ,
unm (70.870.12) unm + unm ,
unm (70.870.12), :
" "(70.8)
(71.11)

n
unm+1 unm
un+1
m um
+b
= 0,
a

" "(70.9)
(71.12)

n
unm unm1
un+1
m um
a
+b
= 0,

x (70.10)
(71.13)

n
unm+1 unm1
un+1
m um
+b
= 0,
a

2h

71

35

" "(70.11)
n+1
n
un+1
un+1
m+1 um
m um
+b
= 0,
(71.14)
a

h
, , " "(70.12)
n+1
n
un+1
un+1
m um1
m um
+b
= 0.
(71.15)
a

unm = n eimh ,

(71.16)

i , w ,
.
, (n = 0) , (71.16),
, :
(71.17)

u0m = 0 eimh = cos xm + i sin xm .

,
(71.17). (71.16) - (71.11
71.15), .
71.4. (71.16), h 0, 0
, ..
(71.18)
N .

|n | 6 N,

(71.18)
(71.19)

|| 6 1 + c,

c , .
, (71.19) :
|n | 6 (1 + c )T / 6 lim (1 + c )T / = ecT 6 N
0

t = n = T .
,
, ,
= 0.

36

. , , = rh,
r = const.
(70.8) " ".
(71.16) (71.11)
n
eimh , :
a

eih 1
1
+b
= 0.

b
() = 1 + (r reih ).
a
, . 71.2,a, ,
(71.20), (b/a)r
= 1 + (b/a)r () r . r
, , (70.8) . ,
, (69.22) h , ,
,
r = /h. , ,
.
(70.9) " ".
(71.16) (71.12),
:
1 eih
1
+b
= 0,
a

h

(71.20)

(71.21)

b
= 1 (r + reih ).
a

, (71.21),
r : = 1
(b/a)r. , (71.16) ,
(b/a)r 6 1, 6 (a/b)h, (. 71.2,a), , (b/a)r > 1,
> (a/b)h, (. 71.2,b).
, (70.9)
r = ( /h) 6 (a/b) r = ( /h) > (a/b).
.
(70.10) x.

71

37

0
0

b
1+ a r

b
1+ a r

(a)

(b)

1-r

(c)

. 71.2
(71.16) (71.13)
:
eih eih
1
+b
= 0,
a

2h
, eih eih = 2i sin h, ( 33)
i
1
+ b sin h = 0.

h

a

b
sin h.
ha
( /h) = r:
r
b2
2
(71.23)
|| = 1 + r 2 sin2 h > 1.
a
, (70.10)
r, ( /h) = r =
= const, ( /h) 6 (a/b).
, h 0 h2 , = rh2
, , = 0 (71.22) h = /2
:
s
 2 r
rb2
b2
b
= 1 + 2 r 6 1 + 2 .
(71.24)
||h=/2 = 1 +
ha
a
2a
p
(71.24) 1 + (b2 /a2 )r
. (71.24) , (71.16)
(71.22)

=1i

38

(70.10) :

= r.
h2
, /h = r,
h.

, , ,
.
.
(70.11) " ".
(71.16) (71.14)
1
(eih 1)
a
+b
= 0.

b
b
1 r + reih
a
a
,
|| = s

1 + 4r

b
a

h
b
r 1 sin2
a
2

(b/a)r < 1 < (a/b)h ,


(b/a)r > 1 > (a/b)h .
.
(70.12) " ".
(
(71.16) (71.15) )
1
(1 eih )
a
+b
= 0.

(71.25)

1
b
b
1 + r reih
a
a

71

39

,
|| = s

1
b
h
1 + 2r sin2
a
2

2

6 0.
2

+ r2

b
sin2 h
2
a

r.
.
, .

. ,
.
, ,
.. . ,
,
. " ",
- ,
. ,
. , , .. .
" ",
:
, ,
.
.
, , ,
, . ,

. ,

, -
, , ,
.

40

71.

71.1.


, h, .
. , .

, . : QBasic, Fortran,
Pascal, C++, Java, Visual Basic .. . , , , .
: Excel MathCad. . Excel Visual Basic, . MathCad
. .
.
, , Excel
MathCad. ,
. [3,4,5,12,14,18].
Excel MathCad. , .

71

41

71.1.
u
u
+ (2et x)
= 0,
t
x
u(x, 0) = x.

(71.1)

dt
dx
du
= t
=
1
2e x
0

: , :
a)

dt
du
=
du = 0 u = C1 ;
1
0

b)

dx
dx
dt
= t

= 2et x;
1
2e x
dt

dx
+ x = 2et .
dt
.
, :

(71.2)

dx
dx
dx
+x=0
= x
= dt
dt
dt
x
x
ln x ln C = t ln = t x = Cet .
C

C C(t) (" "), , x,
(71.2) C(t):
x = C(t)et

dC(t) t
dx
+ C(t)et =
e .
dt
dt

(71.2):
dC(t)
dC(t) t
e C(t)et = 2et C(t)et
= 2et
dt
dt
dC(t) = 2e2t dt C(t) = e2t + C2 x = (e2t + C2 )et
x = et + C2 et C2 = xet e2t .

42

, u, x, t C1 = u, C2 =
= xet e2t , t = 0, u = x, : C1 = C2 + 1, ,
:
(71.3)

u(x, t) = xet e2t + 1.

71.2.
Excel

,
Excel.
71.1. (70.9) "
". (70.9) a = 1, b = 2 et x, C = 0.

 n
n
t
n
n+1
um = um + (2 e x) um1 um .
h
: u0m = xm . x [0, 1].
Excel. " ".
.
. ( A1) . A2
C2 h tau,
B2 D2. B2 D2
h tau. . B2
""( ,
), h tau
Enter. .
A3 t\x. xm .
B3 0. C3 =h. D3 = C3 + h. ( )
L3.
D3 . +.
L3. x .
t . A4 0.
A5 - = tau. A6 - =A5 + tau A14. B4 L4, .

71

43

B4 = B3 L4. n + 1
n = 0, 1, 2, ..., N 1.
u
,
x
.

 n
n+1
n
tn
n
u0 = u0 + (2 e xm ) u0 u1 .
h
B5 :
= B4 + (2 EXP ($A5) B$3) tau/h (B4 C4)
A14.
C5 : = C4 + (2 EXP ($A5) C$3) tau/h
(B4 C4) L5.
L14.
.
U (t, x) t=const,
.. U = U (x, tn ), n = 0, 1, ..., 10. ,
.
. , .
Ctrl , ,
. , , ( )
. .

.
.
B3 : L14. B3, L14,
Shif t , , . B3 : L14 . 1 : , , . 2 :
. 1, 3, 5, 7 , 9 :
t = 0; t = 0, 2; t = 0, 4; t = 0, 6; t = 0, 8; t = 1, 0.
, 1,
- t = 0.

44

,
. : ; X : X; Y : U .

Ox Oy. .
.
,
, .
Ox. : X().
, , . :
1,0; 0,25. OY , -6; 1; 1.
, ,
. ,
, , ..

. u
t = 1. B17 : = B3 EXP ($A$14) EXP (2
$A$14) + 1 L17. . 71.1 71.3. t = 1 , ,
.
.
h . B2 D2 0,01.

x [0, 0.1], t [0, 0.1]. L3 : L14
CX. CX3
x = 1. A14 : CX14
104. . "".
, -
a
a
1

6 .
= t
r =
h
b
b
2e x
1
a
t = 1 x = 0. = 2 0, 184. ,
b
2e

71

h
t\x
0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1,0

0, 1
0
0
-0,22
-0,49
-0,82
-1,21
-1,70
-2,28
-3,00
-3,86
-4,92
-6,20

0, 1
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
-0,11
0
0,109 0,219 0,329
-0,37 -0,25 -0,13 -0,01 0,115
-0,68 -0,55 -0,42 -0,28 -0,15
-1,07 -0,92 -0,77 -0,63 -0,48
-1,54 -1,37 -1,21 -1,05 -0,89
-2,11 -1,93 -1,75 -1,57 -1,40
-2,80 -2,61 -2,41 -2,22 -2,02
-3,65 -3,44 -3,22 -3,01 -2,79
-4,68 -4,45 -4,21 -3,98 -3,74
-5,94 -5,68 -5,42 -5,16 -4,90

45


0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1,0
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1,0
0,439 0,549 0,659 0,769 0,879
0,236 0,357 0,478 0,599 0,720
-0,02 0,115 0,248 0,381 0,515
-0,34 -0,19 -0,04 0,104 0,251
-0,73 -0,57 -0,41 -0,25 -0,09
-1,22 -1,04 -0,87 -0,69 -0,51
-1,83 -1,63 -1,44 -1,24 -1,05
-2,58 -2,36 -2,15 -1,93 -1,72
-3,50 -3,27 -3,03 -2,80 -2,56
-4,64 -4,38 -4,13 -3,87 -3,61

t = 1
-6,39 -6,12 -5,85 -5,57 -5,30 -5,03 -4,76 -4,49 -4,21

-3,94

-3,67

. 71.1

- , < 0, 184h.
D2 = 0, 0015. 671.
671 , .
, , : 4,
137, 271, 404, 538 671. ,
. , ()
,
(), Shif t
().
,
. .
, .

46

71.3.
Excel
Visual Basic for
Application
.
. . / .
, , Ok.
.
, .
. , Alt +F8,
.
. . .
ngr -
NPr -
NameSh -
NameDiagr -
minx - x
maxx - x
miny - y
maxy - y
Sub (ngr As Integer, NPr As Integer, _
NameSh As String,NameDiagr As String, minx As Double, _
maxx As Double, miny As Double, maxy As Double)
Dim s As String, k As Integer, alph As String
Dim t As Integer, t1 As Integer

alph = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"

t = NPr + 2
, > 26,
t1

71

t1 = (t - 2) \ 26
If t1 > 0 Then s = Mid(alph, t1, 1) Else s = ""
s = "b1:" + s + Mid(alph, ((t - 1) Mod 26) + 1, 1) + _
Trim(Str(ngr + 1))
Charts.Add
x-y ;
;
ActiveChart.ChartType = xlXYScatterLinesNoMarkers

ActiveChart.SetSourceData Source:=Sheets(NameSh).Range(s), _
PlotBy:=xlRows
? ( NameSh)
ActiveChart.Location Where:=xlLocationAsObject, Name:=NameSh

With ActiveChart.Axes(xlCategory) Ox
.HasMajorGridlines = True
.MaximumScale = maxx

.MinimumScale = minx

.MajorUnit = (maxx - minx) / 5
End With

With ActiveChart.Axes(xlValue)
.HasMajorGridlines = True
.MaximumScale = maxy

.MinimumScale = miny

.MajorUnit = (maxy - miny) / 5
End With

ActiveChart.PlotArea.Select
With Selection.Interior
.ColorIndex = 2

.PatternColorIndex = 1
.Pattern = xlSolid
End With

ActiveChart.SeriesCollection.NewSeries
For k = 1 To ngr

s = "=" + NameSh + "!R" + Trim(Str(k + 1)) + "C1"
ActiveChart.SeriesCollection(k).Name = s

47

48


ActiveChart.SeriesCollection(k).Border.Weight = xlThick
Next k

ActiveChart.HasTitle = True
ActiveChart.ChartTitle.Characters.Text = NameDiagr
End Sub

.
- . ,
Excel . U . -
. y , n- ynp1
n + 1- . ,
tauP r. Ox ynp1
MP r .

. , , .
.
Sub ()
Dim x() As Double, y() As Double, ynp1() As Double
Dim h As Double, tau As Double, r As Double, a As Double
Dim L As Double
Dim hPr As Double, tauPr As Double, Tmax As Double
Dim nn As Long, mm As Long, MPr As Long
Dim n As Long, m As Long, ngr As Integer
Dim t As Double, rr As Double, q1 As Double, r1 As Double

L = 1 ,
Tmax = 1
h = 0.025
r = 0.1

71

tau = r * h
x
hPr = 0.1
tauPr = 0.2
Ox
MPr = CLng(hPr / h)
mm = CLng(L / h) Ox
nn = CLng(Tmax / tau) Ot
,
ReDim x(mm), y(mm), ynp1(mm)
For m = 0 To mm
x(m) = h * m

y(m) = x(m)
Next m

Dim NameSh As String
NameSh = ""
Sheets(NameSh).Select
Cells.Clear
Cells(1, 1) = "t\x"
Cells(2, 1) = "t=0"
ngr = 1

For m = 0 To mm Step MPr
Cells(1, m \ MPr + 2) = CDbl(Format(x(m), "#0.00"))
Cells(ngr + 1, m \ MPr + 2) = CDbl(Format(y(m), "#0.00"))
x
Cells(1, m \ MPr + 2).Interior.Color = RGB(220, 90, 220)
Next m
1- nn
For n = 1 To nn
t = tau * n
For m = 0 To mm
If Abs(FunA(x(m), t)) < 1E-16 Then
MsgBox " a=0"
Exit Sub
End If
q1 = FunB(x(m), t) * r / FunA(x(m), t)
r1 = FunC(x(m), t) * tau / FunA(x(m), t)

49

50

If m > 0 Then
ynp1(m) = y(m) - q1 * (y(m) - y(m - 1)) + r1
Else
ynp1(0) = y(0) - q1 * (y(1) - y(0)) + r1
End If
Next m
n+1- y

For m = 0 To mm
y(m) = ynp1(m)
Next m

tauPr
If Abs((ngr) * tauPr - t) < tau / 10 Then
ngr = ngr + 1
Cells(ngr + 1, 1) = "t=" + Format(t, "#0.00")
For m = 0 To mm Step MPr
Cells(ngr + 1, m \ MPr + 2) = CDbl(Format(y(m), "#0.00"))
Next m
End If
Next n

Range("a1:a" + Trim(Str(ngr + 1))).Interior.Color = _
RGB(220, 90, 220)
Dim NameDiagr As String
NameDiagr = " . "
Call (ngr, CInt(mm / MPr), NameSh, _
NameDiagr, 0, 1, -8, 2)
End Sub
A, B C

Function FunA(x As Double, t As Double) As Double
FunA = 1
End Function
Function FunB(x As Double, t As Double) As Double
FunB = 2 * Exp(t) - x
End Function
Function FunC(x As Double, t As Double) As Double
FunC = 0
End Function

71

51

Sub (ynp1() As Double, _


t As Double)
ynp1(0) = 0
End Sub
. 71.2 .
u(t, x) t = 1
, . 71.1.
t\x
t=0
t = 0, 20
t = 0, 40
t = 0, 60
t = 0, 80
t = 1, 00

0
0
-0,49
-1,23
-2,32
-3,95
-6,38

0,1
0,1
-0,37
-1,08
-2,14
-3,73
-6,11

0,2
0,2
-0,25
-0,93
-1,95
-3,51
-5,84

0,3
0,3
-0,13
-0,78
-1,77
-3,28
-5,57

0,4
0,4
0
-0,63
-1,59
-3,06
-5,30

0,5
0,5
0,12
-0,48
-1,41
-2,84
-5,03

0,6
0,6
0,24
-0,33
-1,23
-2,62
-4,75

0,7
0,7
0,36
-0,18
-1,04
-2,39
-4,48

0,8
0,9
1,0
0,8
0,9
1,0
0,49 0,61 0,73
-0,03 0,12 0,27
-0,86 -0,68 -0,50
-2,17 -1,95 -1,73
-4,21 -3,94 -3,67

.
2
t=0
t=0,2
t=0,4
t=0,6
t=0,8
t=1,0

0
-2
-4
-6
-8
0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

. 71.2

71.4.
MathCad
, MathCad.
MathCad 2000.[12] MathCad
. ,

52

Visual Basic. MathCad- Visual


Basic. , .
, VB-,
. F unB(x, t) U
.

x
, MatCad,
. MathCad Automatic Calculation,
Math.
, F 9. := . MathCad
. Add
Line, Programming. ,
"" ] ( ). for for Ctrl + Shift + .
for ( ), , ( ). 1,
. .
; . MathCad
. , . for
Add Line.
"" { . [. MathCad
Perenos. ,
]. U, .
U,
.
.
-

71

53

(F9). , MathCad ,
, .
F9. .
: U = F9. ,
, .
xm .
: m : 0 ; MhPr. ,
m 0 MhP r. : x [ m <> : m * hPr.
. ""
Ctrl+2, .
x [m. : U
Ctrl+6 0 <> [ m <> <>. ,
U . MathCad U <0> ,
U .

U . 0 .
MathCad. , Visual Basic,
. ,
, .
L := 1 a := 1 T max := 1
r := 0.5


2
h
T max
L
N :=
:= r
h :=
M
a

P r := 0.2
hP r := 0.1
hP r
MP r :=
F unB(x, t) := 2 et x
h

M := 20

54

MathCad
(U<0>)

m
0

(U<1>) m
(U<2>) m

-2

(U<3>) m -4
(U<4>) m
-6

(U<5>)

0,2

0,4

xm

0,6

0,8

. 71.3


U := f or m 0..M

xm m h


ym xm


k0

ngr 1

f or m 0, MP r..M


Uk,0 ym
U

k k+1

f or n 1..N
1- N-

tn



x=0


ynp10 y0 + F unB(x0 , t) (y0 y1 )

h
f or m 1..M



F unB(xm, t)

(ym1 ym )
ynp1m ym +

h

y ynp1
y


t P r, U


if
ngr P r t < 0.1
k0

f or m 0, MP r..M

Uk,ngr ym

k k+1

ngr ngr + 1

U

72

55

M
m := 0..MhP r
xm := m hP r
MP r
, U . . 71.3
y , .
MhP r =

72.


. . . . .

72.1.


u(x, y) :
2u
2u
2u
A(x, y) 2 + 2B(x, y)
+ C(x, y) 2 +

x
xy
y
(72.1)
u
u
+D(x, y)
+ E(x, y)
+ G(x, y) = 0.
x
y

. x y , :

= (x, y),
(72.2)
= (x, y).

, (72.2)
x y, .
(x, y) (x, y) , (72.1)
u u 2 u 2 u
,
,
,
,
.
x y x2 xy

56

u u 2 u 2 u 2 u
2u

,
(72.1). ,
,
,
y 2
2 2
:
u
u u
u
u u
=
+
;
=
+
;
x
x x
y
y y
 
 
 
u
u u
2u
=
+
=
+
x2
x x
x x x x
 
   2
u
u u
+
+
=
+
x x x x
2 x
 2

u
2 u u 2
+
+
+
+
x x x2
2 x

 2
2 u u 2
2 u
+
+
+
= 2
x x x2
x
 2
2 u 2 u
u 2 u 2
+2
+
+
+
.
x x 2 x
x2 x2

Uyy

Uxy :

Uyy

 2
2 u 2 u
u 2 u 2
+2
+
+
+
;
y y 2 y
y 2 y 2


2 u
2 u
2 u
= 2
+
+
+
+ 2
x y x y y x
x y

2u
= 2

Uxy

2

u 2 u
u 2 u
+
.
+
xy xy
(72.1), :

(  
 2 )
2
u

+ 2B
+C
+
A
2

x
x y
y







2u
+B
+
A
+C
+
+2

x x
x y y x
y y
(  
 2 )
2
2

u
+ 2B
+C
+
+ 2 A

x
x y
y
2

(72.3)

72

+F1

u u
, , u, ,

57

= 0.

,
2u 2u

, .. (x, y) (x, y) (72.2)


2 2

:
A(x, y)(zx )2 + 2B(x, y)zx zy + C(x, y)(zy )2 = 0.

(72.4)

,
.
72.1. z = (x, y) (72.4) G, ,
(x, y) = C
:
A(x, y)(dy)2 2B(x, y)dxdy + C(x, y)(dx)2 = 0.

(72.5)

. , : z = (x, y)
(72.4). : (x, y) = C (72.5). (72.5), (dx)2:
(72.6)

A(x, y)(

dy
dy 2
) 2B(x, y) + C(x, y) = 0.
dx
dx

!2

2B

x

y

A
+C =


2
x

+ 2B
+C
x y
 2

dy

= / .
dx
x y
 2

= 0,

z = (x, y) (72.4),
. , (x, y) = C (72.5)
(72.5) ( 72.6) (72.1); .
(72.6) dy/dx, :

58

(72.7)


p
dy 
2
= B(x, y) + B (x, y) A(x, y)C(x, y) /A(x, y);
dx

p
dy 
2
= B(x, y) B (x, y) A(x, y)C(x, y) /A(x, y).
dx

(72.7) (x, y) = C1 (x, y) = C2 , ,


, (72.1).
3 :
1. B 2 (x, y) A(x, y)C(x, y) > 0 D. (72.7) , , , (72.1)
.
2. B 2 (x, y) A(x, y)C(x, y) < 0 D. (72.7) ,
, , (72.1)

.
3. B 2 (x, y)A(x, y)C(x, y) = 0 D. (72.7) ,
(72.1)
.
72.1. :
2
2u
2 u
=a
,
t2
x2

2
u
2 u
=a
,
t
x2

2u 2u
+
= 0.
x2 y 2

2
2
2u
2u
2 u
2 u
: 2 = a
: a

= 0.
t
x2
x2 t2
A = a2 , B = 0, C = 1, B 2 AC = a2 > 0. ,
2
u
2 u
.
=a

t
x2
2
u
2 u

= 0. A = a2 , B = 0, C = 0, B 2 AC = 0. a
x2 t
2u
2u
, .
+ 2 = 0,
x2
y
2
A = 1, B = 0, C = 1, B AC = 1 < 0. ,
.
A, B, C . , ,
.

72

59

72.2.

72.2.1.
D (72.1) ,
: (x, y) = C1
(x, y) = C2 .
: = (x, y) = (x, y). (x, y) (x, y) (72.4),  2
2u 2u

2
+ 2B
(72.3) : A
+
2

x
x y
 2
 2
 2

= 0, A
+ 2B
= 0 (72.3)
+C
+C
y
x
x
y
y


u u
2u
A1 + F1 , , u, ,
= 0, A1 : 2


2u
2u
2
.
, :



2u
u u
(72.8)
= , , u, ,
.

(72.8) . u(, ) (72.8), u((x, y), (x, y))


(72.1)
72.2. :
2
u
2 u
=a
, .
t2
x2
2

2u
2u

= 0.
x2
t2
A = a2 , B = 0, C = 1, (72.1) , . (72.6):
 2
dt
dt
1 = 0.
,
a2
dx
dx
dt
dt
(72.7): a 1 = 0, a 1 = 0, ,
dx
dx
:
dt
dt
+a 1 = 0 a
= 1 at + C1 = x x at = C1 .
dx
dx
dt
dt
= 1 at + C2 = x x + at = C2 .
a 1 = 0 a
dx
dx
: : a2

60

: = x at = x + at
x t

= 1;
= a;
= x at
x
t

= x + at
= 1;
= a;
x
t
u
u u
u
u
=
+
= a
+a ;
t
t t

u u
u u
u
=
+
=
+
;
x
x  x


 2

2u
u
2 u
u
u
= a
+
+a
= a
+
2 t
t2
t
t

t


 2
2u
u
2 u t 2 u
+ 2
a +
= a 2 a +
+a


 2


2
2
2u

u
2u
a + 2 a = a2
2
+ 2 ;
+a
2



2
2
2
u u
u
2 u
u
u
=
+
+
+
+
= 2
x2
x

x x x
2u
2u
2u
2 u
.
= 2 +2
+
+ 2
x

2
, :
 2


 2
2
2
2
2

u
a2
+2
2
+ 2 a2
+
= 0,
2


2
2

(72.9)

2u
= 0.

(72.9)
.
. : u(, ) = F () + ().
= x at, = x + at, .
(72.10)

u(t, x) = F (x at) + (x + at).

72.2.2.
D (72.1) ,
: (x, y) = C.

72

61

= (x, y), ,
x y
6= 0,
, :
x y
= y.
(x, y) (72.6),
2u
(72.3) :

2
 2
 2

+ 2B
= 0.
A
+C
x
x y
y

,
B 2 AC = 0 ( ),

AC : 
,
 2
 B=
2
2

+ 2B
=A
+2 A C
+C
+
0=A
x
x y
y
x
x y
 2 

2

A
+C
=
, ..
+ C
y
x
y

(72.11)


A
+ C
= 0.
x
y

u2
(72.3) C, :
2
 2
 2

+ 2B
= C.
=y
= 0,
=1A
+C
x
y
x
x y
y

2u

(72.3) , :







+B
+
=A 0+B
1+
+C
A
x x
x y y x
y y
x
x



+ 0 +C 1=B
+C
= A C
+ C C
=
y 
y
x  y
x
y

+ C
= 0, ( (72.11)).
= C
A
x
y
, , (72.3)
:

2
u
u u
C 2 + F1 , , u, ,
= 0.




u u
2u
= 1 , , u, ,
.
(72.12)
2

62

(72.12) . u(, ) (72.12), u((x, y), y)


(72.1).
72.1. = x
= (x, y), (72.1)


2u
u u
= 2 , , u, ,
,
2


.
72.3.
2u
u
2u
2u
+ y 2 2 + 2x
= 0 .
x2 2 2xy
x
xy
y
x
: A = x2 , B = xy, C = y 2 B 2 AC = (xy)2 x2 y 2 =
= 0 x y.
(72.6):
 2

2
dy
dy
dy
2
2
x
+ 2xy
+ y = 0
x + y = 0.
dx
dx
dx

y
dy
= xy = C
,
dx
x
.
: = xy, = y

= y;
= x;
= 0;
= 1.
x
y
x
y
, 72.2,
u u 2 u 2 u 2 u
:
;
;
;
;
.
x y x2 xy y 2
u
u
=
y;
x

u
u
u
=
x+
;
y

2u 2
2u
=
y ;
x2
2

2u
2u
2u
u
2u
2u 2
2u
2u
= 2 xy +
y+
;
= 2x +2
x + 2.
xy

y 2

, :
 2

2
2u
u
u
2 u 2
y 2xy
xy +
y+
+
x
2
2


 2
2u
2u
u
u
2
x
+
2
x
+
y = 0.
+
2x
+y
2

72

63

2u
= 0.
,
2
:
 
Z
u
u
= F () u = F ()d + () = F () + ().
=0

x y,
: u = yF (x, y) + (x, y) .

72.2.3.
D (72.1) , (72.7),
, : (x, y) + i(x, y) = C1
(x, y) i(x, y) = C2 . , = (x, y)
= (x, y) (72.1) :


u u
2u 2u
+
= , , u, ,
.
(72.13)
2 2

(72.13) .
72.4. :
2u
2u
2u
2
+ 2 2 = 0.
x2
xy
y

: A = 1, B = 1, C = 2 B 2 AC = 1 < 0. x y.
(72.6):
 2
dy
dy
dy
+ 2 + 2 = 0
= 1 i.
dx
dx
dx

, :
x + y + ix = C1 x + y ix = C2 .
(x, y) = x + y, (x, y) = x. :

= 1,
= 1,
= 1,
= 0.
= x + y, = x
x
y
x
y
, , :
u u
u
=
+
;
x

u
u
=
;
y

2u
2u
= 2;
2

64

2u
2u
2u
2u
2u
2u
2u
= 2 +2
;
+
= 2+
.
x2

2
xy

, ,
:
 2

2u
2u
2u
2u
u
2u
+2
+
2
+
+ 2 2 = 0.
2
2
2

2u
2u
+ 2 = 0 ,
:
2

72.3.

, ( t).
, 69, . , ,
x, y, z. , .

x, y t. , , x
t.

:
 2

2
2

u
2u
= a2
+
+
.
2
t
x2 y 2 z 2
(, ) :
 2

u 2u
2u
2
=a
+
.
t2
x2 y 2

(, , , ..) :
2
2u
2 u
=a
(72.14)
t2
x2
.

72

65

, , : t , x (
), u(x, t)
t x.
a .

:
 2

u 2u 2u
u
2
+
+
=a
.
t
x2 y 2 z 2
(, ) :
 2

2

u
u
+
= a2
.
t
x2 y 2

(,
) :

u
2u
= a2 2 .
t
x
: t
, x ( ),
u(x, t) t x. a .
:
(72.15)

2u 2u 2u
+
+
= 0.
(72.16)
x2 y 2 z 2
,
. ,
, .. .

, , .
().
, - t = t0 .
t = 0.

66

t. u t
( ) u
( ).
, .
() ,
u x,
y, z. , ,
. x ( , ),
. ,
, .
, ,
.
, .. .
, , , .

.
, ( ) , , . , , ,
.
,
, ..
. , , ,
( ).
, .

72

67

72.



69.


:
72.1. x

z
z
+y
= z.
x
y

72.2. y

u
u
x
= u.
y
x

72.3. ex

u
u
+ y2
= uex .
x
y

72.4. (x2 + y 2 )

u
u
+ 2xy
= u2 .
x
y

72.5. (x + y)

u
u
(x y)
= ux + uy.
x
y

72.6. (x + y)

u
u
+ (x y)
= 0.
y
x

( ),
( ):

z
z
z = 2x,
y
= 0;
72.7. x
y = 1,
x
y

z
z
z = x2 ,
72.8. x2
y2
= 0;
y = 1.
x
y

z
z
z = 0, 5y 2 ,
+x
= 2xy;
72.9. y
x = 1.
x
y
 2
z
z
x + y 2 = 4,
72.10. yz
+ xz
= xy;
z = 0.
x
y

z
z
x + y = 2z,
+ (xz + y)
= z;
72.11. xz
xz = 1.
x
y

68

z
z
72.12. x
+z
= y;
x
y
:

y = 2z,
x + 2y = z.

u
u
+ (2ex t)
= 2x;
x
t
1 u 1 u
1
72.14.
+
=
;
t x x x t
2x

72.13.

u(x, 0) = x2 e2x .
u(x, 0) = ln x.

73.

. . . . . . .
. .

73.1.
.
P (x, y, z) t u(x, y, z, t).
, .
n
dS

grad U

. 73.1
V , S (. 73.1). ,
dt S. , ,
, .
:
- dQ1 , dV ,
du:

73

(73.1)

69

dQ1 = cdV du;

- dQ2 , S
dt:
u
dSdt.
n
c , , k , u/n u(x, y, z, t)
n
, dS S, V .
, , (, , ), .
(73.1) , du < 0,
, , dQ1 .
(73.2) , u/n < 0, , .. dS
, , dQ2 .
, u/n
:
(73.2)

dQ2 = k

u
= P rn grad u = n
grad u.
n
(73.2) :
dQ2 = k
n grad u dS dt.

Q2 ,
S, :
ZZ
ZZ
grad udS.
Q2 = dQ = kdt n
S

- ( 58), :
ZZ
ZZZ
(73.3)
Q2 = kdt n
grad udS = kdt
div(grad u)dV .
S

, ,
V , (73.1)

70

:
Q1 =

ZZZ
V

dQ = c

ZZZ

du dV.

du
u
dt, :
du =
t
ZZZ
ZZZ
u
dV.
(73.4)
Q1 = c
du dV = cdt
t
V

, , S,
. (73.3) (73.4), :
ZZZ
ZZZ
u
cdt
dV = k dt
div(grad u)dV.
t
V

dt , :
ZZZ 

u
k div(grad u) c
t

dV = 0,

V . ,
:
u
u
k
,
=
div(grad u).
t
t
c
2u 2u 2u
u u u
i+
j+
k, div(grad u) =
+
+
,
grad u =
x
y
z
x2 y 2 z 2
:
 2

u
u 2u 2u
k
2
(73.5)
=a
+ 2 + 2 , a2 = .
2
t
x
y
z
c
k div(grad u) = c

u
= a2 u, =
+
+
t
x2
y 2
z 2
. (73.5)
.
,
,
x (. 73.2), u = u(x, t) (72.15).

73

71


.
.
:
(73.6)

u(x, t)|t=0 = (x)

.
, x = 0 x = l
. , , ,
:
u(x, t)|x=0 = 1 (t),
u(x, t)|x=l = 2 (t).
, , , :
(73.7)

u(x, t)|x=0 = 0,

u(x, t)|x=l = 0.

, , .. :
dQ|x=0 = dQ|x=l = 0.
(73.2)


u
u
u
=
= 0.
dQ = k dS dt,
n
n x=0
n x=l

, x (. . 73.2),


u
u
=
= 0;
n x=0
x x=0


u
u
=
=0
n x=l
x x=l
n

. 73.2
:


u
u
(73.8)
= 0,
= 0.
x
x
x=0

x=l

72

(73.9)


u
k
= q1 (t),
x x=0


u
k = q2 (t).
x x=l

, qi > 0,
, qi < 0 .
,
(73.10)

(u u )|x=0 = q1 (t),

(u u )|x=l = q2 (t),

, ; ucp
.

, , :

u
= 0,
u|x=l = 0.
(73.11)
x
x=0


.
:
(72.15)
(73.6).
() u = u(x, y, t) () ,
L.
L.
() S, V .
u t, .. , u/t = 0, (73.5) :
(73.12)

2u 2u 2u
+
+
= 0.
u =
x2 y 2 z 2

(73.12) , , , , , .
,
:

(73.13)
u(x, y, z) = (x, y, z),
S

73

73

(x, y, z) , S .
(73.12), u (73.13),
.
, (73.5) c
= Dc, c = c(x, y, z)
, , :
t
, , D . .
, .

73.2.
.
73.1.
(73.14)

a0 X
(an cos nx + bn sin nx)
+
2
n=1

.
a0 , a1 , b1 , , an , bn , .
(73.14) 2

. 2. ,
n
[, ], (, ), a

(73.15)

a0 X
f (x) =
+
(an cos nx + bn sin nx)
2
n=1

2. , .

74

1
1
(cos(x y) cos(x + y)) ; sin2 x = (1 cos 2x);
2
2
1
1
(73.16) cos x cos y = (cos(x y) + cos(x + y)) ; cos2 x = (1 + cos 2x);
2
2
1
sin x cos y = (sin(x y) + sin(x + y)) ; sin x cos x = 21 sin 2x.
2
(73.16), .
n k n 6= k,
:
sin x sin y =

cos nx cos kx dx = 0,

(73.17)

cos nx dx = 0,

sin nx dx = 0,

sin nx cos kx dx = 0,

n = k,
R 2
cos kx dx = ,
(73.18)

sin nx sin kx dx = 0,

sin kx dx = ,

sin kx cos kx dx = 0.

, (73.15)
[, ]. .
, (73.15) .

Z
Z
Z
Z

X
a0
an cos nx dx + bn sin nx dx .
f (x) dx =
dx +
2
n=1

(73.17) ,

R a0
dx = a0 ,
2

1 R
a0 =
f (x) dx.

(73.15) cos kx, k N ,
:
a0 R
cos kx dx+
f (x) cos kx dx =
2




R
R
P
an cos nx cos kx dx + bn sin nx cos kx dx .
+
R

n=1

(73.17,73.18 )
, n = k, .

73

ak

75

cos2 kx dx = ak .

Z
f (x) cos kx dx = ak .

1 R
ak =
f (x) cos kx dx.

, (73.15) sin kx ,
(73.17, 73.18), bk :
Z
1
f (x) sin kx dx.
bk =

, f (x) 2 (73.15) [, ],
:
(73.19)
1
a0 =

Z
f (x) dx,

1
an =

Z
f (x) cos nx dx,

1
bn =

Z
f (x) sin nx dx.

(73.19) ,
.
. , .
73.2. f (x) -
[a, b], , .
73.3. f (x)
[a, b], :
1) [a, b]
I ;
2) - [a, b].
,
f (x) .
. f (x)
2 .

76

, ,
. f (x)
S(x) .
x0
x x0 , ..
(73.20)

S(x0 ) =


1
lim f (x) + lim f (x) .
xx0 +
2 xx0

73.1. x (, ]
f (x) = x.
: . , , (,

 ], 
x 
f1 (x) = f x Int
2 , Int(x)
2
. f1 (x)
, , (, ]. (73.19),
:
1 R
1 x2
a0 =
x dx =
= 0;

2


1 R
1
1 R

x cos nx dx =
xd sin nx =
x sin nx
an =

n
n





R
1
1

sin nx dx =
cos nx =
cos n cos(n) = 0;
n2
n2



1 R
1
1 R

x sin nx dx =
xd cos nx =
x cos nx
bn =

n
n






R
1
1

cos nx dx =
cos n + cos(n) sin nx
=
n
n

2(1)n
2
.
= cos n =
n
n
2(1)n1
. , a0 = a1 = = an = = 0; bn =
n



(1)n1
sin x sin 2x sin 3x sin 4x

+ +
sin nx + . . . .
f1 (x) = 2
1
2
3
4
n

73

77


f1 (x) = 2

X
(1)n1 sin nx

n=1

73.3.

,
. (x) (x) = (x),

(73.21)

(x) dx =

R0

R
R
R
(x) dx + (x) dx = (x) dx + (x) dx =

R0

R
R
= (x) dx + (x) dx = 2 (x) dx.

(x) = (x).

(73.22)

(x) dx =

R
R
R
(x) dx + (x) dx = (x) dx + (x) dx =
0

R
R
= (x) dx + (x) dx = 0.
0

f (x).
a0
ak , bk .

(73.23)

a0 = 0,

2
bn =

an = 0,

Z
f (x) sin nx dx.
0

(73.24)

f (x) =

X
n=1

bn sin nx.

78

(73.25)

2
a0 =

f (x)dx,

2
an =

f (x) cos nxdx,

bn = 0.


(73.26)

a0 X
f (x) =
+
an cos nx.
2
n=1

(73.24) (73.26) , , .

73.4.
2l.
f (x) 2l.
l

z = x. f ( z)
l

2. (73.15) x [, ]:

1  a
X
0
+
(an cos nz + bn sin nz) ,
f z =

2
n=1

1 R  l 
1 R  l 
a0 =
an =
f z dz,
f z cos nzdz,



R
1
l
bn =
f z cos nzdz.

l
dx.
x = z, z = x , dz =

l
l
z = , x = l, z = , z = l.
f (x) 2l.

(73.27)

 n 
1 Rl 
1 Rl
x dx,
a0 =
f x)dx,
an =
f (x) cos
l l
l l
l
 n 
1 Rl
bn =
x dx.
f (x) sin
l l
l

73

(73.28)

79

a0 X 
n
n 
f x =
an cos
.
+
x + bn sin
2
l
l
n=1

f (x) 2l

(73.29)

a0 = an = 0;

2
bn =
l

Zl
0

 n 
f (x) sin
x dx.
l



  X
n 
f x =
bn sin
.
l
n=1

(73.30)

f (x) 2l

(73.31)

2
a0 =
l

Zl

f (x)dx,

2
an =
l

Zl

f (x) cos

n
x dx,
l

bn = 0.


(73.32)

a0 X 
n 
f x =
+
x .
an cos
2
l
n=1


73.


72.


, :
2u
2u
2u
+2
+ 2 2 = 0.
73.1.
x2
xy
y

80

2u
u
2u
2u

4
=
+
4
.
73.2.
x2
xy
y 2
y
2u
2u
u
2u
u

8
=
3
+
12

5
.
x2
xy
y 2
x
y
:

73.3.

2
u
u
2 u
3 u

y
+
3x

y
= 0.
73.4. x
x2
y 2
x
y
2

73.5.

1 2u
1 2u
u
u
+
=
xy

xy
.
x2 x2 y 2 y 2
x
y

2
2u
u
2 u
+ 2xy
+y
= 0.
73.6. x
x2
xy
y 2
2

2u
2u
u
u
73.7. x 2 y 2 y 3
x .
x
y
x
y
73.8.

1 2u
2u
u
+
y
=
xy
.
x x2
y 2
y

2u
2u
+ x 2 = x + y.
73.9.
x2
y
73.10. x2

2
2u
2u
u
2 u
+
2xy

3y
=
2x
+ y.
x2
xy
y 2
x

74.


74.1.


l.
(72.15), (73.6) x = 0 x = l.
, .. :
(74.1)

u(x, t) = X(x)T (t).

(72.15):
2u
u

= X(x) T (t),
= X (x) T (t) X(x)T (t) = a2 X (x)T (t),
2
t
x

74

81

X (x)
T (t)
=
.
: 2
a T (t)
X(x)
x, t, x, t , ,
:
X (x)
T (t)
=
= C.
(74.2)
a2 T (t)
X(x)
:

T (t) a2 CT (t) = 0,
(74.3)
X (x) CX(x) = 0.

T (t) = BeCa t ,
t u(x, t) , ,
C < 0. C = 2 , (74.3)
:
(74.4)

2 a2 t

T (t) = Be

, C = 2 , (74.3) X (x) +
+2 X(x) = 0 :
(74.5)

X(x) = C1 cos x + C2 sin x,

s2 + 2 = 0
s1,2 = i.
,
2 a2 t

u(t, x) = Be

(C1 cos x + C2 sin x).

.
C1 C2 .

74.2.

.
(73.7) (74.1)
X(0)T (t) = 0,

X(l)T (t) = 0.

T (t), ,
(74.6)

X(0) = X(l) = 0.

82

X(x),
(74.6). (74.6) (74.5):



C1 = 0
C1 = 0
X(0) = 0

C2 sin l = 0
C1 cos l + C2 sin l = 0
X(l) = 0

kx
k
Xk (x) = Ck sin
,
l
l
Ck
, , k = 1, 2, 3, . . .
k = k/l ,
sin(kx/l) (74.3). (74.3) Tk (t) (74.4)
k
2 2
; Tk (t) = Bk ek a t .
k =
l
Xk (x) Tk (t) (74.1),
uk (x, t) (72.15), (73.7):
kx
kx
2 2
2 2
(74.7)
uk (x, t) = Bk Ck ek a t sin
= bk ek a t sin
,
l
l
bk = Bk Ck .
u(x, t) (72.15),
(73.7) (73.6), :

X
X
kx
2 2
.
(74.8)
u(x, t) =
uk (x, t) =
bk e(k/l) a t sin
l
k=1
k=1
sin l = 0 l = k, k Z k =

(72.15) (74.8)
, uk (x, t)
.
, , u(x, t)
(73.7). bk (k = 1, 2, . . . ) , (73.6):

X
kx
u(x, 0) =
= (x).
bk sin
l
k=1
, bk
(x) (0, l) :
(74.9)

2
bk =
l

Zl
0

(x) sin

kx
dx.
l

74

83

, (72.15) (73.6) (74.8),


bk (74.9).

, .. :
(74.10)

u|x=0 = h0 ,

u|x=l = h1 ,

u(x, t) w(x, t):


u(x, t) = w(x, t) + 1 x + 0 ,
0 1
w(x, t), .
, ,
0 1 :
u|x=0 = w|x=0 + 0 ,

u|x=0 = h0 ;

w|x=0 = 0 h0 = 0 ;

u|x=l = w|x=l + 1 l + 0 ,

u|x=l = h1 ;

w|x=l = 0 h1 = 1 l + 0 .

, 1 0 :
0 = h0 ;

1 =

h1 h0
.
l

h1 h0
x + h0 .
l
u
w
2u
2w

=
;
=
, w(x, t) t
t
x2
x2
(72.15), u(x, t).
(73.6) u(x, t)
w(x, t):
(74.11)

u(x, t) = w(x, t) +

h1 h0
x h0 ,
l
(74.10) :

(74.12)

(74.13)

w(x, t)|t=0 = (x)


w|x=0 = 0;

w|x=l = 0.

(74.12)
(74.13), w(x, t). u(x, t) (74.10)
(74.11).

84

74.3.
, . ,
(73.8).
, .. (74.1). (72.15),
(74.2) (74.3). ,
C (74.2) (74.3) :
C = 2 , (74.3) (74.4).
(74.3) (74.5).
(73.9) (74.1) :
X (0)T (t) = 0,

X (l)T (t) = 0.

T (t),
, :
(74.14)

X (0) = X (l) = 0.

X(x),
(74.14), X (x) (74.14), :
(74.15)

X (x) = C1 sin x + C2 cos x.


X (0) = 0 C2 = 0 C2 = 0.

X (l) = 0 (C1 sin l + C2 cos l) = 0 sin l = 0

kx
k
Xk (x) = Ck cos
.
l
l
Ck , ,
k = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . . k = 0,
, cos 0 = 1 6= 0. k = k/l Tk (t)
(74.3):
2 2
Tk (t) = Bk ek a t .
l = k, k Z k =

Xk Tk (t) (74.1),
uk (x, t) (72.15), (73.9):
(74.16)

2 2

uk (x, t) = Bk Ck ek a t cos

kx
kx
2 2
= ak ek a t cos
,
l
l

ak = Bk Ck , k = 1, 2, 3 . . .
a0
a0
u0 (x, t) = .
B0 C0 =
2
2

74

85

uk (x, t) (72.15),
(73.9), (73.6), :
(74.17)

a0 X
kx
2 2
u(x, t) =
uk (x, t) =
+
,
ak e(k/l) a t cos
2
l
k=0
k=1

a0 /2 0 = 0. , ,
(72.15), (73.8). , (73.6):

kx
a0 X
+
= (x).
ak cos
2
l
k=1
, ak
(x), (0, l)
(74.18)

ak =

2
l

Zl

(x) cos

kx
dx.
l

, (72.15) (73.6) (74.17),


ak (74.18).
74.1. ( ) , : (x) = u0 0 6 x 6 l. u(x, t) .
:
(74.17), (74.18):
2u0
ak =
l

Zl
0

kx
cos
dx =
l

2u0 k = 0
.
0
k > 0

(74.17) u(x, t) = a0 /2 = u0 .
,

t > 0.

86

74.4.

,
(, ) , ()
.
(73.11).

(74.2), (74.3), (74.4). (73.10)
(74.1) :
X (0) = 0,

(74.19)

X(l) = 0.

X(t),
(74.19), (74.15) X (x) x = 0,
X (0) = 0 C2 = 0 C2 = 0. (74.5) x = l,
X(l) = 0 C1 cos l + C2 sin l = 0 C1 cos l = 0 cos l = 0
(2k + 1)
(2k + 1)x

Xk (x) = Ck cos
.
l = + k, k Z k =
2
2l
2l
Ck , ,
k = 0, 1, 2, . . . . k = (2k + 1)/(2l)
Tk (t) (74.4). Xk (x)
Tk (t) (74.1), (72.15), (73.11):
(74.20)

2 2

uk (x, t) = Bk Ck ek a t cos

(2k + 1)x
(2k + 1)x
2 2
= ak ek a t cos
,
2l
2l

ak = Bk Ck , k = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . .
uk (x, t) (72.15),
(73.11) (73.6), :
(74.21)

u(x, t) =

uk (x, t) =

k=0

ak e((2k+1)/2l)

2 a2 t

k=0

cos

(2k + 1)x
.
2l

, ,
(72.15), (73.11). ak , (k = 0, 1, 2, . . . ) , (73.6):
(74.22)

X
k=0

ak cos

(2k + 1)x
= (x).
2l

74

87

, (2k + 1)x
cos
(0, l). , :
2l

Zl
(2n + 1)x
(2k + 1)x
l/2 k = n
.
cos
dx =
cos
(74.23)
0
k 6= n
2l
2l
0

, (2k + 1)x
(74.22) cos
(0, l),
2l
(74.23) :
2
ak =
l

(74.24)

Zl

(x) cos

(2k + 1)x
dx.
2l

(72.15)
(73.6) (73.11) (74.21), (74.24).
74.2. l , . t > 0,
: u|t=0 = l x.
: :

u
= u|x=l = 0.
(74.25)
x
x=0

u|t=0 = l x.
(74.21), ak
(74.24):
2
ak =
l

Zl
0

l
(2k + 1)x
4
(2k + 1)x
(l x) cos
dx =
(l x) sin
+
2l
(2k + 1)
2l
0

4
+
(2k + 1)

Zl
0

l
(2k + 1)x
4
(2k + 1)x
sin
dx =
(l x) sin

2l
(2k + 1)
2l
0

l


8l
(2k + 1)x
(2k + 1)
8l
cos
1 =

= (2k + 1)2 2 cos


(2k + 1)2 2
2l
2
0

88

8l
.
(2k + 1)2 2
(74.21)
=

(74.26)

(2k + 1)x
8l X
1
2
2 2
2
ea (2k+1) t/4l cos
u(x, t) = 2
.
2
k=0 (2k + 1)
2l

(U<0>) m

(U<1>) m 0,8
(U<2>) m 0,6
(U<3>) m 0,4
(U<4>) m 0,2
(U<5>) m

0,2

0,4

xm

0,6

0,8

. 74.1
. , , .. , .
t ,
, .. .
, ( )
, Ox.
. 74.1 u(x) t,
(74.26).
74.2 , .
t
xm , m = 0, 1, M x, . ,
, . ..
.

74

89

MathCad. , ak .

74.5.

,

u|t=0
.
1) u|x=0 = u|x=l = 0.

2
u
2 u
=a
t
x2
= (x) -

u(x, t) =

bk e(k/l)

k=1

bk =

2
l

Zl

(x) sin

2 a2 t

sin

kx
,
l

kx
dx, k = 1, 2, . . .
l


u
u
a0 X
kx
2 2
2)
=
= 0.
u(x, t) =
+
,
ak e(k/l) a t cos


x x=0
x x=l
2
l
k=1
l
Z
kx
2
dx, k = 0, 1, 2, . . .
(x) cos
ak =
l
l
0

X

u
2k a2 t
=
u
=
0.
u(x,
t)
=
cos k x,
a
e
3)
x=l
k
x x=0
k=0
Zl
2
(2k + 1)
ak =
(x) cos k xdx, k =
.
l
2l
0

74.

74.1.
MathCad
. .
. .

90

.
MathCad.

MathCad.
74.1. [1, 1]
y = x4 .
.
, (73.27,73.28). MathCad -
.
ORIGIN := 0 T OL := 0.00001 L := 1 A := 3 B := 3
N := 30
n := 0..N
f (x) := x4
n x
1 RL
dx
an := f (x) cos
L L
L
n x
1 RL
dx
bn := f (x) sin
L L
L
n x
 n x 
K 
a0 P
F (x, K) :=
an cos
+
+ bn sin
2
L
L
n=1
. 74.1 K = 1, K = 2,
K = 30. ,


x 
f1 (x) = f x Int
2 L , Int
2L
, ,
.
1

F(x,1)

0,63

F(x,2)
F(x,30)

0,25
-3

-2

-1

-0,13

-0,5

. 74.1
, f (x) , , . A B

75

91

F (x, K). K ,
. N , . ,
K , N . , a
F 9.
: , ,
[2].

75.

.
.

75.1.

,
.
, f (x)
1 R

|f (x)|dx (,
l
f (x) ), f (x)
, ..

(75.1)

Z
f (x) = (A() cos x + B() sin x)d,
0

:
f (x 0) + f (x + 0)
=
2

(A() cos x + B() sin x)d.

92

A() B() :
1 R
A() =
f ( ) cos d ;

(75.2)
1 R
B() =
f ( ) sin d.

, , k
2
,....
: , , . . . ,
l l
l
, :
[0, +) .

, 73 ,
, f (x) A()
B() :
Z
2
f ( ) cos d, B() = 0,
(75.3)
A() =

, :
Z
(75.4)
f (x) = A() cos xdx.
0

f (x) :
Z
2
(75.5)
A() = 0, b() =
f ( ) sin d,

(75.6)

f (x) =

B() sin xdx.

, .
(75.1) (75.2) :
Z Z
1
f ( )(cos cos x + sin sin x)d d.
f (x) =

75

93


cos ( x) = cos cos x + sin sin x
:
(75.7)

1
f (x) =

Z
0

f ( ) cos ( x)dx.

,
l .
(. . 72)
. (72.15),
(73.6). , .
, ..
: u(x, t) = X(x)T (t).

(72.15), , :
2 a2 t

u (x, t) = (A() cos x + B() sin x)e

74.1 ,
, ,
k ( ), ,
, .

. , (73.6), , .. :
(75.8)

Z
2 2
u(x, t) = (A() cos x + B() sin x)e a t d.
0

, (72.15). A() B() , (75.7) (73.6). (75.8) t = 0,

94

:
u|t=0

Z
= (x) (A() cos x + B() sin x)d = (x).
0

(x) ,
(75.2) A() B()
1 R
( ) cos d ;
A() =

(75.9)
1 R
B() =
( ) sin d.

(75.9) (75.8), ,
(75.7):
Z Z
1
2 2
( ) cos ( x)e a t d.
d
(75.10)
u(x, t) =


, :
r
Z
1
( x)2/(4a2 t)
2
2
cos ( x)e a t d =
(75.11)
e
.
2a t
0

(75.10)
(75.11), :

Z
Z
1
2 2
( ) cos ( x)e a t d d =
u(x, t) =

1
=
2a t

( )e( x)

2 /(4a2 t)

d.

.
, (72.15) (73.6)
:
Z
1
2
2
(75.12)
u(x, t) =
( )e( x) /(4a t) d.
2a t

75

95

75.1.

0, x < x1
u0 , x1 6 x 6 x2
u(x, t)|t=0 =

0, x > x2 .
t > 0.

:
(75.12):
Zx2
u0
2
2
e( x) /(4a t) d.
u(x, t) =
2a t
x1

(z):
Zx
1
2
(z) =
eS /2 dS,
2
0

. ,

. ,
(z) = (z), .
, () = 0, 5, () = 0, 5. :
x2 x

a 2t

u0
x
2
= S d = a 2tdS u(x, t) =
eS /2 a 2tdS =
2a t
a 2t
x1 x

a 2t

u0
=
2

1
= u0
2
(75.13)

x2 x

a 2t

S 2 /2

eS

2 /2

x1 x

a 2t

x2 x

a 2t

dS +

Z0

S 2 /2

1
dS
2

x1 x

a 2t

Z
0

dS
=

eS

2 /2

dS

 



x2 x
x1 x

u(x, t) = u0

.
a 2t
a 2t

96

x2 x x1 x
x < x1 x > x2
a 2t
a 2t
, x1 < x < x2 . (z)
() = 0, 5, , t = 0
(75.13) x < x1 x > x2 , x1 < x < x2
u0 , .. .
75.1 a, x1 x2 ,
a = 1, x1 = 1, x2 = 3, (75.13) :
,




 
1x
3x
.
u(x, t) = u0

2t
2t
, ,
,
, u(x, t),
(72.15) (73.6)
x = 0. , x = 0 , : u(0, t) = 0.
,
. (x), , x < 0
. (75.12),
(x) :

(75.14)

1
u(x, t) =
2a t

Z
0



( x)2
( +x)2

f ( ) e 4a2 t e 4a2 t d.

,

u
= 0,
, .. :
x x=0
(75.12), (x)
. ,
:

(75.15)

u(x, t) =

2a t

Z
0

( + x)2
( x)2

4a2 t
4a2 t
+e
f ( ) e
d.

75

97

75.

74, 75.



:




75.1. u
= u
= 0,
x=0
x=L


x L/2, x (0, L/2),

.
u =
0,
x
/ (0, L/2).
t=0

u

= 0,
75.2.
, u
x x=0 x=L


u = 100
(L x),
x [0, L].
L
t=0

u
u
=
= 0,
75.3.


x
x
x=0
x=L


100, x (0, L/2],

u =
20, x (L/2, L].
t=0

75.4. x
(, +) :
100(1 x/10), x [0, 10],


100(1 + x/10), x [10, 0),
u =

t=0
0,
|x| > 10.


x (0, +) :


75.5. u

x=0

= 0,

u
75.6.
= 0,

x x=0

t=0

t=0

U0 , x [2, 10],
0, x (0, 2) (10, ).

U0 , 0 < x < L,
0, x L.

98

76.

.
. -

76.1.

70 71, .
.

, x. ,
, ,
, .
2
u
2 u
(76.1)
a
= 0.
t
x2

0 6 x 6 l, 0 6 t 6 T

(76.2)

u(0, x) = 0 (x),

(76.3)

= 1 (t);
+ 1
0 u
x x=0
x=0

u

= 2 (t).
0 u + 1
x=l
x x=l

(n, m). . .
(70.7) , :
 2 n
unm+1 2unm + unm1
u
+ O(h2 ).
=
(76.4)
2
2
x m
h

76

(n+1,m)

(n+1,m-1)

h
(n,m-1)

(n+1,m+1)

(n+1,m)

99

h
(n,m)

(n,m+1)

(n,m)

(a)

(b)

. 76.1
, . 76.1.

76.1.1.
(
, . 76.1,a).

2u
x2

n

n-

(76.5)
n+1
un 2unm + unm1
um unm
m = 1, 2, 3, . . . , M 1,

2 m+1

= 0,
a

n = 0, 1, 2, . . . , N 1

0
um = 0 (xm ),
m = 0, 1, 2, . . . , M,
n+1
n+1
u1 u0
n+1

u
+

= 1 (tn+1 ),
n = 0, 1, . . . , N 1,

0
1
0

n+1
n+1

0 un+1 + 1 uM uM1 = 2 (tn+1 ),


n = 1, 2, . . . , N 1.
M
h

(76.5)

(N + 1) (M + 1) .
r = a2 /h2
(76.6)

u0m = 0 (xm ),
m = 0, 1, 2, . . . , M,
(a)

m = 1, 2, . . . , M 1,

(b)
un+1
= (1 2r)unm + r(unm1 + unm+1 ),

n = 1, 2, . . . , N 1,

1 /h n+1
1 (tn+1 )
n+1
u
=
u
+
, n = 0, 1, 2, ..., N 1,
(c)

0
1

/h

/h
0
1
0
1

2 (tn+1 )
1 /h

n+1
n+1

+
u
, n = 0, 1, 2, ..., N 1.
(d)
uM =
0 + 1 /h M1 0 + 1 /h
:
(1) n = 0. (76.6,a)
t = 0

100

(2) (76.6,b) u
(m = 1, 2, . . . , M 1) n + 1-
t = (n + 1) .
(3) (76.6,c) (76.6,d)
t = (n + 1) .
(4) n = n + 1
(5) n < N , 2.
(6) .

76.1.2.
( (n + 1, m)
n + 1- , . 76.1,b).
(76.7)

n+1
n+1
n+1
n
un+1
m um
2 um+1 2um + um1
= 0,
a

h2

m = 1, 2, . . .
n = 1, 2, . . .


.
u - n + 1-
. n+1- , ,
,
. , n + 1- .
u n. un+1
, un+1
, . . . , un+1
1
2
M1 (76.7)
:
(76.8)

n+1
n+1
am un+1
m1 + bm um + cm um+1 = fm ,

m = 1, 2, . . . , M 1,

am = cm = r, bm = 1 + 2r, fm = unm .
u n + 1-

. ym = un+1
m
(76.8), (76.6,c), (76.6,d) :

m = 1, 2, . . . , M 1;
am ym1 + bm ym + cm ym+1 = fm ,
y0 = L0 y1 + K0 ;
(76.9)

M yM1 + K
M ,
yM = L

(76.10)

1 /h
;
L0 =
0 1 /h

1 (tn+1 )
K0 =
;
0 1 /h

76

(76.11)

M =
L

1 /h
;
0 + 1 /h

101

2 (tn+1 )

KM =
.
0 + 1 /h

(76.9) .
y0 ,

(76.12)

ym = Lm ym+1 + Km ,

m = 1, 2, . . . , M 1.

m = m 1 (76.9,a), :
am (Lm1 ym + Km1 ) + bm ym + cm ym+1 = fm ,

m = 1, 2, . . . , M 1.

cm
fm am Km1
ym+1 +
, m = 1, 2, . . . , M 1.
am Lm1 + bm
am Lm1 + bm
,
fm am Km1
cm
; Km =
, m = 1, 2, . . . , M 1.
(76.13) Lm =
am Lm1 + bm
am Lm1 + bm
Km , Lm
(76.13)
x = l.
(76.9,c) (76.12) m = M 1

M yM1 + K
M ;
yM = L
yM1 = LM1 yM + KM1 .
ym =

M KM1 + K
M
L
.
M LM1
1L
M K
M (76.10, 76.11),
L
yM =

1 KM1 + h2 (tn+1 )
(76.14)
yM =
.
0 h + 1 1 LM1
ym , m = 0, 1, . . . , M
.
.
(1) m = 0. L0 , K0 (76.10)
(2) m = m + 1. Lm , Km
(76.13)
(3) m < M, 2.
.

102

(4) (76.14) yM .
(5) ym (76.12). m = m 1.
(6) m > 0, 5.
(7) .
, n + 1 - (76.8)
,
|bm | > |am | + |cm | .
.
(1) n = 0. (76.6,a)
t = 0.
(2) n + 1- t = (n + 1) .
(3) n = n + 1.
(4) n < M, 2.
(5) .
, , . O( ) + O(h2 ).
,
.
(76.5) (76.7) :
(76.15)

n
n
n
n
un+1
m um
2 um+1 2um + um1
= 0.
a

h2

n+1
n+1
n+1
n
un+1
m um
2 um+1 2um + um1
(76.16)
= 0.
a

h2
unm = n eiwh n eiwh
, .
1) (76.5).
iwh
2 + eiwh
1
2e
= 0.
a
(76.17)

h2
, eiwh +eiwh = 2 cos wh 1cos wh = 2 sin2 wh/2,
eiwh 2 + eiwh = 2(cos wh 1) = 4 sin2 wh/2 , , (76.17)

a2
2 wh
sin
.
h2
2
, /h2 6 1,
< 1, .

(76.18)

=14

76

103

, sin2 wh/2 = 1,
,
= 1 4ra2 > 1,

(76.19)

r6

1
.
2a2

, , (76.5) , t x (76.19).
2) (76.7)

iwh
iwh

2
+
e
1
(76.20)
= 0.
a2

h2
,
(76.21)

1
.
1 + 4ra2 sin2 wh/2

, || 6 1 r .

76.

MathCad
76.1.


74 75. 75
.
, .
. ,
MathCad.
74.2

(74.25)


u = f (x). f (x) 74.2.
t=0

104

ORIGIN := 0 T OL := 0.00001 L := 1 T max := 1 K := 100


N := 5
M := 10
A := 1
k := 0..K
n := 0..N
m := 0..M
f (x) := L x


L
(2 k + 1) x
2 R
ak := f (x) cos
dx
L 0
2L

12

(2 k + 1)
AA
@
K

P
2

L
u(x, t) =
ak e
k=0

h :=

Um,n

L
T max
:=
M
N
:= u(xm , tn )

xm := h m

 (2 k + 1) x 

cos

2L
tn := n

u(x, t)
t.
. 74.1.
f (x) , F 9.

ak
u(x, t) 5. (73.8) ak (74.9),
u(x, t) (74.8). (73.11),
ak (74.24), u(x, t) (74.21).

76.2.

. 75.

MathCad 75.1,
75. u0 = 100, a = 1, x1 = 1, x2 = 3, x [A, B],
A = 3, B = 7.
5

76

T OL :=
A := 3
t0 := 0
t4 := 5

(x) :=

0.0001 ORIGION := 0 N := 5 M := 100 a := 1


BA
B := 7
n := 0..N
m := 0..M
h :=
M
t1 := 0.1 t2 := 0.4 t3 := 1
t 5 := 20 xm := A + h m

0 if x < 1 x > 3


100 otherwise



u(x, t) := (x) if t < 0.0001


( x)2

3
R

( ) e 4 a2 t d

2 a t 1

Um,n :=

105

otherwise

u(xm , tn )

. 76.1.
MathCad (.
. 76.1).
u(x, t)

:
t = {0; 0, 1; 0, 4; 1; 5; 20}.
U <0>

100

U <1>

80

U <2>

60

U <3>

40

U <4>

20

U <5>

0
-3
A

-1

7
B

. 76.1
, . -

106

U (x, tn ) .
t ,
u 0.
.
: MathCad 9,a 10,a
[3].

77.
. . . .
, (72.14).

77.1.
. ( ),
. ,
.
1. , ,
, . .
.
xOu,
u , x . u x t, ..
u(x, t). , .. t = const, u(x, t) t, ux (x, t) x, .. tg x = const. u(x, t)
x Ou, ut (x, t)
, utt(x, t) .
2. , .. : ,
( . 77.1 M ), T, ,
.

77

107

M1

T1
1

M
T
M
x

M1
x+dx

. 77.1
3.
; ,
.
4. , .. ( , ) .
5. ,
, .
6. , u(x, t) ux (x, t) ,
. cos 1, tg sin ,
0x.
.
1.
, .. |MM1 | = |M M1 |. , ,
|MM1 | :
Zx1 q
1 + ux 2 dx.
|MM1 | =
x

6, ux 2 . :
|MM1 |

Zx1

dx = x1 x = |M M1 |.

2. T ,
..: |T| = |T1 | = T .

108

, , , .. 1
.
. ,
0u. g(x, t) ( ,
, , ). ,
MM1 , .
( 1), 0u.
0u (. . 77.1):
F1 = |T 1 | sin 1 |T| sin = T (sin 1 sin ) = T (tg 1 tg ).
6 2.
, tg = ux (x, t), tg 1 = ux (x + dx, t),
F1 = T (ux (x + dx, t) ux (x, t)).
ux (x, t) dux (x, t) = uxx (x, t)dx, :
2u
F1 = T 2 dx.
x
0u
1 :
F2 = g(x, t)|MM1 | = g(x, t)|M M1 | = g(x, t)dx.

MM1 4
1 : dm = |MM1 | = dx.
MM1 utt (x, t).
,
0u
:
2u
dm 2 = F1 + F2
t

2u
2u
dx 2 = T 2 dx + g(x, t)dx.
t
x

dx,
T 2 u g(x, t)
2u
=
+
,
t2
t2

77

109

, T / = a2 , g(x, t)/ = F (x, t), :


(77.1)

2
2u
2 u
=a
+ F (x, t).
t2
x2

, .. g(x, t) = 0 F (x, t) = 0, (77.1) :


2
2u
2 u
=a
.
(77.2)
t2
x2
, , ,
T , F (x, t) (77.1)
.
, .. g(x, t) 6= 0 F (x, t) 6= 0,
(77.1) .
, .
,
t = 0. : u(x, t)|t=0 = (x),
ut (x, t)|t=0 = (x), (x) (x) .
:

(77.3)

u(x, 0) = (x),

ut (x, 0) = (x).

, . ,
, l x = 0 x = l,
:
(77.4)

u(0, t) = 0,

u(l, t) = 0.

(77.1) ,
(),
.. .

77.2.

( , , ) , . ,

110

( ,
, ).
, (), .
. , .
(. 77.2); x
. t u(x, t).
, 1 . 1
dx:
u(x + dx, t) u(x, t)
= ux (x, t).
dx

x1=x+dx

. 77.2
, , , ,
T , : T = ESux (x, t), S ; E ( ).
T1 1 : T1 =
ESux (x + dx, t).
, , :


T1 T = ES ux (x + dx, t) ux (x, t) = ES( 2 u/x2 )dx.
Sdx,
, :
Sdx

2
2u
2u
2u
2 u
=
ES
dx,

=
a
,
t2
x2
t2
x2

a2 = E/S.
(77.2) .
,
, .
x = 0,
u|x=0 = 0.

77

111

,
T , , x = l, .. ESux (l, t) = 0,
:

u
= 0.
x
x=l

, :

u
(77.5)
u|x=0 = 0,
= 0.
x
x=l

,
, (77.3).
,
(77.2), (77.3), (77.4)
(77.5).
,
t = 0
Q, T , x = l,

Q
u

=
.
Q = ESux (l, t),

x
ES
x=l

, :



Q
u

(77.6)
u x=0 = 0,
=
,

x x=l
ES

(77.3).
, P , , t = 0 . T , t = 0, P :
P
ESux (x, 0) = P u (x, 0) =

ES
Zx
P
P
x u(x, 0) u(0, 0) =
x.
ux (x, 0)dx =
ES
ES
0

u(0, 0) = 0, .. , : u(x, 0) =
P
= u|t=0 =
x.
ES
,
:
ut |t=0 = 0.
, :
P
(77.7)
U |t=0 =
x, ut |t=0 = 0,
ES
- (77.5).

112

77.3.
, ,
, . , ,
.
, ,
.
, ; , () .
, 1
+ d (. 77.3).

1
L
K

d
d

x1=x+dx

. 77.3
L

. 77.4
,
(x, t),
1 .
.
, 1 . , .
d , r ,
,
KK KL .
, :
KK , G ,
= G L\
( ).

77

113

, . :
KK = tg L\
KK = |L K |/dx.
L\

, |K L | | K L | = rd,
KK rd/dx.
L\

, :
d
.
dx
, , d, ,
= Gr

d
d.
dx
dMx , d,
d
d.
dMx = r d = Gr2
dx
Mx ,
:
ZZ
ZZ
d
2 d
d = G
r2 d = Gx (x, t)J0 ,
(77.8)
Mx =
Gr
dx
dx
d = Gr

J0 =

RR

r2 d .

, .. Mx+dx Mx , 1 ,



2
Mx+dx Mx = G x (x + dx, t) x (x, t) J0 G 2 dxJ0 .
x

x (x + dx, t) x (x, t) ( 2 /x2 )dx.


,
K, 1 Kdx,
2 /t2 . , :
Kdx

2
2
=
M

M
=
G
dxJ0 ,
x
x+dx
t2
x2

2
2
2
=a
,
t2
x2

a2 =

GJ0
.
K

114

,
(77.2) (x, t). , l ,
.
. , , Mx
t = 0 (. 77.4):
tg

R
|K L |
KK L , |K L | | K L | = R =
;
x
x

|K L |
R
KK L , |K L | | K L | = R =
.
x
l
, , t = 0 -

tg

R
R
x
=
, |t=0 = .
x
l
l
:


= 0.
t t=0

, |x=0 = 0.
Ml , (77.8),
:




Ml = 0 GJ0
=0
= 0.
x x=l
t x=l

, :

x

(77.9)
|t=0 = ,
= 0.
l
t t=0
:
(77.10)

|x=0 = 0,



= 0.
x x=l


(77.2), (77.3), (77.5).
, , ,
J1 . ,
.
, ,
(77.9).
, |x=0 = 0.

77

115

; ..
Ml ,
2
(77.8), J1 =
, :
t2 x=l


2

+ J1
= 0.
GJ0
x x=l
t2 x=l

, (77.9),




2
x=0 = 0, GJ0
+ J1
= 0.
x x=l
t2 x=l

77.4.

(77.2).
, (77.3) x :
< x < , . . 72.2.1 , = x at = x + at
(77.2) :
2u
= 0,


u(, ) = F () + ().
, x t, :
(77.11)

(77.12)

u(x, t) = F (x at) + (x + at).

.
, F (xat)
F (x) at, ..
a; (x + at)
(x) a. (
t = 0) u = F (x) + (x),

, F (x at) a
( ) , (x + at)
( ), . 77.5.
F , (77.3).
u(x, 0) = F (x) + (x) = (x).

116

U
(x+at)

F(x)

F(x-at)

(x)
F(x-at)+ (x+at)

x
F(x-at)+ (x+at)

F(x-at)+ (x+at)

. 77.5
:
ut (x, t) = aF (x at) + a (x + at),
: ut (x, 0) = aF (x) + a (x) = (x).
0 x, ( z x):
Zx
0

(z)dz = a

Zx
0

F (z)dz + a

Zx
0



(z)dz = a F (x) F (0) +

+a((x) (0)) = a ((x) F (x)) aC,

C = (0) F (0).

:
1
(x) F (x) =
a

Zx

(z)dz + C.

, F (x) (x) :

(x) + F (x) = (x)


1 Rx
(z)dz + C.
(x) F (x) =
a0

, :

1
1 Rx

(z)dz + C2
(x) = (x) +
2
2a 0
Rx

1
1

(x)

(z)dz C2 .
F
(x)
=

2
2a
0

77

117

x, x x + at x at:

x+at
R

1
1

(z)dz + C2
(x + at) = 2 (x + at) + 2a

F (x at) = 21 (x at)

1
2a

0
xat
R
0

(z)dz C2 .

77.12,
(77.2):
1
(x at) + (x + at)
+
u(x, t) =
2
2a

(77.13)

x+at
Z

(z)dz.

xat

(77.13)
.
77.1.
:
2u
2u
= 4 2,
t2
x

u(x, 0) = 0,

ut (x, 0) = U0 arctg x.

: (77.13) , :

x+at
x+at
Z
Z

U0
U0
zdz
x+at
arctg zdz =
z arctg z
=
u(x, t) =

4
4
1 + z2
xat
xat

U0
=
4

xat

 x+at


U
1
0
2
=
z arctg z ln(1 + z )
(x + at) arctg(x + at)
2
4
xat

1 1 + (x at)2
(x at) arctg(x at) + ln
.
2 1 + (x + at)2


.
, x , , :
(77.14)

u(0, t) = 0.

118

x > 0. (x)
(x) - x < 0, u(0, t),
(77.13), :
1
(at) + (at)
+
u(0, t) =
2
2a

Zat

(z)dz.

at

u(0, t) = 0, .. , (x) (x) :


:

(x) = (x),

(at) = (at),

(x) = (x),

(at) + (at)
= 0,
2

Zat

(z)dz = 0,

at

0 .
, (77.3)
, (77.2), (77.3), (77.4) . x > 0 x < 0,
x at > 0 (t < x/a)
x at < 0 (t > x/a):

R
(x + at) + (x at)
1 x+at

+
(z)dz,

2
2a

xat

0 < t 6 ,
a
(77.15)
u(x, t) =
R
1 x+at
(x
+
at)

(x

at)

+
(z)dz,

2
2a

(xat)

< t < .
a

:
(77.16)

ux (0, t) = 0.

(77.3) x > 0.
,
:
(x) = (x),

(x) = (x).

77

119


, :
(77.17)

R
(x + at) + (x at)
1 x+at
x

+
(z)dz,

0
<
t
6

2
2a xat
a

 x+at
atx
R
R
(x + at) + (at x)
1
u(x, t) =
(z)dz ,
(z)dz
+
+

2
2a

0
0

< t <
a

77.

77.1.
Excel

.
76.
77.1.
(72.15)


u = 100 ex
t=0



u


4t
= 100 e ,
u
+u
= 20 30 e7t .
x=0
x
x=L

(72.15),
- ,

u0m = 100 exm ,


m = 0, 1, 2, ..., M;
n+1
4tn+1
,
n = 0, 1, 2, ..., N 1;
u0 = 100 e
n+1
n+1
uM1 + h 20 30 e7t
n+1
.
uM =
1+h
L = 1, a = 1, r = 0.5.
h 0,1. r h2 .
Excel , .

120

. . B2 D2 r h. . A3 t/x.
xm . B3 0. C3
= D2. D3 = C3 + $D$2.
L3.
t . A4 0. A5 -
= $B$2 $D$2^2. A6 - = A5 + A$5
A204. B4 : L4 .
B4 = 100 EXP (B3)
L4. .
B5 :
= 100EXP (4A5).
(76.6). C5 : = $B$2 D4 +(1 2 $B$2) C4+$B$2B4
K5. L5, .
= (K5 + $D$2 (20 30 EXP (7 $A5)/(1 + $D$2))).
.
, , ... , (t = 1) B5 : L5
204.
. . t = 0; 0.1; 0.2; 0.4; 0.6 1.0.
, 3, 4, 24, 44, 84, 124 204, ,
. Excel ,
Visual Basic. .
Visual Basic
, (), 71.1.
, .
,
.
Sub ()

77

121

Dim x() As Double, y() As Double, ynp1() As Double


Dim h As Double, tau As Double, r As Double, a As Double
Dim L As Double, hPr As Double, tauPr As Double
Dim nn As Long, mm As Long, MPr As Long, Tmax As Double
Dim n As Long, m As Long, ngr As Integer
Dim t As Double, rr As Double

L = 1 ,
a = 1
Tmax = 1
h = 0.01
r = 0.5 tau=r*h^2/2
tau = r * h ^ 2 / 2
x
hPr = 0.1
tauPr = 0.2
Ox
MPr = CLng(hPr / h)
mm = CLng(L / h) Ox
nn = CLng(Tmax / tau) Ot
ReDim x(mm), y(mm), ynp1(mm)
For m = 0 To mm
x(m) = h * m

y(m) = 100 * Exp(-x(m))
Next m

Dim NameSh As String
NameSh = ""
Sheets(NameSh).Select
Cells.Clear
Cells(1, 1) = "t\x"
Cells(2, 1) = "t=0"
,
ngr = 1
0- ( )
For m = 0 To mm Step MPr
Cells(1, m \ MPr + 2) = CDbl(Format(x(m), "#0.00"))
Cells(ngr + 1, m \ MPr + 2) = CDbl(Format(y(m), "#0.00"))

122

Cells(1, m \ MPr + 2).Interior.Color = RGB(220, 90, 220)


Next m
rr = 1 - 2 * r
1- nn
For n = 1 To nn
t = tau * n

For m = 1 To mm - 1
ynp1(m) = r * (y(m + 1) + y(m - 1)) + rr * y(m)
Next m

Call (ynp1, t, h, mm)
n+1- y
For m = 0 To mm
y(m) = ynp1(m)
Next m

. tauPr
If Abs((ngr) * tauPr - t) < tau / 10 Then
ngr = ngr + 1
()
Cells(ngr + 1, 1) = "t=" + Format(t, "#0.00")
For m = 0 To mm Step MPr
Cells(ngr + 1, m \ MPr + 2) = CDbl(Format(y(m), "#0.00"))
Next m
End If
Next n

Range("a1:a" + Trim(Str(ngr + 1))).Interior.Color = _
RGB(220, 90, 220)
Dim NameDiagr As String
NameDiagr = ". "
Call (ngr, CInt(mm / MPr), NameSh, NameDiagr, _
0, 1, 0, 100)
End Sub
Sub (y() As Double, t As Double, h As Double, _
mm As Long)
y(0) = FunHamma1(t)

y(mm) = (y(mm - 1) + h * FunHamma2(t)) / (1 + h)

77

123

End Sub
Function FunHamma1(t As Double) As Double
FunHamma1 = 100 * Exp(-4 * t)
End Function
Function FunHamma2(t As Double) As Double
FunHamma2 = 20 - 30 * Exp(-7 * t)
End Function
. 77.1 (77.1), Visual Basic.
t\x
t=0
t = 0, 2
t = 0, 4
t = 0, 6
t = 0, 8
t = 1, 0

0
100
44,9
20,2
9,07
4,08
1,83

0,1
90,5
49,8
25,4
13,0
6,9
3,87

0,2
81,9
53,0
29,7
16,6
9,51
5,8

0,3
74,1
54,7
33,1
19,7
11,9
7,6

0,4
67,0
55,1
35,7
22,2
13,9
9,24

0,5
60,65
54,45
37,52
24,25
15,71
10,72

0,6
54,88
52,95
38,50
25,74
17,15
12,01

0,7
49,66
50,83
38,76
26,70
18,25
13,12

0,8
44,93
48,29
38,36
27,14
19,03
14,03

0,9
40,66
45,48
37,36
27,09
19,49
14,75

1,0
36,79
42,53
35,81
26,58
19,64
15,29

.
100
t=0
t=0,2
t=0,4
t=0,6
t=0,8
t=1,0

80
60
40
20
0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

. 77.1

MathCad, , . MathCad, (77.1)
. , , ,
Visual Basic.
MathCad- .
ORIGIN := 0 T OL := 0.00001 L := 1 a := 1 T max := 1
 h 2
L
T max
r := 0.5 M := 20 h :=
N :=
:= r
M
a

L
hP r
MhP r :=
P r := 0.2
hP r := 0.1
MP r :=
h
hP r

124



U := f or m 0..M

xm m h

ym 100 exm

k0

f or m 0, MP r..M

Uk,0 ym

k k+1

ngr 1

rr 1 2 r

f or n 1..N

tn

f or m 1..M 1

ynp1m r (ym1 + ym+1 ) + rr ym

ynp1 100 e4t

0

ynp1M1 + h 20 30 e7t )

ynp1M

1+h
y ynp1


if ngr P r t <

10
k0

f or m 0, MP r..M

U
k,ngr ym
k k+1

ngr ngr + 1

U
m

:=

0..MhP r

xm

:=

m hP r

, U . (77.1)
MathCad, , , Excel, .
: .
,
- . ,
6 0, 5 (a h)2,
.. . Ox

77

125

. , , .
.
Excel
, , ..
.
, .
.
Sub ()
Dim x() As Double, y() As Double, ynp1() As Double
Dim h As Double, tau As Double, r As Double, a As Double
Dim hPr As Double, tauPr As Double, Tmax As Double
Dim nn As Long, mm As Long, MPr As Long, L As Double
Dim n As Long, m As Long, ngr As Integer
Dim t As Double, beta1 As Double
Dim alpha0 As Double, alpha1 As Double, beta0 As Double
alpha0 = 1: alpha1 = 0: beta0 = 1: beta1 = 1

L = 1 ,
a = 1
Tmax = 1
h = 0.01
r = 1 tau=r*h^2/2
tau = r * h ^ 2 / 2
x
hPr = 0.1

tauPr = 0.2
MPr = CLng(hPr / h)
mm = CLng(L / h) Ox
nn = CLng(Tmax / tau) Ot
ReDim x(mm), y(mm), ynp1(mm)
For m = 0 To mm
x(m) = h * m

y(m) = 100 * Exp(-x(m))
Next m

126

Dim NameSh As String


NameSh = ""
Sheets(NameSh).Select
Cells.Clear
Cells(1, 1) = "t\x"
Cells(2, 1) = "t=0"
,
ngr = 1
For m = 0 To mm Step MPr
Cells(1, m \ MPr + 2) = CDbl(Format(x(m), "#0.00"))
Cells(ngr + 1, m \ MPr + 2) = CDbl(Format(y(m), "#0.00"))
Cells(1, m \ MPr + 2).Interior.Color = RGB(220, 90, 220)
Next m

For n = 1 To nn
t = tau * n
Call (y, t, r, h, mm, alpha0, alpha1, _
beta0, beta1)

tauPr
If Abs(ngr * tauPr - t) < tau / 10 Then
ngr = ngr + 1
Cells(ngr + 1, 1) = "t=" + Format(t, "#0.00")
For m = 0 To mm Step MPr
Cells(ngr + 1, m \ MPr + 2) = CDbl(Format(y(m), "#0.00"))
Next m
End If
Next n
Range("a1:a" + Trim(Str(ngr + 1))).Interior.Color = _
RGB(220, 90, 220)
Dim NameDiagr As String
NameDiagr = ". "
Call (ngr, CInt(mm / MPr), NameSh, _
NameDiagr, 0, 1, 0, 100)
End Sub
Sub (y() As Double, t As Double, r As Double, _
h As Double, mm As Long, alpha0 As Double, alpha1 As Double, _
beta0 As Double, beta1 As Double)
Dim L() As Double, k() As Double
Dim m As Long, am As Double, bm As Double, cm As Double

77

127

ReDim L(mm), k(mm), s As Double



am = -r: cm = -r: bm = 1 + 2 * r

L(m), K(m)
s = alpha0 - alpha1 / h
L(0) = -alpha1 / (h * s): k(0) = FunHamma1(t) / s
For m = 1 To mm - 1
s = bm + am * L(m - 1)
L(m) = -cm / s
k(m) = (y(m) - am * k(m - 1)) / s
Next m


y(mm) = (beta1 * k(mm - 1) + h * FunHamma2(t)) / _
(beta0 * h + beta1 - beta1 * L(mm - 1))
For m = mm - 1 To 0 Step -1
y(m) = L(m) * y(m + 1) + k(m)
Next m
End Sub
, .
MathCad.
ORIGIN := 0 T OL := 0.00001 L := 1 a := 1 T max := 1
 h 2
T max
L
N :=
:= r
r := 1 M := 100 h :=
M
a

hP r
L
P r := 0.2
hP r := 0.1
MP r :=
MhP r :=
h
hP r

128

1(t) := 100 e4t


0 := 1
1 := 0

2(t) := 20 30 e7t
0 := 1
1 := 1



cm := rU := f or

am := r
bm := 1 + 2 r

xm m h

ym 100 exm

k0

ngr 1

f or m 0, MP r..M

Uk,0 ym

k k+1

f or n 1..N

tn

1

s 0

h

1
L0

hs




K 1(t)
0
s

f or m 1..M 1

s bm + am Lm1

L cm
m
s


y
m am Km1
Km

s

1

K
M1 + h 2(t)
y
M
0 h + 1 1 LM1

f or m M 1..0

ym Lm ym+1 + Km


if ngr P r t <

10
k0


f or m 0, MP r..M

Uk,ngr ym

k k+1

ngr ngr + 1

U
m := 0..MhP r
xm :=

m hP r

m 0..M


U . -

78

129

, .. ,
Visual Basic, . 77.1.

78.

. . .

78.1.

(77.2) , , . . 77.1,
(77.2) (77.3)
(77.4).
:
(78.1)

u(x, t) = X(x)T (t).

(78.1) (77.2),
T (t)
X(x)
=
= C.
2
a T (t)
X(x)
x, t, , .
C.
:
(78.2)

T (t) Ca2 T (t) = 0;

(78.3)

X (x) CX(x) = 0.

(78.1) (77.4) :
u(0, t) = X(0)T (t) = 0, u(l, t) = X(l)T (t) = 0.

130

u(x, t), , , T (t) 6= 0, , :


(78.4)

X(0) = 0,

X(l) = 0.

X(x) : (78.5), (78.4). (78.3) s2 C = 0


.
1. C = 2 > 0 s1,2 = , ,
(78.3) : X(x) = C1 ex + C2 ex .
(78.4) :
C1 + C2 = 0,

C1 el + C2 el = 0.

C1 = C2 = 0, :
X(x) = 0 u(x, t) = 0 x, t.
.
2. C = 0 s1,2 = 0 , , (78.3) :
X(x) = C1 + C2 x.
(78.4) :
C1 = 0,

C1 + C2 l = 0,

: C1 = C2 = 0 X(x) = 0 u(x, t) = 0 x, t.
.
3. C = 2 s1,2 = i -,
(78.3) :
X(x) = C1 cos x + C2 sin x.
(78.4) : C1 = 0, C2 sin l = 0.
, , C2 6= 0,
,
k
.
l
(78.3), k,
Xk (x):
sin l = 0 l = k (k = 1, 2, . . . ) =

(78.5)

Xk (x) = Ck sin

Ck .

kx
,
l

78

131

Ck , ,
k = 1, 2, . . . . , k = k/l , . k = k/l ,
sin(kx/l) (78.3), (78.4).
, (0, l).
T (t). k = k/l
Tk (t), (78.2)
2

ka

Tk (t) = 0.
Tk (t) +
l
:

2
ka
2
s +
=0
l
ka
s1,2 =
i.
l
(78.2) :
kat
kat
+ Bk sin
,
(78.6)
Tk (t) = Ak cos
l
l
Ak Bk .
(78.5), (78.6) (78.1), (77.2),
(77.4):


kx
kat
kat
uk (x, t) = Ck sin
Ak cos
+ Bk sin
.
l
l
l
Ck Ak = ak , Ck Bk = bk , uk (x, t) :


kat
kx
kat
+ bk sin
.
sin
(78.7)
uk (x, t) = ak cos
l
l
l
uk (x, t) , .
(77.2), (77.3). (78.7), (77.2)
( ):


X
kat
kx
kat
+ bk sin
.
sin
(78.8)
u(x, t) =
ak cos
l
l
l
k=1

132

, u(x, t) (77.4),
(78.7). ak bk , (78.8) :
u(x, 0) =

ak sin

k=1

kx
= (x).
l

:



X
ka
kat
kat
kx
ut (x, t) =
+ bk cos
,
ak sin
sin
l
l
l
l
k=1
ut (x, 0)

X
ka
k=1

bk sin

kx
= (x).
l

ka
bk l
(x) (x), (0, l)
(73.23). :
, ak

2 Rl
kx
ak =
dx;
(x) sin
l 0
l
kx
2 Rl
dx.
(x) sin
bk =
ka 0
l

(78.9)

, (78.8),
ak bk (78.9).
uk (x, t), :


ka
kx
sin
+ k ,
(78.10)
uk (x, t) = Fk sin
l
t
p
Fk = a2k + b2k , tg k = ak /bk .
(78.9) , ka
,
k =
l
k ; x kx
Fk sin
. .
l
uk (x, t) (k + 1) (0, l):
sin

l 2l
(k 1)l
kx
= 0 x = 0, , , . . . ,
, l.
l
k k
k

78

133

; , .
wk , ;
, 1 , ,
k (k > 2), . , , , (, , )
. Fk
k ;
.
78.1. :
2
2u
2 u
=a
.
2
2
t
x



3l
4hx

x 0;
;

3l
4

u|t=0 =
4h(l

x)
3l

x
;l .

l
4
ut |t=0 = 0, u|x=0 = u|x=l = 0.

: l (u|x=0 = u|x=l = 0), .


78.1 ( )
(ut |t=0 = 0).
:
U
A

3l
4

B
l

. 78.1
(78.8), (78.9):
3l

Z4
Zl
2 4hx
kx
kx
3k
32h
4h(l x)
ak =
sin
dx +
sin
dx =
sin
.
l
3l
l
l
l
3(k)2
4
0

3l
4

134

bk = 0, .. (x) = 0 .
(78.8) :

kat
kx
32h X sin(3k/4)
cos
sin
=
u(x, t) = 2
3 k=1
k2
l
l
32h
= 2
3

at 1
2x
2at
1
x
sin
cos
sin
cos
+
l
l
4
l
l
2

3x
5x
1
3at
1
5at
+ sin
cos
+ sin
cos
+
l
l
l
l
9 2
25 2

u1 (x, t) =

x
32h
at
sin
sin
l
l
3 2 2

l
32h
x =

2
3 2 2
2x
8h
2at
1 = a/l. u2 (x, t) = 2 sin
sin
,
3
l
l
4
F2 = 8h/3 2 ,
2
x = l/4 2 .
F1 =

u3 (x, t) =

12h
3at
3x
sin
cos
l
l
27 2

3 , 9 , , x = l/6.
. 25 , .

.

78.2.

77.2 .
(77.2) (77.3) (77.5). , .. : u(x, t) = X(x)T (t).
(77.5), , X(0) = X (l) =
0. (77.2) , ( 78.1 ,

78

135


) :
T (t)
X (t)
=
= 2 .
2
a T (t)
X(x)
:
X (x) + 2 X(x) = 0

(78.11)

T (t) + (a)2 T (t) = 0.

:
X(x) = C1 cos x + C2 sin x,
.. s2 + 2 = 0 : s1,2 =
i.
:
X(0) = C1 = 0,

X (l) = C2 cos l = 0.

cos l = 0, ..
(2k + 1)
, k = 0, 1, 2, . . .
2l
k Xk (x) =
= Ck sin((2k + 1)x/(2l)).
,
(2k + 1)x
(0; l):
sin
2l

Zl
(2k + 1)x
(2n + 1)x
l/2, k = n
sin
sin
dx =
.
0,
k 6= n
2l
2l
k =

(78.11) :
(2k + 1)at
(2k + 1)at
+ Bk sin
,
2l
2l
uk (x, t) = Xk (x)Tk (t), k , :


(2k + 1)at
(2k + 1)at
(2k + 1)x
uk (x, t) = ak cos
+ bk sin
sin
.
2l
2l
2l
Tk (t) = Ak cos

ak = Ak Ck , bk = Bk Ck .
u(x, t),
, :


X
(2k + 1)at
(2k + 1)x
(2k + 1)at
+ bk sin
sin
ak cos
(78.12)
u(x, t) =
2l
2l
2l
k=0

136

ak bk ,
(77.3):

(78.13)
ut |t=0

(2k + 1)x
= (x),
2l
k=0
(2k + 1)a
P
(2k + 1)x
bk sin
= (x).
=
2l
2l
k=0

u|t=0 =

ak sin

(2k + 1)x
bk 2l
(x) (x)
(2k + 1)x
. ,
sin
2l
, ( (2k + 1)x
,
ak (78.13) sin
2l
(0; l). (78.13) bk ):
, ak

(2k + 1)x
2 Rl
(x) sin
dx;
l 0
2l
Rl
(2k + 1)x
4
(x) sin
bk =
dx.
(2k + 1)a 0
2l
ak =

(78.14)

, (77.2), (77.3), (77.5)


(78.12), ak bk (78.14).
78.2. , l,
x = 0, P ,
. t = 0 .
.
: (77.2),
(77.2) (77.7) (77.5).
(78.14) ak bk , :
2P
ak =
lES

Zl

(2k + 1)x
8P l(1)k
x sin
dx = 2
,
2l
ES(2k + 1)2

bk = 0.

(78.12):

(2k + 1)at
(2k + 1)x
8l X (1)k
cos
sin
.
u(x, t) = 2
2
ES
(2k + 1)
2l
2l
k=0

( x = 0) , .. u(x, t)|x=0 =
=
0, ( x = l) , .. sin (2k+1)l
2l
k
= (1) .

78

137

78.3.

77.3 l
. (x, t) (77.2), u(x, t) = (x, t),
(77.9) (77.10).
(x, t) = X(x)T (t). (x, t)
u(x, t) (77.2) ,
(78.11). (77.10) : X(0) = 0.
:
tt |x=l = b2 t |x=l ,

b2 = GJ0 /J1

(l, t) = X(l)T (t). :


T (t)X(l) = b2 T (t)X (l).

, (78.11)
T (t) = a2 2 T (t),

T (t)X(l) = b2 T (t)X (l) a2 2 T (t)X(l) =

= b2 T (t)X (l) b2 X (l) a2 2 X(l) = 0.


, X(x) :
(78.15)

X(0) = 0,

b2 X (l) a2 2 X(l) = 0.

, (78.11)
:
X(x) = C1 cos x + C2 sin x.
(78.15) C1 C2 :
X(0) = 0 C1 = 0 X(x) = C2 sin x,

b2 X (l) a2 2 X(l) = 0 (b2 cos l a2 sin l)C2 = 0


b2 X (l) a2 sin l = 0 ctg l = a2 /b2 .
, :
a2
(78.16)
ctg l = 2 ,
b
. (. 78.2), (78.16) k , k . , C2 ,
k .
k
Xk (x) = Ck sin k x.

138
y=ctg( l)
2
y= a2
b

1 0
1

2
l

. 78.2
(78.11), k , Tk (t) = Ak cos k at + Bk sin k at, k (x, t), k , :
k (x, t) = Xk (x)Tk (t) = (ak cos k at + bk sin k at) sin k x,
ak = Ak Ck , bk = Bk Ck .
, , :
(78.17)

(x, t) =

(ak cos k at + bk sin k at) sin k x

k=1

ak bk ,
:

P
t |t=0 =
k bk sin k x = 0 bk = 0,
k=1
(78.18)

P
x
k = 1, 2, 3, . . .
ak sin k x =
|t=0 =
l
k=1

(78.18) ak . , sin k x (0; l), ak


; , , .. cos k x,
:
(
Zl
sin(2k l)
l
2 +
4k , k = n .
cos k x cos n xdx =
0, k 6= n
0

(78.18) x:

X
k=1

ak k cos k x =

.
l

ak , cos n x (0; l).

78

139

cos k x, :
ak k

Zl

cos2 (k x)dx =
l

Zl

cos k xdx,

, , :
(78.19)

ak =
2k l

sin k l
.
l
sin(2k l)
+
2
4k

, :
(78.20)

(x, t) =

ak cos k t sin k x,

k=1

ak (78.19).
k (78.16)
( ,
..).

. , ,
.
,
.

78.


77 (77.2) . x [0, ) : (77.15) (77.17) .
78
.


78.1.

t > 0:

140


2 u
2u
2 u
=
, u = x ,
78.1.
= 0, x (, +).
t2
x2
t t=0
t=0
2u
2 u
u
78.2.
= 4 2 , u = 0,
= x, x (, +).
t2
x
t t=0
t=0


2
u
2u


x
2 u
= 0,
=
sin
2x,
=
e
,
u
=
a
,
u
78.3.



x=0
t=0
t2
x2
t t=0
x (0, +).
u
u
2u
2 u
= 0,
78.4.
=
, u = 0,
= ch x,

t2
x2
t t=0
x x=0
t=0
x (0, +).

78.2.

x [0, L] :

u

78.5. u = 0,
= 100x,
t t=0
t=0




u
= 0, u
= 0.
x=0
x=L

u

78.6. u = 0,
= 2x,
t
t=0
t=0


u


= 0.
u
= 0,

x x=L
x=0

x
u

78.7. u = sin
,
= 0,
2L
t
t=0
t=0


u


= 0.
u
= 0,

x x=L
x=0

u
x

78.8. u = sin
,
= 0,
L
t t=0
t=0




u
= 0, u
= 0.
x=0

x=L

79.
,

- , . - . .

79

141

(n+1,m)

t
h
n

(n,m-1)

2
1
n=0
m=0 1 2 3

(n,m)

(n,m+1)

x
m

(n-1,m)

(a)

(b)

. 79.1
, . , , .
:
0 6 x 6 l, t > 0
(t = 0) (x = 0, x = l) .
2
2
u

2 u

a
= 0, 0 6 x 6 l, t > 0,

2
2

t
x

u(0, x) = 0 (x),

u (0, x) = (x),
1
t


(79.1)

u

= 1 (t),

u
+

0
1

x
x=0

x=0

= 2 (t).
0 u
+ 1
x
x=0
x=l

tn = n , xm = mh, n = 0, 1, 2, . . . , N ,
m = 0, 1, 2, . . . , M = l/h (. 79.1,a).

79.1.
,
, , . 79.1,b ("").

142

n+1
um 2unm + un1

n = 1, 2, . . . , N 1;

n
n
n

2u
+
u
m = 1, 2, . . . , M 1;

m
m1

=0
a2 m+1

u
=

(mh),
m = 0, 1, . . . M;
m
0
1
0
um um
(79.2)
= 1 (mh),
m = 0, 1, . . . , M;

un+1
un+1

1
0
n+1

= 1 (tn+1 ), n = 0, 1, . . . , N 1,
0 u0 + 1

h n+1

n+1

uM1
u

M
0 un+1
+

= 2 (tn+1 ), n = 0, 1, . . . , N 1.
1
M
h
n+1
um 2unm + un1

n = 1, 2, . . . , N 1;

n
n
n

u
2um + um1
m = 1, 2, . . . , M 1;

2 m+1

a
=
0

h2

m = 0, 1, . . . , M;
um = 0 (mh),
2
1
0
a
um um
(79.3)
=

(mh)
+
0 (mh), m = 0, 1, . . . , M;

un+1
un+1

1
0
n+1

= 1 (tn+1 ), n = 0, 1, . . . , N 1,
0 u0 + 1

h n+1

n+1

uM1

M
0 un+1
= 2 (tn+1 ), n = 1, 2, . . . , N 1.
M + 1
h

(76.5 c,d). (79.2) h,
, ,
h . (79.3)
(79.2) .
u(0, x)/t
, , h,
. u(0, x)/t (79.3)
, 0 (x) . u1m

u(0, x)
1 2 u(0, x) 2
+
+ O( 3 ).
2
t
2 t

u1m = u0m +

2
2
2u
2 u
2 d 0 (x)
=a
=a
t2
x2
dx2

79

143

u(0, x) u1m u0m a2 d2 0 (x)


+ O( 2 ),
=

2
t

2 dx
, , (79.1)

u1m u0m
= 1 (mh) + a2 0 (mh) + O( 2 ).

2 2
(79.4)
=
+ 1 (mh) + a 0 (mh).
2
0
1
um um (79.4)
:
u1m

u0m

2 n
(um+1 2unm + unm1 ), n = 1, 2, . . . , N 1.
2
h

:
(1) u0m = 0 (mh), m = 0, 1, 2, M
t = 0.
(2) n = 1. u1m = u0m + 0 (mh)
(79.4) t = .
(3) (79.5) u
(m = 1, 2, . . . , M 1) n + 1-
t = (n + 1) .
(4) (76.5 c) (76.5
d) t = (n + 1) .
(5) n = n + 1
(6) n < N , 3.
(7) .

2
(79.5) un+1
= 2unm un1
m
m +a

79.1.1. - ""

"". unm = n eiwmh
n
n
n
n1
n
un+1
m 2um + um
2 um+1 2um + um1
a
= 0,
2
h2



2
2 2
2 wh
+ 1 = 0.
(79.6)
2 1 2r a sin
2

144


1 2 = 1. ,
, .
,
. (79.6) :
r
wh
wh
wh
r2 a2 sin2
(79.7)
= 1 2r2 a2 sin2
2ra sin
1.
2
2
2

r2 a2 sin2 (wh/2) < 1, || = 1 r2 a2 sin2 (wh/2) = 1.


, sin2 (wh/2) = 1, ,
"" r2 a2 6 1, ..
1

(79.8)
r= 6 .
h
a
,
(tn+1 , xm ) x at =
= C1 x + at = C2 , ( . 79.2). . , , ,
, (tn+1 , xm )
-
, .. "" 6 a, h
, .
. ,
.
(n+1,m)

x-at=C 1

x+at=C 2
(n,m)

(n,m-1)

(n,m+1)

h
(n-1,m)

. 79.2

79.2.
. t
(n, m). ,
x .

79

(n+1,m-1)

(n+1,m)

(n+1,m+1)

(n+1,m-1)

145

(n+1,m)

(n,m-1)
(n,m)

(n-1,m-1)

(n-1,m)

(n+1,m+1)

(n,m+1)
(n,m)

(n-1,m+1)

(n-1,m-1)

(a)

(n-1,m)

(n-1,m+1)

(b)

. 79.3
, ,
(. 79.3,a 79.3,b)
, ,
(79.9)

n+1
n+1
n
n1
(un+1
un+1
m+1 2um + um1 )
m 2um + um
2
a

2
2
h
n1
n1
(1 2)(unm+1 2unm + unm1 ) + (un1
m+1 2um + um1 )
2
a
= 0,
h2

= 1/2 ,
. 79.3, = 1/4 , .
79.3,b. , = 0 (79.9)
"".
(79.9)
:


1 + 4r2 a2 sin2 (wh/2) 2 2 1 2(1 2)r2 a2 sin2 (wh/2) +
(79.10)
+1 + 4 2 r2 a2 sin2 (wh/2) = 0.
= 1/2 = 1/4 , || = 1, ..
, (79.9)
, (79.5), ..
n+1 - ,
,
.

146

79.

MathCad
79.1.
77
. , (x),
. . ,

.
MathCad.
MathCad 77 77.1.
, .
ORIGIN := 0
P := 100
:= 0.25
(x) := 0
u(x, t) :=

T OL := 0.00001

N := 5 M := 100 a := 2
BA
n := 0..N m := 0..M A := 5 B := 5 h :=
M
tn := n xm := A + h m
:= P atan(x)
x+at
R
P
P
(z)dz
((x a t) + (x + a t)) +

2
2 a xat

Um,n := u(xm , tn )
. 79.1 , MathCad.
t = 0 Ox.

79.2.


78. 78
78.1 MathCad. MathCad
78.2.

79

MATHCAD

147

(U<0>) m 100
(U<1>) m

60

(U<2>) m

20

(U<3>) m -20
(U<4>) m -60
(U<5>) m -100

-5

-3

-1

xm

. 79.1

N := 5

T OL := 0.00001 ORIGIN := 0 M := 100 K := 20


L
a := 1
n := 0..N
m := 0..M k := 0..K L := 1 h :=
M
tn := 0.2 n xm := h m
P := 100

(x) :=


4 P x
3L

if
0
6
x

x
6

4
3L
4 P (L x)

otherwise

L


2 RL
kx
Ak := (x) sin
dx
L 0 
L




K
P
kat
kx
Ak cos
u(x, t) :=
sin
L
L
k=1
Um,n := u(xm, tn )

. 79.2 t.
MathCad .

148

(U<0>) m 100
(U<1>) m

60

(U<2>) m

20

(U<3>) m -20 0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

(U<4>) m -60
(U<5>) m -100
O

xm

. 79.2

N := 5 T OL := 0.00001 ORIGIN := 0 M := 100 K := 20


L
a := 1 P := 100
n := 0..N m := 0..M k := 0..K L := 1 h :=
M
tn := 0.25 n xm := h m E := 1 S := 1
P x
(x) :=
E S
K
P



(2 k + 1) x
2 RL
Ak := (x) sin
dx
L 0
2L


(2 k + 1) a t
Ak cos
u(x, t) :=
2L
k=0


(2 k + 1) x
sin
2L

Um,n := u(xm , tn )
, , MathCad .
79.1.

4x
U

x2
u = x (L x) e ,
= 0.1 sin2
t t=0
L
t=0




: u
= u
= 0.
x=0

x=L

79

MATHCAD

149

: (78.8), (78.9).
MathCad.
N := 5 T OL := 0.00001 ORIGIN := 0 M := 100 K := 20
L
a := 1
n := 0..N m := 0..M k := 0..K L := 1 h :=
M
tn := 0.25 n xm := h m


x2

(x) := 0.1 sin




2 RL
kx
Ak := (x) sin
dx
L 0
L

RL
kx
2
(x) sin
dx
Bk :=
ak 0
L
(x) := x (L x) e

u(x, t) :=

K
P

k=0

4x
L

2

p :=

a
L

(Ak cos(k p t) + Bk sin(k p t)) sin

k x
L

Um,n := u(xm, tn )
. 79.3 t.
(U<0>) m
(U<1>) m
(U<2>)

0,4

0,2

m
0

(U<3>) m
(U<4>) m

-0,2

(U<5>) m

-0,4

0,2

0,4

0,6

xm

. 79.3

0,8

150

80.
. .

80.1.

u(x, y) :
(80.1)

2u 2u
+
= 0,
x2 y 2

; L, :
(80.2)

u(x, y)|L = (x, y).

.
, R
. . :

x = r cos
u(x, y) = u(r cos , r sin ).
y = r sin

2u
:
y 2
u
u r
u
u
u r u
=
+
;
=
+
;
x
r x x
y
r y y
 




u
u r
u
2u
=
=
+
=
x2
x x
x r x
x x
 2
 2


u r
2 u r u 2 r
2 u
u r
=
+
+
+
+
+
r2 x r x x r x2
r x 2 x x
 2
 2
2 u r 2 u
2 u r
u 2
+2
+
= 2
+
+
x2
r
x
r x x 2 x

2u
x2

80

151

u 2
u 2 r
+
.
+
r x2 x2
:
 2
 2
2u
2 u r 2 u
2 u r
+2
+
= 2
+
y 2
r
y
r y 2 y
+
, r =

u 2 r u 2
+
.
r y 2 y 2

x2 + y 2 ; = arctg(y/x), :

x
r cos
x
r
=p
= cos ;
= =
x
r
r
x2 + y 2
r
y
y
= = sin ;
=p
y
r
x2 + y 2

y2
r2 sin2
sin2
2r
= 2
=
=
;
x2
(x + y 2 )3/2
r3
r
2r
x2
r2 cos2
cos2
= 2
=
=
;
y 2
(x + y 2 )3/2
r3
r
(y/x2 )
y
r sin
sin

=
=

;
x
1 + (y/x)2
x2 + y 2
r2
r

cos
1/x
=
=
;
y
1 + (y/x)2
r
2
2xy
2 sin cos
=
=
;
x2
(x2 + y 2 )2
r2

2
2 sin cos
=

.
y 2
r2
2u 2u

:

x2 y 2
2u
2u
2 u sin cos 2 u sin2
2
= 2 cos 2
+
+
x2
r
r
r
2 r2
u sin2 u 2 sin cos
+
;
+
r r

r2
2u 2
2 u sin cos 2 u cos2
2u
=
sin

+
2
+
+
y 2
r2
r
r
2 r2
u cos2 u 2 sin cos
.

+
r r

r2

152

(80.1), :
2 u 1 u
1 2u
(80.3)
+
= 0.
+
r2 r r r2 2
u(r, ), (80.3),
u(r, )|r=R = (R cos , R sin ) = f (),
f () , L:
r = R. (80.3) , ..
:
u(r, ) = R(r)().
(80.3), :
1
1
()R (r) + ()R (r) + 2 R(r) () = 0.
r
r

rR (r) + r2 R (r)
()

=
= C.
R(r)
()
, ,
C :
C = 2 .

:
(80.4)

() + 2 () = 0,

(80.5)

r2 R (r) + rR (r) 2 R(r) = 0.

(80.4) :

() = A cos() + B sin().
, 2
(r, ) ,
2. : = 1, 2, 3, . . . ( ); k () :
k () = Ak cos(k) + Bk sin(k), k = 1, 2, 3, . . .
, ..
Bk .
(80.5) ( ) :
R(r) = rm . : R (r) = mrm1 , R (r) = m(m 1)rm2

80

153

(80.5): r2 m(m 1)rm2 + rmrm1 2 rm = 0, :


m2 2 = 0 m1,2 = . (80.5):
R1 (r) = r R2 (r) = r , , . R2 (r) = r r 0,
. , (80.5) : R(r) = Cr , ,
= k, :
Rk (r) = Ck rk .
, uk (r, ) (80.3)
:
uk (r, ) = Rk (r)k () = (Ak cos(k) + Bk sin(k))Ck rk =
= (ak cos(k) + bk sin(k))rk ,
k = 1, 2, 3, . . .
u0 (r, ) = a0 /2; ,
(80.3).
u(r, ) (80.3):
(80.6)

a0 X
+
(ak cos(k) + bk sin(k))rk .
u(r, ) =
2
k=1

ak bk :

a0 X
+
(ak Rk cos(k) + bk Rk sin(k)) = f (),
u(r, )|r=R =
2
k=1

:
Z
Z
1
1
a0 =
f ()d, ak Rk =
f () cos(k)d,

1
bk R k =

f () sin(k)d,

k = 1, 2, 3, . . .

:
1 R
1 R
a0 =
f ()d, ak = k
f () cos(k)d,

R
(80.7)
1 R
bk = k
f () sin(k)d,
k = 1, 2, 3, . . .
R

, (80.6),
ak bk (80.7).

154

80.1. R,
10 C, 00 C.
.
:
:

1, 0 6 6
f () =
0, < < 2.
(80.7) :

Z
Z
Z2
1
1
1 cos(k)d = 0.
1d + 0d = 1, ak =
a0 =

Rk
0

1
bk =
Rk

Z
0

1 (1)k
2
1 sin(k)d =

b
=
0,
b
=
.
2n
2n1
Rk k
R2n1 (2n 1)

(80.6) :
1 2 X  r 2n1 sin((2n 1))
u(r, ) = +
.
2 n=1 R
2n 1

80.1.
:
1
u(r, ) =
2

Z2
0

R2 2
f ( ) 2
d.
R 2R cos( ) + 2

,

, 0z. ,
, ,
. , .
.

80

155

80.2.

D, , , ,
, a b (. 80.1).
M x N y.
x y hx hy .
y
b
m,n

x
0

. 80.1
2u
2u

(m, n)
x2
y 2
"".
-

um+1,n 2um,n + um1,n um,n+1 2um,n + um,n1

+
= 0,

2
2
h
h

x
y

n = 1, 2, . . . N 1; m = 1, 2, . . . , M 1,

(80.8)
um,0 = (xm, 0),
m = 0, 1, . . . , M,

um,N = (xm , b),


m = 0, 1, . . . , M,

u0,n = (0, yn ),
n = 1, 2, . . . , N 1,

u
n = 1, 2, . . . , N 1.
M,n = (a, yn ),

. -
, x y
. ,
U .
(80.8) (N + 1)(M + 1) N
M.
(80.8) .
.

156

.
(80.8) um,n (p +1), u
(p).
(80.9)

u(p+1)
m,n

(p)
um+1,n

(p)
um1,n



(p)
(p)
+ r um,n+1 + um,n1 / (2(r + 1)) ,

r = (hx /hy )2 . - u
, , , (80.9).
,
um,n ,
, ..

(80.10)

(p)
|u(p+1)
m,n um,n | < .

, , (80.9)
(80.11) u(p+1)
m,n =

(p)
(p)
(p)
(p)
(um+1,n + um1,n + r(um,n+1 + um,n1 )) + (1 )u(p)
m,n ,
2(r + 1)

, (
(80.10)) .
, .

u(0) . , ,
,
. .
(80.9)
D :
(80.12)

u
=A
t

2u 2u
+
x2 y 2

80

157

,
(80.12), ,
(80.11)
(t, x, y).

(80.13)

tn = n,
n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
xm = mh,
m = 0, 1, 2, . . .
yk = kl,
k = 0, 1, 2, . . .
n
n
u(t , xm , yk ) = Um,k .

, (80.12),
(80.14)

n
Um,k
= n etw1 mh etw2 kl .

, , ,
.


. ,
. ,

, -
, , , ,
.

80.

80.1.
.
80.1. (72.14)

158

t=0


u
x
= 0, 5 cos

t t=0
2

= sin x,

x=0

= 0,


u
u+
= 0, 1 sin 2t.

x x=L

- ,
u0m = sin xm ,
m = 0, 1, 2, ..., M;
1
0
xm
um um
= 0, 5 cos
,
m = 0, 1, ..., M;

2
un+1
= 0,
n = 0, 1, 2, ..., N 1;
0
n+1
uM un+1
M1
n+1
= 0, 1 sin 2tn+1 ,
n = 0, 1, ..., N 1.
uM +
h
:
u0m = sin xm .

(80.1)


(80.2)

u1m = u0m + cos(0, 5xm).


un+1
= 0.
0

(80.3)

(80.4)


n+1
n+1
un+1
) /(1 + h).
M = uM1 + h 0.1 sin(2t

80.2.
Excel

h 0, 05. r h. -
, r 6 1.
r=1.

Excel . . . B2 , D2
F 2 r, h : 1, 0,05

80

159

= B2 D2, . . A3
t/x. xm .
B3 0. C3 = D2. D3
= C3+$D$2. V 3 (x = 1).
t
. A4
0. A5 - = $F $2. A6 = A5 + $F $2
A24. B4 : V 4
(80.1). B4
= sin(3, 14159 B$3) L4. (80.1). B5
: = C4 + $F $2 cos(1, 5708 C$3).
(79.5). C6 :
=2* C5-C4+(\$F\$2/\$D\$2)\^2* (D5-2* C5+B5)
U 6. (80.3)
(80.4) . B6 = 0.
V 5,
. = (U 6 + $D$2 0, 1
sin(6, 28 $A5)/(1 +$D$2)). , A6 : V 6. 24 .

.
.
t = 0; 0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8 1.0. , 3, 4, 8, 12,
16, 20 24,
. ,
Excel, ,
, Visual Basic MathCad
.

80.3.

Visual Basic
Visual Basic , .
,
.

160

,
.
Sub ()
Dim x() As Double, y() As Double, ynp1() As Double, ynm1() As Double
Dim h As Double, tau As Double, r As Double, a As Double
Dim hPr As Double, tauPr As Double, Tmax As Double, L As Double
Dim nn As Long, mm As Long, MPr As Long, a1 As Double, a2 As Double
Dim n As Long, m As Long, ngr As Integer
Dim t As Double, rr As Double, pi As Double
pi = Atn(1) * 4

L = 1
a = 1
Tmax = 0.5
h = 0.01
r = 1
tau = r * h
hPr = 0.1 x
tauPr = 0.1
NPr = CLng(Tmax / tauPr) + 1
MPr= CLng(hPr/h) Ox
mm = CLng(L/h) Ox
nn = CLng(Tmax/tau) Ot
ReDim x(mm), y(mm), ynp1(mm), ynm1(mm)
For m = 0 To mm
x(m) = h * m


ynm1(m) = Sin(pi * x(m))

y(m) = ynm1(m) + tau * 0.5 * Cos(0.5 * pi * x(m))
Next m
Dim NameSh As String
NameSh = ""
Sheets(NameSh).Select
Cells.Clear
Cells(1, 1) = "t\x"
Cells(2, 1) = "t=0"
ngr = 1
For m = 0 To mm Step MPr
Cells(1, m \ MPr + 2) = CDbl(Format(x(m), "#0.00"))
Cells(ngr + 1, m \ MPr + 2) = CDbl(Format(ynm1(m), "#0.00"))
Cells(1, m \ MPr + 2).Interior.Color = RGB(220, 90, 220)

80

161

Next m
a1 = 2 * (1 - r ^ 2)
a2 = r ^ 2
For n = 2 To nn
t = tau * n
For m = 1 To mm - 1
ynp1(m) = a1 * y(m) + a2 * (y(m + 1) + y(m - 1)) - ynm1(m)
Next m
Call (ynp1, t, h, mm)

For m = 0 To mm
ynm1(m) = y(m)
y(m) = ynp1(m)
Next m

tauPr
If Abs((ngr) * tauPr - t) < tau / 10 Then
ngr = ngr + 1
Cells(ngr + 1, 1) = "t=" + Format(t, "#0.00")
For m = 0 To mm Step MPr
Cells(ngr + 1, m \ MPr + 2) = CDbl(Format(y(m), "#0.00"))
Next m
End If
Next n
Range("a1:a" + Trim(Str(ngr + 1))).Interior.Color = _
RGB(220, 90, 220)
Dim NameDiagr As String
NameDiagr = " "
Call (ngr, CInt(mm / MPr), NameSh, _
NameDiagr, 0, 1, 0, 1)
End Sub
Sub (ynp1() As Double, _
t As Double, h As Double, mm As Long)
Dim pi As Double
pi = Atn(1) * 4
ynp1(0) = 0

ynp1(mm) = (ynp1(mm - 1) + h * _
0.1 * Sin(2 * pi * t)) / (1 + h)
End Sub

. 80.1 , 0 0,5
0,1.

162

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

t\x
t=0
t = 0, 20
t = 0, 40
t = 0, 60
t = 0, 80
t = 1, 00

0,1
0,31
0,34
0,30
0,23
0,14
0,04

0,2
0,59
0,61
0,57
0,44
0,27
0,08

0,3
0,81
0,82
0,75
0,61
0,38
0,11

0,4
0,95
0,95
0,86
0,69
0,46
0,15

0,5
1
0,99
0,89
0,70
0,46
0,17

0,6
0,95
0,94
0,84
0,66
0,42
0,42

0,7
0,81
0,80
0,71
0,55
0,62
0,64

0,8
0,59
0,58
0,51
0,67
0,78
0,79

0,9
0,31
0,30
0,54
0,74
0,84
0,85

1,0
0
0,27
0,53
0,72
0,81
0,82


1
t=0
t=0,2
t=0,4
t=0,6
t=0,8
t=1,0

0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

. 80.1.

80.4.
MathCad
(80.1) MathCad.
, Visual Basic. MathCad
.
ORIGIN := 0 T OL := 0.00001 L := 1 a := 1 T max := 1
h
L
T max
r := 1 M := 100 h :=
:= r
N :=
M
a

hP r
hP r := 0.1
MP r :=
h

a2 := r2
a1 := 2 1 r2
P r := 0.2

m := 0..MhP r

xm := m hP r

MhP r :=

L
hP r

80

163

(U<0>) m 1
(U<1>) m 0,8
(U<2>) m 0,6
(U<3>) m 0,4
(U<4>) m 0,2
(U<5>) m

0,2

0,4

xm

0,6

0,8

. 80.2. MathCad
U := |f or m 0..M
xm m h

ynm1m sin( xm )

ym ynm1m + 0.5 cos(0.5 xm )

k0

ngr 1

f or m 0, MP r..M

Uk,0 ynm1m

k k+1

f or n 2..N

tn

f or m 1..M 1


ynp1m a1 ym + a2 (ym1 + ym+1 ) ynm1m

ynp10 0

ynp1M1 + h 0.1 sin(2 t)

ynp1M

1+h
ynm1 y

y ynp1


if ngr P r t < 0.1

k0

f or m 0, MP r..M

Uk,ngr ym

k k+1

ngr ngr + 1

U

164

m := 0..MhP r
xm := m hP r
. 80.2 U (x, t), MathCad.
. 80.3 . ,
Visual Basic, MathCad
.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

0
0
0,309
0,5878
0,809
0,9511
1
0,9511
0,809
0,5878
0,309
0

1
0
0,3446
0,6092
0,8177
0,9494
0,9911
0,9384
0,796
0,5773
0,3032
0,2713

2
0
0,3002
0,5745
0,7496
0,8578
0,8878
0,836
0,7066
0,5114
0,5396
0,5285

3
0
0,2299
0,4406
0,6146
0,688
0,7027
0,656
0,5514
0,669
0,7367
0,7153

. 80.3

4
0
0,1404
0,27
0,379
0,4595
0,4563
0,4181
0,6184
0,7768
0,8446
0,8138

5
0
0,0401
0,0788
0,1149
0,1472
0,1749
0,4186
0,6434
0,7941
0,8539
0,8159

81

165

XII

81.

. . . .
,
.

81.1.
, . optimus, , .
,
, ..
. ( extremum, ""). .
. ,
.
, , ,
,
.. .

81.1.1. .
. .

166

, ""
, , :
, , , .

"" . ,
,
.
, . ,
, " ".
,
. ().
IX . .
,
.
1. ,
L S.
, ,
. . ,
, .. , ,
.
2. , , ,
.
, . .
. L, , l, A, B l, ,
[AB] S.
, ()
l, .. ,
[AB]. .
3. A B l
. , ?
. L, , l, A, B l,
, [AB] S.
, .
, [AB]

81

167

.
. , A B .
.
B :
, , . :
l . ,
: , ,
, .
, (
), .
.
4. , . , A B . ,
A B ,
, .

( )
, , C
. ,
AC CB. |AC| +
|CB| = L ACB, |AC| + |CB| > L
.

.
5. . - 45 .
.
.
, ,
, .

81.1.2.
1696 . , .
, A B,
, , A
B .
, , A B,
A B,

168

. , A , ,
A
B . . ,
. , . , . . . .
.

81.1.3.
, (x, y, z) = 0 (. 81.1).
.

. 81.1.
.
Zx1 q
1 + y 2 + z 2 dx,
l=
x0

y(x) z(x) (x, y, z) = 0. , , , .


1698
,
. . .

81.1.4.
,
.

81

169

,
, .
, .. ,
,
.
,

,
.
. , .
- .

81.1.5.
"" . , . ,
. . .
, . (,
), (, ) . ,
, ,
.
. .
,
, ,
.
.

81.2.
81.2.1.

, . , ""
.
.
:
f : X R, X, , .. C X. R -

170

,
+. X ,
x C .
: (.. inf sup ) f ,
x C.
(81.1)

f (x) inf(sup);

x C.

, X, f C.
X = C, (81.1) . x
(81.1), (, , )

(),

f (x) > f (
x) ( f (x) 6 f (
x)) x C.
, ,
f (x) sup, x C f(x) inf, x C, f(x) = f (x).
, , ,
, f (x) extr.
X , ..
. , , X
( Rn ).
. X , x
, U x
, ,
x
f (x) inf, x C U .
.

81.2.2.

, .
-. ,
, .
L, x(s), y(s), s,
.
p
2
2

x (s) + y (s) = 1 ( ds = dx2 + dy 2 ) ,


, x(0) = x(L), y(0) = y(L), .
, , ..
RL
RL
x(s)ds = y(s)ds = 0. S , 0

81

(x(s), y(s))

S[x(s), y(s)] =

ZL
0

ZL
0

xy ds. ,

(81.2)

RL

171

x(s)ds =

ZL

xy ds sup;

y(s)ds = 0,

x (s) + y (s) = 1,

x(0) = x(L),

y(0) = y(L).

. ,

. , .
, : x = x(t), y = y(t).
u = x (t), v = y (t). , ,
(81.3)

1
S[x(t), y(t)] =
2

ZT
0

(x(t)v(t) y(t)u(t))dt sup .

, V ,
(81.4)

u2 + v 2 6 V.

, ,
(81.5)

x(0) = x(T ),

y(0) = y(T ).

, (81.3), (81.4), (81.5).

81.2.3.
, A B,
A B
( ).
(x, y), Ox
, Oy .
A, .. (0, 0). , B
(x1 , y1 ), x1 > 0, y1 > 0, y = y(t) ,
, A B.

p
ds
= 2gy,
y = y(x),
dt

172

t,
A(0, 0) B(x1 , y1 ) :

(81.6)

1
t[y(x)] =
2g

Zx1 p
1 + y 2
dx inf;

y(0) = 0,

y(x1 ) = y1 .

81.2.4.

. m, x0 ,
v0 . ( ) f , x(t). m
x = f .
: f [f1 , f2 ].
, ,
T
(81.7)

T inf,

x(0) = x0 ,

m
x = f,
x(0)

= v0 ,

f [f1 , f2 ],

x(T ) = x(T
) = 0.

. "" . , (81.6)
t[y(x)] , , ,
(.. X .
81.2.1). ,
, .

81.2.5.

. :
ai , i- ,
1 6 i 6 m;
bj ( ) j- , 1 6 j 6 n;
cij i- j- ;
xij i-
j- .
m P
n
P
cij xij , .

i=1 j=1

(1) xij R+ ( );
n
P
xij 6 ai ( , );
(2)
j=1

81

(3)

m
P

173

xij = bj ( , ).

i=1

:
(81.8)

m X
n
X
i=1 j=1

n
X

cij xij inf,

m
X

xij 6 ai ,

j=1

xij = bj ,

i=1

xij R+ .

. n
(, , , ..). ,
bj j- . aij j-
i- , ci i- .
xi i- ,
(81.9)

n
X
i=1

ci xi inf,

n
X

aij xi > bj ,

xi > 0.

i=1

81.

,
81.1.
,
, , . , . 81.1.

y
D

C
F

. 81.1
:
a ;
b ;
av ;
bv ;

174

O(xv0 , yv0 ) .

, EF GH
ABCD. ABCD M hx
a
,
AB N hy AD. hx =
M
b
hy = . M 1, M 2, N 1, N 2 , ,
N
, , .
.
(1) . av = 0, bv = 0. N 1 = N 2 = M 1 =
= M 2 = 0.
(2) . av > 0, bv > 0. 0 <
N1 < N2 < N, M1 < M2 < M.
(3) . ,
C. av > 0, bv > 0. , DC BC
. 0 < N 1 < N , N 2 = N , 0 < M 1 < M ,
M2 = M.
(4) . ,
AD. av > 0, bv > 0. , AD
. M 1 = 0. CD N 2 =
N.

.
,
. ABCD
EHGF , . 81.1. : |AB| = a,
|AD| = b, |EF | = av , |EH| = bv , O(xv0 , yv0 ) .

ABCD N AD M AB. N 1, N 2, M 1, M 2 ,
.
a, b, av , bv
AB, AD, EF , EH, a xv0 , yv0 .
av = bv = xv0 = yv0 = 0.
.
.
Visual Basic , N
nn, M mm. : hx, hy, r, Ox xm ,
Oy ym , m1, m2, n1, n2.
.

81

175

75.

,
-1000.
.
.

For n = 1 To nn - 1
For m = 1 To mm - 1
..............
Next m, n
.
If Not (u(m, n) < -273 Or ((n >= n1 And n <= n2) And ...
, ,
, .
.
,

Loop Until (Emax <= Eps),
itn
Itmax
If itn > Itmax Then
MsgBox (" " & itn &
" " & " Emax=" & Emax)
Exit Sub
End If

.
: NameShZ = NameShG =
.
u .
. N IZOL , .
, xm , ym , , .
- .
,
.
Sub
Dim
Dim
Dim

()
u() As Double, x() As Double, y() As Double
a As Double, b As Double, av As Double, bv As Double
xv0 As Double, yv0 As Double, Eps As Double

176

Dim hx As Double, hy As Double, r As Double, omega As Double


Dim NameShZ As String, NameShG As String, rr As Double
Dim itn As Integer, mm As Integer, nn As Integer, n As Integer
Dim m As Integer, Itmax As Integer, Emax As Double
Dim n1 As Integer, n2 As Integer, m1 As Integer, m2 As Integer
Dim x1 As Double, x2 As Double, y1 As Double, y2 As Double
Dim Uw As Double, Ep As Double, s As String

NameShZ = ""
NameShG = ""
Sheets(NameShZ).Select
Cells.Select
Selection.Clear

a = 15: b = 10: mm = 60: nn = 60: av = 5
bv = 5: xv0 = 12.5: yv0 = 2.5
omega = 1.75: Eps = 0.01: Itmax = 500
itn = 0: n1 = nn: n2 = nn: m1 = mm: m2 = mm

ReDim u(mm, nn), x(mm), y(nn)
hx = a / mm Ox
hy = b / nn Oy
r = (hx / hy) ^ 2
For m = 0 To mm
x(m) = m * hx Ox
Next m
For n = 0 To nn
y(n) = n * hy Oy
Next n
If av > a / mm Then
If Abs(xv0 + yv0) < hx / 2 Then

m1 = CInt((a - av) / (2 * hx))
m2 = mm - m1
n1 = CInt((b - bv) / (2 * hy))
n2 = nn - n1
Else

x1 = xv0 - av / 2
x2 = xv0 + av / 2
y1 = yv0 - bv / 2
y2 = yv0 + bv / 2
m1 = CInt(x1 / hx)
m2 = m1 + CInt((x2 - x1) / hx)

81

n1 = CInt(y1 / hy)
n2 = n1 + CInt((y2 - y1) / hy)
End If
If nn - n2 <= 1 Then n2 = nn
If mm - m2 <= 1 Then m2 = mm
End If
Call (u, nn, mm, n1, _
n2, m1, m2)

itn = 0: rr = 2 * r + 2
Do
itn = itn + 1
Emax = 0
For n = 1 To nn - 1
For m = 1 To mm - 1
If Not (u(m, n) < -273 Or ((n >= n1 And n <= n2) And _
(m >= m1 And m <= m2))) Then
Uw = omega / rr * (r * (u(m, n + 1) + u(m, n - 1)) + _
(u(m + 1, n) + u(m - 1, n))) + (1 - omega) * u(m, n)
Ep = Abs(Uw - u(m, n))
If Ep > Emax Then Emax = Ep
u(m, n) = Uw
End If
Next m, n

Call (u, hx, hy, nn, mm, n1, n2, m1, m2)
If itn > Itmax Then
MsgBox (" " & itn & _
" " & " Emax=" & Emax)
Exit Sub
End If
Loop Until (Emax <= Eps)
s = " " & itn & " " & _
" Emax=" & Emax
Call (u, x, y, nn, mm, NameShG, NameShZ, s)
End Sub
Sub (u() As Double, _
nn As Integer, mm As Integer, n1 As Integer, n2 As Integer, _
m1 As Integer, m2 As Integer)
Dim m As Integer, n As Integer

For m = 1 To mm - 1
For n = 1 To nn - 1
u(m, n) = 75

177

178

Next n, m

For m = m1 To m2
For n = n1 To n2
u(m, n) = -1000
Next n, m
AD x=0
For n = 0 To nn
u(0, n) = 100
Next n
DC y=b
For m = 0 To mm
u(m, nn) = 100
Next m
AE y=0
For m = 0 To m1
u(m, 0) = 75
Next m
EH x=xv0-av/2
For n = 0 To n2
u(m1, n) = 20
Next n
HG y=hy*n2
For m = m1 To m2
u(m, n2) = 20
Next m
GC x=a
For n = n2 To nn
u(mm, n) = 100
Next n
End Sub
Sub (u() As Double, _
hx As Double,hy As Double, nn As Integer, _
mm As Integer,n1 As Integer, n2 As Integer, _
m1 As Integer, m2 As Integer)
Dim n As Integer, m As Integer
AD x=0
For n = 0 To nn
u(0, n) = u(1, n) + 4 * hx
Next n
DC y=b
For m = 0 To mm
u(m, nn) = 100
Next m

81

AE y=0
For m = 0 To m1
u(m, 0) = u(m, 1)
Next m
EH x=xv0-av/2
For n = 0 To n2
u(m1, n) = (3 * u(m1 - 1, n) - 40 * hx) / (3 + 2 * hx)
Next n
HG y=hy*n2
For m = m1 To m2
u(m, n2) = (3 * u(m, n2 + 1) + 40 * hy) / (3 + 2 * hy)
Next m
GC x=a
For n = n2 To nn
u(mm, n) = u(mm - 1, n)
Next n
End Sub
Sub (u() As Double, x() As Double, _
y() As Double,nn As Integer, mm As Integer, _
NameShG As String, NameShZ As String, s As String)
Dim Umax As Double, Umin As Double, HU As Double
Dim n As Integer, m As Integer, col As Integer
Dim masColor As Variant, k1 As Integer, Nizol As Integer
Dim alph As String
alph = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"
Nizol = 10
Sheets(NameShZ).Select
Cells.Select
Selection.Clear
Selection.ColumnWidth = 4
Selection.RowHeight = 12
Cells(1, 1) = "y\x"
For m = 0 To mm x
Cells(1, m + 2) = CDbl(Format(x(m), "#0.00"))
Cells(1, m + 2).Interior.Color = RGB(220, 90, 220)
Next m
For n = 0 To nn y
Cells(nn - n + 2, 1) = CDbl(Format(y(n), "#0.00"))
Cells(nn - n + 2, 1).Interior.Color = RGB(220, 100, 220)
Next n

For m = 0 To mm
For n = 0 To nn
If u(m, n) > -272 Then

179

180

Cells(nn - n + 2, m + 2) = CDbl(Format(u(m, n), "#0.00"))


Else
Cells(nn - n + 2, m + 2).Interior.Color = RGB(40, 40, 40)
End If
Next n, m
Sheets(NameShG).Select
Cells.Select
Selection.Clear
Selection.ColumnWidth = 1.1
Selection.RowHeight = 8

Selection.Font.Size = 6

[Umin, Umax]
Umax = -272
Umin = 1E+20
For m = 0 To mm
For n = 0 To nn
If u(m, n) > -273 Then
If u(m, n) > Umax Then Umax = u(m, n)
If u(m, n) < Umin Then Umin = u(m, n)
End If
Next n, m
HU = (Umax - Umin) / Nizol
Range("a" + Trim(Str(nn + 3)) + ":cz" + Trim(Str(nn + 5))).Select
With Selection
.RowHeight = 16
.Font.Size = 10
End With
Cells(nn + 3, 1) = " "
( )
masColor = Array(&HE1C171, &HE1B171, &HD1C171, &H11B1C1, _
&HB19141, &HC19161, &H810151, &H714161, &H210161, _
&H8181C1, &H4101D1)

For n = 0 To Nizol
For k1 = 1 To 5
Cells(nn + 4, 5 * n + k1).Interior.Color = masColor(n)
Next k1
Cells(nn + 4, 5 * n + 1) = n & " - " & _
Format(Umin + HU * (n + 0.5), "#0.00")
Next n
Cells(nn + 5, 1) = s
. ..
For m = 0 To mm
For n = 0 To nn

81

181


col = CLng((u(m, n) - Umin) / HU)
If col >= 0 And col <= Nizol Then
{\it }
Cells(nn - n + 1, m + 1).Interior.Color = masColor(col)
Cells(nn - n + 1, m + 1) = col
End If
Next n, m
End Sub

(30x20) (10x10), . 81.1. U = 1000 C,
q = 60/2 . U = 200 C.
= 10/(2 K),
K = 15/(K). .
, , . 81.2. CG
AE . ,
, .



u
u
= 0,

= 0.
q = K
n
n
.


u
u
U |DC = 100;
15
= 60,
= 4;
n AD
x AD


u
u
= 0;
= 0;
x CG
y AE


u
u
15
= 10(u 20);
15
= 10(u 20).
x EH
y HG

81.1. , AD, EH, AE HG


.
, , AEHGCD. ABCD B. O. A, AB ( Ox) AD (
Oy). O(12, 5; 2, 5). av = 2, 5, bv = 2, 5, a = 15, b = 10.

182
C

G
O

. 81.2
- .
u1m u0m
= 4 u0m = u1m + 4hx (m = 0, 1, . . . , M ); (AD);
hx
uNm uN1m
= 0 uNm = uN1m
hx
(m = M 2, M 2 + 1, . . . , M 1); (CG);

un1 un0
= 0 un0 = un1
hy

(n = 1, 2, . . . , N 1); (AE);

unM = 100 (n = 0, 1, 2, . . . , N ); (DC);


15
uN1m =

3uN11m 40hx
,
3 + 2hx
15

unM2 =

uN1m uN11m
= 10(uN1m 20)
hx
(m = 0, 1, . . . , M 2); (EH);

unM2+1 unM2
= 10(unM2 20)
hy

3unM2+1 + 40hy
,
3 + 2hy

(n = N 1 + 1, . . . , N ); (EF ).


.
. 81.3 . , -,
, - , .
.
,
1000C (DC) (AD).
, ,
.

82

183


0-7,9 1-19,1 2-30,3 3-41,6 4-52,8 5-64,0 6-75,2 7-86,4 8-97,6 9-108,8
237 Emax=9,973

. 81.3

82.

. Rn .
. .
. . . .

, .
Rn .
,
, .

184

82.1.

82.1.1. Rn

Rn

n-

n
R = {x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) :
xi R,
i = 1, . . . , n}. Rn
( : x = (x1 , . . . , xn ), x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) x1 + x1 =
= (x1 + x1 , . . . , xn + xn )) ( :
x = (x1 , . . . , xn ), R x = (x1 , . . . , xn )). 0 = (0, . . . , 0) . Rn .
Rn :
x = (x1 , . . . , xn ),

(x, x ) =

x = (x1 , . . . , xn )
n
X
(xi xi )2
i=1

!1/2

. :
!1/2
n
X
|x| :=
x2i
i=1

(x, x ) = |x x |.
, , :
) |x| > 0 x Rn |x| = 0 x = 0;
) |x| = || |x| x Rn R;
) |x + x | 6 |x| + |x | x x Rn .

, , , , , ( ). Rn -. ,
!1/p
n
X
kxkp =
|xi |p
(1 6 p < )
i=1


kxk = max |xi |.
i6i6n


(x, x ) = kx x k, , ,
..

82

185

82.1.2.
X , X
kxk : X R, :
) kxk > 0 x X kxk = 0 x = 0;
) kxk = ||kxk R, x X;
) kx1 + x2 k 6 kx1 k + kx2 k x1 , x2 .
, , X, kxkX .
X kxk1 kxk2 ,
C1 C2 ,
C1 kxk1 6 kxk2 6 C2 kxk1

x X.

,
(x1 , x2 ) = kx1 x2 k.
{xn } X
, , ..
> 0 N , (xn , xn ) < n > N , n > N .
.
.
(1) lpn ,
1/p
n
P
p
n
, 1 6 p 6 .
|xi |
x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) R , kxkp =
i=1

(2) C(K, Rn ) - x(t) : K


Rn , K, kx(t)k0 = max |x(t)|.
tK

, A
, A
A ( ) A . .
(3) Cr ([t0 , t1 ], Rn ) r x(t) : [t0 , t1 ] Rn , [t0 , t1 ] R,

kx(t)kr = max{kx(t)k0 , . . . , kx(r) (t)k0 }.

(4) l2 ,

P
x2i < , ,
x = (x1 , . . . , xn , . . . , ),
i=1
 1/2
P 2
.
xi
kxk =
i=1

186

82.1.3.
X Y . X Y
,
k(x, y)kXY = max{kxkX , kykY }
( , ). .
: .

82.2.

82.2.1.

82.1. ( ).
.
, .
. f Rn lim f (x) = + ( lim f (x) =
|x|

|x|

), f () .

82.3.

(82.1)

F (
x + h) F (
x)
h0
h
lim

h 0
(82.2)

F (
x + h) = F (
x) + F (
x)h + o(h),

j(h) h,
.
(). (82.1)
, .
(82.2) .

82

187

82.4.

82.4.1.
, , ,
( I, 17): f : [a, b] R
[a, b] (a, b), c (a, b), ,
f (b) f (a) = f (c)(b a).

(82.3)

, (82.3)
f (x),
.
[a, b] = {x :

x = a + t(b a),

0 6 t 6 1},

(a, b), . (t) = f (a + t(b a)),


.
(82.3) .
, , , (82.3),
|f (b) f (a) 6 M (b a),
M = sup |f (x)|. ,
x(a,b)

.
" ", , , " ".
82.2. ( ). X, Y U X [a, b]. f : U Y x [a, b],
kf (b) f (a)k 6 sup kf (c)k kb ak.
c(a,b)

82.4.2.
. (. I, 19) f (n) (
x) ,
f (
x + h) = f (
x) + f (
x)[h] + (1/2)f (
x)[h, h] + . . .
+ (1/n!)f (n) [h, . . . , h] + r(h),
kr(h)k = o(khkn ) h 0 .

188

83.

. .
( ). .

83.1.

z = f (x) , ..
, .
83.1. , , , .
83.1. l , , (. 83.1). l ,
y = y(x) ( II, 48, 48.9):
Zx1 q
1 + y 2 dx.
l[y(x)] =
x0

, , ..
y = y(x) .

. 83.1.
83.2. ,
z = z(x, y), (

83

189

II, 54, 54.2)


S[z(x, y)] =

ZZ

1+

z
x

2

z
y

2

dx dy,

XY .
83.3. , , ,
(). , .. ,
(. II, 54, 54.8, 54.9).
, .

.

.
1. a) z x: z=f(x),
x D z E : x 7 z (.
f (x)

I, 3).
1. b) v , y(x), v = v[y(x)], y(x)
v: y(x) 7 v.
2. a) x x f (x)
x = x x1 . x , x dx = x (. I, 16).
2. b) y y(x) v[y(x)]
y = y(x) y1 (x). , y(x)
.
3. a) f (x) , x f (x) (. I, 9).
3. b) v[y(x)] , y(x) v[y(x)].
. y(x)?
y(x) y1 (x) ?
, y(x) y1 (x),
|y(x) y1 (x)| x. v[y(x)] y , , , v[y(x)] =
Rx1
F (x, y, y (x)) dx, , -

x0

v[y(x)], ,
(- y ). .

190

83.2. y = y(x) y1 = y1 (x)


, |y(x) y1 (x)| .
83.3. y(x) y1 (x) 1-
, |y(x)y1 (x)| |y (x)y1 (x)|, , ,

ky(x) y1 (x)k < ; ky (x) y1 (x)k < ,


ky y1 k = max |y y1 |.
x[a,b]

83.4. y(x) y1 (x) k-


,
ky(x) y1 (x)k < , . . . , ky (k) (x) y1 (k) k < .
. 83.2 , , ,
, . .83.3 , .

. 83.2

. 83.3


() ()
, y(x) y1 (x)
k- , .
, .
3. a) f (x) C(x0 ) > 0 = (x0 ) : x : |x x0 | <
|f (x) f (x0 )| < .
3. b) v[y(x)] y = y0 (x) k-
, > 0 = () : y(x) Y , ,
ky(x) y0 (x)k <
......
(k)
(k)
ky (x) y0 (x)k <

83

191

|v[y(x)] v[y0 (x)]| < .

(y1 , y2 ) y = y1 (x) y = y2 (x)


(x [x0 , x1 ]):
ky1 y2 k = (y1 , y2 ) = max |y1 (x) y2 (x)|,
x[x0 ,x1 ]

. . C0 ,
.
||y1 y2 || = (y1 , y2 ) =

k
X
p=1

(p)

(p)

max |y1 (x) y2 |

x[x0 ,x1 ]

(, y1 y2 Ck ),
k- .
4. a) (. I, 4) l(x),
:
1) l(Cx) = Cl(x) (C),
2) l(x1 + x2 ) = l(x1 ) + l(x2 ).
:
l(x) = kx, k = const.
4. b) L[y(x)] , :
1) L[Cy(x)] = CL[y(x)] (C),
2) L[y1 (x) + y2 (x)] = L[y1 (x)] + L[y2 (x)].
Rx1
: L[y(x)] = [p(x)y + q(x)y (x)]dx.
x0

5. a) f = f (x + x) f (x)
f = A(x)x + (x, )x, A(x) x, (x, x)
x0
0, ,
(A(x)x) : df = A(x)x. x
, : df = f (x)x ( I, 16).
5. b) v = v[y(x) + y] v[y(x)] v = L[y(x), y] + (y(x), y)||y||, L[y(x), y]
y , (y(x), y) 0,
||x||0

y (L[y(x), y]) v.

83.5. , .
, . (
) .
f (x + x) x x . = 1 f (x + x), = 0
f (x). f (x + x) = 0

192

f (x) x.

f (x + x) =0 = f (x + x)x =0 = f (x)x = df (x).


z = f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn )
f (x1 + x1 , x2 + x2 , . . . , xn + xn ) = 0.
:
n
X

f

f (x1 + x1 , x2 + x2 , . . . , xn + xn ) =0 =
xi df.

xi
i=1

v[y(x)], ,
,
v[y(x) + y(x)]
= 0.
,
,
v = v[y + y] v[y] = L(y, y) + (y, y)kyk.

v[y(x) + y(x)] = 0 :

v
L(y, y) + (y, y)|| kyk
v
= lim
= lim
=
0
0
0

L(y, y)
(y, y)|| kyk
= L(y, y) ,
= lim
+ lim
0
0

{z
}
|
=0
.. L(y, y) = L(y, y).
,
,
, .
, , , .

f (x + x) =0 .
6. a) : df =

6. b) v[y(x)] : v =
v[y(x) + y] =0 .

83.6. v[y(x)] y =
= y0 (x) , v[y(x)]
y = y0 (x) , v[y0 (x)], .. v =v[y(x)]v[y0 (x)]6 0.
lim

v 6 0, v = 0 y = y0 (x), ,
y = y0 (x) .
y = y0 (x), . v > 0
, y = y0 (x).

83

193

83.1. ( , I, 17). f (x) max min x = x0


,
df = 0.
83.2. v[y(x)], ,
max min y = y0 (x), y0 (x) , y = y0 (x)
v = 0.
. y0 (x) y ,
v[y0 (x) + y] = () , = 0
, ,

= 0,
v[y0 (x) + y]
() = 0 =

=0

.. v = 0. , , ,
.
. , , .
v[y(x)] y = y0 (x) () , ky(x) y0 (x)k < (. e.
), () .
v[y(x)] y = y0 (x) () y = y0 (x) 1-
, () .
, y = y0 (x) , ,
, , . y = y0 (x)
(), .
83.1. y = y0 (x)
,

+ y] =0 = 0, v[y(x, )] =0 = 0, y(x, ) , = 0 = 1 y(x, )


y0 (x) y0 (x) + y. , v[y(x, )]
, y = y(x, ), ,
, v[y(x, )].

v[y0 (x)

, , = 0, , = 0 (
v
, = 0
=0
).

,
v[y(x, )] =0 = 0, , ,
, , ,

194

v
.

83.2. ,
:
v[y1 (x), y2 (x), . . . , yn (x)],
:
v[z(x1 , x2 , . . . , xn )],

v[z1 (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ), z2 (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ), . . . , zm (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn )].


, v v[z(x, y)]
z
v = v[z(x, y) + z] v[z(x, y)],

v[z(x, y) + z] =0 ,

, z = z(x, y) v , z =
z(x, y) v = 0, v = v[z(x, y) + z] ,
= 0, , , ,

= 0 ,
v[z(x, y) +


z] =0 = 0 v = 0.

83.2.


Zx1
(83.1)
v[y(x)] = F (x, y(x), y (x))dx,
x0

: y(x0 ) = y0 y(x1 ) = y1
(. 83.4). , F (x, y, y ) C 3 .
, . ,
(83.1).
, y = y(x) C 2 .
- y = y(x) y = y(x)

y(x, ) = y(x) + (
y (x) y(x)) = y(x) + y, y = y(x) y(x).

, y(x, 0) = y(x), y(x, 1) = y(x) (.83.5). ,


y(x) y(x) y(x) y.

83

195

. 83.4.

. 83.5.
y , x f (x).
y = y(x) y(x) x, ,
(y) = y (x) y (x) = y

(y)(n) = y(n) (x) y (n) (x) = y (n) .


: .
, y = y(x, ) y = y(x)
y = y(x), .
(83.1) y = y(x, ),
:
v[y(x, )] = (),
y = y(x, ) , , v[y(x, )].
= 0, = 0 y = y(x)
,
, y = y(x, ).
() = 0

196

(0) = 0.
() =

Zx1

F (x, y(x, ), yx (x, ))dx,

x0

() =

Zx1 

x0


Fy
y(x, ) + Fy
y (x, ) dx,

Fy =

F (x, y(x, ), y (x, )),


y

Fy =

F (x, y(x, ), y (x, )),


y

y(x, ) =
[y(x) + y] = y,



y (x, ) =
[y (x) + y ] = y ,

Zx1
() = [Fy (x, y(x, ), y (x, ))y + Fy (x, y(x, ), y (x, ))y ]dx;
x0

Zx1
(0) = [Fy (x, y(x), y (x))y + Fy (x, y(x), y (x))y ]dx.
x0

, (0)
v. v
: v = 0. ,
(83.1) :
Zx1
[Fy y + Fy y ]dx = 0.

x0

, y =
= (y) .
x
v = [Fy y] x10 +

Zx1
d
Fy )ydx.
(Fy
dx

x0

,


y x=x = y(x0 ) y(x0 ) = 0,
y x=x = y(x1 ) y(x1 ) = 0,
0

83

197

Zx1
d
Fy )y dx
v = (Fy
dx
:

(83.2)

x0


Zx1 
d
Fy
Fy y dx = 0,
dx

x0

d
Fy y(x), ,
Fy
dx
, y,
y = y(x),

, y x=x0 = yx=x1 = 0, , y y y
.
.

83.2.1. ( )
(x)
Zx1
(x) (x) dx = 0,
x0

(x) C[x0 , x1 ], (x) 0, x [x0 , x1 ].


83.3. , (x) :


(x0 ) = (x1 ) = 0, (x) C p [x0 , x1 ], (s) (x) < ,
(s = 0, 1, ...q; q 6 p).

: ( ).
x = x
[x0 , x1 ], (
x) 6= 0. (x) ,
, (
x) 6= 0, x
, (x) . (x)
x
/ [x
0 , x
1 ]. (x)(x) ,
Rx1
x [
x0 , x
1 ] . , (x)(x) dx 6= 0.
x0

, (x) 0.
(x) , , :

0,
x
/ [x
0 , x
1 ];
(x) =
2n
2n
k(x x
0 ) (x x
1 ) , x [ x
0 , x
1 ],

n N k , (x)
.

198

83.4. (x, y)
C
[D]
R R (x, y),
(x, y)(x, y) dxdy = 0 (x, y),
D

. , n- .

(83.2) (83.1).
d
Fy ) : (Fy
dx
, , y , d
. , Fy Fy 0 y = y(x),
dx
. , y = y(x)
(83.3)

Fy

d
Fy = 0,
dx

:
Fy Fxy Fyy y Fy y y = 0

(83.4)

(83.3) (1744 ).
y = y(x, C1 , C2 ) . (83.1) .
, (83.1),
(83.3) ,
, y(x0 ) = y0 ; y(x1 ) = y1 . , , (
), .
83.5.
d
y(x0 ) = y0 ,
y(x1 ) = y1
Fy = 0,
dx
.
Fy

83.6. . , , , , , .
.
.
1) F y : F = F (x, y) : Fy (x, y) = 0,
.. Fy 0.
( ),
, , ,

83

199

y(x0 ) = y0 y(x1 ) = y1 , , , . ,
Fy (x, y) = 0 (x0 , y0 ) (x1 , y1 ).
83.4.
v[y(x)] =

Zx1

y 2 dx;

y(x0 ) = y0 ;

y(x1 ) = y1 .

x0

: : Fy = 0,
y = 0.
y = 0 y0 y1 y0 = 0
y1 = 0 (. 83.6). y0 = 0 y1 = 0, , , y = 0
Rx1
v[y(x)] = y 2 dx, .. v[y(x)] > 0, v = 0 y = 0.
x0

. 83.6.
y0 y1 0, ,
yn (x) , . 83.7,
, , ,
(x0 , x1 ).

. 83.7. ,

200

. 83.8.
,
, ,
,
, y = y(x),
Rx1
y(x) 6 0 v[y(x)] = y 2 dx > 0.
x0

, . 83.8.
2) , F y :

F (x, y, y ) = M (x, y) + N (x, y)y ;



Zx1 
dy
dx.
v[y(x)] =
M (x, y) + N (x, y)
dx
x0

:
M
N
d
+
y
N (x, y) = 0,
y
y
dx

N N
N
M
+
y

y = 0,
y
y
x
y

M
N

= 0.
y
x

M N

=
y
x
0, , , , .
N
M

0, M dx + N dy = du -
y
x

Zx1 
Zx1
dx
v=
M +N
dx = M dx + N dy
dy
, .

x0

x0

83

201

, . .
83.5.
v[y(x)] =

Z1

(y 2 + x2 y ) dx,

y(0) = 0,

y(1) = a.

M N

= 0
y
x
y x = 0. y(0) = 0 ,
a = 1. a 6= 1, ,
, .
3) F y : F = F (y )
= F = 0.
Fy y y = 0, Fy = Fxy

yy

(1) y = 0, y = C1 x + C2 - , - . y = C1 x + C2 ;
(2) Fy y (y ) = 0 y = ki , y = ki x + C y = ki x + C2 , y = C1 x+C2 . ,
- y = C1 x + C2 .
,
Zx1 q
1 + y 2 dx
l[y(x)] =
:

x0

y = C1 x + C2 .
4) F x y : F = F (x, y ).
:
d
Fy (x, y ) = 0,
dx
, Fy (x, y ) = C1 ,
Fy (x, y ) = C1 y, y .
5) F y y : F = F (y, y ).

Fy Fyy
y Fy y y = 0,

Fxy
= 0.
y . Fy y Fyy y 2 Fy y y y = 0,
d
(F y Fy ).
F y Fy :
dx

202

,
d
2
(F y Fy ) = y Fy + Fy y y Fy Fyy
Fy y y y =
y
dx

= y (Fy Fyy
y Fy y y ).

, F y Fy = C1 ,
x , .

82.

82.1. :

v[y(x)] =

Z2
0

((y )2 y 2 ) dx;

y(x) = 0,

 
2

= 1?

: : y + y = 0,
y = C1 cos x + C2 sin x. C1 = 0; C2 = 1, ..
, y = sin x.
82.2. :
v[y(x)] =

Z1

[y + 12xy] dx

y(0) = 0,

y(1) = 1 ?

: : y 6x = 0,
y = x3 + C1 x + C2 . C1 = C2 = 0; ,
y = x3 .
82.3.
Zx1
Zx1
v[y(x)] = (y + xy ) dx v[y(x)] = y dx + x dy.
x0

x0

: 1 1.
, ,
v = const. .
82.4. ,
y = y(x) A(x0 , y0 ) B(x1 , y1 ), ds
= v(y ) .

dt

82

203

: t[y(x)]
Zx p
1 + y 2
dx ,
t[y(x)] =
v(y )
x0

p
1 + y 2
ds
ds

= v(y ); dt =
=
dx, ,

dt
v(y )
v(y )
.
82.5. t,
y = y(x) A(x0 , y0 ) B(x0 , y0 ), v = x.
:
Zx p
1 + y 2
t[y(x)] =
dx,
x
x0

ds
dt

= x, dt =

ds
x.

Fy = C1

y
p
= C1 .
x 1 + y 2
, y =
tg t;
1
y
1
p
=
sin t
x=
C1 1 + y 2
C1
1
x = C1 sin t, C1 =
.
C1
dy
= tg t;
dy = tg t dx = tg t C1 cos t dt = C1 sin t dt;
dx
,
y = C1 sin t + C2 x = C1 sin t; y C2 = C1 cos t.
t, x2 +(y C2 )2 = C12 -
.


82.6. v[y(x)] =

Rx1 1+y 2

x0

82.7.
Rx1
y(x0 ) = y0 ;
y(x1 ) = y1 .
v[y(x)] = (y 2 + 2xyy ) dx;
x0

dx.

204

82.8.
R1
y(0) = 1;
y(1) = 2.
v[y(x)] = (xy + y 2 2y 2 y ) dx;
0

82.9.
Rx1
v[y(x)] = y (1 + x2 y) dx.
x0

83.

83.1. .
,
.
:
Zx q
S[y(x)] = 2 y 1 + y 2 dx.
x0

y y , , ,

F y Fy = C1 ,

q
yy 2
2

= C1 .
y 1+y p
y 1 + y 2

y
p
= C1 .
y 1 + y 2

: y = sh t, y = C1 ch t.
dy
C1 sh t dt
dx = =
= C1 dt,
x = C1 t + C2 .
y
sh t
, ,
:

x = C1 t + C2
.
y=
y = C1 ch t

x C2
- ,
C1
, . C1 C2 A
B. A B ,
.
t : y = C1 ch

83

205

83.2. . ,
A B, A B
( ).
: A, Ox , Oy .
ds p

= 2gy, t A(0, 0) B(x1 , y1 )


dt
Zx1 p
1 + y 2
1
dx
t[y(x)] =

y
2g
0

y(0) = 0, y(x1 ) = y1 .
:
F y Fy = C,

p
y 2
1 + y 2
q

= C.

y
2

y(1 + y )


1
2
q
= C = y(1 + y ) = C1 .
y(1 + y 2 )

y , t, y = ctg t;
C1
C1
2
y=
=
C
sin
t
=
(1 cos 2t);
1
1 + ctg2 t
2
2C1 sin t cos tdt
dy
=
= 2C1 sin t2 dt = C1 (1 cos 2t)dt;

y
ctg t
sin 2t
C1
x = C1 (t
) + C2 =
(2t sin 2t) + C2 ;
2
2
C1
C1
(2t sin 2t);
y=
(1 cos 2t).
x C2 =
2
2
2t = t1 , , , C2 = 0
( x = 0, y = 0),


x = C21 (t1 sin t1 )
y = C21 (1 cos t1 ),
dx =

C21 ,
(x1 , y1 ).
.

206


83.3.
Zx1
2
v[y(x)] = (y + 2yy 16y 2 ) dx.
x0

83.4.
Zx1
2
v[y(x)] = (xy + y ) dx.
x0

83.5.
Z1
2
v[y(x)] = (y 2 + y 2y sin x) dx.
0

84. ,
,

, . .
, . . ,
. .

84.1. ,


Zx1
v[y1 , . . . , yn ] = F (x, y1 , . . . , yn , y1 , . . . , yn )dx
x0


y1 (x0 ) = y10 ,

y2 (x0 ) = y20 , . . . , yn (x0 ) = yn0 ,

y1 (x1 ) = y11 ,
y2 (x1 ) = y21 , . . . , yn (x1 ) = yn1 ,
yj (x)(j = 1, . . . , n),
.

84

207

, n y1 , . . . , yn , , , yi (x) :
v[y1 , y2 , . . . , yn ] = v[yi ], , , , , , :
d
F =0
(i = 1, . . . , n).
dx yi
i = 1, . . . , n, yi .
, n . 2n-
x, y1 , y2 , . . . , yn -
.
y(x) z(x)
Z
v[y(x), z(x)] = x1 F (x, y, z, y , z )dx
Fyi

x0

y(x0 ) = y0 ,

y(x1 ) = y1 ,

z(x0 ) = z0 ,

z(x1 ) = z1 ,

..

y = y(x),
z = z(x),
:

d
Fy dx
Fy = 0,
d
Fz dx Fz = 0.
84.1.
,
v(x, y, z).
, A(x0 , y0 )
B(x1 , y1 ) , T .
y = y(x) z = z(x),
Zx1 p
1 + y 2 + z 2
dx.
T =
v(x, y, z)
x0

2
2
v
d y

y 1+yv2 +z + dx
=0
v 1+y 2 +z 2

1+y 2 +z 2

d z
v
=0
+
2
z
dx
v

1+y 2 +z 2

, .

208

84.2. ,


(84.1)

v[y(x)] =

Zx1

F (x, y, y , . . . , y (n) )dx,

x0

F C n+2 . ,
(84.2)

(n1)

(n1)

y(x0 ) = y0 ,

y (x0 ) = y 0 , . . . , y (n1) (x0 ) = y0

y(x1 ) = y1 ,

y (x1 ) = y 1 , . . . , y (n1) (x1 ) = y1

, , (n 1)- .
, y = y(x) C 2n y(x) - C 2n .

y(x, ) = y(x) + [
y (x) y(x)]

y(x, ) = y(x) + y.

= 0 y(x, ) = y(x), = 1 y(x, ) = y(x).


v[y(x)] y = y(x, ), , = 0,
v[y(x, )]=0 = 0.
,

v v:


Zx1

(n)
v =
(84.3)
F (x, y(x, ), . . . , y (x, ))dx
=


x0

Zx1 h

=0

Fy y + Fy y + Fy y + . . . + Fy(n) y

(n)

x0

dx.

:
Zx1

x0

x1 Zx1 d

Fy ydx,
Fy ydx = [Fy y ]
dx
x0
x0

2 :
Zx1

x0


 x1 Zx1 2

 x1

d
d
Fy y dx = Fy y
Fy y +
Fy ydx,
dx
dx2
x0
x0

x0

84

209

.., (n + 1)- - n :
Zx1

x0

x1
i x1  d
h
+ ...
F (n) y (n2)
Fy(n) y (n) dx = Fy(n) y (n1)

dx y
x0
x0
n

+(1)

Zx1

x0

dn
F ( ydx.
dxn y n)

x = x0 x = x1 y = y =
= . . . = y (n1) = 0,

Zx1 
n
d2
d
n d
Fy + 2 Fy + . . . + (1)
F (n) ydx.
v =
Fy
dx
dx
dxn y
x0

v = 0, y
,
n
d
d2
n d

Fy
Fy + 2 Fy + . . . + (1)
F (n) 0.
dx
dx
dxn y
, y = y(x),
(84.2), -:

d2
dn
d
Fy + 2 Fy + . . . + (1)n n Fy(n) = 0.
dx
dx
dx
2n, . 2n
(84.2).

(84.4)

Fy

84.2.
v[y(x)] =

Zl

1
2
( y + y)dx,
2

:
y(l) = 0,

y (l) = 0,

y(l) = 0,

y (l) = 0.


, . , = const = const,
-
d2
+
(y ) = 0
dx

y=

y IV = ,

4
x + C1 x3 + C2 x2 + C3 x + C4 .
24

210

4
(x 2l2 x2 + l4 )

y=
(x2 l2 )2 .
y=
24
24

Zx
v[y(x), z(x)] = F (x, y, y , . . . , y (n) , z, z , . . . , z m )dx,
x0

, y(x) z(x) ,
, y(x) z(x), ,

dn
d
Fy + . . . + (1)n n Fy(n) = 0
Fy
dx
dx
d
dm
Fz
Fz + . . . + (1)m m Fz(m) = 0.
dx
dx
, m :
Zx1
(n )
(nm )
v[y1 , . . . , ym ] = F (x, y1 , . . . , y1 1 , . . . , ym , . . . , ym
)dx.
x0

, yi (x) ,
ni
d
ni d

F + . . . + (1)
F (n ) = 0,
i = 1, . . . , m .
Fyi
dx yi
dxni yi i

84.3. ,


v[z(x, y)] =

ZZ
D



z z
,
dxdy,
F x, y, z,
x y

C D z(x, y) , ..

C,
z
z
(. 84.1).
= p;
= q.
x
y
, F C 3 (D), z C 2 (D).

z(x, y, ) = z(x, y) + z,
z = z(x, y) z(x, y), = 0 z = z(x, y), , = 1
z = z(x, y).

84

211

. 84.1.
, , z(x, y, ) v , = 0,

,
v[z(x, y, )] =0 = 0 - v (

).


ZZ

=
v =
F (x, y, z(x, y, ), p(x, y, ), q(x, y, ))dxdy


D
=0
ZZ
=
[Fz z + Fp p + Fq q]dxdy,
D

z(x, y, ) = z(x, y) + z,

p(x, y, ) =
z(x, y, ) = p(x, y) + p,
x

q(x, y, ) =
z(x, y, ) = q(x, y) + q.
x

[Fp z] =
[Fp ]z + Fp p,
[Fq z] =
[Fq ]z + Fq q,
x
x
y
y
:

ZZ
ZZ 

{Fp z} +
{Fq z} dxdy
(Fp p + Fq q)dxdy =
x
y
D
D

ZZ 

{Fp } +
{Fq } zdxdy,

x
y
D

{Fp } x, ..
x
, y = const, z, p, q x

212

:
z
p
q

{Fp } = Fpx + Fpz


+ Fpp
+ Fpq
,
x
x
x
x
y
z
p
q

{Fq } = Fqy + Fqz


+ Fqp
+ Fqq .
y
y
y
y


ZZ 
I
N
M
+
dx dy = N dy M dx,
x
y
D

ZZ 
D


I

{Fp z} +
{Fq z} dx dy = (Fp dy Fq dx)z = 0.
x
y

, C z=0 (

,
C).

ZZ
ZZ 

{Fp } +
{Fq } z dx dy,
[Fp p + Fq q] dx dy =
x
y
D

,
ZZ
(Fz z + Fp p + Fq q) dx dy = 0
D

ZZ

(Fz

{Fp }
{Fq })z dx dy = 0.
x
y

z ( z


, z C = 0 ..),
z = z(x, y), ,
Fz

{Fp }
{Fq } 0.
x
y

, z(x, y) :
Fz

{Fp }
{Fq } = 0.
x
y

(1834).

84

213

84.3.
Z Z " 2  2 #
z
z
+
dx dy,
v[z(x, y)] =
x
y

z,
z = f (x, y).
:
2z
2z
+
= 0.
x2 y 2

z = 0,
.. , , .
, .
84.4.
#
Z Z " 2  2
z
z
+
+ 2zf (x, y) dx dy,
v[z(x, y)] =
x
y

z .
:
2z
2z
+
= f (x, y),
x2 y 2

z = f (x, y)
, ,
; , , f (x, y).

84.4.
: , .. ,
, (.. , ) :
Zt

t0

(T U ) dt,

T , U .
.

214

84.5.
mi (i = 1, ..., n) (xi , yi , zi ) Fi , (), :
Fix =

U
;
xi

Fiy =

U
;
yi

Fiz =

U
,
zi

Fix , Fiy , Fiz - Fi , (xi , yi , zi ). .


:
n
X
T = 0.5
mi (xi 2 + yi 2 + zi 2 ),
i=1

U .

Rt

t0

d T
U

= 0;
xi dt xi

(T U ) dt :

U
d T

= 0;
yi dt yi

U
d T

= 0,
zi dt zi

:
mi xi Fix = 0; mi yi Fiy = 0; mi zi Fiz = 0 (i = 1, ..., n).

j (t, x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , y1 , y2 , . . . , yn , z1 , z2 , . . . , zn ) = 0,
j = 1, 2, . . . , m, m < 3n,
m s =
3nm ( t),
:
q 1 , q 2 , . . . , qs ,
( t) T U .
T U L = L(q, q,
t),
Zt1
S = L(q, q,
t) dt
t0

. .
:
S =

Zt1

t0

L(q, q,
t) dt = 0.

84

215

S :
d L
L

= 0,
i = 1, 2, . . . , s.
qi dt qi
84.6. .
.
,
.
u = u(x, t) x t.
U .
dx
q
ds = 1 + ux 2 dx,


q
( 1 + ux 2 1)dx.
p
( 1 + ux 2 1) 12 ux 2 . ux , ,

1
2
dU = kux dx,
2
k ,

Zl
1
2
U=
kux dx.
2
0


1
T =
2

Zl

ut dx,

- .

Rt1
(T U ) dt = v[u(x, t)]

t0

v[u(x, t)] =

Zt1 Z l 
0


1
1
2
2
ut kux
dx dt.
2
2

v[u(x, t)]:

(ut )
(kux ) = 0.
t
x

216

, = const k = const,
:
2u
2u
2 k 2 = 0.
t
x
f (x, t), ,
f (x, t)udx
Zt1 Z l 

t0 0


1
1
2
2
ut kux + f (t, x)u dx dt,
2
2

(ut )
(kux ) f (x, t) = 0,
t
x
, ,
2u
k 2u
=
+ f (x, t).
t2
x2
.

84.

84.1.

v[y(x), z(x)] =
 

Z2

(y + z + 2yz)dx,



= 1, z(0) = 0, z
= 1.
2
2
: :
y(0) = 0, y

y z = 0,

z y = 0.

, z,
y IV y = 0.

,

y = C1 ex + C2 ex + C3 sin x + C4 cos x;
z = C1 ex + C2 ex C3 cos x C4 sin x.

: C1 = 0, C2 = 0, C3 = 0,
C4 = 1, ,
y = sin x,

z = sin x.

84

217

84.2.
Zx1
v[y(x), z(x)] = F (y , z )dx.
x0

: :

Fy y y + Fy z z = 0;
Fy z y + Fz z z = 0,

Fy y Fz z (Fy z )2 6= 0 y = 0 z = 0, ..

y = C1 x + C2 ,
z = C3 x + C4 ,

84.3.
v[y(x)] =

Z1

(1 + y )dx,


y(0) = 0, y (0) = 1, y(1) = 1, y (1) = 1.
: -

d2
(2y )
dx2

= 0 y IV = 0;

y = C1 x3 + C2 x2 + C3 x + C4 .
:
C1 = 0, C2 = 0, C3 = 1, C4 = 0,
y = x.
84.4.

v[y(x)] =

Z2
0

(y y 2 + x2 )dx,


y(0) = 1,

y( ) = 0,
2

y (0) = 0,

 
2

= 1.

: - y IV y = 0.

y = C1 ex + C2 ex + C3 cos x + C4 sin x.

218

,
C1 = 1,

C2 = 0,

C3 = 1,

C4 = 0,

y = cos x.
84.5. ,
, ( II,
54, 54.2):
s
 2  2
ZZ
z
z
+
dx dy,
1+
S[z(x, y)] =
x
y

XY ,
.
: :
!
!
p
q

p
p
+
=0
x
y
1 + p2 + q 2
1 + p2 + q 2

"
"
 2 #
 2 #
z z 2 z
z
z
2z
2z

2
= 0,
1
+
1
+
+
x2
y
x y xy y 2
x


84.6.
Zx1
2
v[y(x)] = (16y 2 y + x2 ) dx.
x0

84.7.
Zx1
2
2
v[y(x), z(x)] = (2yz 2y 2 + y z ) dx.
x0

84.8.
Z Z " 2  2 #
z
z
v[z(x, y)] =

dx dy.
x
y
D

84.9.
#
Z Z Z " 2  2  2
u
u
u
+
+
+ 2uf (x, y, z) dx dy dz.
v[u(x, y, z)] =
x
y
z
D

85

219

85.

. , .

85.1.


(85.1)

v[y(x)] =

Zx1

F (x, y(x), y (x))dx

x0

, (x0 , y0 ) (x1 , y1 ) . ,
.
, , - y = y(x)
, . ,
(85.1):
d
Fy = 0,
dx
.. , , .
,
. y(x0 ) = y0 y(x1 ) = y1 . ,
v = 0.
y = y(x, C1 , C2 ) , .
v[y(x, C1 , C2 )] C1
C2 x0 x1 ,
.
, , (x0 , y0 ),
, (x1 , y1 ) (x1 +
x1 , y1 + y1 ), , , (x1 +
x1 , y1 + y1 ).
y = y(x) y = y(x) + y ,
y y , x1 y1 ( x1 y1
x1 y1 ).
Fy

220

, (x0 , y0 ),
y = y(x, C1 ). v[y(x, C1 )] C1 x. y = y(x, C1 ) , v[y(x, C1 )]
x1 y1 , x1 y1 (.
85.1) .

. 85.1.
v[y(x, C1 )] y =
y(x, C1 ) (x1 , y1 ) (x1 + x1 , y1 +
y1 ). v x1 y1 ,
. v x1 y1 :
v =

x1Z+x1
x0

(85.2) =

F (x, y + y, y + y ) dx

x1Z+x1

Zx1

F (x, y, y ) dx =

x0

Zx1
F (x, y + y, y + y ) dx + [F (x, y + y, y + y ) F (x, y, y )] dx.

x1

x0

(85.2) (
II, 47, 7):
x1Z+x1
x1


F (x, y + y, y + y ) dx = F x=x

1 +x1

F ,


= F (x, y, y )
F
x=x1 +x1

x1 ,

x=x1

0 < < 1.

+1 ,

1 0 x1 0 y1 0.
, (85.2)
x1Z+x1
x1


F (x, y + y, y + y ) dx = F (x, y, y ) x=x x1 + 1 x1 .
1

85

221

(85.2) (
I, 19):
Zx1
[F (x, y + y, y + y ) F (x, y, y )] dx =
x0

Zx1
= [Fy (x, y, y )y + Fy (x, y, y )y ] dx + R1 ,
x0

R1 - y y .
, :

Zx1
Zx1 

d
x
1


Fy y dx.
(Fy y + Fy y ) dx = [Fy y] x0 +
Fy
dx
x0

x0

,

d
Fy
Fy 0.
dx
(x0 , y0 ) , y x=x0 = 0. :
Zx1

(Fy y + Fy y ) dx = [Fy y] x=x1 .

x0


, y x=x1 y1 y1 , y1 - y1 (x1 +
+x1 , y1 + y1 ), y x=x1 x1
, (x0 , y0 ) (x1 , y1 ), ,
(x0 , y0 ) (x1 + x1 , y1 + y1 ) (. 85.2).

. 85.2.

. 85.2 , BD = y x=x , F C = y1 ,
1

EC y (x1 )x1 ,

BD = F C EC,

222


y x=x1 y1 y (x1 )x1

( ).
, :
x1Z+x1
x1

F dx F |x=x1 x1 ;

Zx1

x0




F (x, y + y, y + y ) dx Fy x=x1 (y1 y (x1 )x1 ),

, x1 y1 . , (85.2) :


v = F x=x1 x1 + Fy x=x1 (y1 y (x1 )x1 ) =



= (F y Fy ) x=x1 x1 + Fy x=x1 y1 ,



d
v(x1 , y1 ) = (F y Fy ) x=x1 dx1 + Fy x=x1 dy1 .

v(x1 , y1 ) , v y = y(x1 , C1 ), dx1 = x1 = x1 , dy1 = y1 = y1


. , v = 0
:


y1 = 0.
(85.3)
(F y Fy )
x1 + Fy
x=x1

x1 y1 ,

(85.4)
(F y Fy ) x=x1 = 0

x=x1


Fy x=x1 = 0.

, x1 y1 . , ,
(x1 , y1 ) y1 =
(x1 ), y1 (x1 )x1 , (85.3) :

[F y Fy + Fy ] x1 x1 = 0,
x1 ,
(85.5)


[F + ( y )Fy x=x1 = 0.


y . .
y1 = (x1 ) , , y = y(x, C1 ),
.

85

223

(x0 , y0 )
y0 = (x0 ), (x0 , y0 )
[F + ( y )Fy ]x=x0 = 0.
85.1. (x1 , y1 )
,


x1 = 0 (85.3) Fy x=x1 = 0.

85.2. (x1 , y1 )
(85.1)
y = y1 , y1 = 0 (85.3)

F y Fy ]x=x1 = 0.

85.2.
,


(85.6)

v=

Zx1

F (x, y, z, y , z )dx

x0

, ( ),

Fy

d
Fy = 0;
dx

Fz

d
Fz = 0,
dx

C , ,
(.. ). , C .

. A(x0 , y0 , z0 ) , , , ,
, v = 0,
. v
(x1 , y1 , z1 ) B(x1 , y1 , z1 ), .

224

v .
v
v =

x1Z+x1

F (x, y + y, z + z, y + y , z + z )dx

x0

Zx1

F (x, y, z, y , z )dx =

x0

x1Z+x1

F (x, y + y, z + z, y + y , z + z )dx+

x1

Zx1

x0

[F (x, y + y, z + z, y + y , z + z )dx F (x, y, z, y z )]dx.

,
. , ,
,



z1 = 0.
y1 + Fz
x1 + Fy
v = [F y Fy z Fz ]
x=x1

x=x1

x=x1

x1 , y1 , z1 , v = 0 :



Fz x=x1 = 0.
Fy x=x1 = 0,
(85.7)
[F y Fy z F z ] x=x1 = 0,

B(x1 , y1 , z1 )
y1 = (x1 ), z1 = (x1 ), y1 = (x1 )x1 z1 = (z1 )x1 (85.7)

[F + ( y )Fy + ( z )Fz ]x=x1 x1 = 0,

x1
(85.8)

F + ( y )Fy + ( z )Fz = 0.


(85.6). (85.8) y1 = (x1 ) z1 = (x1 )
B(x1 , y1 , z1 ) ,
, .
B(x1 , y1 , z1 ) z1 =
(x1 , y1 ), z1 = x1 x1 + y1 y1 , x1 y1 . v = 0
(. (85.7))
[F y Fy z Fz + x Fz ]x1 + [Fy + Fz y ]y1 = 0.

x1 y1 ,
F y Fy + (x z )Fz ]x=x1 = 0,

[Fy + Fz y ]x=x1 = 0.

z1 = (x1 , y1 ),
,
.

85

225

A(x0 , y0 , z0 ),
.

v=

Zx1

F (x, y1 , y2 , ..., yn , y1 , y2 , ..., yn )dx,

x0

B(x1 , y11 , y21 , . . . , yn1 ) :



!
n
n


X
X

(85.9)
F
yi Fyi
x1 +
Fyi
yi1 = 0.


i=1

x=x1

i=1

x=x1

85.

85.1.
v=

Zx1

x0

q
A(x, y) 1 + y 2 dx.

F + Fy ( y ) = 0 :
q
A(x, y)y
A(x, y)(1 + y )

p
A(x, y) 1 + y + p
( y ) = 0
= 0;
1 + y 2
1 + y 2

, A(x, y) 6= 0 , 1 + y = 0 y =
1 , ..
y = (x1 ) .
85.2.
Zx1 p
1 + y 2
dx
y
0

y(0) = 0, y1 = x1 5.

:
!
p
2

d
1+y
y
p

= 0.

2
y
dx y 1 + y 2

226

p
2
p
1 + y 2 y 2
2
2

1
y
1+y
1+y

p
+
y = 0;
+

2
2

2
y2
y
( 1+y )
y 1+y
y
1
1
p
+
3 = 0;
y 2 1 + y 2 y (1 + y 2 ) 2
dp
2
(1 + y ) + yy = 0,
y = p(y),
y = p ;
dy
dp
pdp
dy
1 + p2 + yp
= 0,
= ;
2
dy
1+p
y
p
C12 y 2
C12
2
2
2
p=
;
ln (1 + p ) = 2 ln y + C1 ,
1+p = 2 ,
y
y
q
ydy
p
C12 y 2 = x + C2 .
= dx,
2
2
C1 y

,
(x C2 )2 + y 2 = C12 .

y(0) = 0 C1 = C2 . , y1 = x1 5
, ,
(0, 5), ,
:
(x 5)2 + y 2 = 25.

85.3. ,
, .
:
Zx1 p
1 + y 2
dx

y
0

, y(0) = 0.

x = C1 (t sin t),
y = C1 (1 cos t).

C1 Fy x=x1 = 0,


y

p
= 0,

2
y 1 + y x=x1

85

227

, y (x1 ) = 0, ..
x = x1 , , x = x1 , y = y1
. t = , x1 = C1 , ,
x1
C1 =
. ,


x = x1 (t sin t),
y = x1 (1 cos t).
85.4.
v=

Zx1

x0

q
A(x, y, z) 1 + y 2 + z 2 dx ,

z1 = (x1 , y1 ).
:
[F y Fy + (x z )Fz ]x=x1 = 0 [Fy + Fz y ]x=x = 0
1

: 1 + x z = 0 y + y z = 0 x = x1 ,
y
z
1
= =
x
y
1

x = x1 ,

.. (x1 , y1 , z1 ) z = (x, y)
. , z = (x, y).
85.5. z = (x, y) z = (x, y).
:
Zx1 q
l=
1 + y 2 + z 2 dx
x0

, (x0 , y0 , z0 ) (x1 , y1 , z1 ) z0 = (x0 , y0 ) z1 = (x0 , y0 ), .


y z ,
.
, ,
, z = (x, y) (x0 , y0 , z0 )
z = (x, y) (x1 , y1 , z1 ).

228

85.6.
Zx1
2
2
v = (y + z + 2yz)dx ,
x0

y(0) = 0, z(0) = 0, (x1 , y1 , z1 ) x = x1 .


: :

z y = 0,
y z = 0,
y IV y = 0.
,

y = C1 chx + C2 shx + C3 cos x + C4 sin x,
z = C1 chx + C2 shx C3 cos x C4 sin x.
y(0) = 0, z(0) = 0 C1 + C3 = 0 C1 C3 =
= 0, , C1 = C3 = 0.


(F y Fy z Fz ) x=x1 x1 + Fy x=x1 y1 + Fz z1 = 0


Fy x=x1 = 0


Fz x=x1 = 0,

x1 = 0, y1 z1 .
Fy = 2y Fz = 2z , ,
y (x1 ) = 0

z (x1 ) = 0

C2 ch x1 + C4 cos x1 = 0,
C2 ch x1 C4 cos x1 = 0.

cos x1 6= 0, C2 = C4 = 0 y = 0; z = 0.
cos x1 = 0, .. x1 = 2 + n, n Z, C2 = 0, C4 ,
y = C4 sin x,

z = C4 sin x.

, C4 v = 0.


85.7.
v[y(x)] =

Zx1

x0

A(x, y)e

arctgy

q
1 + y 2 dx,

A(x, y) 6= 0.

85

229

85.8. v =
0, ,
Z1
2
v[y(x)] = (y 2xy) dx; y(0) = y (0) = 0;
0

y(1) =

1
; y (1) .
120

230

XIII


86.
. .
. . .

86.1. .
, . ,
.
. , , . ,
, 50% , , ,
( ) .
, . ,
.
.
,
, , .
, , , , ,
. , ,
, ,
.

86

231

, , XVII , . , .
, . (1623 1662).
: , ,
, 0, 5? .
1654 . (1601 1665)
.
, . (1629
1695), . (1654 1705), . (1667 1754), . (1749
1827), . (1777 1855), . (1781 1840), .. (1821 1894), .. (1856 1922), ..
(1857 1918), .. (1903 1987 ), .. (1894 1959), ..
(1900 1966), .. (1911 1998) .
XX , .
, , ,
.

86.2. .
86.1. , ,
.
: A,B,C,. . . ,
, .
86.1. : .
:
A "",
B "".
86.2. : ( 1 6 ).
:
C 2,
D ,
E ,
F , 10,
G , 8.

232

86.3. : .
:
H ,
K .

86.4. :
.
:
L ,
M .

86.5. : .
( ) , .
, .
:
N ,
.

86.2. (
U), , ( V),
.
A B , . ,
, .
A,
.
F , G , A B , , H K. : B = A.
, A .
86.3. A+B ,
.
A B ,
.
, .

86.6. :
.
:

86

233

R ,
S .
R S , R + S
, , :
, :
A + B = B + A,

A B = B A,

A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C = A + B + C,
A (B C) = (A B) C = A B C,
A (B + C) = A B + A C,
A + U = U,
A U = A,
A + V = A,
A V = V,
A + A = U,

A + B = A B,

A A = V,

A B = A + B.

86.1. 86.2 A
B A B = V . ,
, .. .
86.4. A1 , A2 , . . . , An
,
:
n
X
Ai = U.
i=1

, A A .

86.3.

n , A.
86.5. n A m
. A
,
A , :
(86.1)

P (A) =

M
.
N

234

86.7. 10 (N = 10),
3 (M = 3), A (
) 3/10.
P (A) :
(1) 0 6 P (A) 6 1,
(2) P (U ) = 1 P (V ) = 0,
(3) A B.
(86.2)

P (A + B) = P (A) + P (B).

.
1 2 86.5.
3 M A, L B, N
L
M +L
M
, P (B) = , P (A + B) =
,
. : P (A) =
N
N
N
A B . 3:
P (A + B) = P (A) + P (B).
86.2. 3
. , A B
:
(86.3)

P (A + B) = P (A) + P (B) P (A B).

. A M , B L N , A B (.. AB) K . :
P (A + B) =

M
L
K
M +LK
=
+

= P (A) + P (B) P (A B).


N
N
N
N

, ,
.
, A , A, , B. , A ,
A B.
A B P (A/B)
PB (A).
86.6. A B P (A/B) = PB (A) ,

86

235

A B, ,
B.
N B L , A B K ,
K
,
L
L
,
P (B) =
N
K
P (AB) =
.
N

P (A/B) =

(86.4)
(86.5)
(86.6)

(86.4) (86.6) :
86.1 ( ).

:
(86.7)

P (AB) = P (B) P (A/B).

, :
(86.8)

P (A1 A2 Ak ) = P (A1 ) P (A2 /A1 ) P (A3 /A1 A2 )


P (Ak /A1 A2 Ak1 ).

P (A/B) P (A/B), A B.
(86.9)

P (A/B) = P (A/B) = P (A) ,

A ,
B. A B, (86.9) P (A),
.
(86.7)
(86.10)

P (AB) = P (A) P (B) ,

(86.8) :
(86.11)

k
Y
i=1

Ai =

k
Y
i=1

P (Ai ).

236

86.4.

.
, ..
, . ,
, .
.
86.7.

, ..

(86.12)

P (A) = lim P (A).


n

.
, , ,
.
- ,
, . 86.2
. ,
, .
, ().
,
, . , n , , 6 , 1/6,
"" 1/2.

, . , .

86

237

86.
.
86.1. A , , B - .
A + B, AB?
: A , ,
.. A = B. , A B
, A + B = U, AB = V .
86.2. A - , B - . :
AB,
AB
+ AB,

A + B, AB, AB,
A + B AB.

: A + B , , - , - . AB , ; AB
- .
, ; AB
+ AB
- , . A + B AB AB
.
) AB = A + B.

86.3. , : a) A + B = AB,

A B.
: a) AB
,
AB
A B , A + B;
= A + B.
A B
) AB A B;
AB A, B
B,
A + B.

A,
86.4. A , ; B ,
, , .
)A + B, )AB,
)AB.

: ) A B,
- , : ) A - , B
, ; ) B A, A + B = A; )
= V , .. A B .
; ) AB
86.5. . A
, B
AB,
AB?

. : A + B, AB, AB,

238

: A + B
, , .
AB , . AB

. AB
, .
. AB
86.6.
. A 30 , B , C 30 . :
ABC?

ABC, AB,
: ABC 30 ,
30 , . ABC

. AB
30 , .
86.7. A, B, C - . :

) A + B + C, ) AB + AC + BC, ) ABC, ) ABC,


C,
) AB
C,
) AB
C + AB
C + ABC,

) AB
+ ABC,

) AB C + ABC
) A + B + C ABC ?

: 1) ; 2)
; 3) ; 4) A B, C ; 5) A,
B C ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ; 9)
.
A A, A
A B C, ,
, .86.1
A + B
86.8. , A, AB,
.

: , A + B = AB,
AB.

A, AB,
+ AB
= A + A(B
+ B)
= A + AU
= A + A = U,
A + AB

= (AA)
B = V B = V, A AB
= (AA)
B
=VB
= V,
A AB
AB
= (AA)(B

= AV
= V.
AB
B)

86

1)

4)

0000
1111
C
1111
0000
0000
1111
A 1111
0000
1111
0000
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
B
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
10 C
0
A 1

2)

5)

7)

00
11
1010 C
11
00
00
11
00
11
A1
00
11
010
00
11
00
11
0011
11
00
10 B

8)

239

01
1
11
00
00
11
0C1
1
00
1
00
A 11
0
00
11
0
1
0
1
11
00
00
11
0
1
00
11
0
1
0
1
00
11
B
00
11
01
1
0 C
11
00
0
1
0
1
00A1
11
0
0
1
001
11
0
0B
1
001
11
01
0
A

C
B

3)

C
11
0
0
01
1
0

6)

C
B

9)

C
B

. 86.1
86.9. 120 . ,
105 , .
.
: (86.1),
:
105
7
M
=
= .
P (A) =
N
120
8

: P (A) = 7/8.
86.10. 100 . 15 ,
4 . .
: : A -
, B - . A
K = 4 , B L = 15 . (86.4),
:
K
4
P (A/B) =
= .
L
15

: P (A/B) = 4/15.
86.11. 300 20
, 5 . .

240

: A - , B . (86.7)

P (AB) =

1
20 5

= .
300 20
60

: P (AB) = 1/60.


86.12.
. ,
. : A , B
, C .
? C.
86.13. ; ,
.
. A , B ,
ABC.
C . : AC, AB,
86.14. 86.3 ,
) A1 A2 ...An = A1 + A2 + ... + An ,
) A1 A2 ...An = A1 + A2 + ...An.
86.15. , (A + B)(A + C) = A + BC.
86.16. A - , B - . A + B, AB, AB,
AB,
AB
+ AB;
1.8,
: A B,
.
86.17.
10
107, 111, 109, 116, 115, 105, 112, 114, 121, 124.
,
110 ?

87

241

87.

. .

87.1. .
86.7, 87.2, ,
.

. , : "" ""; 6 : 1, 2 ..
6;
, .
87.1. ,
, , .
, D:
o 3 2,4 6
.
, D ,
, ;
D "" ,
.
, .
86,
, , ,
"". , ,
, 1
6 .
,
, , .
, , , .

242

87.2. A

:
m
(87.1)
P (A) = .
n
.
0 1:
(87.2)

0 6 P (A) 6 1.

, 0 6 m 6 n, : 0 6 m/n 6 1
:
(87.3)

P (U ) = 1.

, m = n P (U ) = n/n = 1.
:
(87.4)

P (V ) = 0.

, m = 0 P (V ) = 0/n = 0.
87.1. , , , .
, , ,
. , ,
, - ( ). A (
) . , , ,
. ,
P (A) = 0.
: " ".
87.1. :
(87.5)

P (A + B) = P (A) + P (B), A B = V.

, m ,
A, l , , n
. :
P (A) =

m
,
n

P (B) =

l
,
n

P (A + B) =

m+l
,
n

87

243

. (87.5):
P (A + B) = P (A) + P (B).

:
87.2. A
A:
(87.6)

P (A) = 1 P (A).

, A A , : A A = V, A + A = U . :
1 = P (A + A) = P (A) + P (A) = P (A) = 1 P (A).


, .
87.1. ,
.
:
m
. n = 6,
P (A) =
n
, A, m = 3
( 2, 4 6 ).
1
3
P (A) = = .
6
2
1
: P (A) = .
2
87.2. 3- 10
. .
: 3- n = 103
000 999. , m = 1.
1
: P (A) = 3 = 0, 001.
10
87.3. ,
36 .
: n = 36, : m = 4.
1
4
= .
P (A) =
36
9

244

1
.
9
.
: P (A) =

87.2.
87.3. n
1 n: n! = 1 2 . . . n (n!
" "). :
0! = 1.
87.4.
n ( )
.
,
(87.7)

Pn = n!.

, n
n (n ), n 1 .
, n(n 1) . , (87.7).

87.4. ,
"".
: n = 3! = 6, m = 1.
1
m
= .
P (A) =
n
6
1
: P (A) = .
6
87.5. ,
"".
: , 87.4,
, : 1 2 1 2 . n = 4! = 24, ,
2- 4- ( 2! = 2),
1- 3- ( 2! = 2).
( ). ,

87

245

m = 2! 2! = 4. :
1
4
= .
P (A) =
24
6
1
: P (A) = .
6
87.5. n m
m n,
.
, n m, Am
n,
:
n!
.
(87.8)
Am
n = n(n 1) . . . (n m + 1) =
(n m)!

A3n . n
n , .. n , (n1) ,
,
n(n 1) . (n-2) ,
3 n(n 1)(n 2) : A3n = n(n 1)(n 2).
(87.8):
n!
n(n 1)(n 2)(n 3) . . . 1
=
= n(n 1)(n 2).
(n 3)!
(n 3) . . . 1

endsmall
:
Ann = n! = Pn ,

A0n = 1,

A1n = n.

, n
n (Ann ) , ..
(Pn ). 0 n
(" "), 1 n ( 1- , 2- ..).
(87.8).
87.6. : , 4-
: "".
: n = A46 = 6 5 4 3 = 360,
.. .
1
.
m = 1. P (A) =
360

246

1
.
360
87.6. n m
m n, .
: P (A) =

, n m :
n!
.
(87.9)
Cnm =
m!(n m)!

, n m (Am
n ) m! m
Cn , .. m
(
):
Am
n

Cnm

m!

Cnm

n!
Am
.
= n =
m!
m!(n m)!

:
(1) Cnm = Cnnm ,
(2) Cn0 = Cnn = 1, Cn1 = Cnn1 = n,
n
X
Cni = 2n .
(3)
i=0

87.9
87.6 ( ).
:
n
X
n
(87.10)
(a + b) =
Cni ai bni .
i=0

a = b = 1, 3.

87.7. , 5
, 10 , 3 7 ,
2 3 .
: :
10 = 3 + 7,
5 = 2 +3 .
, 1 10,
1 3 , 4 10 .
n , 10 5:
10!
10!
5
=
= 252.
n = C10
=
5! (10 5)!
5! 5!

87

247

m ,
3 2 , 7
3 .
, :
7!
3!

= 105.
m = C32 C73 =
2! 1! 3! 4!
m
C32 C73
105
: P (A) =
=
0, 4 .
=
5
n
C10
252
: P (A) 0, 4 .

87.2. :
K = L + (K L),
k = l + (k l),

(87.11)

kl
CLl CKL
P (A) =
.
k
CK

87.3.

. 87.1, , , ,
. ,
, 10% , ,
, .. 0,1.
, , . XX . . .
.
, .
(1) ,
.
(2) P (A) > 0.
(3) U P (U ) = 1.
(4) A1 , . . . , An , . . .,
( ) :
X  X
p
Ai =
p(Ai ).
i

(5) " ",


.

248

:
= 1 p(A)
0 6 p(A) 6 1, p(A)

.
87.3. ,
.
87.3.
XVIII . , ,
, ,
2000 .
,
. , , .
,
, .

87.

(87.1)
.
87.1. 80 11 .
5 .
, : ) , ) .
: 64 11
. n = 75.
) -
( A) m = 64. P (A) = 64/75. )
- (
B) m = 11 P (B) = 11/75.
87.2. .
, : ) 4, )
, )
.
: , 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 .

87

249

,
n = 63 . a) A - ,
4, m = 3 : 1 + 1 + 2, 1 + 2 + 1, 2 + 1 + 1.
P (A) = 3/63 = 1/72.
)
, .. 6. ,
P (B) = 6/63 = 1/36.
) , ,
A36 = 4 5 6
P (C) = 4 5 6/63 = 5/9.

: P (A) = 1/72; P (B) = 1/36; P (C) = 5/9.


87.3. : , , , , , , , ,
, . ,
, .
:
10 , .. 10!
, 3! ,
2! .
, :
P (A) = 3! 2!/10! = 1/302400.

: P (A) = 1/302400.

87.4. 80 5
. 3 .
, : ) , ) ?
: 3
, 3 80, .. C80
.
) , 3
, , .. 80-5=75 ;
3
C75
. A
P (A) =

3
75! 3!77! 73 74 75
C75

=
0, 822.
=
3
C80
3!72! 80!
78 79 80

) , , ( B).

250

C53 ;
P (B) =

C53
1
345
=
.
=
3
C80
78 79 80
5056

: P (A) 0, 82; P (A) = 1/5056.

87.5. N = 100 M = 12 . n = 10 .
, 10 m = 2 .
10
: C100
. A - 2
10 . 12, 2
, 2 , C12
.
, 10-2 102
8
100-12 . C10012
= C88
.
2
8
, , A, C12 C88

8
2
C88
C12
0, 245.
P (A) =
10
C100

(87.11).
: P (A) 0, 25.

87.6. . , .
: , 0 9.
107 ,
A710 = 10!/3!. ,
P (A) = 10!/(3! 107 ) = 189/55 0, 061.

: P (A) 0, 06.

87.7. 5 ,
7
. , : )
, ) , )
, ) ,
.

87

251

: n = 75 .
) m = 7, .. ; P (A) = 1/74 ; )
m = 1, P (B) = 1/75 ; ) m = C75 = 21, P (C) = 21/75 = 3/74 ; ) , ,
, C71 = 7; , C53 ,
; ,
, ,
C61 = 6; ,
m = C53 C71 C61

P (D) = 60/74.

: P (A) = 1/74 ; P (A) = 1/75 ; P (A) = 3/74; P (A) = 60/74.


87.8. , , , , , . ,
.
: , , 87.3, .

P (A) = 1/A56 = 1/720.


: P (A) = 1/720.
87.9.
. , .
: n = 8!.
( 1- ,
2- .., 6-), , 3! ; 5! .
,
3
m = 6 3! 5! P (A) = 6 3! 5!/8! = .
28
3
: P (A) = 38 .


87.10. 36 , 1 36. ,
, 3?
87.11. , 5.

252

87.12. , , ; .
) , , ,
? ) ?
87.13. 25 , 20
. ,
10 : ) , ) 7 .
87.14. 36 5 .
5 . a) , 3
? b) , 4
? c) , 5
?
87.15. 52 ,
4 13 . 5 . , .
87.16. , 20 4 . ,
.
87.17.
. ,
.
87.18. , 8 ,
. ,
?
87.19. 100 , 15 . . ,
?
87.20. 52 .
, .
87.21. 10 15 .
3 . , .
87.22. .
,
.

88

253

87.23. 36 .
, ?
87.24. 80 . 20 . , .
87.25. (52 ) . ,
.
87.26. 5 ,
. ,
.

88.

. .

88.1.
87.1 ( 87.1)
( 87.5).
:
88.1. n :
(88.1) P (A1 + . . . + An ) = P (A1 ) + . . . + P (An ), Ai Aj = V i 6= j.
:

88.1 ( ).
:
(88.2)

P (A + B) = P (A) + P (B) P (AB).

. n , m1 , , m2
, , m ,
(.
. 88.1).

254

m
A

m
m2

. 88.1
. 88.1, , A+B, m1 + m2 m.
:
m1 m2 m
m1 + m2 m
=
+

= P (A) + P (B) P (AB).


P (A + B) =
n
n
n
n
88.1.
36 .
: A , B
P (A + B) . :
1
1
1
P (A) = , P (B) = , P (A B) = .
4
9
36
(88.2), :
1
1
1 1
= .
P (A + B) = +
4 9 36
3

88.2.
88.1. P (A/B) = PB (A) A, ,
B .
88.2. 3 3 . , .
( A) ,
( ).
: 5 ,
3 . :
P (A/B) = 3/5.
, A :
3
P (A) = ,
6

88

255

.. .
88.2 ( ).

, ,
:
(88.3)

P (AB) = P (A) P (B/A).

. n , m1 , A, m
m1 , B (. 88.1).
: P (A) = m1 /n, P (A B) = m/n, P (B/A) = m/m1 .
:
m1 m
m
=

= P (A) P (B/A).
P (AB) =
n
n m1
88.2.

:
P (A1 A2 . . . An ) = P (A1 )P (A2 /A1 )P (A3 /A1 A2 ) . . .
. . . P (An /A1 A2 . . . An1 ).
88.2. B
A, A B:
(88.4)

P (B/A) = P (B).

, . , (88.3) (88.4): P (A B) =
= P (A) P (B/A) = P (A) P (B). , P (A B) = P (B A) =
= P (B) P (A/B), , P (A) P (B) = P (B) P (A/B) P (A/B) = P (A),
.. A B .
, 88.2, 88.3 .
88.3.
.
(88.5)

P (A B) = P (A) P (B).

88.3. , .

256

, ,
.
.
88.2 :
88.3.
, , :
P (A1 A2 . . . An ) = P (A1 )P (A2 ) . . . P (An ).
88.4.
A1 , A2 , . . . , An , ,
A1 , A2 , . . . , An :
P (A) = 1 P (A1 )P (A2 ) . . . P (An ).
. A A e, A1 , A2 , . . . , An :
A = A1 A2 . . . An .
A1 , A2 , . . . , An , A = A1 A2 . . . An

= P (A1 )P (A2 ) . . . P (An ),
P (A)
= 1 P (A1 )P (A2 ) . . . P (An ).
P (A) = 1 P (A)

88.4. A1 , A2 , . . . , An p,
( A) :
(88.6)

P (A) = 1 (1 p)n .

88.3. ,
, 0,4. , 0,9
.
: A e: n .
(88.6):
P (A) = 1 (1 0, 4)n .

P (A) > 0, 9, :
1 0, 6n > 0, 9, : n lg 0, 6 6 lg 0, 1 , .. lg 0, 6 < 0, :
n > lg 0, 1/ lg 0, 6. lg 0, 1/ lg 0, 6 4, 5 : n > 5.

88

257

88.3.
88.5 (a ).
A, H1 , H2 . . . Hn ,

A:
(88.7)

P (A) = P (H1 )P (A/H1 ) + P (H2 )P (A/H2 ) + P (Hn )P (A/Hn ).

. , A : H1 A, H2 A, . . . , Hn A.
88.1
, :
P (A) = P (H1 A + + Hn A) = P (H1 A) + + P (Hn A) =

= P (H1 )P (A/H1 ) + P (H2 )P (A/H2 ) + + P (Hn )P (A/Hn ).


88.4. . ,
("") 0,6,
("") 0,8 .
.
: A " ". "" ( H1 ), ""( H2 ):
P (H1 ) = 2/5 = 0, 4;

P (H2 ) = 3/5 = 0, 6.

:
P (A/H1 ) = 0, 6;

P (A/H2 ) = 0, 8.

:
P (A) = P (H1 )P (A/H1 ) + P (H2 )P (A/H2 ) = 0, 72.
88.6 (a ). i = 1, . . . , n:
(88.8)

P (Hi /A) =

P (Hi )P (A/Hi)
.
P (H1 )P (A/H1 ) + + P (Hn )P (A/Hn )

. :
P (Hi A) = P (A)P (Hi /A) = P (Hi )P (A/Hi ),

258

P (A) :
P (Hi )P (A/Hi )
P (Hi )P (A/Hi)
= P
.
P (Hi /A) =
n
P (A)
P (Hk )P (A/Hk )
k=1


, , .

88.5. 88.4 ,
. , "".
: :
P (H2 /A) =

0, 6 0, 8
2
P (H2 ) P (A/H2 )
=
= .
P (H1 ) P (A/H1 ) + P (H2 ) P (A/H2 )
0, 4 0, 6 + 0, 6 0, 8
3

, "" P (H2 ) = 3/5, .. (


) H2 , H1 .

88.

88.1. 16 , 6 8 . . , .
: : A - , B - , .
30 .
6
8
7
P (A + B) = P (A) + P (B) =
+
= .
30 30
15
: P (A + B) = 7/15.
88.2. 40 , 3 , 20 . , , .
: A - , B -
. P = P (A+B); A
20
B , P = P (A) + P (B). 40 20 C40

88

259

20
, 37 20 C37
,

20
20
P (A) = C37
/C40
.
,
19
20
P (B) = C31 C37
/C40
.
,
1
20
19
P = 20 (C37
+ C31 C37
) = 0, 5.
C40
: P (A) = 0, 5.

88.3. ,
, 0,75?
: ,
, , 5/6, n (5/6)n. 1 (5/6)n.
, , 1 (5/6)n > 0, 75. (5/6)n < 0, 25,
1
ln 4
5
7, 6.
n ln < ln , n >
6
4
ln 1, 2
, n > 8.
: n > 8.
88.4. 11 , 5 9 .
. ,
? , : ) , ) .
: 25 . )
.
P (A1 A2 A3 ) = P (A1 ) P (A2 ) P (A3 )

:
P1 = (11/25)3 0, 085.

) , ,
11/25;
10/24 9/23.

P (A1 A2 A3 ) = P (A1 ) P (A2 /A1 ) P (A3 /A1 A2 )



11 10 9

0, 072.
P2 =
25 24 23

260

: P1 0, 09; P2 0, 07.

88.5. . 0,05,
- 0,03, - 0,02. : ) ,
) .
: : p1 = 0, 05; p2 = 0, 03; p3 = 0, 02, , .. , qi = 1 pi
q1 = 0, 95; q2 = 0, 97; q3 = 0, 98.
) P1 = q1 q2 q3 = 0, 95 0, 97 0, 98 = 0, 903.
) ,
. P2 = 1 q1 q2 q3 = 0, 097. ,
,
P (A + B + C) = P (A) + P (B) + P (C) P (AB) P (AC) P (BC) + P (ABC)

A, B, C.

P = p1 + p2 + p3 p1 p2 p1 p3 p2 p3 + p1 p2 p3 = 0, 097.

: P1 0, 90; P2 0, 10.

88.6. (52 )
. ) , ;
) , ; ) ,
.
:
39 26 13

0, 106;
51 50 49
39 26 13

0, 094.
) P (B) = 1
52 52 52
C - , .
= 1 26 25 24 23 0, 945.
P (C) = 1 P (C)
52 51 50 49
: P (A) 0, 11; P (B) 0, 09; P (C) 0, 95.
)

P (A) = 1

88.7. 0,8, - 0,85 - 0,9. ,


: ) , )
, ) , ) , )

88

261

, ) , ) .
: p1 = 0, 8; p2 = 0, 85;
p3 = 0, 9, q1 = 0, 2; q2 = 0, 15; q3 = 0, 1.
, 1.8 (. ), :
P1 = p1 q2 q3 + q1 p2 q3 + q1 q2 p3 = 0, 056.
; ) P2 = p1 p2 q3 + p1 q2 p3 + q1 p2 p3 = 0, 363;
) P3 = p1 p2 p3 = 0, 612;
) P4 = q1 p2 q3 = 0, 017;
) P5 = p1 p2 q3 = 0, 068;
) P6 = q1 q2 q3 = 0, 003;
) P7 = 1 q1 q2 q3 = 0, 997.
: P1 0, 06; P2 0, 36; P3 0, 61; P4 0, 02; P5 0, 07; P6 0, 00;
P7 1, 00.
(

),
, 88.5.
88.8.
p = 0, 0003. ) , 300
. ) ,

p1 = 0, 02?
: ) P = 1 q n , q = 0, 9997, n = 300.
q n , P 0, 067.
)

0, 9997n > 0, 98,

1 0, 9997n 6 0, 02,
n lg0, 9997 > lg0, 98,

n6

lg0, 98
,
lg0, 9997

n 6 88.

, n
n 6 lg(1 p1 )/lg(1 p).

: P 0, 07; n 6 88.

88.9. - . , ,
.

262

:
: P (A) = 1 P (A),

9
65
11
C17
= .
P (A) = 1 9 = 1
C20
76
76
A -
.
: P (A) = 65/76.


88.10.
39 , 14 N1, 12
N2 13 N3. ,
N1 N3?
88.11. 0,95. , .
88.12. ,
, , . , , ,
, 0,75, - 0,6. , :
) , )
, ) .
88.13.
. ,
, 0,92, - 0,96.
. ,
.
88.14.
. ,
, - , - .
88.15. 12
. ,
.
88.16. 20 , , 6 . ,

.

89

263

88.17.
0,0002. ) ,
400
. ) , p1 = 0, 03?
88.18. 20 , 12 , . , .
88.19.
. ,
?
88.20.
. ,
, . , , ?
88.21. m n . . ,
: ) , ) .
88.22. , 30 , 5 . 10 .
, . , .
88.23. 10 5 . , , .
, .
88.24. , 50

?
88.25. n , m .
k . ,
.

89.
. A.
. .

264

89.1.
, n ,
= 1 p = q Pn (m)
A. P (A) = p, P (A)
, A m n .

, AAAA
, A 1A A;
4- 2- 3-. ,
A m , A n m , .
,
m n, A ( A
), .. n m:
n!
.
Cnm =
m!(n m)!
,
A (, A ) ,
A
B1 = AA . . . AAA . . . A,
m .
m , A/n

,
P (B1 ) = pm q nm ,
:
P (B2 ) = = P (Bk ) = pm q nm ,

k = Cnm .
, :
Pn (m) = P (B1 + + Bk ) = P (B1 ) + + P (Bk ) = kpm q nm = Cnm pm q nm .

(89.1)

Pn (m) = Cnm pm q nm ,
Cnm =

n!
.
m!(n m)!

89.1. 0,6. , 8 5 ?
: n = 8, m = 5, p = 0, 6, q = 1 0, 6 = 0, 4.
(89.1) :
8!
0.65 0.43 0.28.
P8 (5) =
5!(8 5)!

89

265

89.2. 89.1 ,
5 3-.
: P8 (3 6 m 6 5). (89.1)
:
P8 (3 6 m 6 5) = P8 (3) + P8 (4) + P8 (5).
, :
P8 (3 6 m 6 5) = C83 0, 63 0, 45 + C85 0, 65 0, 43 0, 12 + 0, 23 + 0, 28 = 0, 63.
89.1. (88.6), ,
, . , 88.4 :
= Cn0 p0 q n = (1 p)n = P (A) = 1 P (A)
= 1 (1 p)n .
P (A)
89.3. 89.1
8 .
: ,
.. 8 :
= (1 p)n = 0, 48 0, 001 = P (A) 0, 999.
P (A)
89.2. ,
A A,
. n ,
A1 , A2 , . . . , Am p1 , p2 , . . . , pm ,
m
X

pi = 1.

i=1

, k1 A1 , . . . ,
m

X
kj = n , km Am
j=1


(89.2)

Pn (k1 , k2 , . . . , km ) =

n!
pk11 pk22 . . . pkmm .
k1 !k2 ! . . . km !

266

89.2.
A
m, Pn (m)
; m m A n .
,
(89.3)

(n + 1)p 1 6 m 6 (n + 1)p.

(89.3) m ,
.
, 89.1 9 0.6 1 6 m 6 9 0, 6.
m = 5.
89.4. 11
.
: n = 1, p = 21 . (89.3)
:
1
1
12 1 6 m 6 12 .
2
2
m = 5 m = 6.
:
 6   5
 5  6
1
1
1
1
6
5
= C11
0, 23.
P11 (5) = P11 (6) = C11
2
2
2
2

89.3.
.

n .
,
m n , n .
89.1 ( ). p A n
, Pn (m) , A m n , (
n , p
/ 0, p
/ 1):
(89.4)

Pn (m)

m np
1

,
npq
npq

x2

1
(x) = e 2 .
2

89

267

(x) (. 1)
(, XCEL,
MatCad, MatLab ). (x)
0 6 x 6 4. (x),
x:
(x) = (x),

(+) = () = 0.

89.5. 0,6. , 100 50 .


: n = 100, m = 50, p = 0, 6.
:


50 100 0, 6
1

P100 (40)

100 0, 6 0, 4
100 0, 6 0, 4
0, 20 (2, 04) = 0, 20 0, 05 = 0, 01.
("") ,
A (.
89.2) n , .
.
89.1. (x) :
(89.5)

1
(x) =
2

Zx

t2

e 2 dt.

:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

(x) , ,
D(y) = (; +),
(0) = 0,
(x) = (x),
(+) = 0, 5, () = 0, 5.

1 . 2 ,
1
(0) =
2

Z0
0

t2

e 2 dt = 0.

268

4 e
:


Zx 2
Zx
t
u2
1
1
t
=
u
e 2 dt =
e 2 du = (x).
=
(x) =
dt = du
2
2
0

4 :
+
+
Z
Z
2

t2
1
1
1
1
t2
2 =
e 2 dt =
dt = 2 = (+) =
e
2
2
2 2

+
+
Z

Z
t2
t2
1
e 2 dt =
e 2 dt .
2


(. 2) (,
EXCEL, MatCad, MatLab). (x)
0 6 x 6 5. (x),
x.
89.2 ( ). p
A n
, Pn (m1 6 m 6 m2 ) ,
A m1 , m2 n
( n , p
/ 0, p
/ 1):




m1 np
m2 np

,
(89.6)
Pn (m1 6 m 6 m2 )
npq
npq
Zx
t2
1
(x) =
e 2 dt .
2
0

89.1 89.2 .

89.4.
p A
0 1 , 89.1 89.2 .
Pn (m)
n.
89.3. p A
n , n ,

89

269

Pn (m) , A m n
( n , p 0, np a):
(np)m np
(89.7)
Pn (m)
e .
m!
89.3. , p 1, ,
Pn (m) Pn (n m)
n m A,
q = 1 p 0.
89.6.
0,01. , 100
.

: , .. , (0 1 ).
P (B)
np = 100 0, 01 = 1,
10 1 11 1

P (B) = P100 (0) + P100 (1) e + e 0, 74.


0!
1!
P (B) 1 0, 74 = 0, 36.

89.5.
p
A ; A m n
. , m


n


 p

m
, .. P p 6 .
n
,
89.2:







m

m
p 6 = P np n 6 m 6 np + n
P p 6 = P 6
n
n




np + n np
np n np
=

npq
npq
 r 

 r 
r 
n
n
n
=

= 2
.
pq
pq
pq
. , , n , p
/ 0, p
/1


 r 


m
n
.
(89.8)
P p 6 2
n
pq

270

89.7. , p = 0, 1.
, ,
0,9544 , p , 0,03.
: p = 0, 1; q = 0, 9; = 0, 03;




m
P 0, 1 6 0, 03 = 0, 9544.
n

n. (89.8):


r

n
= 0, 9544 = (0, 1 n) =
2 0, 03
0, 1 0, 9

= 0, 4772 = 0, 1 n = 2 = n = 400.
, 400 m 1 400 0, 1 400 0, 03 = 28 400 0, 1 + 400 0, 03 = 52.

89.

. 89.1 A,
. Hi , P (Hi ). , A, (88.7)
A.
89.1. 120
, ,
50, 34 36 . , 0,96, - 0,93,
- 0,95. ,
.
: A ,
. : H1 -
, H2 - , H3 - .
:
5
34
17
36
3
50
= , P (H2 ) =
= , P (H3 ) =
= .
P (H1 ) =
12)
12
120
60
120
10

89

271

A :
P (A/H1 ) = 0, 96,

P (A/H2 ) = 0, 93,

P (A/H3 ) = 0, 95.


17
3
5
0, 96 +
0, 93 +
0, 95 = 0, 949.
P (A) =
12
60
10
: P (A) 0, 95.

89.2. 30 , 25
, - 27, 21 .
.
.
, .
: A - ; : H1
- , H2 - .
:
5
5
1
25
= ,
P (H2 ) =
= ,
P (H1 ) =
30
6
30
6

11
21
3
22
= ,
P (A/H2 ) =
= .
P (A/H1 ) =
28
14
28
4
A
5 11 1 3
131
P (A) =
+ =
.
6 14 6 4
168
: P (A) = 131/168.
89.3. 20 5 . ,
. . , .
: Hi , i = 0, 1, 2, 3, -
i ; :
i
3
P (Hi ) = C20
C53i /C25
.

A - .
3
3
P (A/Hi ) = C20i
/C25
. ,
3439
1
3
3
1
2
3
2
1
3
3
3
(C
C
+C
C
C
+C
C
C
+C
C
)
=
0, 260.
P (A) =
5
20
20
5
19
20
5
18
20
17
3 3
(C25
)
13225
: P (A) 0, 26.

272

89.4. .
0,8, - 0,9. .
0,7.
.
: A - . :
H1 - , H2 - , H3 - .
:
P (H1 ) = p1 p2 = 0, 8 0, 9 = 0, 72,
P (H2 ) = p1 q2 + p2 q1 = 0, 8 0, 1 + 0, 9 0, 2 = 0, 26,
P (H3 ) = q1 q2 = 0, 2 0, 1 = 0, 02;
p1 = 0, 8, p2 = 0, 9, q1 = 1 p1 = 0, 2, q2 = 1 p2 = 0, 1.
:
P (A/H1 ) = 1,

P (A/H2 ) = 1 0, 7 = 0, 3,

P (A/H3 ) = 0.

:
P (A) = 0, 72 1 + 0, 26 0, 3 + 0, 02 0 = 0, 798.
: P (A) 0, 80.
A .
P (Hi ),
(88.8).
89.5. : 5 7 ; - 8 6
; - 10 .
. .
, ,
.
: Hi (i = 1, 2, 3) - i- ; P (Hi ) = 1/3. A -
; :
P (A/H1 ) = 5/12,

P (A/H2 ) = 4/7,

P (A/H3 ) = 1.


3
3
X
1X
1
P (A/Hj ).
P (A/Hj ) = P (A/Hi /
P (Hi /A) = P (A/Hi )/
3
3 j=1
j=1

89

273

, , A ,
:
P (H1 /A) =

35
5/12
=
,
5/12 + 4/7 + 1
167

P (H2 /A) =

48
,
167

P (H3 /A) =

84
.
167

, 1/3.
: P (H1 /A) = 35/167; P (H2 /A) = 48/167; P (H3 /A) = 84/167.
89.6.
40%, 35% 25% ;
4%, 3% 5% . ) ,
, , ? )
.
, , , .
: ) A - .
H1 , H2 , H3 , ,
, .
P (H1 ) = 0, 4,

P (H2 ) = 0, 35,

P (H3 ) = 0, 25,


P (A/H1 ) = 0, 04,

P (A/H2 ) = 0, 03,

P (A/H3 ) = 0, 05.


P (A) =

3
X
i=3

P (Hi )P (A/Hi ) = 0, 4 0, 04 + 0, 35 0, 03 + 0, 25 0, 05 = 0, 039.

, , , , :
P (H1 /A) =

P (H1 ) P (A/H1 )
0, 4 0, 04
16
=
= ,
P (A)
0, 039
39

P (H2 /A) =

7
P (H2 ) P (A/H2 )
= ,
P (A)
26

P (H3 /A) =

P (H3 ) P (A/H3 )
25
= .
P (A)
78

: P (A) 0, 04; P (H1 /A) = 16/39; P (H2 /A) = 7/26;


P (H3 /A) = 25/78.

274

89.7. , 95% . , , 0,97, , , 0,08. , ,


( ), .
: H1 - , H2
- . P (H1 ) = 0, 95, P (H2 ) = 0, 05.
A - .
P (H1 /A) = 0, 97,

P (H2 /A) = 0, 08.

,
P (H1 /A) =

0, 95 0, 97
P (H1 ) P (A/H1 )
=
0, 9957.
P (A)
0, 95 0, 97 + 0, 05 0, 08

: P (H1 /A) 0, 996.


89.8. 5 4 . , , 0,92, - 0,96. .
, .
89.9. 36 2 ; - : 27 1, 48
3. . , : ) , ,
; ) .
89.10. . 5% ,
- 3%. ,
60% , ,
- 40%?
89.11. , 5 , ,
. , ,
.

90

275

89.12. .
3% , - 5%. 10 12 - .
. ,
?
89.13. , , . ,
, ,
85%, 90% 95% . : H1 - ,
H2 - , H3 - .
89.14. , 9% - . ,
0,96.
,
0,98. . , : )
, ) .
89.15. 90%
, 8% 2% . ,
, 60%
10% .
, , , ?

90.

. .

90.1.
, , . , , ,
.

276

90.1. ,
.
90.1. 10 , 0, 1, 2, . . . , 10.
, (a; b). , , ,
, (0, 3; 3).
: (),
(), (), () ..,
: x, y, z ..
90.2. ,
.
.. . , 90.1
, .
, , (.
. 90.1).
90.1

x1 x2 . . .
xn
p p1 p2 . . .
pn
90.1 , n
x1 , . . . , xn , pi = P { = xi }.
n , = x1 , = x2 , . . . , = xn .
(88.1), ,
, .. 1:
p1 + . . . + pn = 1.
90.2. 1$
1$ . ,

90

277

, :
1 -1
p 0,5 0,5
90.3. :
1 2 5 10
p 0,1
0,3 0,2
.
: 0, 1 + p2 + 0, 3 + 0, 2 = 1 : p2 = 0, 4.
: p2 = 0, 4.
: xi , pi . . . . 90.1
90.3.

Pi
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1

10

xi

. 90.1.

90.2.
.
,
. .

278

90.3. M()

:
(90.1)

M() = x1 p1 + x2 p2 + . . . + xn pn .

90.1.
, .
90.4. 90.3 .
: M() = 1 0, 1 + 2 0, 4 + 5 0, 3 + 10 0, 2 = 4, 4.
: M() = 4, 4.

.
90.5. 10 7 , 2
1 . ?
: :
73+24+15
= 3, 4.
10

7
2
1
3, 4 = 3
+4
+5 ,
10
10
10
, .
87.1 . ,
. : .
90.2. " " ,

.
.
1. :
M(C) = C.

90

279

. :
C
,
p 1

M(C) = C 1 = C.

2. :
M(C ) = C M().
.
90.1, C, , :
C Cx1 Cx2 . . . Cxn
p
p1
p2 . . . pn
:
M(C) = Cx1 p1 + Cx2 p2 + . . . + Cxn pn = C(x1 p1 + . . . + xn pn ) = CM().
3.
:
M( + ) = M() + M().
90.3. 2 3 1 , . . . , n C1 , . . . , Cn :
M(C1 1 + . . . + Cn n ) = C1 M(1 ) + . . . + Cn M(n ).
: M( ) = M() M().

,
.

90.4.
,
, .
, 90.2 90.3,
, 90.4.
90.2
90.3
90.4 .

280

x1 x2
p p1 p2

y1 y2
p g1 g2

x1 y1 x1 y2 x2 y1 x2 y2
p p1 g1 p1 g2 p2 g1 p2 g2
, (88.5), , 90.4 :
P { = x1 y1 } = P { = x1 , = y1 } = P { = x1 } P { = y1 } = p1 g1 .


:
4.
:
M( ) = M() M().
, 90.2, 90.3, 90.4, .
90.5. , , .
4 :
90.1. n 1 , . . . , n .
M(1 . . . n ) = M(1 ) . . . M(n ).

90.3.
, , . M(), .. . :
M( M()) = M() M(M()) = M() M() = 0.

90

281


.
90.6.
:
D() = M( M())2 .

(90.2)

:
X
(xi M())2 pi .
(90.3)
D() =
i

,
.
90.6. 90.3 .

: 90.4 :
M() = 4, 4. (90.3) :
D() = (1 4, 4)2 0, 1 + (2 4, 4)2 0, 4 + (5 4, 4)2 0, 3+

+(10 4, 4)2 0, 2 9, 84.


, , :
(90.4)
:

D() = M( 2 ) (M())2 .


D() = M( M())2 = M 2 2M() + (M())2 =
= M( 2 ) 2M()M() + (M())2 = M( 2 ) (M())2 .

(90.4) :
X
x2i pi (M())2 .
(90.5)
D() =
i

, (90.5) 90.6 .
.
(1) D() > 0.
, (90.3) .

282

(2) D(C) = 0.
: D(C) = M(C M(C))2 = M(C C)2 = M(0) = 0
(3) D(C ) = C 2 D().
.
D(C ) = M(C M(C ))2 = M(C C M())2 =
2

= M C ( M()) = M C 2 ( M())2 =
= C 2 M( M())2 = C 2 D().

(4) : D( +) = D()+D().
90.6 . .
90.2. D(
) = D() + D().
:


D( ) = D + (1) = D() + (1)2 D() = D() + D().

4
.
,
( ).
, M() , , D() , . , , ,
.
90.7.
:
p
(90.6)
() = D().

, () : D() =
= 2 ().
90.6 D() = 9, 84.

: () = 9, 84 3, 14.
:
(1) () > 0;

90

283

(2) (C) = 0;
(3) (C) = |C| ();
p
(4) (+) = 2 () + 2 ().
, () ( ).

90.

90.1. 10 .
0,98.
.
, .
: n = 10, q = 0, 98, p = 1 q = 0, 02, m = 2.
(89.1)
2
P10 (2) = C10
p2 q 8 =

10!
0, 022 0, 988 0, 015.
2!8!

: P10 (2) 0, 02.


90.2. 0,9. ,
m = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
: (89.1) n = 5, m = 0, p = 0, 9, q =
0, 1 ,

P5 (0) = C50 (0, 9)0 (0, 1)5 = 105 .


, . m
:
5!
P5 (1) = C51 (0, 9)1 (0, 1)4 =
0, 9 104 0, 0005,
1!4!
5!
0, 81 103 0, 0081,
P5 (2) = C52 (0, 9)2 (0, 1)3 =
2!3!
5!
P5 (3) = C53 (0, 9)3 (0, 1)2 =
0, 729 102 0, 0729,
3!2!
5!
0, 6561 0, 1 0, 32805,
P5 (4) = C54 (0, 9)4 (0, 1)1 =
4!1!
P5 (5) = C55 (0, 9)5 (0, 1)0 0, 59049.

284


5
X

P5 (m) = 1.

m=0

p = 0, 9 ,
.
90.3. 7% . , :
) , ) , ) .
: n = 6, p = 0, 07, q = 0, 93.
) P1 , ,

m = 0,

P6 (0) = C60 (0, 07)0 (0, 93)6 0, 647.

) P6 (1) P6 (2):

P6 (1) = C61 (0, 07)1 (0, 93)5 0, 292,


P6 (2) = C62 (0, 07)2 (0, 93)4 0, 055.

P2 , ,
P2 = P6 (0) + P6 (1) + P6 (2) 0, 994.

6
X

P6 (m) = 1,

m=0

P3 , , :
P3 =

6
X

m=3

P6 (m) =

6
X

m=0

P6 (m)

2
X

m=0

P6 (m) 1 0, 994 = 0, 006.

: P1 0, 647 P2 0, 994 P3 0, 006.


90.4. 0,92 , 0,06 - 0,02 - . 50 .
, .

90

285

: (89.2)
.
n = 50,
k2 = 3,

p1 = 0, 92,
k3 = 1,

P50 (46, 3, 1) =

p2 = 0, 06,

p3 = 0, 02,

k1 = n k2 k3 = 46.

50!
0, 9246 0, 063 0, 021 =
46!3!1!

47 48 49 50
0, 02162 0, 000216 0, 02 0, 086.
6
0, 9246 , , , Mathcad.
90.2

. m A
n (89.3).
90.5.
.
0,6.
.
: n = 8, p = 0, 6, q = 0, 4.
(n + 1)p 1 6 m 6 (n + 1)p 4, 4 6 m 6 5, 4.

, m = 5.

8!
P8 (5) = C85 (0, 6)5 (0, 4)3 =
0, 07776 0, 064 0, 279.
3!5!
: m = 5, P8 (5) 0, 28.

90.6.
0,75. 103 . ?
: p = 0, 75, q = 0, 25, n = 103.
0, 75 104 1 6 m 6 0, 75 104 77 6 m 6 78.

(n + 1)p , : m = 77, m = 78.



.
: m = 77 78.

286

90.7. , , 0,56. , 120 67 ?


:
n = 120, p = 0, 56, q = 0, 44, m = 67, npq = 29, 568.
.
67 120 0, 56
m np

=
x=
0, 04,
npq
29, 568
(0, 04) = (0, 04) = 0, 3986,
:

0, 3986
(x)
=
0, 073.
P120 (67) =
npq
29, 568
, m = 67, m , , ( 0, 07).
, m = 0
m = 120.
: P120 (67) 0, 07.
90.8. 150 . ,
, 0,2. , : ) 40
, ) 25 35 .

: )
, n = 150, .. n > 100, p = 0, 2, q = 0, 8
npq = 24 > 20. m = 40,
5
40 150 0, 2
m np

= 2, 04.
=
x=
npq
24
6
(2, 04) = 0, 05 , (89.4), :

P150 (40) 0, 05/ 24 0, 010.

) (89.2).
m1 = 25, m2 = 35,
m1 np
25 30
1, 02,
x1 =
=
npq
24
m2 np
35 30
x2 =
=
1, 02.
npq
24

90

287

(89.6)
P150 (25 6 m 6 35) = (1, 02) (1, 02) =

= 2(1, 02) = 2 0, 346 = 0, 692.


: P150 (40) 0, 01 P150 (25 6 m 6 35) 0, 69.

90.9. 40%. , 300 : ) 110 140 , )


110 , ) 109 .
: .
n = 300, p = 0, 4, q = 0, 6.
) m1 = 110 m2 = 140:
110 300 0, 4
5
m1 np

=
x1 =
= 1, 18,
npq
72
3 2
10
140 300 0, 4
m2 np

= 2, 36.
=
x2 =
npq
72
3 2

P300 (110 6 m 6 140) = (2, 36) (1, 18) = 0, 491 + 0, 381 = 0, 872.

,
m = 120.
) m1 = 110, m2 = 300.
x1 ,
180
300 120

= 21.
x2 =
72
6 2

P300 (110 6 m 6 300) = (21) (1, 18) = 0, 5 + 0, 381 = 0, 881.

P300 (0 6 m 6 109) P300 (110 < m < 300)


1,
P300 (0 6 m 6 109) = 1 P300 (110 < m < 300) = 1 0, 881 = 0, 119.

: P300 (110 6 m 6 140) 0, 87; P300 (110 6 m 6 300) 0, 88;


P300 (0 6 m 6 109) 0, 12.
, n p ( 0,1) (89.6)
.
.

288

90.10. , ,
0,003. , , 200.
: n = 200, p = 0, 003, np = 0, 6, m = 3
P200 (3) =

0, 036
0, 63 e0,6

0, 019.
3!
1, 8221

: P200 (3) 0, 02.

90.11. - 0,004. , 1000 , , : ) , )


, ) .
: n = 1000, p = 0, 004, np = 4,
.
) m = 2
42 e4
8
P1000 (2) =
= 4 0, 147.
2!
e
) m = 5,

) m = 0

45 e4
128
P1000 (5) =

0, 156.
5!
15 54, 6

1
1

0, 018.
e4
54, 6
: P1000 (2) 0, 15; P1000 (5) 0, 16; P1000 (0) 0, 02.
P1000 (0) =

90.12. 1% . , 200 : ) , ) , ) , )
.
: n = 200, p = 0, 01, np = 2.
) , ,
23 e2
0, 180.
P200 (3) =
3!
) , ,
P200 (m < 3) = P200 (0) + P200 (1) + P200 (2) =

90

289

20 e2 21 e2 22 e2
+
+
0, 677.
=
0!
1!
2!
)
200
X
P200 (m) = 1,
m=0


P200 (m > 3) = 1

3
X

m=0

P200 (m) = 1 (0, 677 + 0, 180) = 0, 143.

)
,
P = 1 P200 (0) = 1 e2 0, 865.

: P200 (3) 0, 180; P200 (m < 3) 0, 68; P200 (m > 3) 0, 14.


, (89.8).
90.13. 800
0,6. ,
0,03.
: n = 800, p = 0, 6, q = 0, 4, = 0, 03.

m
P (|
0, 8| 6 0, 03).
800
(89.8)
r
800
) 2 (1, 73).
2 (0, 03
0, 6 0, 4

(1, 73) = 0, 458. ,


2 0, 458 = 0, 916.
: 0,92.


90.14. , ,
, . 0,51, 0,49.

290

90.15.
0,02. 10
. ,
. ,
.
90.16. , , , 0,05, 0,08, 0,87. 100 .
,
.
90.17. 6%.
500
.
90.18. 0,7. , 10?
90.19. 12%. , 300 35.
90.20. ,
, 0,25. , 200 40 50.
90.21. ,
, 0,75. , 100 : ) 71 80 , )
71 , ) 70 .
90.22.
0,001. , 5000 : ) , ) .
90.23. 1000 . ,
, 0,002. , .
90.24. 625
. , , 0,02.
0,95 , m .

91

291

91.

. . .

91.1.
,
90.1. , , ,
. ,
, .
91.1. F (x)
, :
(91.1)

F (x) = P { < x}.

91.1. F (x) 90.3.


: , F (x)
(91.1):
F (0) = P { < 0} = 0;

F (0, 5) = P { < 0, 5} = 0;

F (1) = P { < 1} = 0; F (2) = P { < 2} = 0, 1;

F (1, 1) = P { < 1, 1} = 0, 1;

F (1, 9) = P { < 1, 9} = 0, 1;

F (2, 1) = P { < 2, 1} = P { = 1 = 2} = 0, 1 + 0, 4 = 0, 5;
F (4) = P { < 4} = P { = 1 = 2} = 0, 1 + 0, 4 = 0, 5;

F (5) = P { < 5} = P { = 1 = 2} = 0, 1 + 0, 4 = 0, 5;
F (6) = P { < 6} = 0, 1 + 0, 4 + 0, 3 = 0, 8;

F (9) = P { < 9} = 0, 1 + 0, 4 + 0, 3 = 0, 8;

F (10) = P { < 10} = 0, 1 + 0, 4 + 0, 3 = 0, 8; ..

292

, F(x) , :

0
x 6 1;

0, 1 1 < x 6 2;
0, 5 2 < x 6 5;
F (x) =

0, 8 5 < x 6 10;

1
10 < x.
. 91.1.
y
1,0
0,8
0,5

0,1
1

10

. 91.1.
.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

0 6 F (x) 6 1, F () = 0, F (+) = 1;
P {x1 6 < x2 } = F (x2 ) F (x1 );
F (x) ;
F (x) ;
, 90.1,
xi , (. . 91.1).

1 91.1.
2 F (x2 ) = P { < x2 }
:
F (x2 ) = P { < x2 } = P { < x1 x1 6 < x2 } = P { < x1 }+

+P {x1 6 < x2 } = F (x1 ) + P {x1 6 < x2 } F (x2 ) = F (x1 )+


+P {x1 6 < x2 } P {x1 6 < x2 } = F (x2 ) F (x1 ).

91

293

3 , ..
x2 > x1 :
F (x2 ) F (x1 ) = P {x1 6 < x2 } > 0 = F (x2 ) > F (x1 ).

4 . , F (x)
x, lim F (x) = F (a). xa

. 91.1, . , .. F (x) .

91.2.

91.2. F (x) , F (x) ,
( ) , F (x)
1- .
, F (x) , , .. .
91.3. ,
F (x) F (x).
:
(1) 0 6 F (x) 6 1, F () = 0, F (+) = 1;
(2) P {x1 6 < x2 } = F (x2 ) F (x1 );
(3) F (x) ;
(4) F (x) ;
(5) P { = a} = 0 a.
3
91.1. 4 91.2.
5: P {a 6 < a + x} = F (a + x) F (a) x > 0
2. , 4, :
lim P {a 6 < a + x} =

F (a + x) F (a) = F (a) F (a) = 0.
x0+

= lim

x0+

lim P {a 6 < a + x} = P {a 6 6 a} = P { = a}, -

x0+

5:
.

294


, . 91.2.
F(x)

F(x)
1

x1

x2

x1

F(x)

F(x)

x2

. 91.2.

, . 91.2,
, a: P {x1 6 < x2 } = F (x2 )F (x1) = 00 = 0.
(. 91.2,) ,
b: P {x1 6 < x2 } = F (x2 ) F (x1 ) = 1 1 = 0.
. 91.2,
,
(a; b).
91.1. 2 , ,
,
: , . , , .. 5
.

91.3.

. , .

91

295

91.4. (x) ( ) :
(x) = F (x).

(91.2)

91.2. ,
.
:
(1) (x) > 0;
(2) () = (+) = 0;
(3) (x) ;
Zx
(t)dt;
(4) F (x) =

(5) P {x1 6 < x2 } =

Zx2

(x)dx;

x1

(6)

Z+

(x)dx = 1.

4 91.3 (
).
5 ,
.. F (x) (x):
P {x1 6 < x2 } = F (x2 ) F (x1 ) =

Zx2

(x)dx.

x1

6:
Z+
(x)dx = P { < < +} = 1.

5 , [x1 ; x2 ) (x)
(. . 91.3).

296

(x)

x1

x2

. 91.3.
x2 x1 , . , (x; x + x)
(x) x.
(x) . (x) (x; x + x), .
, . 91.2,
, . 91.4.
(x)

(x)

(x)

(x)

. 91.4.
91.2.
:

C x [0; 4];
(x) =
0 x
/ [0; 4].

91

297

C P {0 < < 3}.


: 6 :
Z4

Cdt = 1

(x) =

C4=1

1
C= .
4

1/4 x [0; 4];


0
x
/ [0; 4].

5 :
P {0 < < 3} =
1
: C = ;
4

P {0 < < 3} =

Z3
0

3
.
4

1
1 3 3
dt = t = .
4
4 0 4

91.4.


. ,
[a; b]. n
x1 , x2 , . . . , xn
Ci (i = 1, 2, . . . , n). , Ci Pi = (Ci)xi
( i- ),
:
X
Ci (Ci )xi.
i

Zb
, x(x)dx.
a

91.5. (x) :
(91.3)

Z+
M() =
x(x)dx.

298

:
2
D() = M M() .

(91.3)
:
Z+
2
x M() (x)dx.
(91.4)
D() =

,
90, .
90 (90.1)
.
, ,
(90.4), :
Z+
2
x2 (x)dx M() .
(91.5)
D() =

:
p
(91.6)
() = D().

91.3. ,

91.1.
: (91.3), (x)
4
Z4
2
x
1
xdx = = 2.
x [0; 4], M() =
4
8
0

(91.5), (x)
x [0; 4], M(X) = 2, 91.1, :
4
Z4
3
1
x
4
16
D() = x2 dx (2)2 = 4 =
4= .
4
12
3
3
0

(91.6) (x):
r
() =

2
4
= 1, 2.
3
3

91

: M() = 2, D() = 34 , ()

299

2 .
3

91.

91.1. :
4
6
7 10 11
p 0,1 0,3 0,2 0,3 0,1
.
: ,
xi , pi .
M1 (4; 0, 1), M2(6; 0, 3), M3(7; 0, 2), M4(10; 0, 3), M5(11; 0, 1)
. .

10 11

6.1.
91.2. - 5
.
.
: 0,
5 , 1, 5
.
1
5
1
P { = 0} = 1 = ,
P { = 1} = .
6
6
6
:
1
1
p 5/6 1/6
91.3. 15 10 .
3 .
.

300

: -
:
x1 = 0,

x2 = 1,

x3 = 2,

x4 = 3.

:
mk
P { = k} = Cnk CNn
/CNm ,

N - , n - , m -
, k - .

1
0
C10
C52
2
20
C10
C53
,
P
{
=
1}
=
,
=
=
P { = 0} =
3
3
C15
91
C15
91
2
3
C10
C51
C10
C50
45
24
P { = 2} =
,
P
{
=
3}
=
.
=
=
3
3
C15
91
C15
91
:

0
1
2
3
p 2/91 20/91 45/91 24/91
.
91.4. 4 0 3.
.
. .
: :
0 + 1, 0 + 2, 0 + 3, 1 + 2, 1 + 3, 2 + 3.
1/6, ,
3, . ,
:
1
2
3
4
5
p 1/6 1/6 1/3 1/6 1/6
91.5. 4 ,
0,3, 0,7. - .
.
: : 0, 1, 2, 3, 4. , . , p = 0, 7, q = 0, 3.

91

301

P { = 0} , , .. . , , 0,7. , P { = 0} = 0, 7. , P { = 1}
:
. ,
P { = 1} = p q = 0, 7 0, 3 = 0, 21.

, ,
P { = 2} = p q 2 = 0, 063,

P { = 3} = p q 3 = 0, 0189,

P { = 4} = q 4 = 0, 0081.
, :

0
1
2
3
4
p 0,7000 0,2100 0,0630 0,0189 0,0081

91.6. p.
. , .
: ,
, .
1 p = q,
.. P { = 1} = q. ,
, . P { = 2} =
= p q.
P { = 3} = p2 q, ..., P { = m} = pm1 q, ...

:
1 2
3 ...
p q pq p2 q ...
p q
.
.
91.7.
:
1,2 1,6 2,3 3,2 4,5
p 0,2 0,4 0,1 0,2 0,1
, .

302

:
:
n
X
x i pi
M() =

i=1

M() = 1, 2 0, 2 + 1, 6 0, 4 + 2, 3 0, 1 + 3, 2 0, 2 + 4, 5 0, 1 = 2, 2.

D() = M( 2 ) M()2

M( 2 ):
M( 2 ) = 1, 22 0, 2+1, 62 0, 4+2, 32 0, 1+3, 22 0, 2+4, 52 0, 1 = 1, 440, 2+
+ 2, 56 0, 4 + 5, 29 0, 1 + 10, 24 0, 2 + 20, 25 0, 1 = 5, 914.
,
D() = 5, 914 2, 22 = 1, 074.

:
p
p
() = D() = 1, 074 1, 036.
: M() = 2, 2; D() = 1, 074; () 1, 036.

91.8.
,
= 4 + 3, M() = 11, M() = 8.
:
,
M() = M(4 + 3) = M(4) + M(3) =
= 4 M() + 3 M() = 4 11 + 3 8 = 68.
: M() = 68.
91.9. . = 5 6, D() = 3, D() = 2.

: ,

, , :
D() = D(5 6) = D(5) + D(6) =
= 25 D() + 36 D() = 25 3 + 36 2 = 147.
: D() = 147.

91

303

91.10. : x1 p1 ; x2 = 5 p2 = 0, 4
x3 = 4 p3 = 0, 5. x1 p1 , , M() = 6.
:
1, p1 = 1 p2 p3 = 0, 1.
M() = x1 p1 + x2 p2 + x3 p3

, 6 = x1 0, 1 + 5 0, 4 + 4 0, 5.
x1 = 20.
: x1 = 20; p1 = 0, 1.
91.11.
: x1 = 2, x2 = 5, x3 = 6. ,
: M() = 4, 4; M( 2) = 22.
p1 , p2 , p3 , x1 , x2 , x3 .
:
:

p1 + p2 + p3 = 1
2 p1 + 5 p2 + 6 p3 = 4, 4
22 p + 52 p + 62 p = 22.
1
2
3
, :
p1 = 0, 3 p2 = 0, 4,

p3 = 0, 3.

: p1 = 0, 3; p2 = 0, 4; p3 = 0, 3.
91.12. n , . ,
.
. M() D() .
: ,
, p1 = 1/n. ,
, ,
1
1
n1

= .
p2 =
n
n1
n
, - ,
n1 n2
1
1
p3 =

=
n
n1 n2
n
.. ,

304

1
2
3 ... n
p 1/n 1/n 1/n ... 1/n
:
1 + 2 + 3 + ... + n =
12 + 22 + 32 + ... + n2 =

n(n + 1)
,
2

n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
.
6

M() =

n
X

x i pi =

i=1

M( ) =

n
X

x2i pi =

i=1

D() =
: M() =

n+1
;
2

1
n+1
(1 + 2 + 3 + ... + n) =
.
n
2

(n + 1)(2n + 1)
1 2
(1 + 22 + 32 + ... + n2 ) =
,
n
6

(n + 1)(2n + 1)
n + 1 2 n2 1
(
) =
.
6
2
12
D() =

n2 1
.
12

91.13. . ,
.
: i , i- , - ,
. = 1 + 2 + 3
M() = M(1 + 2 + 3 ) = M(1 ) + M(2 ) + M(3 ).
, i ,
D() = D(1 + 2 + 3 ) = D(1 ) + D(2 ) + D(3 ).
i , ,
. :
M() = 3 M(1 ),

D() = 3 D(1 ).

, 1 :
1 1
2
3
4
5
6
p 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6

91

305


7
1
M(1 ) = (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6) = ,
6
2
M() = 3 (7/2) = 21/2.

1
91
M(12 ) = (12 + 22 + 32 + 42 + 52 + 62 ) = ,
6
6

7
35
91
( )2 = .
D(1 ) = M(12 ) M 2 (1 ) =
6
2
12
D() = 3 35/12 = 35/4.
: M() = 21/2; D() = 35/4.


91.14. :
2
5
6 10 12
p 0,1 0,2 0,4 0,1 0,2
.
91.15. 1 4.
. - .
.
91.16. 15 , 4
. 3 , ,
.
, .
91.17. . ,
0,4, 0,6. - ,
. .
91.18.
:
4
6 10 12
p 0,4 0,1 0,2 0,3
,
.

306

91.19. : -2, 1, 4. ,
M() = 1, 9, M( 2 ) = 7, 3, p1 , p2 , p3 ,
.
91.20. . ,
.
91.21. , : x1 p1 = 0, 1 x2 , x1 < x2 . M()
D() : M() = 3, 9, D() = 0, 09.

92.
. . . .

92.1.
n p
A ( ).
, A n .

(92.1)

P { = m} = P (m) = Cnm pm q nm , q = 1 p, m = 0, 1, . . . , n.

92.1. ,
(92.1), .
, :
0
1
2
...
k
... n
n
n1
2 2 n2
k k nk
p q npq
Cn p q
Cn p q
pk
n p.
, 1.
, :
n
X
n
Cnm pm q nm .
(p + q) =
m=0

92

307

n
, : (p + q)n = p + (1 p) = 1.
. n
i (i = 1, 2, . . . , n), , i = 1, i-
A, i = 0, i- A.
,
(92.2)

= 1 + . . . + n .

, A n
; .
i :

i 1
0
p p 1p
M(i ) = 1 p + 0 (1 p) = p,
2
D(i ) = M(i2 ) M(i ) =

= 12 p + 02 (1 p) p2 = p p2 = p(1 p) = p q.
, (92.2):
M() = M(1 ) + . . . + M(n ) = n p,

D() = D(1 ) + . . . + D(n ) = n p q.


, :
(92.3)

M() = np;

D() = npq.

92.1. 4 . ,
.
:
n = 4, p = 0, 5:
P4 (0) = 0, 54 0, 06;

P4 (1) = 4 0, 5 0, 53 0, 25;

P4 (2) = C42 0, 52 0, 52 0, 38;

P4 (3) = p4 (1) 0, 25;

P4 (4) = p4 (0) 0, 06.

308

0
1
2
3
4
p 0,06 0,25 0,38 0,25 0,06
(92.3) :
M() = n p = 4 0, 5 = 2;

D() = nqp = 4 0, 5 0, 5 = 1.

: M() = 2, D() = 1.

92.2.
n , p 0, , np a. ,
. 89.4, Pn (m)
:
am a
(92.4)
P { = m} =
e , a > 0.
m!
92.2. ,
(92.4),
.
:

p ea aea

2
a2 a
e
2!

...

...

am a
e
m!

a.
, 1.
, ea , :

X
X
am
am a
a
e =e
= ea ea = 1.
m!
m!
m=0
m=0

X
am a X am a X
am
m e =
M() =
m e =
ea =
m!
m!
(m 1)!
m=0
m=1
m=1
a

= ae

X
am1
ak
a
=ae
= a ea ea = a.
(m 1)!
k!
m=1
k=0

, D() = a.

92

309

, , , :
(92.5)

M() = D() = a.

,
. .

92.3.

2
( 2.2).
:

0 Ck
CL
KL
k
CK

1 C k1
CL
KL
k
CK

2 C k2
CL
KL
k
CK

...

...

l C0
CL
KL
k
CK

.
: ,
k , K
, L .
L
.
K
,
:
M() = k

0
1
2
3
...
2
3
p p p(1 p) p(1 p) p(1 p) . . .
,
( ).
: A
A, p = p(A)
. , :
M() =

1p
,
p

D() =

1p
.
p2

310

92.4.
92.3.
[a; b], 0 :

C x [a; b],
(x) =
0 x
/ [a; b].
6 (. 91.3), C.
Z+
Zb
(x)dx = 1 =
Cdx = 1 =

b

= Cx = 1 = C(b a) = 1 = C =

1
.
ba
a
, [a; b] :
( 1
x [a; b],
(92.6)
(x) =
ba
0
x
/ [a; b].

4 (. 91.3) :
Zx
F (x) =
(t)dt.

x<a

F (x) =

a 6 x 6 b F (x) =

x>b

F (x) =

Zx

Za

Za

0dt = 0;

0dt +

Zx

0dt +

Zb

xa
1
dt =
;
ba
ba
1
dt +
ba

Zx
b

0dt =

ba
= 1.
ba

, [a; b] :

92

311

0x a x < a,
a 6 x 6 b,
F (x) =

1
b < x.

(92.7)

a b.
[a;b] . 92.1.

(x)

F(x)

. 92.1.

:
Zb
Z+
x(x)dx =
M() =

a
x
1
x2
dx =
dx =
ba
ba
2 b

a+b
(b a)2
=
=
2 (b a)
2
Zb
Z+
2
x2
(a + b)2
(a
+
b)
2
=
dx
=
x (x)dx
D() =
4
ba
4
a


a
(a + b)2
1
x3
(b a)3
(a + b)2

=
b a 3 b
4
3 (b a)
4
4 (a2 + ab + b2 ) 3 (a + b)2
(b a)2
=
=
.
12
12
, [a; b] :
(92.8)

M() =

a+b
;
2

D() =

(b a)2
.
12

312

92.1. P {x 6 < x + x} ,
a 6 x < x+x 6 b. 5 (. 91.3), :
P {x 6 < x + x} =

x+x
Z
x

x+x
Z

(x)dt =

1
x + x x
x
dt =
=
.
ba
ba
ba

, x, .. [a; b], x. . [a; b] ( ). ,


:
.
M() = a+b
2
92.2. [0; 4]
. , .
: 92.3 [0; 4] . :

1
0x x < 0,
x [0; 4],
0 6 x 6 4,
(x) =
F (x) =
4
4

0 x
/ [0; 4],
1 x > 4,
M() = 2;

(4 0)2
4
D() =
= .
12
3

4
M() = 2; D() = .
3

92.5.
92.4.
(), :
 x
e
x > 0,
(92.9)
(x) =
0
x < 0, > 0.
> 0.

92

313

:
Zx
Zx
x
t
t
(t)dt = e dt = e = 1 ex ;
x > 0 F (x) =
0

x < 0 F (x) =

0
x
Z

(t)dt =

Zx

0dt = 0.

, :
(92.10)

F (x) =

1 ex x > 0,
0
x < 0.

. 92.2.

(x)

F(x)

. 92.2.

.
Z+
Z+
Z+
xex dx =
xex dt =
x(x)dx =
M() =

"

u=x
dv = ex

du = dx
1
v = ex


Z+


1
1
ex dx = ex = .
= xex +

0
0
0

314

, :
Z+
Z+
1
1
1
x2 ex dx 2 = 2 .
x2 (x)dx 2 =
D() =

, :
1
1
(92.11)
M() = ; D() = 2 .

92.2. , 1 , 2 , 3 , . . ., , - (,

), , t, ,
a = t.

92.

.
92.1. - , . F (x)
.
: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. , ,
, 1/6. :
1
2
3
4
5
6
p 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6
x 6 1 F (x) = 0, , . 1 < x 6 2, F (x) = P ( < x) = P ( = 1) = 1/6.
2 < x 6 3, , , < x,
: < 2 2 6 < 3.
:
F (x) = P ( < x) = P {( < 2) + (2 6 < 3)} =
= P ( < 2) + P (2 6 < 3).

92

315

P ( < 2) = 1/6, P (2 6 < 3) 1/6,


2 6 x < 3 , ,
2. , 2 < x 6 3, F (x) = 1/6 + 1/6 = 1/3.
, 3 < x 6 4,
F (x) = P ( < x) = P ( < 3) + P (3 6 < 4) = 1/3 + 1/6 = 1/2.
4 < x 6 5
F (x) = P ( < x) = P ( < x) + P (4 6 < 5) = 1/2 + 1/6 = 2/3,
5 < x 6 6 F (x) = 2/3 + 1/6 = 5/6. , x > 6,
F (x) = P ( < x) = P ( < 6) + P (6 6 < x) = 5/6 + 1/6 = 1.
F (x)
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 1/6.

0,
x 6 1,

1/6, 1 < x 6 2,

1/3, 2 < x 6 3,
1/2, 3 < x 6 4,
F (x) =

2/3, 4 < x 6 5,

3/6, 5 < x 6 6,
1,
6 < x.

F(x)
1
5/6
4/6
3/6
2/6
1/6

92.1
(91.1),
.

316

92.2.

0 x 6 2,
(x + 2)2 2 < x 6 1,
F (x) =

1 x > 1.

, , (3/2, 1).

: , ,
(-3/2, -1),
:
P (3/2 < < 1) = F (1) F (3/2) = (1 + 2)2 (3/2 + 2)2 .

: 3/4.

92.3.
(x) = cos x (0, /2);
(x) = 0. , , (/4, /3).
:
P (a < < b) =

(x)dx.
a

, a = /4, b = /3, (x) = cos x. ,

Z /3

3 2

/3
.
cos xdx = sin x|/4 =
P( < < ) =
4
3
2
/4

: ( 3 2)/2.

92.4.

0 x 6 1,
(x 1)2 1 < x 6 2,
F (x) =

1 x > 2.
(x).

:
:

0 x 6 1,

2(x 1) 1 < x 6 2,
(x) = F (x) =
0 x > 2.

92

317

92.5. - (x), :

0, x 6 0,
3
(4x x2 ), 0 < x 6 4,
(x) =
32
0, x > 4.

: ) 1 < < 2; )
F (x).
: )
Z 2
Z 2
3
3
x3 2 11
2
2
(4x x )dx = (2x )|1 = .
(x)dx =
P (1 < < 2) =
32
3
32
1 32
1

) F (x)
Z
x

(t)dt.

F (x) =

< x 6 0,

F (x) =
0 < x 6 4,
F (x) =

0dt = 0;

(t)dt +

, , x > 4,
Z
Z 0
0dt +
F (x) =

x
0

6x2 x3
(t)dt =
;
32

Z x
3
0dt = 1.
(4t t2 )dt +
32
0

0, x 6 0,
6x2 x3
: P (1 < < 2) = 11/32, F (x) =
, 0 < x 6 4,
32
1, x > 4.
4

92.6. (x) = a/(1 + x2 ) ( ).


a F (x).
:

(x)dx = 1,

a
+
dx
=
a

arctgx|
=
a(

(
)) = a = 1.

1 + x2
2
2

318

, a = 1/, (x) = 1/(1+x2).



Z x
Z x
1 1
dt
=
+ arctgx.
F (x) =
(t)dt =
2
2

(1 + t )
: a = 1/, F (x) = 0, 5 = arctg(x)/.

92.7. (x) = x/8 (0, 4); (x) = 0.


.
: 0 (0,4),
Z +
Z 4
M() =
x(x)dx =
x(x)dx.

(x) = x/8,
4
Z
8
1 4 2
1 x3
M() =
x dx = = .
8 0
8 3 0 3

D() =

1
D() =
8

x2 (x)dx M 2 ()

4
 2
8
1 x4
8
64
=
x dx
= .
3
8 4 0
9
9
3

: M() = 8/3, D() = 8/9.

92.8.
( ). .

( x)
1

-1

92

319

: (x) ,
:

x + 1 x (1, 0),
x + 1 x (0, 1),
(x) =

0 x 6 1, x > 1.

(x) (1, 1) ,
Z +
Z 0
Z 1
M() =
x(x)dx =
x(x + 1)dx +
x(x + 1)dx = 0.

, , M() = 0,
Z 1
Z 0
1
2
x2 (x + 1)dx = .
x (x + 1)dx +
D() =
6
0
1
: M() = 0, D() = 1/6.

92.9.
: (x) = (/2) exp(|x|) ( > 0). ,
.
:
Z 0
Z
Z +
1
1
1 |x|
xex dx +
xex dx.
dx =
x e
M() =
2
2
2 0

, M() = 0.
, .

Z +
1
2
x2 e|x| dx = 2 .
D() =
2

() = D() = 2/.
: M() = 0, D() = 2/2 , (x) = 2/.
92.10. :

0 x < 0,
F (x) =
x2
1 exp( 2
2 ) x 0.
, .

320

:

0 x < 0,
(x) = F (x) =
x2
x2

exp(
) x > 0.
2
2
2 2

M0 () ,
.
1
x2
x2
(x) = 2 exp( 2 ) (1 2 )

x > 0, (x) = 0 x = . (x)


x = ,
. , M0 () = .
Me () x,
F (x) = 1/2.
1/2 = 1 exp(x2 /2 2 ), 1/2 = exp(x2 /2 2 ).

x = 2 ln2 Me () = 2 ln2.

92.11.
3
5
6
9
p 0,3 0,4 0,2 0,1
F (x) .
92.12. X
F (x) = 1/2 + arctg(x)/. ,
, (0, 3).
92.13. (0, ) (x) = (2/) sin2 x; (x) = 0. , ,
(/3, 2/3).
92.14.

0 x 6 0,
1/2 (1/2) cos 3x 0 < x 6 /3,
F (x) =
1 x > /3.
(x).

93

321

92.15.

0 x 6 0,
ax3 0 < x 6 4,
F (x) =
1 x > 4.

: a, ,
(2, 3).
92.16.
:

0, x 6 0 x > ,
(x) =
(1/2) sin x, 0 < x 6 .
.
92.17.
(x) = (2/) cos2 x x (/2, /2) (x) = 0 . .

93.
. .

93.1.
,
.
93.1. a ,
:
(93.1)

(xa)2
1

e 22 .
(x) =
2

: N (a; ).
a .

322

Z+
(x)dx = 1. :
,


Z+
Z+
(xa)2
1

e 22 dx =
(x)dx =
2

Z+

(xa)

t2
1
1

e 2 dt =
2
2

= t = x = t + a
dx = dt

Z+ 2
t
e 2 dt.

,
Z+ 2

t2
e dt = 2.

(93.2)

. Z+
(x)dx = 1.
,

:
Zx

F (x) =

1
(t)dt =
2

Zx

(ta)2
2 2

dt.

F (x) , . 89.3 ( 89.5),


:
1
F (x) =
2

Zx

(ta)2
2 2

dt =

xa

1
2

z2
1
e 2 dz ==
2

(ta)

Z0

= z = z = z + a
dt = dz

z2
1
e 2 dz +
2



xa
.
= 0, 5 +

xa

Z0
0

z2

e 2 dz =

93

323

, :
Z0

2
z2

Z+ 2
z
2
dz =
.
e 2 dz =
2
0

, :


xa
(93.3)
F (x) = 0, 5 +
.

.

Z+
(xa)2
1
e 22 dx =
x
M() =
2

(xa)

= t = x = t + a
dx = t

1
=
2

Z+
Z+
Z+ 2
t2
t2
t

a
(t + a)e 2 dt =
te 2 dt +
e 2 dt =
2
2

+
t2

= 0 + a = a.
= e 2
2

, 2 , ..
Z+
(xa)2

2 1
D() =
x e 22 dx a2 = 2 .
2

, , ,
a :
(93.4)

M() = a;

D() = 2 ;

() = .

. 93.1.
.

324

(x)

F(x)

0,5

a-

a+

. 93.1.

2 (. 91.1) :

 x a 
2
P {x1 6 < x2 } = F (x2 ) F (x1 ) = 0, 5 +


x a
x a
 x a 
2
1
1
=

,
0, 5 +

x a
x a
2
1
(93.5)
P {x1 6 < x2 } =

, , ,
(+) = 0, 5, () = 0, 5, :
x a
2
+ 0, 5,
P { < x2 } =

x a
1
P {x 6 } = 0, 5
.

93.2.

(93.5),
:
P {| a| < } = P { < a < } = P {a < < a + } =
a a

 

a + a

=

= 2
.
=

:

.
(93.6)
P {| a| < } = 2

93

325

93.1. , , . , (93.5)
(89.7)
.
93.1. N (20; 10). P {| 20| < 3} P {| 10| < 3}.
: (93.5)
3
P {| 20| < 3} = 2
2 0, 1179 = 0, 2358.
10

(0, 3) = 0, 1179 2.
P {| 10| < 3} (93.5), ..
a = 20 6= 10. (93.4):
P {| 10| < 3} = P {3 < 10 < 3} = P {7 < < 13} =
 7 20 
 13 20 

= (1, 3) (0, 7)
=
10
10
0, 4032 0, 2580 = 0, 1452.
: P {| 20| < 3} 0, 236; P {| 10| < 3} 0, 145.
(93.5)
= 3.
 3 
P {| a| < 3} = 2
= 2(3) 2 0, 49865 = 0, 9973.

:

.

, ..
P {| a| < 2} 0, 9544.

93.3.

93.1. N (a; ), = k + b N (ka + b; |k| ).

326

. F (x) k > 0:
n
x bo
=
F (x) = P { < x} = P {k + b < x} = P <
k
 xb

 x (ka + ) 
a
k
= 0, 5 +
= 0, 5 +
.

, , N (ka + ; k) k > 0.
k < 0:
n
x bo
=
F (x) = P { < x} = P {k + b < x} = P >
k
 xb

n
a
x bo
k
=1P <
= 1 0, 5
=
k

 x (ka + b) 
 x (ka + b) 
= 0, 5 +
,
= 0, 5
k
k
.. k < 0 N (ka + ; k). ,
.
93.2. N (a; ), =

a
N (0; 1).

a
1
, = , 93.1 k = ,

b = a , ,
a
1
1
a =0
= 1.

93.2. , a = 0 = 1,
() ,
() .

:
Zx
t2
1 x2
1
e 2 dt = 0, 5 + (x).
(93.7)
(x) = e 2 ; F (x) =
2
2

93

327

93.

.
93.1. 0,8.
- .
:
: 0 ( ), 1 ( ), 2
( ), 3 ( ). p = 0, 8, q = 1p = 0, 2,
n = 3. (7.1) :
12
1
, P (1) = C31 (0, 8)1 (0, 2)2 =
,
P (0) = C30 (0, 8)0 (0, 2)3 =
125
125
48
64
P (2) = C32 (0, 8)2 (0, 2)1 =
, P (3) = C33 (0, 8)3 (0, 2)0 =
.
125
125
:

0
1
2
3
p 1/125 12/125 48/125 64/125
93.2. , , 0,02. 120 . .
: n = 120 p = 0, 02.
100, - 0,1,
(92.4). a = np = 120 0, 02 = 2, 4;
, e2,4 = 0, 0907.
2, 40 e2,4
P { = 0} =
= 0, 0907,
0!
2, 41 e2,4
P { = 1} =
= 0, 2177,
1!
P { = 2} = 0, 2612, P { = 3} = 0, 2090, ...
k = 2.
:

0
1
2
3
...
k
...
k
2,4
p 0,0907 0,2177 0,2612 0,2090 ... 2, 4 e /k! ...
93.3. , , 2. ,
: , 1, 2, 3, ... .

328

: , t,
:
(t)k et
,
Pt { = k} =
k!
- ().
= 2, t = 1. ,
20 e2
21 e2
P1 { = 0} =
0, 135, P1 { = 1} =
0, 271,
0!
1!
22 e2
23 e2
P1 { = 2} =
0, 271, P1 { = 3} =
0, 180, ...
2!
3!

0
1
2
3
...
:
p 0,135 0,271 0,271 0,180 ...
93.4. 20% .
5 .
- . M() D().
: q = 0, 2,
p = 1 q = 0, 8. . :

0
1
2
3
4
5
5
1
4
2
2
3
3
3
2
4
4
p 0, 2 C5 0, 80, 2 C5 0, 8 0, 2 C5 0, 8 0, 2 C5 0, 8 0, 2 0, 85
(92.3),
M() = np = 5 0, 8 = 4, D() = npq = 5 0, 8 0, 2 = 0, 8.
: M() = 4, D() = 0, 8.
.
93.5. 0,1.
. , , 0,03.
: , . (92.6), b a
0,1. 0,03,
(0,03; 0,07).

93

P (a < < b) =
:

Rb
a

(x)dx, (x) =

329

P (0, 03 < < 0, 07) =

1
ba

0
Z

x [0; 0, 1],
x
/ [0; 0, 1].

0,07

10 dx = 0, 4.

0,03

: 0,4.

93.6. , [1,9].
:
(92.8). a = 1, b = 9,
1+9
= 5,
M() =
2
: M() = 5, D() = 16/3.

(9 1)2
16
D() =
= .
12
3

93.7.
M() = 9/2 D() = 25/12.
.
: (92.7) a b. (92.8), a b
:
a+b
9
(b a)2
25
= ,
= .
2
2
12
12
, , b > a, a = 2, b = 7. :

0 x 6 2,
x2
x (2, 7],
F (x) =
5
1 x > 7.

93.8. a (x) = aex x 0


(x) = 0 x < 0
?
: (x) = 0 x < 0,
Z
Z
aex dx = 1.
(x)dx =
0

: a = .

a x
e = 1 a/ = 1 = a.
0

330

93.9. (92.9) = 0, 07. ,


(2, 10).
: (92.11) M() =
= 1/ = 1/0, 07 = 100/7. , (92.10)
,
(2, 10):
P (2 < < 10) = F (10) F (2) = 1 e0,7 1 + e0,14

0, 869 0, 497 = 0, 373.



Z 10
0, 07e0,07tdt = e0,07t |10
P (2 < < 10) =
2 0, 372.
2

: 0,372

93.10.
(x) = 0, 03 e0,03t (t > 0).
, 200 .
: ,
F (t) = 1 et . t (
) :
R(t) = 1 F (t) = et ,

- .
= 0, 03.
R(200) = e0,03200 = e6 0, 003.


93.11. , 0,9.
,
k (k = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4).
93.12. . ,

, 0,3. ,

94

331

0, 1, 2, 3, 4 . .
93.13. 300 . 0,01.
. .
93.14. 4%.
150 .
93.15. ,
, 0,005. 400 . ,
? .
93.16. 6 . , , ,
4 .
93.17. ,
, 10 . , : ) 5 < <15, ) > 20 .

94.

. . . ,

94.1.
,

.

89.

332

94.1. ( )
> 0 :
P {| M()| < } > 1

D()
.
2


(x), . :
P {| M()| > } = P { > M() + 6 M() } =
= P { 6 M() } + P { > M() + } =

M()
Z

(x)dx+

Z+

M()+

Z+

M()+

Z+

M()

(x)dx 6

M()
Z

2
x M()
(x)dx+
2

M()
2
2
Z
x M()
x M()
(x)dx 6
(x)dx+
2
2

2
Z+
2
x M()
1
D()
(x)dx
=
x

M()
(x)dx = 2 .
2
2

,
2
x M()
,

2
1, .. x
|x M()| > . , ..
.
D()
;
: P {| M()| > } 6
2
, .
94.1. 10
0,05. , .

94

333

: ;
n = 10,
p = 0, 05.
M() = np = 0, 5; D() = npq = 0, 475.
94.1 :
0, 475
.
P {| 0, 5| < 1} > 1
1
: P {| 0, 5| < 1} > 0, 525.

94.1. ( ),
. ,
94.1, , :
P {0, 5 < < 1, 5} > 0, 525.

, ..
> 0:
P {0, 5 < < 1, 5} = P {0 6 < 1, 5}.
94.2 ( ).
1 , 2 , . . . , n , . . .



D(i ) 6 C, i = 1, 2, . . . , > 0 :

n

n

X

M(
)


i
i
lim P
< = 1.
n
i=1
i=1

n
n
n
X

. n = i=1 . n
, :
n
n
X
X
M(i )
D(i )
nC
C
M(n ) = i=1
, D(n ) = i=1 2
6
=
.
n
n
n2
n
n :
D(n )

P {|n M(n )| < } > 1


2

n

X
X


C
M(
)



i
i
1 6 P
.
<

>
1


i=1

n
i=1

n
n

334

n ,
1, .
, .
94.1. 94.2 M(1 ) = M(2 ) =
... =
= a, > 0 :

)
( P




i
a < = 1.
lim P
n

n
n
X

M(i )

na
= a.
n
n
94.2. , , . ,
. , ,
, ,
17,8 . , , . ,
. , .
, , ; , . , ,
5 , 5 , . ,
, : , (
), . , ,
.
94.2 n . , , ,
,
, .
, M(n ) =

i=1

94

335

94.3 ( ). p A
> 0 :




m
lim P p < = 1,
n
n

m A n .

m
n
n
, i = 1, i- 1 +...+
n
A (. . 92.1). 1 , 2 , . . . , n 94.1, .. M(1 ) = M(2 ) = . . . = p, D(1 ) = D(2 ) = . . . =
= pq 6 1. 94.1
94.3.
94.3 , .. , A p
.
, n - ( ). .
.

94.1.
1 , 2 , . . . , n , . . . a, > 0
:
lim P {|n a| < } = 1.
n

, ,
n

n .
, .

94.2.
, , . ?
,
.. .

336

94.4 ( ). n n , , n ,
:


n An
lim P
< x = 0, 5 + (x),
n
Bn
n
n
X
X
ai ,
M(i ) =
n = 1 + . . . + n , An = M(n ) =
i=1

i=1

Bn2

= D(n ) =

n
X

D(i ) =

n
X

b2i ,

i=1

i=1

1
(x) =
2

Zx

t2

e 2 dt.

:
(1) 1 , 2 , . . . .
(2) D(1 ), D(2 ), . . . .
n
X

2+
M i M(i )
(3) > 0 lim

i=1

Pn

i=1

D(i )

 2+
2

= 0.

n An
Bn
.
.
,

94.3.
94.2. k-
:
k
(94.1)
k = M M() .
, ,
:


1 = M M() = M() M M() = M() M() = 0,
2
2 = M M() = 2 .

94.3. k-
(94.2)

k = M( k ).

94

337

:
1 = M().
:
2 = 2 12 ,

2
.. D() = M( 2 ) M() ,
3 = 3 31 2 + 213 .

, , :

3
2
3 
3
2
3 = M M() = M 3 M() + 3 M() M()
=
= M( 3 3 2 1 + 312 13 ) = M( 3 ) 31 M( 2 ) + 312 M() 13 =
= 3 31 2 + 31 1 13 = 3 31 2 + 213 .

:
4 = 4 43 1 + 62 12 314

..

, ,
.
94.4. :
3
M M()
3
.
A = 3/2 =
p
3
2
D()

,
, (. . 94.1).

(x)

(x)
A>0

M ()

x
. 94.1.

A<0

M ()

338

94.5.
:
4
M M()
4
3.
E = 2 3=
2
2
D()

E = 0; E > 0, ; E < 0, (. . 94.2)

(x)

E>0

(x)

E<0

. 94.2.

94.4. ,


, .
2 (-).
n 1 , 2 , . . . , n , i N (0; 1), i = 1, . . . , n.
94.6.
2 n .
, 2n > 0.
:

k
1
x

 2  e x2 x > 0,
k
k
(x) =
2

2
2

0
x < 0.

2n

n
X
i=1

i2 -

94

(x) =

R
0

339

tx1 et dt ,

: (x) = (x 1)! x > 1.

94.3. 1 , . . . , n , 1 + . . . + n = n x,
n
X
i2 ,
i=1

2n1 .

.
n + 1
, 1 , . . . , n .
94.7.

t= s n
X 2
i

i=1

n .
:
 n+1

2
x2
1+ 2
(x) = n1   .
2 2 n2
n

(
), .
.
F .
n + k : 1 , . . . , n ;
1 , . . . , k ; i N (0; 1), i = 1, . . . , n; i N (0; 1), j = 1, . . . , k.
94.8.
n
X
2
i

Fn,k =

i=1
k
X
j=1

j2
k

F ( F) n, k .

340

, Fn,k > 0.
:

m + k


 n  n2

n
n  n+k
2

1
2
2
x
x > 0,
1+ x




n
(x) =
k
k
k

2
2

0
x < 0.


; (, Excel, Mathcad .).

94.

94.1. , , M() = 4, D() = 25.
:
p
a = 4,
= D() = 25 = 5, (93.1)

1
2
(x) = e(x4) /50 .
5 2

94.2.
a = 0, = 1. : )
P (2 < < 3), ) P ( < 1), ) P ( > 3).
: ) (93.5),
a = 0, = 1, x1 = 2, x2 = 3.
P (2 < < 3) = (

2 0
30
) (
) = (3) (2) =
1
1

= (3) + (2) 0, 499 + 0, 477 = 0, 976.

(3) (2) , (2) = (2).


) P ( < 1) = P ( < < 1) = ( 10
) ( 0
) = (1) + (+).
1
1
P = 0, 226 + 0, 500 = 0, 726.
) P ( > 3) = P (3 < < +) = ( 0
) ( 30
) = (+) (3) =
1
1
= 0, 500 0, 499 = 0, 001.

94

341

94.3.
a = 3, = 2. : ) P (2 < < 3), )
P (| 3| < 0, 1).
: ) (93.5) :
P (2 < < 3) = (

33
23
) (
) = (0) (0, 5) =
2
2

= (0) + (0, 5) = 0 + 0, 192 = 0, 152,


) a = 3, | 3| <
< 0, 1, (93.6), = 0, 1.
P (| 3| < 0, 1) = 2(

0, 1
) = 2(0, 05) = 2 0, 02 = 0, 04.
2

94.4. ,
, ,
(4, 6), M() = 3, 8, () = 0, 6.
: ,
(4, 6):
P (4 < < 6) = (

4 3, 8
6 3, 8
) (
)=
0, 6
0, 6

= (3, 67) (0, 33) = 0, 500 0, 129 = 0, 371.

(4, 6) 1 0, 371 =
= 0, 629. ,
(4, 6), 0, 62943 0, 2489. ,
p = 1 0, 249 = 0, 751.
: 0,75.
94.5.
a = 8, 46. ,
8,40 8,43, 0,25. ,
8,49 8,52 ?
: a,

P (8, 49 < < 8, 52) = P (8, 40 < < 8, 43) = 0, 25.

342

94.6.
, 78
84 . , (
78 ) 4%, (
84 ) 6%. a
.
: 78 a a 84. 0, 5 0, 04 = 0, 46, :
0, 5 0, 06 = 0, 44.
78 a
) = 0, 46,
P (78 < < a) = (0) (

84 a
P (a < < 84) = (
) (0) = 0, 44

(0) = 0,
84 a
78 a
) = 0, 46,
(
) = 0, 44.
(

: (78 a)/ = 1, 75, (84 a)/ = 1, 28.


: = 1, 98, a = 81, 47.
94.7. , , ,
a = 15 = 0, 4 . P , 0, 8 .

0,92?
: = 0, 8, , (93.6),
0, 8
) = 2 (2) = 2 0, 477 = 0, 954.
P (| 15| < 0, 8) = 2 (
0, 4

: P = 1 0, 954 = 0, 046.
, , P (| a| < )
. (93.6).
0, 92 = 2(/0, 4), (/0, 4) = 0, 46. , /0, 4 =
= 1, 75 = 0, 7 .
: P 0, 05, = 0, 7.

94.8. a = 2, 5 = 0, 01 . ,
0,9973?

94

343

: 3 ( ):
P (| a| < 3) = 0, 9973.

: | a| < 3, a 3 < < a + 3,


2, 5 0, 03 < < 2, 5 + 0, 03 2, 47 < < 2, 53.
: (2, 47; 2, 53).

94.9. .
: (94.1),
a k

Z
k
(x a)k (x)dx.
k = M( a) =

(93.1) :
Z
(xa)2
1
(x a)k e 22 dx.
k =
2

t = (x a)/( 2)

Z
( 2)k k t2
t e dt.
k =

k = 1, 3, 5, ... . ,
. 3 , , , .
, k , , : k = (k 1) 2 k2 .
, , k = 2 , : 4 = 3 4 , 6 = 15 6 . .
4 / 4 = 3 4 / 4 = 3. ,
E = 4 /22 3 = 0.

94.10.
(x) .
: (93.1).
(xa)2
xa
(x) = e 22 .
3 2
, :
(x a)2 2 (xa)2 2

e 2 .
(x) =
5
2

344

, (x a)2 = 2 . x = a .
,
.


94.11. a = 1, = 0, 2. :
) P (1 < < 1), ) P (0 < < 3), ) P (| 1| < 0, 1).

94.12. ( ) ,
110% 2%. , : ) 101
105%, )
107 111%.
94.13. 90-95 .
92,7 ,
1,2 . ,
, : ) , )
. ( ,
< 90, , > 95).
94.14. , .
30 , = 0, 25 .
0,95?
94.15.
.
= 10 .
, ,
5 .
94.16.
a = 0, 3, = 0, 5. , | 0, 3| <
0,9642?
94.17. , a = 100

95

345

= 0, 001 . , 0,9973.

95.

.
. . .

95.1.
.
,
, , .. .

(; ). ,
.
95.1.
, .. (xi ; yj ), i = 1, . . . , n, j = 1, . . . , m,
pij = P { = xi ; = yi }.
(.
95.1), xi , yi Pij .

\
y1 . . . yj . . . ym

x1 p11 . . . p1j . . . p1m


..
.. . .
.
..
. .. . . .
.
.
.
xi
..
.
xn

pi1 . . . pij . . . pim


.. . .
. ..
..
. ..
.
.
.
pn1 . . . pnj . . . pnm

346

95.1

y1
\
x1
p11
..
..
.
.


...
...
...

yj . . .
p1j . . .
.. . .
.
.
pij . . .
.. . .
.
.

ym
p1m
..
.

P { = xi }
p1
..
.

pi1 . . .
pim
.. . .
..
.
.
.
xn
pn1 . . . pnj . . . pnm
P { = yi } p1 . . . pj . . . pm
xi
..
.

pi
..
.
pn
1

{ = xi , = yi }, i = 1, . . . , n, j = 1, . . . , m
,
1.
, ( ). :
(95.1)

P { = xi } = P { = xi , = y1 } + P { = xi , = y2 } + . . .
m
P
pij = pi .
. . . + P { = xi , = ym } =
j=1

(95.2)

{ = yi } =

n
X
i=1

pij = pj .

, , ( 95.1). , ( 95.1).
, :
m
n
X
X
yi pj .
xi pi ,
M() =
(95.3)
M() =
i=1

j=1


95.2. M(); M()
.

, 95.1, , .

95

347

, , P { = yi / = xi } P { =
= xi / = yi }. (88.3) ,
(95.4)

P (B/A) =

P (A B)
.
P (A)

(95.5)

P { = yj / = xi } =

:
(95.6)
,
n
P

i=1

P { = xi , = yj }
pij
=
.
p{ = xi }
Pi

P { = xi / = yj } =
m
P

j=1

pij
.
pj

P { = yj / = xi } = 1 i = 1, . . . , n, ,

P { = xi / = yj } j = 1, . . . , m ( ).

P { = yj / = xi } j = 1, . . . , m
.
, :
m
X
yj P { = yj / = xi } i = 1, . . . , n
(95.7)
M(/ = xi ) =
j=1

:
n
X
xi P { = xi / = yj } j = 1, . . . , m.
(95.8)
M(/ = yj ) =
i=1

95.1. 95.2.
95.2

\ 1 3
1
0,1 0,2
2
0,0 0,3

95.1
5
0,3
0,1

= 2,
= 1.

348

: , 95.2,
( ) (. . 95.3).
95.3

1
\
1
0,1
2
0,0
P { = yi } 0,1

95.1
3
5 P { = xi }
0,2 0,3
0,6
0,3 0,1
0,4
0,5 0,4
1


:
M() = 1 0, 6 + 2 0, 4 = 1, 4,

M() = 1 0, 1 + 3 0, 5 + 5 0, 4 = 3, 6.

, (95.5) (95.6)
P { = yi /
/ = 2} P { = xi / = 1}:

P { = yi , = 2}
P { = yi , = 2}
=
,
P { = 2}
0, 4
P { = xi , = 1}
P { = xi , = 1}
=
.
P { = xi / = 1} =
P { = 1}
0, 1
95.4.
95.4
P { = yi / = 2} =

1
3
5

P { = yi / = 2} 0 3/4 1/4
P { = xi / = 1}

1
1

2
0

(95.7),
(95.8) 95.4.
M(/ = 1) = 1 1 + 2 0 = 1,
3
1
M(/ = 2) = 1 0 + 3 + 5 = 3, 5.
4
4
,
.
: M() = 1, 4; M() = 3, 6; M(/ = 1) = 1; M(/ = 2) = 3, 5.

95

349

95.2.

95.3 . , , 95.1, , .
95.3. (; )
(95.9)

F (x; y) = P { < x; < y}.

:
(1) 0 6 F (x; y) 6 1;
(2) F (; y) = F (x; ) = F (; ) = 0 F (+; +) = 1;
(3) F (x; y) ;
(4) :
F (x) = P { < x} = F (x; +),
F (y) = P { < y} = F (+; y);

(5) :
(95.10)

P {x1 6 < x2 ; y1 6 < y2 } =



= F (x2 ; y2 ) F (x2 ; y1 ) F (x1 ; y2 ) F (x1 ; y1 ) .

1, 2
95.3 ( ). 3
3 F (x) . 91.1.
4 : F (x; +) = P { < x; < +} = P { < x} =
= F (x).
5 , 95.3
F (x2 ; y2 ) 
ACE, F (x2 ; y1 ) F DE; F (x2 ; y2 ) F (x2 ; y1 )

ACDF (. 95.1). 
F (x1 ; y2 ) F (x1 ; y1 ) ABGF .
,
BCDG.
95.4. (; )
, F (x; y)

350

y2

y1

x1

x2

. 95.1.
y

G
x

. 95.2.
( , ).
95.5. (; )
:
2 F (x; y)
(95.11)
(x; y) =
.
xy
:
(1) (x; y) > 0;
(2) (; y) = (x; ) = (+; +) = 0;
Rx Ry
(s; t)dsdt;
(3) F (x; y) =

95

351

(4) (; ) G :
ZZ
P {(; ) G} =
(x; y)dxdy;
G

(5)

Z+
Z

(x; y)dxdy = 1.

1 3 F (x; y): . 2 2 F (x; y),


.. .
3 95.5, F (x; y)
(x; y).
4 G
x y (. 95.2). i- 5 F (x; y). :

P {x1i 6 < x2i ; y1i 6 < y2i } = F (x2i ; y2i ) F (x2i y1i )
(95.12)

(si ; ti )xy = (si ; ti )xy,


F (x1i ; y2i ) F (x1i y1i ) = Fxy

(si ; ti ) i- .
, G
:
P {(; ) G}

n
X

(si ; ti )xy.

i=1

x 0, y 0 (n ),
4 (x; y).
5 , ..
+
RR
(x; y)dxdy,

.
(x; y) (95.13):
(95.13)

Z+
(x; y)dy;
(x) =

Z+
(x; y)dx.
(y) =

352

, F (x; y) =
= F (x; +) =

R
Rx +

Rx Ry

(s; t)dsdt, F (x) =

(s; t)dsdt. -

, :

dF (x)
d
(x) =
=
dx
dx

 Z+
 Zx Z+
(x; t)dt.
(s; t)dsdt =

(95.12) ,
, (x; y) (x; y), x, y,
.
, ,
.
95.6. (y/ = x)
, = x, :
(95.14)

(y/ = x) =

(x; y)
.
(x)

(x/ = y) ,
= y, :
(95.15)

(x/ = y) =

(x; y)
.
(y)

, (95.14), (95.15) (95.4),


. , :
(x; y)xy
(x; y)y
=
= (y/ = x)y.
(x)x
(x)
95.7.
, = x, :
(95.16)

Z+
y(y/ = x)dy.
M(/ = x) =

95

353

, = y,
:
Z+
(x/ = y)dx.
(95.17)
M(/ = y) =

, M(/ = x) x: M(/ = x) = f/ (x).


M(/ = y) y: M(/ = y) = / (y).
95.8. f/ (x) . ,
= x. / (y) .
95.2. (x; y) :

C x2 + y 2 < R2 ,
(x; y) =
0 x2 + y 2 > R2 .

C .
: C
5 :
ZZ
ZZ
Z+
Z
dxdy = 1.
C dxdy = 1 = C
(x; y)dxdy = 1 =

x2 +y 2 <R

x2 +y 2 <R

RR

dxdy ,

x2 +y 2 <R

R2 , 1.
1
.
R2
(95.13):
|x| > R (x) = 0; |x| < R
C R2 = 1 = C =

(x) =
:
(95.18)

R
Z2 x2

R2 x2

1
2 R 2 x2
dy =
.
R2
R2


2 R 2 x2
|x| < R,
(x) =
2
R
0
|x| > R.

354

:
(95.19)

p
2 R2 y 2
|y| < R,
(y) =
2
R
0
|y| > R.

(95.14), (95.15) :

1
x2 + y 2 < R,
2
2
,
(y/ = x) =
2 R x
0
2
2
x + y > R;

p 1
x2 + y 2 < R,
2
2
(x/ = y) =
2 R y

0
x2 + y 2 > R.

, (95.16), (95.17) :
M(/ = x) =

R
Z2 x2

R2 x2

M(/ = y) =

2
2
ZR y

R2 y 2

1
dy = 0,
y
2 R 2 x2
1
dx = 0.
x p
2 R2 y 2

95.


95.1.
. .
,
0,1; 0,2; 0,5. ,
.
95.2. 100 .
10 . ,
.
95.3. 5 ,
. . ,
.

95

355

95.4. ,
. 0,04,
0,06. . , .
95.5. M(), D(), () ,
.
0,2 0,4 0,7 0,8 1,0
P 0,10
0,25 0,20 0,30
95.6.

x 0,
0
k x 0 < x 5,
F (x) =

1
5 < x.

k, (x), M(), D(). (x), F (x).


95.7.
: a = 2, = 1. , P {| 2| < } = 0, 67.

95.1.
: A , . A1 , A2 , A3 1-, 2- 3- .
A = A1 A2 A3 .
:
P (A) = P (A1 A2 A3 ) = P (A1 ) P (A2 ) P (A3 ) =
= (1 0, 1)(1 0, 2)(1 0, 5) = 0, 36

95.2.
: (87.6) 87 :
100 = 1 + 99..
10 = 1 + 9..

9
1 99! 10! 90!
C11 C99
= 0, 1
=
P (A) =
10
C100
9! 90! 100!

356

95.3.
:

A . :
12
1! 2! 3!
C22
5 = 3 + 2..

=
= 0, 1
P (A) = 2 =
2 = 0 + 2..
C5
5!
120
= 1 0, 1 = 0, 9
P (A) = 1 P (A)
95.4.
: :
P (A) = PH1 (A) P (H1 ) + PH2 (A) P (H2 ),

A , , , H1 , H2
.
, , P (H1 ) = 43 , P (H2 ) = 41 . ,
= 0, 04, PH2 (A)
= 0, 06, , PH1 (A) = 1 0, 04 = 0, 96;
PH1 (A)
PH2 (A) = 1 0, 06 = 0, 94. :
1
3
P (A) = 0, 96 + 0, 94 0, 955.
4
4
95.5.
: :

n
P

Pi = 1

i=1

P2 : 0, 10 + P2 + 0, 25 + 0, 20 + 0, 30 = 1 P2 = 0, 15.

M() = 0, 2 0, 1 + 0, 4 0, 15 + 0, 7 0, 25 + 0, 8 0, 20 + 1, 0 0, 30 = 0, 715
D() = 0, 22 0, 1 + 0, 42 0, 15 + 0, 72 0, 25+
+0, 82 0, 20 + 1, 02 0, 30 0, 7152 = 0, 067
p
() = D() 0, 259.

95

357

95.6.
: , ,
F (5) = 1 k 5 = 1 k = 0, 2

(x) = F (x).

0,
x0
x>5,
.
(x) =
0, 2 0 < x 5
F (x) (x) . 95.1

(x)

F(x)

0,2

1
0

. 95.1. F (x) (x) 95.6


.
Z5
Z+
5
x(x)dx = 0, 2xdx = 0, 1x2 0 = 2, 5
M() =

Z5
Z+
x2 (x)dx 2, 52 = 0, 2x2 dx 2, 52 =
D() =

5
0, 2x3
2, 52 2, 08
=

3 0
p
() = D() 1, 44.

95.7.
: (93.6) 93, :


P {| 2| < } = 2
2
= 0, 67 () = 0, 335.

1
( 2) ()
0, 97.

358



95.8. 5 . , A , ,
A 0,9.
95.9. 36 3 .
, 2 .
95.10.
. ,
, 0,02,
0,01, 0,03.
95.11. . , 0,3% , 0,2%
0,4%. ,
1000, 2000 2500
.
95.12. M(), D(), () ,

0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5
P 0,3
0,2 0,15 0,25
95.13.

x 0,
0
k x 0 < x 3,
F (x) =

0
3 < x.

k, F (x), M(), D(). (x), F (x).


95.14.
: a = 1, = 3. P {| 1| < 2}.

96.
. .

96

359

96.1. .
96.1. , F (x; y) = F (x) F (y).
. 88.1, 88.2 88.3 , A B ,
P (A B) = P (A) P (B). A A = { < x},
B B = { < y}, .
96.1.
, (x; y) = (x) (y).
. , 96.1
2 F (x; y)
=
F (x; y) = F (x) F (y) = (x; y) =
xy



F (x) F (y) = F (x) F (y) = (x) (y).


=
y
(x; y) = (x) (y),
F (x; y) =

Zx Zy


x
Z

(s; t)dsdt =

(s)ds

Zy

Zx Zy

(s) (t)dsdt =

(t)dt = F (x) F (y) =

96.1.
96.1. ,
95.2.
: 95.2, :
(
1
x2 + y 2 < R,
,
(x; y) =
R2
0
x2 + y 2 > R;

2 R 2 x2
|x| < R, ,
(x) =
2
0 R
|x| > R;
 p
2 R2 y 2 |y| < R,
(y) =
.
0
|y| > R.

360

(x; y) 6= (x) (y), .


, (x/ = y) 6= (x) (y/ = x) 6=
6= (y).
: .

M(), D(), M(), D() . .
96.1. :



= M M() M() .
,
:
(96.1)

= M( ) M() M().

, , :


= M M() M() = M M() M()+

+M() M() = M() M()M() M()M()+
+M()M() = M() M()M().

(96.1) :
n
m X
X
pij xi yj M() M(),
=
j=1 i=1

:
Z+
Z
=
xy(xy)dxdy M() M().

96.2.
.
,
(96.1), :
= M( ) M() M() = M() M() M() M() = 0.

96.3. : | | 6 .

96

361

. D( ) > 0. (96.1),
: 2 = M( 2 ) M 2 (), 2 = M( 2 ) M 2 (), :
2
D( ) = M( )2 M( ) =
2
= M(2 2 2 + 2 2 ) M() M() =
= 2 M( 2 ) 2 M() + 2 M( 2 ) 2 M 2 ()+

+2 M()M() 2 M 2 () = 2 M( 2 ) M 2 () +


+2 M( 2 ) M 2 () 2 M() M()M() =
= 2 2 + 2 2 2 = 22 2 2 .

22 2 2 > 0 : 6 . ,
D( + ) > 0, : > . , : 6 6 .
.
96.2. r
(96.2)

r =

M() M()M()
=
.

96.2. 95.2.
: ,
(95.18), (95.19), ,
:
M() =

ZR

2 R 2 x2
dx = 0
x
R2

0 . :
M() =

ZR

R2 y 2
dy = 0.
R2

362

M( ):
M( )

Z+
Z

1
=
R2
:

Z+R
1
x y(xy) dxdy =
xdx
R2
R

R
Z2 x2

dy =

R2 x2

Z+R

x 2 R2 x2 dx = 0 .

= M( ) M() M() = 0 = r =

= 0.

: r = 0.
.
(1) :
r = 0,
(2) |r | 6 1,
(3) |r | = 1 = k + b = k + b.
1 96.2 96.2.
2 96.3:

r = = 1 6 r 6 1.

3 .
96.1.
.
, 96.2 , 95.2 , 96.1
, .
96.3. , : r = 0.
1 96.1
:

=
=
/
=
=
/

;
;
;
.

96

363

96.2.
(; ). :
g().
 2
, .. M g() g() .
2
96.4. y = g(x) , M g() g() ,
. g(x) = kx + b, ;
, , .
96.4.
:


(96.3)
y = M() + r x M() .

. g(x) = kx + b :
2
(k; b) = M g() = M( k b)2 =
M( 2 + k 2 2 + b2 2k 2b + 2kb) =

= M( 2 ) + k 2 M( 2 ) + b2 2kM() 2bM() + 2kbM().

k b,
, :

2kM( 2 ) 2M() + 2bM() = 0,


k = 0

2b 2M() + 2kM() = 0;

=0
b

b = M() kM(),

M() M()M()

.
k=
M( 2 ) M 2 ()
, 2 = M( 2 ) M 2 (),

(96.4)

k = r

M() M()M()
, :

b = M() kM().

364

(96.3):

y = r + M() r M().

, (k; b) k b
. .
k b (96.4) (k; b), :
(96.5)

2
2 (1 r
),

.
, g() = k + b.
2
) = 0,
96.2. |r | = 1 2 (1 r
, g(), ..
r = 1
= k + b.
: = k + b,
2
2
= 1 = r = 1.
) = 0 = r
2 (1 r
3 .

96.3. r 0, , .. = g() .
|r | 1, . :
. |r | 1, ""
.
96.4.
:


(96.6)
x = M() + r y M() .


(96.3) (96.5) M(); M()
.
, r = 1.




.
r

r . , ,

96

365

r > 0 ,
r < 0 .

96.3.
96.5. ( )
(; ) :
(x; y) =
2
(96.7)

1
q

2
1 r



(x a )2 (y a )2
(x a ) (y a )
1

+
2r
2 )
2(1 r
2
2

e
.

,
: a = M(), a = M(), 2 = D(), 2 = D(), r
.
96.5. (95.13), ,

N (a ; ) N (a ; ) .
96.5.
, .
. r = 0, (96.7) ,

(x; y) =

(x a )2

22
e

(y a )2

22
e
= (x) (y).

.. , 96.1 .
,
.
96.6. (.. y =
= M(/ = x)) (.. x = M(/ = y)) , ,
.
,
(96.3) (96.5) .

366

96.6. .
. u =
(96.7) :
(x; y) =
2

1
q

2
1 r

y a
x a
, v =
,


1
2
2

u
+
v

2r
u

2 )
2(1 r
e
.


96.5 :
u2
1
(x) = e 2 .
2
:
1
(v r u)2

2
(x; y)
1
2(1 r )
q
(y/ = x) =
=
=
e
(x)
2
2 1 r

y a

x a 2
r

 q
2
2
2 1 r

1
 e
 q
2
2 1 r

1
 q
2
2 1 r

2

y a + r (x a )

 q
2
2
2 1 r
.
2 e


, ( ):

M(/ = x) = a + r (x a )

2
).
2 (1 r
:

M(/ = y) = a + r (y a ).

96

367

, .
,
(96.3) (96.5).

96.

96.1. (, ):
\
4
7
8
3,4 0,05 0,11 0,15
5,1 0,32 0,13 0,24
, = 7,
= 5, 1.
: , :
3,4 5,1
p 0,31 0,69
, :

4
7
8
p 0,37 0,24 0,39
:
M() = 3, 4 0, 31 + 5, 1 0, 69 = 4, 573,
M() = 4 0, 37 + 7 0, 24 + 8 0, 39 = 6, 280.

P ( = 7) = 0, 11 + 0, 13 = 0, 24. (95.6),

P ( = 3, 4| = 7) = 0, 11/0, 24 = 11/24,
P ( = 5, 1| = 7) = 0, 13/0, 24 = 13/24.
:

3,4
5,1
P ( = xi | = 7) 11/24 13/24

M(| = 7) = 3, 4 11/24 + 5, 1 13/24 4, 321.

368

P ( = 5, 1) = 0, 32 + 0, 13 + 0, 24 = 0, 63. (95.5)
P ( = 4| = 5, 1) = 0, 32/0, 69 = 32/69,
P ( = 7| = 5, 1) = 0, 13/0, 69 = 13/69,
P ( = 8| = 5, 1) = 0, 24/0, 69 = 24/69.

4
7
8
P ( = yi | = 5, 1) 32/69 13/69 24/69

M(| = 5, 1) = 4 32/69 + 7 13/69 + 8 24/69 5, 957.

: 4,321; 5,957.

96.2.

cos x cos y 0 6 x 6 /2, 0 6 y 6 /2,
F (x, y) =
0 .

(, ) ,
x = /4, x = /2, y = 0, y = /4.
: (95.11):
P (x1 < < x2 , y1 < < y2 ) = (F (x2 , y2 ) F (x2 , y1 ))
(F (x1 , y2 ) F (x1 , y1 )).
x1 = /4, x2 = /2, y1 = 0, y2 = /4,

P = (cos cos cos cos 0) (cos cos cos cos 0) =


2
4
2
4
4
4

21
.
2

96.3.

(1 eax )(1 eby ) x > 0, y > 0,
F (x, y) =
0 .

(, ).

: (95.12),
.
y :
F (x, y)
= b(1 eax )eby .
y

96

369

x,
(x, y) = abeaxby
x > 0, y > 0 ,
, (x, y) = 0 x < 0 y < 0.

axby
abe
x > 0, y > 0,
: (x, y) =
0 .

96.4.
: (x, y) = (1/2) cos(x + y) /4 6 x 6
6 /4, /4 6 y 6 /4; (x, y) = 0.
(, ).
: :
Z x Z y
(x, y)dxdy.
F (x, y) =
/4

/4

: a) 4 6 x 6 4 , 4 6 y 6 4
Z y
Z
1 x
cos(x + y)dy =
dx
F (x, y) =
2 /4
/4

1
= (cos(x /4) + cos(y /4) cos(x + y)).
2

) x < 4 y < 4
Z y
Z x
0dy = 0.
dx
F (x, y) =

) x > 4 , 4 6 y 6

1
F (x, y) =
2

/4

dx

/4

cos(x + y)dy =

/4

1
= (1 + cos(y /4) cos(y + /4)).
2

) 4 6 x 6 4 , y > 4
1
F (x, y) = (1 + cos(x /4) cos(x + /4)).
2

) x > 4 y > 4
F (x, y) = 1.

370

96.5. (x, y) =
= a/(x2 + y 2 + 2)4 (, ). a.
: 5 :
Z + Z +
(x, y)dxdy = 1.

Z
Z 2
Z + Z +
1
a
d
dxdy
=
a
rdr = 1.
2
2
4
(r2 + 2)4
0
0

(x + y + 2)
r : a/24 = 1
a = 24/.
: a = 24/.

96.6. (, )
(x, y) = a/((1 + x2 )(4 + y 2 )). a;
F (x, y); (, ) G : x [0, /4], y 0, /2];
, .
: a 5
:
Z +
Z +
dy
1
y +
dx
+
=
1,
a

[arctgx]

[
a
arctg
] = 1,

2
2
1
+
x
4
+
y
2
2

a(



+ ) ( + ) = 1,
2
2
4
4

2
= 1,
2

a=

2
.
2

2
.
2 (1 + x2 )(4 + y 2 )
3 ,
Z x
Z y
2
dx
dy
F (x, y) = 2
=
1 + x2 4 + y 2
(, ) =

1
y
2

(arctgx
+
)

(
arctg
+ ).
2
2
2
2 4
G :


P ((, ) G) = F ( , ) F (0, ) (F ( , 0) f (0, 0)) =
4 2
2
4
=

96

371

2

1

1

{(arctg
+
)

(
arctg
+
)

(
arctg
+ )
2
4
2
2
4
4
2 2
4
4
1

)} = 2 .
((arctg + )
4
2 4
24

,
4.
(95.13):
Z +
Z +
2
dy
1
(x, y)dy = 2
(x) =
=
.
2)
2
2)

(1
+
x
4
+
y
(1
+
x

,
2
.
(y) =
(4 + y 2 )
=

(x, y) = (x) (y), , .


96.7. (x, y) = a(x2 +xy) 0 6 x 6 2, 0 6 y 2 (x, y) = 0
. a .
: a
Z 2Z 2
(x, y)dxdy = 1.
0

dx
0

(x2 + xy)dy = 1

y :
Z 2
8
(2x + )dx = 1.
a
3
0
, : a28/3 = 1. a = 3/28. ,
(x, y) = (3/28)(x2 + xy).

Z 2
Z 2Z 2
Z 2
10
3
(x2 + xy)dy = ,
xdx
x(x, y)dxdy =
M() =
28 0
7
0
0
0
Z 2Z 2
Z 2 Z 2
3
8
y(x, y)dxdy =
y(x2 + xy)dy = .
M() =
dx
28 0
7
0
0
0
, (10/7; 8/7).

372

96.8. (, )
1 (x2 +2xy+2y2 )
e
.


.
(x, y) =

:
(95.14).
Z
Z +
1
1 x2 /2 + 2(y+x/2)2
2
dy = ex /2 .
e
(x) =
(x, y)dy = e

y
Z +

t2
e dt = t = 2(y + x/2).


Z
(y) =

1
2
(x, y)dy = ey

1
2
2
e(x+y) dx = ey .

, = x
r
2 (1/2)(x+2y)2
(x, y)
(y/ = x) =
=
e
.
(x)

, = y
(x/ = y) =

1
(x, y)
2
= e(x+y) .
(y)

96.9. (, )
O(0, 0), A(0, 6), B(6, 0). .
: , ,
(x, y),
, .. (x, y) = a. AB y = 6 x. a 5 .
Z 6
Z 6 Z 6x
(6 x)dx = 1,
ady = 1, a
dx
0

96

373

18a = 1, a = 1/18, (x, y) = 1/18 ;


.
(95.14),
:
Z 6x
3
1
1
dy = x (0 < x < 6),
(x) =
16
8 16
0
Z 6y
3
1
1
dx = y (0 < y < 6).
(y) =
16
8 16
0
.
96.10.
 2
ln 4 4xy x 0, y 0,
(x, y) =
0 x < 0 y < 0.
.
:
Z
Z Z
x (x, y)dxdy =
M() =
0

x ln2 4 4xy dxdy =

1
.
ln 4
0
x .
Z Z
1
y (x, y)dxdy =
M() =
.
ln 4
0
0

Z Z
= x ln 4

D() =

x 4x dx =

x2 (x, y)dxdy M 2 ().

, : D() = 1/ ln2 4. , D() = 1/ ln2 4.


96.11. (, ):
\
9
11
12
15
2 0,01 0,08 0,21 0,12
4 0,07 0,15 0,23 0,04
M(), M().

374

96.12.

1 + 5xy x > 0, y > 0,
F (x, y) =
0 x < 0 y < 0.
(, ) ,
x1 = 2, x2 = 3, y1 = 1, y2 = 2.
96.13.

F (x, y) = k(1 ex )(1 ey ), (x > 0, y > 0);


F (x, y) .
k. D, R (x > 0, y > 0).
96.14. (, )
(x, y) =

a
.
1 + x2 + y 2 + x2 y 2

a
.
96.15.
:

a(x + y) 0 6 x 6 1, 0 6 y 6 x,
(x, y) =
0 .
a .
96.16. (, ):
(x, y) =

1
2

sin(x + y), x [0, 2 ], y [0, 2 ],


0 .

.
96.17. a ,
. (, ).

97

375

97.

.
. .

97.1.
,
. (
)
( ), ,
, .
.

97.2.
. .
,
, ,
, - . . ,
, ..
(). , ,
.
97.1. , .
. .
, , .
97.2. .
,

376

, . ,
, . -
, - ,
. "" (, ),
. (, ),
.
97.3.
. ,
. , . ,
. ,
, 10 12 , , ,
.
, . m
n , .
97.1. n
.
(, )
.
.
x1 n1 , x2 n2 , . . .,
k
X
ni = n .
xk nk
i=1

97.2. xi ,
, . n1 , n2 , . . . , nk .

. 97.1.

97

377

97.1

xi x1 . . .
xk
ni n1 . . .
nk

97.3.

,
, = xi ,
< xi .
97.3. () F (x),
x < x, ..
nx x n:
nx
.
n
97.4.
:
xi 1 4 6 7 8 10
ni 5 10 15 5 10 5
F (x) = P ( < x) =

: n 5+10+15+5+10+5=50. 1, F (x) = 0 x 6 1. x < 3,


5
= 0, 1
x = 1 5 , F (x) = 50
1 < x 6 4. x < 6, x = 1 x = 4 5+10=15
= 0, 3 4 < x 6 6.
, F (x) = 15
50
30
F (x) = 50 = 0, 6 6 < x 6 7 .. 10 ,
F (x) = 1 x > 10.

x 6 1,

0, 1 1 < x 6 4,

0, 3 4 < x 6 6,

0, 6 6 < x 6 7,
F (x) =

0, 7 7 < x 6 8,

0, 9 8 < x 6 10,
1

x > 10.

378

F *(x)
1
0.9
0.7
0.6

0.3
0.1
1

10

. 97.1.
. 97.1.
F (x) :
1) 0 6 F (x) 6 1;
2) F (x) ;
3) x1 , xk , F (x) = 0
x 6 x1 F (x) = 1 x > xk .
.
s
(aj1 ; aj ] mj , j- . , j-
mj
(m1 + . . . + ms = n), , , .
Pj =
n

Pj
mj
=
. , ,
aj
n (aj aj1 )
. ,
. 97.4 :
N / aj1 aj mj
1
2
3
4

0
3
6
9

3 5
6 25
9 15
12 5

Pj

mj
=
n
0.1
0.5
0.3
0.1

Pj
aj
1/30
5/30
3/30
1/30

97

379

. 97.2.
5
30

3
30

1
30

12

. 97.2.

. , (. 97.3),
.
P*
i

0.3
0.2
0.1

10

. 97.3.
, .
.

380

97.1.

,
n . ,
.

97.4.


. , .
,
:
n

1X
xi .
x =
n i=1

(97.1)

, :

1X
ni x i .
x =
n i=1

(97.2)

, , .

n

(97.3)

1X
(xi x)2 = (x x)2
S =
n i=1
2

(97.4)

1X
ni (xi x)2
S =
n i=1
2

.
, , . ,
, .
.

97


(97.5)

S=

381

S2

().
(97.3) :
n
1X 2
2
xi (
x)2 = x2 x2
(97.6)
S =
n i=1

(97.7)

1X
S =
ni x2i (
x)2
n i=1
2

.
(97.6):
n
n
n
n
1X
1X 2
1X 2
1X
2
2
2
S =
(xi x) =
(xi 2xi x + x ) =
xi 2
x
xi + x2 =
n i=1
n i=1
n i=1
n i=1
x x + x2 = x2 x2 .
= x2 2

97.5. , , Mathcad. x N = 100 .


ORIGIN := 1
n := 100


x := rnorm(n, 145, 15) + rnd(1) 25
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
xT =
144.6 145.2 166.2 137.9 143.4 155.8 118.5 154.1 161.0 110.6
, .
10 . :
x := sort(x)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
xT =
110.6 115.1 118.5 118.7 122.5 122.6 122.8 123.4 124.6 129.6

Xmin Xmax 10
hm , m :
Xmin := min(x)
Xmax := max(x) .
Xmin = 110.56
Xmax = 184.49

382
Xmin
M := 10 := XmaxM
= 7.392 .
m := 1..M i := 1..M + 1 Ti = Xmin + (i 1) .

TM+1 := TM+1 + 1000


T1 := Xmin 1000
tm := Xmin + m 2
.
h := hist(T, x) .
, hm , Tm
tm .

20

h
10

100

110

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

t
. 97.4.
hT =

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
2 7 2 11 22 19 16 12 6 3

TT =

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
110.56 117.96 125.35 132.74 140.13 147.53 154.92 162.31 169.70

tT =

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
114.26 121.65 129.05 136.44 143.83 151.22 158.61 166.01 173.40

F (x)
x :
j := 2..M

F1 := h1

Fj := Fj1 + hj

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
2 9 11 22 44 63 79 91 97 100
:
Mx := mean(x) Mx = 150.115 .
n
var(x) s2 = 232.727 .
s2 := n1

S := s2 S = 15.255 .

FT =

97

383

F
n

0.5

100

120

140

160

180

T
. 97.5.
median(x) = 149.515 , , .

n
1 X
(xi Mx)3
3 = 793.175.
3 :=
n i=1
n
1 X
4 :=
(xi Mx)4
4 = 1.513 105 .
n i=1
4
E = 0.206 .
E := 2 3
s2
3
A := 3
A = 0.223 .
S

97.5.

, .
97.4. e
an a
:
e
an = e
a(x1 , . . . , xn ).

n
1 , . . . , n , , ; x1 , . . . , xn

384

: x1 1 , x2 2 .. e
an
.
e
an , .
97.5. e
an ,
n a:
lim P {|e
an a| < } = 1 > 0.

97.6. e
an , a:
M(e
an ) = a.

: M(e
an ) a n .
.
97.7. e
an , .


.
97.6. , x ( ) .

: M() = a, D() = 2 . x
, . ,
, M(1 ) = . . . = M(n ) = a, D(1 ) = . . . =
= D(n ) = 2 .
n
X
n

M(i )
X
na
i = i=1
M() = M
=
= a.
n
n
i=1
n
. :
n
X

n
D(i )
X
n 2
2
i=1

=
= 2 = .
D() = D
n2
n
n
i=1
n

97

385

( 94.1)
> 0:



2 /n
1 > P M() < > 1 2 .

M() = a n ,



1 > lim P a < > 1,
n




lim P a < = 1.

x.
97.2. , ,
.
, S 2 2 :
n1 2
.
(97.8)
M(S 2 ) =
n
.
n 2
2
S :
n
1 X
n
2
2
(xi x)2 .
S =
(97.9)
S =
n1
n 1 i=1
2

S ,

2.

(97.9) S .
a (97.10):
k

(97.10)

1 X
mi (xi x)2 .
=
n 1 i=1

97.3. S
S.

97.6.

,
, , ,
.

386

, .
97.8.
a (a1 ; a2 ) , : a1 = a1 (x1 , . . . , xn ),
a2 = a2 (x1 , . . . , xn ), : P {a (a1 ; a2 )} = . .
0,95; 0,99 .
:



(97.11)
x ; x + ,
2
2
n
n

:
2

(97.12)

( ) =
2

, x .
97.4. n,
(97.11), . , (97.12), , 2
.
, .. (97.12) 2
; , (97.11).
(97.11) ,
i N (a; ), i = 1, . . . , n,
= (1 + . . . n )/n :
(97.13)

= a,
M()

= .
()
n

(97.13) 97.1. a :
(97.14)

P {| a| < } = ,

97

387

. (93.5), (97.13) :
 

.
P {| a| < } = 2
/ n
:
 
 

= = .
2
=
=
2
2
2
/ n
/ n
/ n
n

(97.14) (97.11).

97.7. a = 2
n = 64 x = 5, 2. = 0, 95.
: (97.12) 2 2 = 0, 475 = 1, 96. (97.11),
2
(4,71;5,69).
: (4,71;5,69).
:

S 
S
(97.15)
x t ; x + t ,
n
n
t 3
= 1 k = n 1
Fst (x) c
n 1 :
1+
(97.16)
Fst (t ) =
,
2
x S .
(97.15) , i N (a; ),
i = 1, . . . , n,
a
(97.17)
t=
S / n
n 1 ( . 94.4).

388

t , :
(97.18)

P {|t| < t } = .

st (t) (.
. 94.4) t :
P {|t| < t } = P {|t| > t } = 1 P {t > t } =

1+
1
Fst (t ) =
2
2
(97.18) (97.17), :





a
a

P < t = P t < < t = ,


S / n
S / n
1 Fst (t ) =

a (97.15).

97.5.
, Excel,
1 Fst (x). , 1 ,
t
( (97.16)).
.
97.8. a x = 10, 5 S = 1, 6
n = 16. = 0, 99.
: 3
k = n1 = 15 = 1 = 0, 01 t = 2, 98.
(97.15), : (9, 308; 11, 692).
: (9,308;11,692)

97.

97.1. A 5%, B - 2%.
94%. - , 1 ,
A, -
B. (, ).
A B.

97

389

: 1,
A, 0, . 1 0 ,
B. , x1 = 1, x2 = 0; y1 = 1, y2 = 0. pij = P { = xi , = yj }. p22 = P { = 0, = 0} = 0, 94.
x2 = 0 y1 = 1 y2 = 0; P (x2 ) = p21 +p22 . P (x2 ) = 0, 95 p22 = 0, 94, p21 = P (x2 )p22 =
= 0, 01. , p12 = P (y2 ) p22 = 0, 98 0, 94 = 0, 04.
P (x1 ) = 1 P (x2 ) = 0, 05, P (x1 ) = p11 + p12
p11 = 0.01.
:
\
1
0
1
0,0 0,01
0 0,04 0,94
:

1
0

1
0
p 0,05 0,95 p 0,02 0,98
, M() = 0, 05, M( 2 ) = 0, 05, D() = 0, 0475, M() =
= 0, 02, M( 2 ) = 0, 02, D() = 0, 0196.
(, ) :

0
1
p 0,04+0,01+0,94=0,99 0,01

M( ) = 0, 01. (96.2)

0, 01 0, 001
0, 009
r =

0, 295.
0, 0305
0, 0475 0, 0196
97.2. (, ) :
 1
cos(x y) x [0, 2 ], y [0, 2 ],
2
(x, y) =
0 x
/ [0, 2 ] y
/ [0, 2 ].
.
:
,

390

:
M() =

+
ZZ

x(x, y)dxdy,

M() =

+
ZZ

y(x, y)dxdy.

x ,
Z /2
Z
1 /2

M() =
cos(x y)dy = .
xdx
2 0
4
0

(
cos(x y) ) , M() = M() = /4.
D() =

+
ZZ

x2 (x, y)dxdy M 2 ().

Z /2
Z
2 2
1 /2 2
cos(x y)dy ( ) =
x dx
+ 2.
D() =
2 0
4
16 2
0
x . D() = D().
,
.
M( ) =

+
ZZ

xy(x, y)dxdy,


Z
Z /2
2
1 /2
xdx
y cos(x y)dy =
+ 1.
M( ) =
2 0
8
2
0

x y . (96.2), :
r

2
2
2
2 8 + 16
= ( + 1 )/( + 2) = 2
.
8
2
16 16 2
+ 8 32

97.3. (, )

M() = 2,

M() = 5,

D() = 9,

D() = 4.

(, ).

97

391

: , (96.7) r = 0.
:
1 1 ( (x2)2 + (y+5)2 )
4
e 2 9
.
(x, y) =
12
, = 3, = 2.
Z x Z y
F (x, y) =
(x, y)dxdy,

Z y
Z x
(y+5)2
(x2)2
1
8
18
e
e
dx
dy =
F (x, y) =
12

Z x
Z 0
Z y
(x2)2
(x2)2
(y+5)2
(y+5)2
e 18 dx +
e 18 dx) (
e 8 dy +
e 8 dy).

Z 0
1
(
12
0

Z +
Z 0

2
2
ex dx =
.
ex dx =
2
0


Z x
z2
1
e 2 dz.
x(x) =
2 0
: u = (x 2)/3, v = (y + 5)/2.
Z x2
Z x

3
(x2)2
u2
x2
),
e 18 dx = 3
e 2 du = 3 2(
3
0
0
y+5
Z
Z y

2
(y+5)2
v2
y+5
8
dy = 2
).
e
e 2 dv = 2 2(
2
0
0
,
! 

18
1
x2
y+5
F (x, y) =
+ 3 2(
)
) =
2 + 2 2(
12
2
3
2

 

1
1
x2
y+5
=
+ (
)
+ (
) .
2
3
2
2
97.4. (, )
(x, y) = axy G (x, y) = 0
. G - , x + y
1 = 0, x = 0, y = 0. a r .

392

: a
+
ZZ
(x, y)dxdy = 1.

dx

1x

1
= 1 a = 24.
24

xydy = 1 a


+
Z
ZZ
Z 1
2
M() =
x dx
x(x, y)dxdy = 24
0

1x

2
ydy = .
5

, M() = 2/5.
D() =

+
ZZ

x (x, y)dxdy = 24

Z 1Z
0

1x

1
4
1
2
= .
x3 ydy ( )2 =
5
5 25
25

, D() = 1/25.
:
+
ZZ
Z 1
Z 1x
2
xy(x, y)dxdy = 24
M( ) =
x2 dx
y 2 dy = .
15
0
0

(96.2)
2
2 2 1 1
2
r = ( )/( ) = .
15 5 5 5 5
3
97.5.
M() = M() = 0, () = () = 1.
, (, ) G
R = 2 .
: ,
(x, y) = (x) (y).
1
1
2
2
(y) = ey /2 .
(x) = ex /2 ,
2
2
,
1 1 (x2 +y2 )
(x, y) = (x) (y) =
e 2
.
2

97

393


ZZ
ZZ
1
1
2
2
e 2 (x +y ) dxdy.
P =
(x, y)dxdy =
2
G
G

, :
Z 2
ZZ
Z 2
1 2
1 2
1
1
e 2 r rdr =
d
P =
e 2 r rdrd =
2
2 0
0
G

= 1 e2 1 0, 135 = 0, 865.
97.6.
M() = M() = 0, () = () = 1.
R ,
(, ) 0,9.
: ,
Z R
1 2
1 2
12 R2
.
P =
e 2 r rdr = e 2 r |R
0 = 1e
0

R : 1 eR
R = 2, 145.

2 /2

= 0, 9. ,

97.7. (, )
M() = M() = 0, , , r = 0. G, a = k , b = k .
: x2 /(k )2 + y 2 /(k )2 = 1,

ZZ
P ((, ) G) =
(x, y)dxdy,

21 ( x2 + y 2 )
1
e .
(x, y) =
2
, x = r cos , y = r sin , I = r.
Z 2 Z k
1
2
2
P ((, ) G) =
rer /2 dr = 1 ek /2 .
2 0
0

394


97.8. 0,4; 0,5; 0,6
0,12; 0,14 .

\ 0,4 0,5 0,6
0,12 0,05 0,2 0,15
0,14 0,15 0,25 0,2
.
97.9.
3%, - 4, 5%. 95%. .
97.10. (, ): (x, y) = (1/4) sin x sin y
0 6 x 6 , 0 6 y 6 ; (x, y) = 0. .
97.11. (, )

 1
sin(x + y) x [0, 2 ], y [0, 2 ],
2
(x, y) =
/ [0, 2 ].
0 x
/ [0, 2 ] y
, ,
r .
97.12.
 2
a x2 y 2 x2 + y 2 6 a2 (a > 0),
(x, y) =
0 x2 + y 2 > a2 .
a, ,
.
97.13. (, )

(x, y) = ae
a.

(x+1)2
(y4)2
2
7

98

395

97.14. XY
(M(), M()) = (0, 1) = 1, = 2. (-1,1),
(2,1), (2,3), (-1,3).
97.15. (, )
(x, y) =

5 25 ((x2)2 (6/5)(x2)(y+3)+(y+3)2 )
e 32
.
8

, .
97.16.
M() = M() = 0, D() = D() = 1.
p
, 2 6 x2 + y 2 6 3.

98.

. .

98.1. ()

x y.

y x (. 98.1).
98.1

x x1 . . .
xn
y y1 . . .
yn
y = f (x), y x.

396

()
, f (xi) yi :
n
X
2
f (xi) yi min .
(98.1)
=
i=1

 (xi ; yi ) :
xi ; f (xi) .
:
f (x) = ax + b.
a b,
, :
a b . , a b .
:
n
n
n
n
X
X
X
X

2
xi yi ;
xi 2
xi + 2b
(axi + b yi )xi = 2a
=2
a
i=1
i=1
i=1
i=1
n

X
X
X

yi .
xi + 2nb 2
(axi + b yi ) = 2a
=2
b
i=1
i=1
i=1

, :

P
P
P

a = 0,
2a x2i + 2b xi 2 xi yi = 0,

P
P

= 0,
2a xi + 2nb 2 yi = 0.
b
:
P 2
P
P
P
n
n
n
P
P
x
x
xi yi
2

i
i
xi yi ,
a
a xi + b xi =
+b
=
,
i=1
i=1
i=1
P
P
n
n
n

(98.2)
n
n
P
P
yi

a xi + b =
a xi + nb =
yi ,
n
n
i=1
i=1
, :
P
P 2
P
P
yi
xi
xi
xi yi
= x,
= y,
= x2 ,
= xy,
n
n
n
n
(98.3) a b:

x = xy,
ax2 + b
(98.3)
a
x + b = y.

98

397

98.1. 98.2 y
x. , x y y = kx+b,
k b.
98.2
N
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
xi
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4 4.5
yi -1.08 0.24 1.64 2.98 4.26 5.62 7.04 8.3
: (98.3) :

8, 875k + 2, 750b = 13, 496,
2, 750k + b = 3, 625,

: k = 2, 687; b = 3, 765.
: y = 2, 687x 3, 765.
f (xi)
(98.1). 98.3.
98.3
N
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
xi
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
yi
1.08 0.24
1.64
2.98
4.26
5.62
7.04
8.30
f (xi)
1.08 0.27
1.61
2.95
4.30
5.64
6.98
8.33
2
f (xi) yi
0
0.0007 0.0010 0.0008 0.0013 0.0004 0.0032 0.0007

. 98.3, : min = 0.0081.


yi f (xi ).
: y = 2, 687x 3, 765.
a, b, c f (x) = ax2 + bx + c:

ax4 + bx3 + cx2 = x2 y,


(98.4)
ax3 + bx2 + cx = xy,
2
ax + bx + cn = y.

98.2. Mathcad.

ORIGIN := 1
n := 12
: i := 1 . . . n xi := 0.5 + i 0.5

398

:
y := ( 1.79 0.47 1.74 3.87 4.36 6.56 7.94
8.32 9.34 11.68 13.45 12.87 )T
(98.3), : S A = Q.
A , S Q
.

P
P
n
n
n
P
2
xi
(xi )
xi yi
S
Q

i=1
i=1
i=1
S := P
Q := P
S :=
Q :=
n
n
n
n
x
n
y
i

i=1

i=1

S A = Q:




17.0417 3.75
32.5996
A := lsolve(S, Q) S =
, Q=
,
6.4892
3.75
1


2.7743
A=
3.9146
:
Y (x) := A1 x + A2 .
(
):
n
X
(yi Y (xi ))2
min = 5.4591.
min :=
i=1


.
16
13

Y(x i )

10
7

yi

4
1
-2
1

xi


n := 10
i := 1 . . . n
: xi := 2 + i

98

399

:
y := ( 2.98 2.02 1.17 3.03 2.57 1.75 2.74 5.78 8.92 14.76 )T
P
n
n
n
P
P
(xi )4
(xi )3
(xi )2
i=1
i=1
i=1
P
n
n
n
P
P

2
3
xi
(x
)
(x
)
S :=
i
i
i=1
i=1
i=1
n
n
P
P
2
(xi )
(xi )1
n
i=1

i=1

P
n
(x )2 yi
i=1 i
P
n x y
Q :=
i
i
i=1
n

P
yi
i=1

877.3 129.5 20.5


Q
S
Q :=
S = 129.5 20.5 3.5
S :=
n
n
20.5
3.5
1

171.974
Q = 25.382
3.572

0.1627
A := lsolve(S, Q)
A = 0.4227
1.2416

Y (x) := A1 x2 + A2 x + A3
min

n
X
(yi Y (xi ))2
:=

min = 28.8735

i=1


M := 3 ( )
n := 10
i := 1 . . . n
: xi := 2 + i
:
y := ( 2.98 2.02 1.17 3.03 2.57 1.75 2.74 5.78 8.92 14.76 )T

400
15
12
9

Y(x i )

yi

3
0
-3

-1

0.5

3.5

6.5

xi


S :=




k=1


Q :=


S
S :=
n

f ori 1 . . . M + 1
f orj 1 . . . M + 1
n
P
(xk )(2M+2ij)
Ai,j
k=1

Q
Q :=
n

f ori 1 . . . M + 1
n
P
(xk )(M+1i) yk
Bi

M+1
X
m=1

n
X
i=1

0.0873
0.754

A := lsolve(S, Q) A =
2.3519
0.5083

Y (x) :=
min :=

Am xM+1m

(yi Y (xi ))2

min = 5.335

15
12
9
6

yi

Y(x i )

0
-3

-1

0.5

3.5

xi

6.5

98

401

98.2.
n
(; ), .. n (xi ; yi ). ,
(. 98.4).
xi , yi . i
98.4

\ y1 y2
ys ni
x1 n11 n12
n1s n1
x2 n21 n22
n2s n2
xk
nj

nk1 nk2
n1 n2

nks
ns

nk
n

j nij , .. , (xi; yj ) .
k
s
X
X
nij .
nij , nj =
ni =
i=1

j=1


n=

s
k X
X

nij =

i=1 j=1

k
X

ni =

s
X
j=1

i=1

nj .

, . ,
. 97.4. ,
k
k
X
X
ni xi
ni x2i
x=

y=

i=1

s
X
j=1

x2 =

nj yj
n

y2 =

i=1

s
X
j=1

Sx2 = x2 x2 ,

Sy2 = y 2 y 2 .

nj yj2
n

402

98.1. rxy
:

(98.5)

(98.6)

rxy
=

xy =

xy x y
,
Sx Sy
k X
s
X

nij xi yj

i=1 j=1

, 96 ,
, :
1) rxy = ryx ;
2) 1

1: 1 6 rxy
6 1;

3) |rxy | = 1 , X Y
. rxy
,
.
98.2. yx = x.
98.4 yx
, = x. , S
P
yj n1j
j=1
, yx1 =
. xy .
n1
95 : M(/ = x) =
= f/ (x) : M(/ = y) = / (y) (96.2)
(96.4) .
.

98.3.

, 98.4, :
yx = / x + b .

98

403

,
n
X

(/ xi +byi )2 ,
(/ ; b) =
i=1

yi f (xi).

, (98.3)

/
b
/ b ,
:

2
= 0,

/
/ x + b x = xi yi ,

/ x + b n = yi ,

= 0,
b
(98.7)

xy x y

,
/ = 2
2
x

b = y x.
/

/
.
:
(98.8)

/ = rxy

Sy
.
Sx

, :
(98.9)

yx = rxy

Sy
(x x) + y .
Sx

98.3. (98.9) .
,
: rxy
> 0,

, rxy < 0 .

:
(98.10)

xy = rxy

Sx
(y y) + x.
Sy

404

:
Sy
yx y = rxy
(x x) ,
Sx
Sx
(y y) .
xy x = rxy
Sy
(x; y), .

, |rxy
| = 1.
, , xi yi
. .
98.3. :
\
60
80
100
120
nj

40 60 80 ni
5 3 8
2 19 21
7 6 13
14 4 18
26 12 22 60

: n = 60. (97.2), (97.4),


(98.5) :
5620
3520
x=
y=
93, 7;
58, 6;
60
60
552400
225600
x2 =
y2 =
9206, 7;
3760;
60
60
Sx2 433, 2;
Sy2 318, 2;
317600
5293, 3;
Sx 20, 8;
Sy 17, 8; xy =
60
sy
xy x y

0, 55;
/ = rxy
0, 47;
rxy
=
Sx Sy
sx
sx

0, 64.

/ = rxy
sy
(98.9),
(98.10):
a)yx = 0, 47x + 102, 3,
b)xy = 0, 64y + 131, 3.

98

405

. 98.1
y

58,7

a
b
0

93,7

. 98.1.
98.1. , ..
f (x) = ax2 + bx + c ,
n
P
= (ax2i + bxi + c yi )2 . i=1


(98.4).

(.., f (x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d)


, , , .

z = f (x; y) , zi = f (xi ; yi ), xi yi , zi (
). z = ax+by +c.
:

ryz
rxz
rxy
rxz
ryz
rxy
Sz
Sz
,
b
=
,

a=
2
2
1 rxy
Sx
1 rxy
Sy
c = z ax by.

406

98.4. Mathcad.
X Y .
4- Xj 3- Yi :
ORIGIN := 1
nx := 4
ny := 3
i := 1 . . . nx
j := 1 . . . ny
Xi := 40 + 20 i
Yj := 20 + 20 j
T
T
X = ( 60 80 100 120)
Y = ( 40 60 80 )
mi,j m:

5 0 3
0 2 19

m :=
7 6 0
14 4 0

n nj ni:
X
X
mi,j
n = 60
n :=
j

ny

nji :=

X
j=1

mi,j

8
21

nj =
13
18

nij :=

nx
X

mi,j

i=1

1 X
Mx :=
nji Xi
n i
1 X
nij Yj
My :=
n j

26
ni = 12
22

Mx = 93.667
My = 58.667

:
1 X
Sx2 :=
nji (Xi Mx)2
n i

Sx = 20.814
Sx2 = 433.222
Sx := Sx2
X
1
nij (Yj My)2
Sy2 :=
n j
p
Sy2 = 318.222
Sy := Sy2
Sy = 17.839
:
1 XX
Xi Yj mi,j
xy :=
n i j

98

xy = 5.293 103

R :=

xy Mx My
Sx Sy

407

R = 0.543

R Sx
R Sy
:=
= 0.466 = 0.634
Sx
Sy
:
:=

yx(x) := (x Mx) + My

:
50
41.67

yx(x)

xy(y) := (y My) + Mx

xy(y)

33.33
25
16.67
8.33
100

130

160

190

220

. 98.2. 98.4

98.


98.1. :
xi 3 5 8 10 11
ni 20 25 30 15 10
.
:
n = 20 + 25 + 30 + 15 + 10 = 100.
:
P1 = 20/100 = 1/5, P2 = 25/100 = 1/4, P3 = 30/100 = 3/10,
P4 = 15/100 = 3/20,

P5 = 10/100 = 1/10.

:
xi
3
5
8
10
11

Pi 1/5 1/4 3/10 3/20 1/10

408

,
5
X

Pi = 1.

i=1

98.2.
n = 80:
xi 0,9 1 1,2 1,4 1,5
ni 10 25 20 15 10
, , , .
:
. (97.2) :
1
x = (10 0, 9 + 25 1 + 20 1, 2 + 15 1, 4 + 10 1, 5) = 1, 175.
80
xi , x - , (97.7) (97.4).

1
S 2 = (10 0, 92 + 25 12 + 20 1, 22 + 15 1, 42 + 10 1, 52)
80
(1, 175)2 1, 4225 1, 3806 0, 042.
,

. S = 0, 042
0, 205.
98.3. n = 50
S = 9, 8 .
.
2

: (97.9), ,

50
n
S2 =
9, 8 = 10.
S 2 =
n1
49
98.4. 0,99 a , = 3,
x = 32 n = 36.

98

409

: (97.11).
= 0, 99, 2 :
0, 99

=
= 0, 495.
2
2
2 = 2, 57.

( 2 ) =

3
x 2 = 32 2, 57 = 32 1, 285 = 30, 715.
n
6
32 + 1, 285 = 33, 285. , a
30, 715 < a < 33, 285.

98.5.
n = 16:
xi 3,5 4,1 4,7 5,4 5,6 6,2
ni 2
3
2
4
3
2
0,95 a

.
:
(97.15).
(97.2):
x =

1
(2 3, 5 + 3 4, 1 + 2 4, 7 + 4 5, 4+
16
+3 5, 6 + 2 6, 2) 4, 969.

(97.7):
6

1 X
S =
ni x2i 4, 9692 2, 426.
15 i=1
2

(97.9),

16
2, 426 = 2, 587.
15
S 1, 608. = 1 = 0, 05
n 1 = 15 3
S 2 =

410

t = 2, 15
S
S
x + t 5, 833.
x t 4, 104,
n
n
, :
4, 1042 < a < 5, 8333.
, Mathcad.
98.6.
, 0,95.
: ORIGIN := 1 k := 12 i := 1 . . . k
x:
x := (904.3 910.2 916.6 928.8 935
941.2 947.4 953.6 959.8 966 972.2 978.4 )T
m:
m := (3 1 2 7 8 10 4 2 4 1 1P1 )T
: n := mi
n = 44
i
1 X
mi xi
: Mx :=
n i
Mx = 938.693
1 X
mi (xi Mx)2 S2 = 282.988
: S2 :=

n1 i
0.95,
t 

 (97.16):
0.05
t := qt 1
,n
t = 2.015,
2
qt .
r
S2
: := t
n
= 5.111
xLef t xRight :
xLef t := Mx
xRight := Mx +
xLef t = 933.582
xRight = 943.804

98

411


98.5 30 . a
.
. (97.1) (97.9),
(97.15).

412

98.5

. \

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

10

4,50
4,43
30,10
80,20
5,40
14,28
20,12
36,41
14,46
80,30
15,38
16,06
5,90
7,71
15,21

4,51
4,41
30,40
80,10
5,41
14,26
20,11
36,42
14,45
80,30
15,40
16,20
5,88
7,73
15,28

4,52
4,39
30,30
80,30
5,40
14,27
20,10
36,44
14,41
80,20
15,41
16,16
5,97
7,70
15,25

4,53
4,45
30,00
79,70
5,42
14,30
20,10
36,45
14,40
80,30
15,42
16,00
5,95
7,72
15,24

4,54
4,40
29,45
79,80
5,39
14,31
19,98
36,48
14,42
80,20
15,43
16,15
5,93
7,68
15,17

4,49
4,35
29,65
79,80
5,38
14,32
19,97
36,49
14,48
79,80
15,37
16,05
5,85
7,67
15,18

4,54
4,42
30,05
80,10
5,38
14,31
20,02
36,46
14,50
79,80
15,36
16,01
5,88
7,65
15,20

4,47
4,40
30,15
80,00
5,37
14,29
20,03
36,45
14,42
79,70
15,36
16,03
5,87
7,63
15,19

4,49
4,37
29,90
79,70
5,35
14,30
20,02
36,42
14,45
79,90
15,34
16,02
5,87
7,70
15,26

4,46
4,38
30,00
80,30
5,40
14,26
20,10
36,38
14,44
80,50
15,33
16,02
5,90
7,71
15,22


0,95
0,99
0,999
0,95
0,99
0,999
0,999
0,99
0,95
0,95
0,99
0,999
0,95
0,99
0,999

98


. \

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

10

2,58
4,38
14,41
10,25
5,97
16,02
42,80
3,44
36,40
8,35
15,28
27,90
7,71
5,41
28,70

2,50
4,40
14,45
10,23
5,88
16,03
42,72
3,47
36,70
8,40
15,25
27,30
7,72
5,40
28,30

2,57
4,37
14,46
10,24
5,90
16,02
42,75
3,38
36,90
8,38
15,21
26,90
7,70
5,42
28,80

2,49
4,42
14,40
10,18
5,93
16,05
42,90
3,39
36,80
8,44
15,24
27,30
7,73
5,40
28,80

2,49
4,35
14,48
10,17
5,95
16,01
42,98
3,46
36,30
8,45
15,18
27,40
7,67
5,39
28,00

2,51
4,40
14,42
10,18
5,88
16,15
42,85
3,49
36,70
8,44
15,17
27,50
7,68
5,38
28,10

2,55
4,39
14,50
10,19
5,85
16,00
42,07
3,39
36,90
8,37
15,20
27,00
7,65
5,37
27,90

2,53
4,45
14,45
10,20
5,87
16,16
42,93
3,47
36,90
8,39
15,19
27,60
7,63
5,38
28,70

2,53
4,43
14,42
10,19
5,90
16,20
42,77
3,46
36,40
8,36
15,26
27,70
7,71
5,35
28,10

2,55
4,41
14,44
10,17
5,87
16,06
42,83
3,45
36,00
8,42
15,22
27,40
7,70
5,40
28,20


0,95
0,99
0,999
0,999
0,99
0,95
0,95
0,99
0,999
0,95
0,99
0,999
0,95
0,99
0,999

98.5

413

414

99.

.
. . .

99.1.

99.1.
.
H0 , H1 , H2 , . . . .
H0
H1 , .
99.1. H0 , X
a0 . H0 : M(X) = a0 . H1 : M(X) > a0 .
x1 , x2 ,
. . ., xn , :
T = T (x1 , x2 , . . . xn ).
,
.
H0 , :
H0 , (
) ;
H0 , , H1 ( ) .
:
H0 ;
H0 H1 .
99.2.
.

99

415


. ,
1 .

n. n
1 , ..
.
T
.
, .. (t2 ; +), T > t2 : H0 ; , ..
T 6 t2 , : ,
H0 .
, .. (; t1 ), H0
T < t1 .
(; t1 ) (t2 ; +) H0
T < t1 T > t2 .

99.2.

rxy
, . ,
, r , n .
H0 :
r = 0 H1 : r 6= 0.
H0 , , , X Y , .. .
H0 , ,
, X Y , .. .

416

H0

n2

q
(99.1)
T = rxy
,
2
1 rxy

rxy
(98.5). H0
T n 2 . H1
, t1 = t2 . t2
n 2 ( 3)
, , ,
Excel /2 n 2 . (99.1)
T .
|T | > t2 , H0 ,
|T | < t2 H0 .

99.2. = 0, 1
, 98.2.

: n = 60 = 0, 1 3 t2 = 1, 67.

(99.1) rxy
= 0, 55:

58
5, 02.
T = 0, 55 p
2
1 0, 55
|T | > 1, 67, : H0
= 0, 1. , ,
.

99.3.

n m
12 22 .
x y
H0 :
H0 :

M() = M().

, x y ,
:
H0 :

M(
x) = M(
y ).

99

417

,
.
:
x y
(99.2)
Z=r
.
12 22
+
n
m
:
n
m
P
P
i
i

i=1
i=1
, =
, =
.
Z=r
2
2
n
m
1 2
+
n
m
H0 , .. i N (a; 1 ), i N (a; 2 ), Z N (0; 1).
, Z .
:
r
 12 22
M()

+
=
M(Z) = M()
nr m

X
m
n
X
 12 22
M(i )/m
M(i )/n
=
+
=
n
m
i=1
i=1
r
 na ma  2 2
1

+ 2 = 0,
=
n
m
n m

 12 22
D()

D(Z) = D()
+
=
n
m
=

X
n
i=1

D(i )/n2

m
X
i=1

D(i )/m2


  2
 

 12 22
n1 m22  12 22
+
+ 2
+
=
= 1.
n
m
n2
m
n
m

, , :

H0 : M() = M(), H1 : M() 6= M().


/2 H0 . F (Z ) = 1 /2, F (Z)

418

, Z , Z
|Z | > Z , H0 .
|Z | < Z , H0
H1 .
F (Z ) = 1 /2 (, Excel), 2
(99.3) ..

F (Z ) = (Z ) + 0, 5 = F (Z ) = 1
2

(Z ) + 0, 5 = 1
2
(99.3)

(Z ) =

1
;
2 2

H0 : M() = M(), H2 : M() > M().


H0 . F (Z ) =
= 1 Z , (99.2) Z
Z > Z , H0 . Z < Z ,
H0 . Z
2, (99.4) ..
F (Z ) = 1 (Z ) + 0, 5 = 1

(99.4)

(Z ) =

1
;
2

H0 : M() = M(), H3 : M() < M().



H0 . F (Z
)=

Z .

Z (99.4)

Z
= Z . Z < Z , H0
, Z > Z , H0 .

99.1. ,
.

99

419

(99.2) (99.5):
(99.5)

Z=r

x y
2

S2
S1
+
n
m

99.4.

n 2 .
H0 M() a0 :
H0 :

M() = a0 .

x , :
H0 : M(
x) = a0 .
, ,
.

x a0
x a0
=
(99.6)
U=
n.
/ n

, . 99.3, ( ),

U = ( a0 ) n/ . ,
:

H0 : M() = a0 ;
H1 : M() 6= a0 .
(99.3) 2 (
) Z , (99.6) U .
|U | > Z , H0 , |U | < Z , H0
H1 .

H0 : M() = a0 ;
H2 : M() > a0 .
(99.4) Z , (99.6) U . U > Z , H0
, U < Z , H0 .

420

H0 : M() = a0 ;
H3 : M() < a0 .
(99.4) Z , (99.6) U . U < Z , H0
, U > Z , H0 .
. 99.4 ,
x a0
x a0
(99.7)
T = =
n.
S
S / n

( ), T = ( a0 ) n/S
n 1 . :

H0 : M() = a0 ;
H1 : M() 6= a0 .
; t2 n 1 ( 3)
, , , Excel. (99.7)
T .
|T | > t2 , H0 , |T | < t2 , H0
H1 .
H2 : M() > a0 H3 : M() < a0
(. [ ]).

99.5.

n p A .
m/n, m A
n . m/n H0 , p
p0 :
H0 : p = p 0 .
, m/n p
:
m
= p0 .
H0 : M
n

99

421

, ,
p0 .

m
p0
n
n,
(99.8)
U=
q0 = 1 p0 .
p 0 q0
H0
.
.
99.4
,
m
m

p 0 q0
, M
.
= p0 , D
=
n
n
n

, . 99.4 , U ,
, (99.8)

99.

99.1. , 99.1,

y = ax2 + bx + c.
99.1
99.1
i
1
2
3
4
5
xi
-1
0
1
2
3
yi 1,286 0,424 0,296 -0,698 -0,986
: (98.4) y,
n
n
n
X
x2i yi 3 X x3i 4 X x4i
2
2
x, xy, x , x y =
,x =
,x =
.
n
n
n
i=1
i=1
i=1
99.2,
.
, (98.4) :

19, 8a + 7b + 3c = 2, 1352,
7a + 3b + c = 1, 1872,

3a + b + 5c = 0, 0540.

422

99.2
i
1
2
3
4
5

xi
-1,00000
0,00000
1,00000
2,00000
3,00000
1,00000

yi
1,28600
0,42400
-0,29600
-0,69800
-0,98600
-0,05400

99.1
xi yi
x2i
x2i yi
x3i
x4i
-1,28600 1,00000 1,28600 -1,00000 1,00000
0,00000 0,00000 0,00000 0,00000 0,00000
-0,29600 1,00000 -0,29600 1,00000 1,00000
-1,39600 4,00000 -2,79200 8,00000 16,00000
-2,95800 9,00000 -8,87400 27,00000 81,00000
-1,18720 3,00000 -2,13520 7,00000 19,80000

( ,
), : a = 0, 17385; b = 0, 81751; c = 0, 04839. ,
:
y = 0, 17385x2 0, 81751x + 0, 04839.

f (xi) ,
.
99.3.
99.3
i
1
2
3
4
5

99.1
xi
yi
f (xi)
-1,00000 1,28600 1,03975
0,00000 0,42400 0,04839
1,00000 -0,29600 -0,59527
2,00000 -0,69800 -0,89123
3,00000 -0,98600 -0,83949

2i
0,060639
0,141083
0,089563
0,037338
0,021465
0,350087


= (f (xi) yi )2 , , ..
: min 0, 35.
yi f (xi ).
: y = 0, 17385x2 0, 81751x + 0, 04839.

2i

99.2. 99.4 y = ax + b
(. 98.1 98).

99

423

99.3. 99.5 y =
= ax2 + bx + c.
99.4

yi

i
\xi
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

99.2
1
2
3
4
5
-2
-1
0
1
2
-6,68 -4,15 -1,83 0,72
3,02
-7,30 -3,35 0,40
4,39
8,12
-8,68 -6,30 -3,45 -1,32 1,46
-3,235 -2,198 -1,814 -1,200 -0,759
1,87 -1,30 -4,31 -7,69 -10,42
4,92
3,21
1,92
0,15 -1,16
-5,41 -4,20 -2,62 -1,51
0
-7,96 -5,31 -3,25 -0,41 1,63
-4,27 -3,53 -2,31 -1,82 -0,69
0,80 -0,88 -2,28 -4,18 -5,41
-14,30 -10,31 -5,42 -1,51 3,02
-11,47 -7,59 -4,32 -0,41 3,01
1,42 -1,30 -3,59 -6,48 -8,71
2,80
3,81
4,43
5,63
6,17
-4,32 -2,72 -0,80 0,71
2,62
-11,10 -8,02 -4,17 -1,30 2,41
-10,24 -6,91 -4,03 -0,48 2,31
-5,74 -4,41 -3,72 -2,16 -1,42
-6,05 -4,01 -2,32 0,02
1,62
-1,00 1,22
3,03
5,49
7,55
-3,61 -2,62 -2,01 0,89 -0,03
5,40
3,81
1,88
0,38 -1,52
-8,40 -6,01 -3,29 -1,03 1,81
1,76
2,71
3,32
4,44
5,07
-6,04 -4,65 -3,02 -1,80 0,08
-9,28 -6,81 -3,98 -1,60 1,21
0,30 -0,63 -1,38 -2,61 -3,18
4,50
3,51
2,18
1,32 -0,10
7,12
5,52
3,48
1,95
0
-11,96 -9,87 -7,18 -5,25 -2,51

6
3
5,63
12,30
3,69
-0,759
-13,93
-3,02
1,11
4,36
0,01
-7,31
7,04
6,91
-11,79
7,49
4,05
5,36
5,82
0
3,92
7,72
0,82
-2,98
4,05
6,12
1,18
3,52
-4,27
-0,88
-1,61
-0,62

7
4
7,90
15,88
6,43
-0,217
-16,68
-4,31
2,39
6,52
1,00
-8,61
11,75
10,12
-13,98
8,03
6,01
9,02
8,61
0,78
5,53
11,53
1,41
-4,97
6,68
6,74
2,82
6,41
-4,98
-2,20
-3,60
2,02

8
5
10,47
19,86
8,82
0,265
-19,97
-6,00
3,87
9,12
1,75
-10,40
15,80
14,08
-16,78
9,10
7,58
12,21
12,02
2,10
7,67
13,70
2,41
-6,50
9,10
7,71
4,18
8,92
-6,02
-3,20
-5,20
4,14

424

99.5

yi

99.3
i
1
2
3
4
xi
-1
0
1
2
\
1
6,20 2,92 1,29 2,13
2
8,34 3,19 0,66 1,54
3
6,43 2,56 1,97 3,72
4
-1,06 -6,47 -8,32 -7,71
5
8,55 3,20 1,09 3,01
6
0,22 6,02 8,08 5,61
7
2,30 -2,62 -3,87 -2,38
8
-4,11 1,42 3,17 1,85
9
1,17 -3,28 -3,02 0,84
10
2,40 -3,32 -5,72 -5,55
11
5,71 0,28 -2,22 -1,09
12
-0,20 3,69 4,38 2,98
13
1,05 5,36 6,02 4,01
14
-9,85 -3,17 0,71 0,66
15
-6,18 0,38 2,81 1,99
16
-3,71 3,21 5,52 4,26
17
9,58 4,98 0,81 -1,71
18
-2,25 2,99 5,01 4,79
19
6,43 2,12 -1,48 -3,49
20
-2,28 3,81 7,29 9,03
21
5,20
0
-3,68 -6,66
22
2,34 -3,71 -6,66 -7,67
23
7,84 0,89 -3,85 -5,55
24
2,62 -2,89 -4,16 -2,37
25
-3,15 2,44 5,26 6,27
26
8,26 2,58 -2,03 -4,90
27
-1,97 5,81 7,02 2,56
28
-5,42 -0,94 0,89 -0,73
29
-4,61 -0,71 0,52 -1,77
30
7,15 0,37 -4,44 -6,29

5
3
4,60
5,06
8,23
-3,46
-8,15
-0,50
2,90
-3,31
9,29
-2,01
2,91
-1,80
-1,55
-2,25
-3,06
-1,69
-3,78
1,35
-4,93
8,20
-8,02
-5,49
-5,05
3,54
4,41
-6,76
-8,52
-5,02
-6,59
-6,13

100

425

100.
.
. 2
100.1.
.

100.1.

, . , F (x) ; , F (x, , ): F (x) = F (x, , ).
y = F (x, , ) , .
u = u(x), v = v(x), y = F (x, , ) (u; v)
V = k u + b k b,
: k = (, ), l = (, ). ,
y = F (x, , ) (u; v) :
(100.1)

v = k v + b v = (, ) u + (, ).

y = F (x)
y = F (x, , ), (u; v)
(100.1). (u; v) (x; y) .
(u; v) , , y = F (x); k- , Ou
b- Ov.
(, ) (, ),

426

:

k = (, )
b = (, )

,
.
:
x m
F (x, m, ) =
+ 0, 5,

Zx
z2
1
: (x) =
e 2 dz ,
2
0
:
(100.2)

u = x,

v = 1 (y 0, 5),

x = 1 (y) , . ) + 0, 5
(u; v) y = ( xm

:
 


x

m
v = 1 (y 0, 5) = 1
+ 0, 5 0, 5 =

 
 x m
x

m
um
= 1
=
.
=

um

(100.1),
(100.3)

v=

1
m
, (m; ) = .

(100.3) k ( ) b ( Ov), m b
:

= 1,
k =
,
k

(100.4)
b

b = m,
m = .

k
(100.3)
(m; ) =

100

427

, v = 1 (y 0, 5)
y.
100.1. . 100.1 . 100.1 100.3
(u, v) ( (100.2)) ( I III) (
). F (x) . 100.2 , . 100.1, 100.3
. m (100.4) k b,
(u, v) Ou Ov.
(I): k = 1, 0; b = 1, 8 m = 1, 8; = 1, 0;
(II): k = 1, 4; b = 5, 7 m = 4, 1; = 0, 71;
(III) ,
, (III) .

i
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

100.1 (I)
xi
y = F (x)
0,48
0,07
0,55
0,13
0,76
0,20
0,83
0,27
1,34
0,33
1,39
0,40
1,39
0,47
1,94
0,53
2,05
0,60
2,24
0,67
2,52
0,73
2,71
0,80
2,81
0,87
3,44
0,93
4,52
1,00

100.2 (II)
xi
y = F (x)
2,98
1/15
3,03
2/15
3,17
3/15
3,22
4/15
3,57
5/15
3,59
6/15
3,95
7/15
3,96
8/15
4,03
9/15
4,16
10/15
4,35
11/15
4,47
12/15
4,54
13/15
4,96
14/15
5,01
1

:

1 ex x > 0,
y = F (x, ) =
0
x<0

100.3 (III)
xi
y = F (x)
1,68
0,07
1,83
0,13
2,29
0,20
2,46
0,27
4,02
0,33
4,19
0,40
6,54
0,47
6,64
0,53
7,17
0,60
8,30
0,67
10,08
0,73
11,46
0,80
12,21
0,87
17,78
0,93
18,60
1,00

428

v
k=1,0
b=-1,8

0,99
2,0

II

0,95
0,90

k=1,4
b=-5,7

III

1,0
0,80
0,70
0,60
0,50
0
0,40

10 11 12 13

u=x

0,30
0,20
-1,0
0,10
0,05
-2,0
0,01

v= (y-0,5)

. 100.1.

:
(100.5)

u = x,

v = ln(1 y)


y = F (x, ) :




x
v = ln(1 y) = ln 1 F (x, ) = ln 1 (1 e ) =
= ln(ex ) = x = u.

v = u
(100.1), k = , b = 0;
.
100.2. . 100.2 . 100.3
(u; v) ( (100.5)). : k = 0, 12 = 0, 12. -

100

429

Ov v y :
v = ln(1 y).

v
v = -ln (1-y)

III

2,0
0,9

k=0,12

0,7
1,0
0,6
0,5
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
1

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

u=x

. 100.2.

100.2.

, n. (,
, ), .
H0 , , . H0 ,
U . U ( ) Pi
Pi ( 2 ).
( 2 ) .

430

(1)
(, ) , 97, 98 .
(2) s (aj1 ; aj ]

mj , j (. . 97.3).
mj
, (m1 +
, j , Pj =
n
+ . . . + ms = n), , , .
(3) mj j (aj1 ; aj ]:



mj = F (aj ) F (aj1 ) n,

F (x) ,
1.
(4) 2 ( ):
(100.6)

S
X
(mj mj )2
j=1

mj

, 2

: mi = mi (i = 1, 2, . . . , l). 2
, .
2 , 100.6, ,
2 k (
).
(5) k 2 :
(100.7)

k = s 1 r,

r (
r = 2), s .
(6) k
2 ( 4) 2 (; k). 2 <
< 2 (; k) () . 2 > 2 (; k)
k.
100.3.
, 100.2 100.1.

100

431

: . 100.2
6 , . 100.2.
100.4

j
0
1
2
3
4
5
6

100.2
aj
mj
F (aj )
mj
2,5
1
0,0155 0,969
3,0
3
0,0800 2,659
3,5
4
0,2573 4,246
4,0
4
0,5404 3,948
4,5
2
0,8036 2,137
5,0
1
0,9460 0,673
5,5
0,9909

. 100.2 mj , j- . (97.2), (97.10), (97.5)


x S . 100.2:
x = 3, 933;

S = 0, 664

F (aj ).  a x 
j
+ 0, 5. F (aj ) =

S
mj , , .
(100.6) 2 = 0, 228. 4 = 0, 05 k = 6 1 2 = 3
2 (0, 05; 3) = 7, 8. 2 < 2 (0, 05; 3),
H0 100.2. ,
( I . 100.1).

Mathcad.
100.4. 100 . 9
, a:
a := ( 69.2 69.8 70.4 71.0 71.6 72.2 72.8 73.4 74.0 74.6 )T
m , .
m := ( 1 4 11 21 27 22 10 3 1 )T
H0
= 0, 05.

432

:
P
ORIGIN := 1 s := 9 j := 1 . . . s n := mj

n = 100

( U ):
aj + aj+1
2
Mx, S2:
1 X
Mx :=
mj Uj Mx = 71.876
n j
#
"
1 X
n
mj (Uj )2 Mx2

S2 =
n1
n j
Uj :=


S:
S2 = 0.8066909
S := S2
S = 0.8981597.
Zx
2
1
z2

e dz

(x) :=
2
0

,
pnorm(x, Mx, ), Mx = 0 = 1
:= pnorm(x, 0, 1) 0.5
m1j .
X2 ,
Xs +




aj Mx
aj+1 Mx

,
Pj :=
S
S




Mx
a2 Mx

P1 :=
S
S




X
Mx
as Mx
m1j = 100
Ps :=

m1j := n Pj
S
S
j

P T = (0.01041 0.03975 0.11454 0.21461 0.26154


0.20735 0.10693 0.03585 0.00902)
T
m1 = (1.0406 3.9748 11.4545 21.4611 26.1543
20.7354 10.6927 3.5848 0.9019)
k
k := s 1 2
:= 0.05

100

433

2 (2 ).
X (mj m1j )2
2 :=
m1j
j

2 = 0.2850892

qchisq 2 ,
2:
2 := qchisq(1 , k)

2 = 12.5915872

2 < 2, H0 = 0, 05.

100.

n
(, ), - :
(x1 , y1 ),

(x2 , y2 ), ..., (xn, yn ).


, .

n
n
X
X
yi /n.
xi /n,
y =
x =
i=1

i=1


Sx2

n
X
i=1

(xi x) /n,

Sy2

2
X
(yi y)2 /n.
=
i=1


(xy xy)

rxy
=
.
Sx Sy

y x :
Sy
(x x),
yx y = rxy
Sx
yx -
= x.

434

:
Sx
(y y).
xy x = rxy
Sy
Mathcad.
X Y .
ORIGIN := 1
: n := 10
:
X := ( 1.42 1.83 1.59 1.90 1.64 1.36 1.24 1.60 1.82 1.57 )T
Y := ( 3.12 3.42 2.94 3.63 3.18 2.90 3.71 3.15 3.42 3.33 )T
: i := 1 . . . n
1 X
1 X
Mx :=
Xi Mx = 1.597 My :=
Yi My = 3.28
n i
n i
:
1X
1X
(Xi Mx)2 Sy2 :=
(Yi My)2
Sx2 :=
n i
n i

Sx2 = 0.041 Sy2 = 0.066

p
Sx := Sx2
Sy := Sy2
Sx = 0.203
:
xy MxMy
1 X
Xi Yi
R :=
xy :=
n i
Sx Sy

Sy = 0.257
R = 0.251

:
R Sy
R Sx
Y x(x) :=
(x Mx) + My
Xy(y) :=
(y My) + Mx
Sx
Sy
5

Yx(x)

2.5
Xy(y)
0
-2.5
-5
-20

-10

10

20

. 100.1. 100

100

100.1
10
1,57
3,33
0,44
0,35
0,37
13,46
1,62
63
1,90
6,71
0,12
-4,11
25,12
7,18
2,83
1,36
20,00
14,36
2,10
3,78

435

100.1 .
: , , .

N xi , yi
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1,42 1,83 1,59 1,90 1,64 1,36 1,24
1 xi
yi
3,12 3,42 2,94 3,63 3,18 2,90 3,71
6,21 5,18 4,13 3,52 3,02 2,64 2,03
2 xi
yi
6,42 7,77 6,18 5,43 5,67 4,64 3,91
6,13 5,22 4,45 3,43 3,18 2,73 2,08
3 xi
yi
0,12 3,42 5,12 6,16 8,33 7,34 9,93
1,80 1,64 1,90 1,84 1,80 1,82 1,68
4 xi
yi
72
74
83
79
90
83
74
1,00 1,08 1,22 1,34 1,39 1,48 1,62
5 xi
yi
2,01 2,53 2,91 3,67 3,96 4,44 4,87
-2,00 -1,70 -1,57 -1,32 -1,08 -0,92 -0,63
6 xi
yi
12,41 10,17 9,01 6,14 3,77 1,81 -0,18
5,16 6,38 7,77 8,34 9,03 10,83 12,44
7 xi
yi
31,72 25,43 26,48 28,13 20,74 18,49 12,30
1,02 1,27 1,41 1,58 1,83 1,99 2,22
8 xi
yi
5,04 5,47 4,48 4,82 4,36 3,74 2,41
3,18 3,42 3,81 4,18 6,10 6,53 10,12
9 xi
yi
2,39 4,03 4,16 5,63 4,83 5,78 8,34
0,25 0,32 0,40 0,48 0,74 0,92 1,12
10 xi
yi
3,12 2,42 2,22 1,08 2,57 2,98 3,32

8
9
1,60 1,82
3,15 3,42
1,28 1,93
2,13 1,43
1,36 0,92
10,24 12,30
1,85 1,82
85
79
1,73 1,82
5,61 6,08
-0,31 -0,10
-1,88 -3,02
15,20 18,32
8,83 10,55
2,44 2,59
2,64 1,93
12,30 18,53
9,41 12,18
1,44 1,62
2,64 1,42

436

N xi , yi
11 xi
yi
12 xi
yi
13 xi
yi
14 xi
yi
15 xi
yi
16 xi
yi
17 xi
yi
18 xi
yi
19 xi
yi
20 xi
yi

1
1,34
2,99
5,43
6,18
6,43
0,83
0,83
4,21
21,2
63,0
2,13
3,06
0,24
2,63
1,02
2,12
1,43
2,57
1,50
4,74

2
3
4
5
1,79 1,63 1,88 1,66
3,33 2,90 3,60 3,21
5,32 4,00 3,96 3,18
7,24 6,22 5,42 6,03
5,18 4,23 3,45 3,12
2,13 5,48 6,18 10,32
0,94 0,93 0,90 0,60
4,48 2,12 4,30 4,83
26,0 28,3 31,0 35,2
68,3 70,1 69,3 70,14
4,18 7,33 10,48 11,18
7,23 10,45 7,68 17,88
0,38 0,45 0,56 0,60
2,41 2,10 1,90 1,77
2,10 2,92 4,08 4,98
3,37 4,23 4,25 6,18
3,01 3,30 3,41 4,20
1,79 2,64 3,85 2,36
1,62 2,78 3,10 4,05
3,51 2,87 2,95 2,90

6
7
8
9
1,38 1,36 1,63 1,84
2,50 3,83 3,16 3,52
2,73 2,13 1,36 0,82
4,54 4,44 2,10 1,40
2,84 2,11 1,48 0,93
8,36 9,90 11,43 12,75
0,73 0,82 0,88 1,00
3,53 4,13 4,00 5,00
36,3 38,2 40,8 42,3
72,0 75,4 80,3 85,1
14,73 15,32 17,32 19,60
20,30 25,08 27,12 25,93
0,63 0,68 0,72 0,74
1,78 1,60 1,49 1,52
6,00 7,14 8,22 9,09
7,16 8,20 8,02 10,13
5,02 5,89 6,14 7,22
3,60 3,58 4,55 4,63
4,15 4,63 5,35 5,90
2,60 0,96 2,88 0,63

100.1
10
1,60
3,41
0,40
0,30
0,27
15,28
0,87
3,12
44,5
90,3
22,40
31,35
0,75
1,40
9,90
11,43
1,90
4,57
6,88
0,75

100

1
0,97
2,03
0,90
6,13
11,00
1,12
9,21
8,53
44,50
3,26
13,43
7,54
1,23
3,58
0,103
1,67
1,02
6,16
0,10
1,05

2
1,83
2,00
1,32
4,30
11,22
2,43
11,80
2,64
53,71
4,18
20,08
5,46
2,17
2,11
0,235
1,08
1,25
4,30
1,26
3,08

3
2,23
3,17
2,09
5,21
23,64
1,48
21,13
7,50
57,16
2,41
27,19
7,05
3,03
4,67
0,243
2,85
3,27
5,42
2,44
1,73

4
3,10
2,75
2,42
3,00
24,73
3,81
22,48
6,08
61,00
7,18
29,36
5,63
4,23
6,18
0,330
4,87
3,68
3,85
2,95
3,86

5
2,63
4,55
3,20
4,34
32,75
3,92
24,50
4,42
62,37
4,36
37,10
7,64
4,55
4,03
0,405
2,77
5,02
2,66
4,62
3,95

6
4,80
3,41
3,86
3,16
38,10
5,93
34,49
4,10
77,30
7,15
39,12
5,46
5,60
7,83
0,483
4,06
5,12
4,53
5,36
6,12

7
5,20
4,96
4,17
2,10
44,03
4,50
33,18
6,25
78,18
4,67
40,08
3,75
7,23
4,96
0,475
5,83
6,18
3,17
6,08
5,55

100.1
10
7,00
6,50
8,08
1,82
56,19
6,23
57,18
2,54
98,10
6,08
60,00
3,92
6,81
6,65
0,863
6,96
7,95
3,83
8,63
6,94

N xi , yi
21 xi
yi
22 xi
yi
23 xi
yi
24 xi
yi
25 xi
yi
26 xi
yi
27 xi
yi
28 xi
yi
29 xi
yi
30 xi
yi

8
9
5,89 6,02
2,94 4,80
5,50 0,75
2,92 1,85
48,11 53,46
6,20 7,56
44,12 53,17
3,06 4,36
82,11 91,73
8,36 6,15
44,38 50,76
4,52 4,83
5,98 9,13
8,54 8,77
0,550 0,610
3,48 5,43
6,53 7,73
0,82 1,85
0,50 7,00
6,88 5,25

437

438

101.
. .

101.1.
1 , . . . , k
. . .
H0 : M(1 ) = . . . = M(k ) H1 ,
.
, , . , 99 (. 99.4), .. k
(
). , , .
: ,
.

. F ( ) k F1 , F2 , . . . , Fk ( k ). ( )
F (
). , F
(
). ,
, F , . 99.3 (
).

101

439

.
.
, .
,
.

101.2. (
)
n1 n2 2
2
S1 S2 ,
2
S1 .
H0 :
H0 : 12 = 22 .
2

, S1 S2
:
2

H0 : M(S1 ) = M(S2 ).

:
2

S1
F = 2 .
S2
, , F
(. . 94.4)
k1 = n1 1, k2 = n2 1.
.
H0 : 12 = 22 , H1 : 12 > 22 .
, , H0 (12 = 22 )
F : P {F > t2 (; k1 ; k2 )} = .
t2 (; k1 ; k2 ) ( 5) , , F
Excel. F > t2 (; k1 ; k2 ), H0
.

440

H0 : 12 = 22 , H2 : 12 6= 22 .
,
/2:




P F < t1 /2; k1 ; k2 = P F > t2 /2; k1; k2 = .
2
t2 (/2; k1 ; k2 )
5 .
F > t2 (/2; k1 ; k2 ), H0 .
H0 : 12 = 22 , H3 : 12 < 22 .
2
2
S1 > S2 , ,
H3 H0 .
.
101.1. , n1 = 12 n2 = 15,
2
2
S1 = 10, S2 = 5, 5. = 0, 05
H0 : 12 = 22 H1 : 12 > 22 .
: k1 = 12 1 = 11, k2 = 15 1 = 14,
2
S1
F = 2 = 1, 82. Excel S2
F t2 (0, 05; 11; 14) = 2, 56. F <
< t2 (; k1 ; k2 ),
.
.

101.3.
n xij (i = 1, . . . , n, j = 1, . . . , k)
k 1 , . . . , k , ,
k F1 , . . . , Fk F (. . 101.3).
: H0 : M(1 ) = . . . = M(k )
H1 , .

101

441

101.1

- F1
F2

1
x11 x12
2
x21 x22
..
..
..
.
.
.
n


Fk
...
...
..
.

x1k
x2k
..
.

xn1 xn2 . . .
x1 x2 . . .

xnk
xk

xj
(j = 1, . . . , k) x :
n
P

n
k P
P

xij

i=1

(101.1)

xj =

(101.2)

xij

j=1 i=1

x=
;
.
n
kn
. xij :

n
k X
X
j=1 i=1

(xij x)2 .

xj
x :
(101.3)

k
X
(xj x)2 .
=n
j=1

xij
xj :
(101.4)
, :
(101.5)

k X
n
X
(xij xj )2 .
=

j=1 i=1

.
P
, F . , 1 , . . . , k ,

442

xj

P x, F .
, , F , .
P
(101.5) ,
1 , . . . , k . , ..
P
P
,

P
, , ,
.
(101.2) (101.4) , :
P
P
P
2
2
2

=
;
S
;
S
.
=
(101.6)
S
=
nk 1
k1
k(n 1)
H0 :
M(1 ) = . . . = M(k ) , .
(. . 101.2) , H0 .
, , H0 ,
.
,
.
2

, H0 , ..
< S
S
, , ,
.
2
2
,
S
> S
2

(101.7)

F =

S
2
S


( 5) t2 (; k1 ; k2 ), k1 =
= k 1; k2 = k(n 1) F > t2 (; k1 ; k2 ), H0
. F < t2 (; k1 ; k2 ),
H0 (. . 101.2).

101

443

101.2. . 101.3 . 101.3 () .


= 0, 1
.
T 101.2
101.2

N
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

xj
2

0,05
-1,22
-1,74
-1,97
-1,92
-2,76
-1,17
-0,01
-81,9
-81,2
-81,8
-82,2
-82,1
-82,0
-82,4
-83,5
-84,9
-83,6
4,50
-81,6

-2,16
-8,31
-7,16
-6,58
-7,16
-6,42
-8,16
-8,42
-10,3
-8,89
-7,16
-2,42
-1,74
-4,26
-7,74
-4,84
-8,89
-8,89
-11,0
-6,84

0
0
-1
-1
-1
-0,58
-1
0
-1
-1
-2
0
-0,58
0
-1
-3
-2,16
-1,58
0
-1,58

.
.
-1,84
0
-1,58
3,11
-1,69
0,42
-1,69
0,84
-1,11
0,58
0,58
-1,16
-2,42
-1,16
-1,58
-3,26
-1,26
-2,53
-3,69
-3,69

-45,672

-6,867

-0,924

-1,1565


S
, S
S
(101.6). n = 20, k = 4, x = 13, 655.

444

:
X
= 61138, 08,

X
= 27789, 12,

X
= 33348, 96,

:
X

S
= 733, 8998,
2

S
= 9263, 041,
2

= 438, 8021.
S

= 27789, 12 + 33348, 96 = 61138, 08.

, :
2
S
9263, 04
= 21, 11.
F = 2 =
438, 80
S
, k1 =
= k 1 = 3, k2 = k(n 1) =
= 76, = 0, 01
F ( Excel)
F :
F (0, 1; 3; 76) = 2, 105.
F > F ,

= 0, 1. ()
.

101.

101.1. n = 20,
(, ),
rxy
= 0, 15. 0,05 H0 : r=0 H1 : r 6= 0.
:
(99.1):

20 2
0, 64.
T = 0, 15 p
1 0, 152

101

445

H1 : rxy
6= 0, .
= 0, 05
k = 20 2 = 18 t (0, 05; 18) = 2, 10.
T < T ,
. ,
,
.. .

101.2. , n =
60 m = 50, ,
x = 25 y = 23. 12 = 5, 22 = 4. 0,01
H0 : M() = M() H1 : M() 6= M().
:
(99.2):
25 23
4, 95.
Z = p
5/60 + 4/50

M() 6= M(),
. (99.3), :
(Z ) = (1 )/2 = (1 0, 01)/2 = 0, 495.
Z = 2, 58. |Z | > Z ,
. , .

101.3.
2 = 16 n = 80, x = 13, 12. 0,05 H0 : a = a0 = 12
H1 : a 6= 12.
:
(99.6):
13, 12 12
80 2, 50.
U =
4
a 6= a0 , . :
(Z ) = (1 )/2 = (1 0, 05)/2 = 0, 475.

446

Z = 1, 96. U > Z ,
. , .
101.4. , ,
, 0,03.
500 20 .
?
: H0 : p = p0 = 0, 03,
m/n = 20/500 = 0, 04.
H1 : p > 0, 03 = 0, 05. ,
q0 = 1 p0 = 0, 97, (99.8)
:

(0, 04 0, 03) 500

1, 31.
U =
0, 03 0, 97

, p > p0 , . :
(u ) = (1 2)/2 = (1 2 0, 05)/2 = 0, 45.
u = 1, 645. U < u ,
,
0,03. , .
101.5. n = 100
. .
.
N 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
69,2 69,8 70,4 71,0 71,6 72,2 72,8 73,4 74,0
69,8 70,4 71,0 71,6 72,2 72,8 73,4 74,0 74,6
mj
1
4
11
21
27
22
10
3
1
.
: , aj = 0, 6.
. 101.1
.
,
H0 ,
.
.

101

447

hi
1/2

1/3

1/6

69,2

71,0

72,8

74,6

xj

. 101.1.
ui = (xj1 + xj )/2,
(j = 1, 2, ..., s), s - . :
x =

s
X

mi ui /n,

S =

i=1

s
X
i=1

mi u2i /n x2 .

S 2 = nS 2 /(n 1). : x = 71, 876, S = 0, 8982.


(xj1 , xj ) ,
,
Pj = P (xj1 < < xj ) = (

xj1 x
xj x
)

(
).
S
S

. mj = Pj n.

mi :
N 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

mj
0,91 4,01 11,55 21,23 26,23 20,79 10,69 3,55 0,77

448

mi mi , (mi mi )2 , (mi mi )2 /mi ,


. (15.6), 2 = 0, 332.
, s = 9,
k (15.7): k = 9 1 2 = 6. = 0, 05. 6 2 ( 4)

2 (, k) = 2 (0, 05; 6) = 12, 6.


2 < 2 , . , . ,
.


101.6. n = 30
= 0, 35. 0,1 rxy

r 6= 0.
101.7. n = 100,
, .
T 101.1

\ 4 6
5 4 2
10 - 6
15 - 20 - 2

101.7
8 10
12
- 7 40 5
12 14
8


0,1 r 6= 0.
101.8. n = 100
x = 210 , ; m = 90
y = 208 , .
: 12 = 80, 22 = 70. ,
.

101

449

0,05 H0 : M() = M()


M() 6= M().
101.2

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

n1 n2
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
10
13
12
11
10
9
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
10
13
12
11
10
9

17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
17
16
15
14
13
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
8
9
13
14
15
16
17

x1
51.4
81.66
35.40
25.65
4.40
80.53
14.31
16.62
32.12
7.20
8.81
5.03
4.64
13.33
16.08
28.43
80.34
45.78
25.31
23.46
16.38
17.64
5.32
4.38
19.23
8.32
12.48
23.45
20.44
13.25

x2

12

22

55.0
4.38
1.29 0.01
85.00 29.96 12.97 0.05
30.30 9.84
3.90 0.01
23.55 2.08
0.98 0.05
4.00 0.0295 0.008 0.01
82.40 21.34 7.34 0.05
12.21 17.82 3.70 0.01
13.34 13.32 4.47 0.05
30.10 18.92 3.45 0.01
5.15 10.52 3.18 0.05
5.85 11.68 4.62 0.01
6.21
5.22
2.90 0.05
4.02
6.73
2.39 0.01
16.22 8.94
4.52 0.05
13.11 7.35
2.02 0.01
30.50 11.22 2.38 0.01
78.10 24.35 11.71 0.05
40.32 18.43 7.84 0.05
22.84 8.51
3.04 0.01
25.81 12.38 5.87 0.05
18.21 11.64 3.66 0.01
15.32 10.52 4.52 0.05
7.55
4.32
1.38 0.01
4.01
2.35
0.75 0.05
17.34 7.48
1.82 0.01
6.29
4.35
8.25 0.01
10.31 19.38 8.25 0.01
20.81 17.25 8.50 0.05
23.00 13.11 4.54 0.01
11.49 10.12 6.98 0.05

101.9. 101.2 .
n1 n2 , x1 , x2 12 , 22 .
.

450

101.10. n = 120 = 5
x = 23, 54. 0,01
H0 : a = a0 = 23 H1 : a 6= 23.

101.11. . , , ,
, 0,12. 400
60 . ,
?
. H0 : p = p0 = 0, 12; - H1 : p > 0, 12; = 0, 05.
101.12. 101 30 . . , = 0, 05 ,
.

101

9.24
9.30
9
3
5
6
3
39.5
42.0
8
2
6
3
5
-16
-12
8
8
10
10
6

9.30
9.36
18
8
9
16
10
42.0
44.5
20
3
37
10
9
-12
-8
16
16
20
16
18

9.36
9.42
40
34
20
68
21
44.5
47.0
43
18
75
21
19
-8
-4
33
30
30
22
66

9.42
9.48
49
40
24
80
25
47.0
49.5
49
38
80
26
24
-4
0
53
50
50
80
82

9.48
9.54
43
38
22
76
23
49.5
52.0
40
40
69
22
21
0
4
60
65
75
70
87

9.54
9.60
26
19
13
38
12
52.0
54.5
24
34
17
11
13
4
8
64
60
40
37
32

9.60
9.66
8
3
4
6
4
54.5
57.0
10
9
6
4
4
8
12
30
24
15
14
12

9.66
9.70
2
2
1
4
1
57.0
59.5
1
3
4
1
2
12
16
11
10
10
5
5

9.70
9.76
0
1
0
2
0
59.5
62.0
1
2
2
1
1
16
20
3
3
5
1
1

9.18
.
.\
9.24
1
5
2
2
3
2
4
4
5
1
34.5
.
.\
39.5
6
4
7
1
8
4
9
1
10
2
-20
.
.\
-16
11
2
12
4
13
5
14
5
15
4

451

452

66.5 69.5 72.5 75.5 78.5 81.5 84.5 87.5 90.5 93.5 96.5
.
.\
69.5 72.5 75.5 78.5 81.5 84.5 87.5 90.5 93.5 96.5 99.5
16
3
6
8
17
39
48
42
19
10
5
2
17
2
8
19
31
49
64
60
53
37
17
7
18
4
12
39
58
74
63
50
42
16
12
8
19
3
4
6
10
16
20
18
13
8
6
5
20
1
4
6
9
18
28
15
10
5
3
1
0.21 0.23 0.25 0.27 0.29 0.31 0.33 0.35 0.37 0.39 0.41
.
.\
0.23 0.25 0.27 0.29 0.31 0.33 0.035 0.37 0.39 0.41 0.43
21
3
8
19
37
53
60
64
49
31
17
7
22
6
12
20
39
58
74
63
50
42
16
12
23
1
5
6
8
17
20
18
15
10
9
7
24
2
6
10
12
30
40
32
10
4
2
1
4.500 4.504 4.508 4.512 4.516 4.520 4.524 4.528 4.532 4.536 4.540
.
.\
4.504 4.508 4.512 4.516 4.520 4.524 4.528 4.532 4.536 4.540 4.544
26
1
2
5
10
19
42
48
39
17
8
6
27
1
4
6
10
15
18
28
9
5
3
1
28
3
8
21
35
43
50
44
39
20
9
5
29
0
1
12
30
40
32
12
10
6
2
1
30
1
2
3
10
44
76
78
64
10
6
4

101.1
99.5
102.5
1
3
2
1
0
0.43
0.45
2
8
4
1
4.544
4.548
3
0
3
1
2

102

453

102.
. . . .

102.1.
102.1. (t)
, t. t ,
.
, , ,
.
102.1. (t) = sin t, t > 0, N (2; 1) ,
, .
102.2. , t.
()
t, () .
(, ), . . (t)
: x(t).
102.1 t = 1,
(1) = sin 1. 102.1
2, 3,
: x1 (t) = 2 sin t; x2 (t) = 3 sin t.
, ,
.

102.2.
102.3. m(t), t
:

m (t) = M (t) .

454

m(t) ,
. (t) , f (t) , m(t) (
):

(1) M f (t) = f (t),

(2) M f (t) (t) = f (t) M (t)
 ,

(3) M 1 (t) 2 (t) = M 1 (t) M 2 (t) .

102.4. 2 (t), t :

2 (t) = D (t) .


.

q 
: (t) = D (t) .
2 (t):
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

2 (t) > 0,

D f (t) = 0,

D f (t) (t) = f 2 (t) D (t) ,
D (t) f (t) = D (t) .

102.3.
.
102.5.
K (t1 ; t2 ), (t1 ) (t2 ):



K (t1 ; t2 ) = M (t1 ) m(t1 ) (t2 ) m(t2 ) .

(102.1)

(t) = (t) m(t),

102.5 :


K (t1 ; t2 ) = M (t1 ) (t2 ) .

102

455

102.2. 102.1 m (t),


(t), K (t1 ; t2 ).
2

: , N (2; 1), :

m (t) = M (t) = M( sin t) = M() sin t = 2 sin t,

2 (t) = D (t) = D( sin t) = D() sin2 t = sin2 t,

K (t1 ; t2 ) = M ( sin t1 2 sin t2 ) ( sin t2 2 sin t2 ) =

= M ( 2)2 sin t1 sin t2 = D() sin t1 sin t2 = sin t1 sin t2 .

: m (t) = 2 sin t; 2 (t) = sin2 t; K (t1 ; t2 ) = sin t1 sin t2 .


.
(1) K (t1 ; t2 ) = K (t2 ; t1 ) (. 102.5),
(2) K (t; t) = 2 (t) (. 102.5),
(3) |K (t1 ; t2 )| 6 (t1 ) (t2 ) (. 96.3).
. 102.4.
:
K (t1 ; t2 )
(102.2)
(t1 ; t2 ) =
.
(t1 ) (t2 )

(. . 96.1):
(1) (t1 ; t2 ) = (t2 ; t1 ),
(2) (t; t) = 1,
(3) | (t1 ; t2 )| 6 1.

102.4.
102.6. (t) (t) R (t1 ; t2 ), (t1 ) (t2 ):


R (t1 ; t2 ) = M (t1 ) (t2 ) .

(t) (t) ,
R (t1 ; t2 ) 0 t1 , t2 .
R (t1 ; t2 ) 102.6
(. 96):
(1) R (t1 ; t2 ) = R (t2 ; t1 ),
(2) |R (t1 ; t2 )| 6 (t1 ) (t2 ),

456

(3) R (t1 ; t2 ) = K (t1 ; t2 ).


. 102.3
K (t1 ; t2 ) :
(4) (t) = 1 (t) + 2 (t),
K (t1 ; t2 ) = K1 (t1 ; t2 ) + K2 (t1 ; t2 ) + R1 2 (t1 ; t2 ) + R2 1 (t1 ; t2 ).
:



K (t1 ; t2 ) = M (t1 ) (t2 ) = M 1 (t1 ) + 2 (t1 ) 1 (t2 ) + 2 (t2 ) =





= M 1 (t1 ) 1 (t2 ) + M 2 (t1 ) 2 (t2 ) + M 1 (t1 ) 2 (t2 ) + M 2 (t1 ) 1 (t2 ) =
= K1 (t1 ; t2 ) + K2 (t1 ; t2 ) + R1 2 (t1 ; t2 ) + R2 1 (t1 ; t2 ).

(5) :
K (t1 ; t2 ) = K1 (t1 ; t2 ) + K2 (t1 ; t2 ).
, .. 1 (t) 2 (t) R1 2 (t1 ; t2 )
0, R2 1 (t1 ; t2 ) = R1 2 (t2 ; t1 ) 0 t1 ; t2 .

102.5.
102.7.
=
= 1 + 2 i, 1 2 , i .
(t) , :
(102.3)

(t) = 1 (t) + 2 (t)i,

1 (t) 2 (t) , i (i2 = 1).

, ,
.

102.8. (t) = 1 + 2 (t)i


:


m (t) = M 1 (t) + M 2 (t) i.
, 2 (t) 0 1 (t), . 102.2.

102

457

, ,
. 102.2, .
102.9.
(102.3)
(t) = (t) m (t):


2 (t) = M | (t)|2 .

, 2 (t) 0 , . 102.2. ( ).
, :
5. 2 (t) = 21 (t) + 22 (t).
,

q

| (t)| = 12 (t) + 22 (t) , :



2 = M | (t)|2 = M 12 (t) + 22 (t) =



= M 12 (t) + M 22 (t) = 2 (t) + 2 (t).
1

, .
102.10. (102.3)

(t1 ) = 1 (t1 ) + 2 (t1 )i (t2 ) = 1 (t2 ) 2 (t2 )i

K (t1 ; t2 ) = M (t1 ) (t2 ) .


, . 102.3. : K (t; t) = M (t)



(t) = M | (t)|2 = 2 (t).


4 5 ,
. 102.4, (t):

K (t1 ; t2 ) = K1 (t1 ; t2 ) + K2 (t1 ; t2 ) + R2 1 (t1 ; t2 ) R1 2 (t1 ; t2 ) i.

1 (t) 2 (t) ,

:
K (t1 ; t2 ) = K1 (t1 ; t2 ) + K2 (t1 ; t2 ).

458

102.6.
102.11. (t) ( ),
m (t) ( t),
K (t1 ; t2 ) :
m (t) = m,

K (t1 ; t2 ) = k (t2 t1 ).

102.1.
. , ,
, , , , . ,
, .
102.11 , :
(102.4)

K (t1 ; t2 ) = k (t2 t1 ) = k ( ),

= t2 t1 .

():
(1) :
k ( ) = k ( ).
, 1 K (t1 ; t2 ) (. . 102.3):
k (t1 ; t2 ) = k (t2 ; t1 ) k ( ) = k (t1 t2 ) = K (t2 ; t1 ) =
= K (t1 ; t2 ) = k (t2 t1 ) = k ( ).

(2)
:
2 (t) = k (0) = 2 .
, 2 K (t1 ; t2 ) (. . 102.3):
2 (t) = K (t; t) = k (t t) = k (0) = const.
(3) :
|k ( )| 6 k (0).

102

459

, 3 K (t1 ; t2 ) (. 102.3):
q
q
|K (t1 ; t2 )| 6 K (t1 ; t1 ) K (t2 ; t2 ) |k ( )| 6 k (0) k (0)
|k ( )| 6 k (0) |k ( )| 6 2 .

( )
. 102.3 (. 102.3).
( ) =

k ( )
k ( )
= 2 .
k (0)

, | ( )| 6 1, (0) = 1.

102.7.

(102.5)

(t) = 1 cos wt + 2 sin wt,

: 1 2 , w , M(1 ) = M(2 ) = 0,

D(1 ) = D(2 ) = 2 , M(1 2 ) = 0.


, ,


M (t) = M(1 ) cos wt + M(2 ) sin wt = 0 (t) = (t):



K (t1 ; t2 ) = M (t1 ) (t2 ) = M (t1 ) (t2 ) =

= M (1 cos wt1 + 2 sin wt1 )(1 cos wt2 + 2 sin wt2 ) =
= M(12 ) cos wt1 cos wt2 + M(22 ) sin wt1 sin wt2 = 2 cos w(t2 t1 ).

, (102.5) :

M (t) = 0; K (t1 ; t2 ) = k (t2 t1 ).


n
X
(1j cos wj t + 2j sin wj t),
(102.6)
(t) =
j=1

: M(1j ) = M(2j ) = 0, wj , D(1j ) = D(2j ) = j2 , M(1j

2k ) = 0, j, k, M(1j 1k ) = M(2j 2k ) j 6= k.


, M (t) = 0 (t) = (t), (102.6) , (102.5) 5 (. 102.3) :


n
X
j2 cos wj (t2 t1 ).
K (t1 ; t2 ) =
j=1

460

, , (102.6) .
102.2. (102.5)

p
2
2

  A = 1 + 2 ,

= arctg

1
2

w:

(t) = 1 cos wt + 2 sin wt =


q


2

2
2 p 1
cos wt + p 2
sin wt + =
= 1 + 2
12 + 22
1 + 22
q
= 12 + 22 (sin cos wt + cos sin wt) = A sin(wt + ).

, (102.6)

Aj =

q
2
2
1j
+ 2j
, j = arctg

(102.7)

(t) =

n
X

1j
2j

wj :

Aj sin(wj t + j ).

j=1

, ,
.
102.12.
(102.7).
( )
(102.7):

D Aj sin(wj t + j ) = D(1j cos wj t + 2j sin wj t) =
= D(1j cos2 wj t) + D(2j ) sin2 wj t = j2 (cos2 wj t + sin2 wj t) = j2 .

(t) :


D (t) =

n
X

j2 .

j=1

102.13. (102.6) j2 .
, j2 , wj .

102

461

j 2

1 2 3 4

. 102.1.
(. . 102.1).
, :
(102.8)

(t) =

(1j cos wj t + 2j sin wj t),

j=0

wj = j , j = 0, 2, . . ., T .
T


P
j2 cos wj (t2
: M (t) = 0, K (t1 ; t2 ) =
j=0

t1 ), .. (102.8) .
t2 t1 = , :

(102.9)

k ( ) =

j2 cos wj ,

j=0

wj = j , j = 0, 2, . . .
T

(102.9) 2 k ( ) ,
:
(102.10)

2
j2 =
T

ZT

K ( ) cos wj d.

(102.8) .

w = .
T

462

T (w 0)
(102.9), (102.10). j2
:
(102.11)

j2
,
S (wj ; T ) =
w

j = 0, 1, . . .

(102.11) j2 = S (wj ; T ) w = S (wj ; T ) T ,


(102.9) (102.10).
:
(102.12)

K ( ) =

S (wj ; T ) cos wj w,

j=0

(102.13)

ZT

2
S (wj ; T ) =

k ( ) cos wj d.

102.14. S (wj ) (t), wj ,


(102.11), w 0:
j2
,
S (wj ) = lim
w0 w

j = 0, 1, . . .

T (w 0), (102.12), (102.13)


, k ( )
S (w):
k ( ) =

S (w) cos w dw,

2
S (w) =

k ( ) cos w d.

,
w > 0 S (w).
w ,
,
(; +), .
. (102.8)

102

463

:
eiwj eiwj
eiwj + eiwj
; sin wj =
.
cos wj =
2
2i
, T (w 0), ,
k ( )
S (w), w (; +) :
S (w) = S (|w|)/2.
Z+
S (w) eiw dw,
k ( ) =

(102.14)

1
S (w) =
2

(102.15)

Z+
k ( ) eiw d.

(102.14), (102.15) ( ) .
(102.16), (102.17)
:
Z
k ( ) = 2 S (w) cos w dw,
(102.16)
0

S (w) =

(102.17)

k ( ) cos w d.

S (w).
(1) S (w) > 0,
(2) S (w) = S (w),
R
R
 +
S (w) dw = 2 S (w) dw.
(3) D (t) =

1, 2 102.13 ,
S (w) = S (|w|)/2 ( ). 3 +

R
S (w) dw.
(102.16), D (t) = k (0) =

102.3. (102.16), (102.17) , (t) ( ,

464

k ( ) S (w)) .
102.3. S (w):

S0 |w| 6 w0 ,
S (w) =
0 |w| > w0 .
: (102.16) :
Zw0
2S0 sin w0
.
k ( ) = 2S0 cos w dw =

3:
Zw0

D (t) = 2S0 dw = 2S0 w0 .
0

102.4.
k ( ) = 2 e| | , > 0.
: (102.15) :

 Z0
Z+
Z
2

2
e| | eiw d =
e(iw) d + e(+iw) d =
S (w) =
2
2

2
=
.
(2 + w2 )
102.5.
, :
(
1
1 | | | | 6 0
k ( ) =
0
0
| | > 0 , 0 > 0.
: (102.17):
Z0 
1


S (w) =
1
cos w d =

0
0

du =

1
u = 1 0
0
=
1

cos
w
=
0 .
sin w 0 w2
dv = cos w d
v=
w

102

465

102.8.
102.15. (t) (t):
(
1
|t| 6 ,
(t) = lim (t), : (t) =
2
0
0 |t| > .
(t) . 102.2. ,
(t) :

t = 0,
,
(1) (t) =
0 t 6= 0,
Z+
(t t0 )f (t) dt = f (t0 ) t D(f ),
(2)
(3)

Z+

(t) dt = 1,

1
(4) (t) =
2

Z+
eiwt dw.

1
2

. 102.2. (t)
102.16. (t), :
S (w) = S0 w (; +).

466

(102.14):
Z+
(102.18)
k ( ) =
S0 eiw dw = 2S0 ( ).

4 -.
102.17. 2S0 .
(102.18) 1 (t1 ) (t2 )
t1 6= t2 . ,
, .. , ,
. ,
102.3 w0 .

102.9.

(t) n k
(k ) n k xi (tj )
i = 1, . . . , n, j = 1, . . . , k.
m
f (tj ) k :
(102.19)

m
f (tj ) =

n
X

xi (tj )

i=1

j = 1, . . . , k;

f2 (tj ) k :
S

X
xi (tj )
f2 (tj ) =
n ,
S
2

n1
i=1

m
f
(t
)
j

j = 1, . . . , k

k (t1j ; t2l ) k 2 :

n
X
xi (t1j ) xi (t2l )
n ,
ke (t1j ; t2l ) =
n1
i=1
m
f (t1j ) m
f (t2l )
(102.20)
n
j = 1, . . . , k,

l = 1, . . . , k.

102

467

f2 (t), K
f (t1 ; t2 ). ,
m
f (t), S

, .
,
.
102.18. (t) , (
), (102.18), (102.19), , x(t), (0; T ).
k ( )
: lim k ( ) = 0.


:

1
m
f =
T

ZT
0

x(t) dt,

1
ke ( ) =
T

T
Z

x(t)x(t + ) dt,

x(t) = x(t) m
f .
, . (0; T ) n
t = T /n ti ,
.
:
n

(102.21)
(102.22)

1X
x(ti );
m
f =
n i=1

nj
X
1
ke (jt) =
x(ti ) x(ti+j ) (m
f )2 ,
n j i=1

j = 0, 1, . . . , n 1.

(102.21) , (102.22) . (102.22)


j = 0. , j n ( T )
ke ( ) ( , .. n j).

468

102.

102.1. n1 = 10 n2 = 15
s21 = 0, 98 s22 = 0, 56. ,

0, 05.
:
S1 2
0, 98
= 1, 75.
F = 2 =
0, 56
S2
k1 = n1 = 10 1 = 9, k2 = n2 1 = 15 1 =
= 14. F
( 5) = 0, 05
F = 2, 65.
F < F ,
.
102.2. F (. 102). ,
,
. 0,05 x j . ,
.
.
102.1

N
F1
F2
F3
F4
1
21
17
20
16
2
23
19
24
18
3
25
20
25
23
4
26
22
27
25
5
28
24
28
26
xj 24,6 20,4 24,8 21,6
: n = 5, k = 4. . 71.1
(101.2).
x = 457/(4 5) = 22, 85.

102

469

P
(101.2), = 246, 55.

P (101.3)
=

P
= 72, 15, (101.4)
= 174, 4. , .
(101.4) :
174, 4
72, 15
2
2
= 24, 05,
S
=
= 10, 9.
S
=
41
4 (5 1)
F = 24, 05/10, 9 2, 21. k1 = k 1 = 4 1 = 3, k2 = k(n 1) = 4(5 1) = 16.
= 0, 05
- ( 5)
F (0, 05; 3, 16) = 3, 24.
F < F ,
. ,
.


102.3. .
. 0,05
. . 102.3
102.2
102.3
N .
1
20
17
20
18
20
2
19
14
12
14
12
3
20
17
20
19
14
4
20
14
12
12
14
5
17
14
16
14
20
6
20
14
15
14
14
7
16
14
16
14
20
8
20
14
16
17
20
9
20
14
16
14
20
10
20
14
15
17
20
x
19,2
14,6
15,8
15,3
17,4

470

1
2
(x) = ex /2
2

0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

0
0.3989
3970
3910
3814
3683
3521
3332
3123
2897
2661

1
3989
3965
3902
3802
3668
3503
3312
3101
2874
2637

2
3989
3961
3894
3790
3652
3485
3292
3079
2850
2613

3
3988
3956
3885
3778
3637
3467
3271
3056
2827
2589

4
3986
3951
3876
3765
3621
3448
3251
3034
2803
2565

5
3984
3945
3867
3752
3605
3429
3230
3011
7802
2541

6
3982
3939
3857
3739
3589
3410
3209
2989
2756
2516

7
3980
3932
3847
3726
3572
3391
3187
2966
2732
2492

8
3977
3925
3836
3712
3555
3372
3166
2943
2709
2468

9
3973
3918
3825
3697
3538
3352
3144
2920
2685
2444

1.0 0.2420 2396 2371 2347 2323 2299 2275 2251 2227 2203
1.1 2179 2155 2131 2107 2083 2059 2036 2012 1989 1965
1.2 1942 1919 1895 1872 1849 1826 1804 1781 1758 1736
1.3 1714 1691 1669 1647 1626 1604 1582 1561 1539 1518
1.4 1497 1476 1456 1435 1415 1394 1374 1354 1334 1315
1.5 1295 1276 1257 1238 1219 1200 1182 1163 1145 1127
1.6 1109 1092 1074 1057 1040 1023 1006 0989 0973 0957
1.7 0940 0925 0909 0893 0878 0863 0848 0833 0818 0804
1.8 0790 0775 0761 0748 0734 0721 0707 0694 0681 0669
1.9 0656 0644 0632 0620 0608 0596 0584 0573 0562 0551
2.0 0.0540 0529 0519 0508 0498 0488 0478 0468 0459 0449
2.1 0440 0431 0422 0413 0404 0396 0387 0379 0371 0363
2.2 0355 0347 0339 0332 0325 0217 0310 0303 0297 0290
2.3 0283 0277 0270 0264 0258 0252 0246 0241 0235 0229
2.4 0224 0219 0213 0208 0203 0198 0194 0189 0184 0180
2.5 0175 0171 0167 0163 0158 0154 0151 0147 0143 0139
2.6 0136 0132 0129 0126 0122 0119 0116 0113 0110 0107
2.7 0104 0101 0099 0096 0093 0091 0088 0086 0084 0081
2.8 0079 0077 0075 0073 0071 0069 0067 0065 0063 0061
2.9 0060 0058 0056 0055 0053 0051 0050 0048 0047 0045

102

3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9

0
0.0044
0033
0024
0017
0012
0009
0006
0004
0003
0002

1
0043
0032
0023
0017
0012
0008
0006
0004
0003
0002

471

2
0042
0031
0022
0016
0012
0008
0006
0004
0003
0002

3
0040
0030
0022
0016
0011
0008
0005
0004
0003
0002

4
0039
0029
0021
0015
0011
0008
0005
0004
0003
0002

5
0038
0028
0020
0015
0010
0007
0005
0004
0002
0002

6
0037
0027
0020
0014
0010
0007
0005
0003
0002
0002


1
7
8
9
0036 0035 0034
0026 0025 0025
0019 0018 0018
0014 0013 0013
0010 0009 0009
0007 0007 0006
0005 0005 0004
0003 0003 0003
0002 0002 0002
0002 0001 0001

472

2
1
(x) =
2
x
0,00
0,01
0,02
0,03
0,04
0,05
0,06
0,07
0,08
0,09
0,10
0,11
0,12
0,13
0,14
0,15
0,16
0,17
0,18
0,19
0,20
0,21
0,22
0,23
0,24
0,25
0,26
0,27
0,28
0,29
0,30
0,31

(x)
0,0000
0,0040
0,0080
0,0120
0,0160
0,0199
0,0239
0,0279
0,0319
0,0359
0,0398
0,0438
0,0478
0,0517
0,0557
0,0596
0,0636
0,0675
0,0714
0,0753
0,0793
0,0832
0,0871
0,0910
0,0948
0,0987
0,1026
0,1064
0,1103
0,1141
0,1179
0,1217

x
0,32
0,33
0,34
0,35
0,36
0,37
0,38
0,39
0,40
0,41
0,42
0,43
0,44
0,45
0,46
0,47
0,48
0,49
0,50
0,51
0,52
0,53
0,54
0,55
0,56
0,57
0,58
0,59
0,60
0,61
0,62
0,63

(x)
0,1255
0,1293
0,1331
0,1368
0,1406
0,1443
0,1480
0,1517
0,1554
0,1591
0,1628
0,1664
0,1700
0,1736
0,1772
0,1808
0,1844
0,1879
0,1915
0,1950
0,1985
0,2019
0,2054
0,2088
0,2123
0,2157
0,2190
0,2224
0,2257
0,2291
0,2324
0,2357

x
0,64
0,65
0,66
0,67
0,68
0,69
0,70
0,71
0,72
0,73
0,74
0,75
0,76
0,77
0,78
0,79
0,80
0,81
0,82
0,83
0,84
0,85
0,86
0,87
0,88
0,89
0,90
0,91
0,92
0,93
0,94
0,95

(x)
0,2389
0,2422
0,2454
0,2486
0,2517
0,2549
0,2580
0,2611
0,2642
0,2673
0,2703
0,2734
0,2764
0,2794
0,2823
0,2852
0,2881
0,2910
0,2939
0,2967
0,2995
0,3023
0,3051
0,3078
0,3106
0,3133
0,3159
0,3186
0,3212
0,3238
0,3264
0,3289

Zx

ez

2 /2

dz

x
0,96
0,97
0,98
0,99
1,00
1,01
1,02
1,03
1,04
1,05
1,06
1,07
1,08
1,09
1,10
1,11
1,12
1,13
1,14
1,15
1,16
1,17
1,18
1,19
1,20
1,21
1,22
1,23
1,24
1,25

(x)
0,3315
0,3340
0,3365
0,3389
0,3413
0,3438
0,3461
0,3485
0,3508
0,3531
0,3554
0,3577
0,3599
0,3621
0,3643
0,3665
0,3686
0,3708
0,3729
0,3749
0,3770
0,3790
0,3810
0,3830
0,3849
0,3869
0,3883
0,3907
0,3925
0,3944

102

x
1,26
1,27
1,28
1,29
1,30
1,31
1,32
1,33
1,34
1,35
1,36
1,37
1,38
1,39
1,40
1,41
1,42
1,43
1,44
1,45
1,46
1,47
1,48
1,49
1,50
1,51
1,52
1,53
1,54
1,55
1,56
1,57
1,58

(x)
0,3962
0,3980
0,3997
0,4015
0,4032
0,4049
0,4066
0,4082
0,4099
0,4115
0,4131
0,4147
0,4162
0,4177
0,4192
0,4207
0,4222
0,4236
0,4251
0,4265
0,4279
0,4292
0,4306
0,4319
0,4332
0,4345
0,4357
0,4370
0,4382
0,4394
0,4406
0,4418
0,4429

473

x
1,59
1,60
1,61
1,62
1,63
1,64
1,65
1,66
1,67
1,68
1,69
1,70
1,71
1,72
1,73
1,74
1,75
1,76
1,77
1,78
1,79
1,80
1,81
1,82
1,83
1,84
1,85
1,86
1,87
1,88
1,89
1,90
1,91

(x)
0,4441
0,4452
0,4463
0,4474
0,4484
0,4495
0,4505
0,4515
0,4525
0,4535
0,4545
0,4554
0,4564
0,4573
0,4582
0,4591
0,4599
0,4608
0,4616
0,4625
0,4633
0,4641
0,4649
0,4656
0,4664
0,4671
0,4678
0,4686
0,4693
0,4699
0,4706
0,4713
0,4719

x
1,92
1,93
1,94
1,95
1,96
1,97
1,98
1,99
2,00
2,02
2,04
2,06
2,08
2,10
2,12
2,14
2,16
2,18
2,20
2,22
2,24
2,26
2,28
2,30
2,32
2,34
2,36
2,38
2,40
2,42
2,44
2,46
2,48

(x)
0,4726
0,4732
0,4738
0,4744
0,4750
0,4756
0,4761
0,4767
0,4772
0,4783
0,4793
0,4803
0,4812
0,4821
0,4830
0,4838
0,4846
0,4854
0,4861
0,4868
0,4875
0,4881
0,4887
0,4893
0,4898
0,4904
0,4909
0,4913
0,4918
0,4922
0,4927
0,4931
0,4934


2
x
(x)
2,50 0,4938
2,52 0,4941
2,54 0,4945
2,56 0,4948
2,58 0,4951
2,60 0,4953
2,62 0,4956
2,64 0,4959
2,66 0,4961
2,68 0,4963
2,70 0,4965
2,72 0,4967
2,74 0,4969
2,76 0,4971
2,78 0,4973
2,80 0,4974
2,82 0,4976
2,84 0,4977
2,86 0,4979
2,88 0,4980
2,90 0,4981
2,92 0,4982
2,94 0,4984
2,96 0,4985
2,98 0,4986
3,00 0,49865
3,20 0,49931
3,40 0,49966
3,60 0,499841
3,80 0,499928
4,00 0,499968
4,50 0,499997
5,00 0,499997

474

( )

k
0,10
0,05
0,02
0,01
0,002
0,001
1
6,31
12,7
31,82
63,7
318,3
637,0
2
2,92
4,30
6,97
9,92
22,33
31,6
3
2,35
3,18
4,54
5,84
10,22
12,9
4
2,13
2,78
3,75
4,60
7,17
8,61
5
2,01
2,57
3,37
4,03
5,89
6,86
6
1,94
2,45
3,14
3,71
5,21
5,96
7
1,89
2,36
3,00
3,50
4,79
5,40
8
1,86
2,31
2,90
3,36
4,50
5,04
9
1,83
2,26
2,82
3,25
4,30
4,78
10
1,81
2,23
2,76
3,17
4,14
4,59
11
1,80
2,20
2,72
3,11
4,03
4,44
12
1,78
2,18
2,68
3,05
3,93
4,32
13
1,77
2,16
2,65
3,01
3,85
4,22
14
1,76
2,14
2,62
2,98
3,79
4,14
15
1,75
2,13
2,60
2,95
3,73
4,07
16
1,75
2,12
2,58
2,92
3,69
4,01
17
1,74
2,11
2,57
2,90
3,65
3,96
18
1,73
2,10
2,55
2,88
3,61
3,92
19
1,73
2,09
2,54
2,86
3,58
3,88
20
1,73
2,09
2,53
2,85
3,55
3,85
21
1,72
2,08
2,52
2,83
3,53
3,82
22
1,72
2,07
2,51
2,82
3,51
3,79
23
1,71
2,07
2,50
2,81
3,49
3,77
24
1,71
2,06
2,49
2,80
3,47
3,74
25
1,71
2,06
2,49
2,79
3,45
3,72
26
1,71
2,06
2,48
2,78
3,44
3,71
27
1,71
2,05
2,47
2,77
3,42
3,69
28
1,70
2,05
2,46
2,76
3,40
3,66
29
1,70
2,05
2,46
2,76
3,40
3,66
30
1,70
2,04
2,46
2,75
3,39
3,65
40
1,68
2,02
2,42
2,70
3,31
3,55
60
1,67
2,00
2,39
2,66
3,23
3,46
120
1,66
1,98
2,36
2,62
3,17
3,37

1,64
1,96
2,33
2,58
3,09
3,29

102

475

4
2

k
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30


0,01
6,6
9,2
11,3
13,3
15,1
16,8
18,5
20,1
21,7
23,2
24,7
26,2
27,7
29,1
30,6
32,0
33,4
34,8
36,2
37,6
38,9
40,3
41,6
43,0
44,3
45,6
47,0
48,3
49,6
50,9

0,025
5,0
7,4
9,4
11,1
12,8
14,4
16,0
17,5
19,0
20,5
21,9
23,3
24,7
26,1
27,5
28,8
30,2
31,5
32,9
34,2
35,5
36,8
38,1
39,4
40,6
41,9
43,2
44,5
45,7
47,0

0,05
3,8
6,0
7,8
9,5
11,1
12,6
14,1
15,5
16,9
18,3
19,7
21,0
22,4
23,7
25,0
26,3
27,6
28,9
30,1
31,4
32,7
33,9
35,2
36,4
37,7
38,9
40,1
41,3
42,6
43,8

0,95
0,0039
0,103
0,352
0,711
1,15
1,64
2,17
2,73
3,33
3,94
4,57
5,23
5,89
6,57
7,26
7,96
8,67
9,39
10,1
10,9
11,6
12,3
13,1
13,8
14,6
15,4
16,2
16,9
17,7
18,5

0,975
0,00098
0,051
0,216
0,484
0,831
1,24
1,69
2,18
2,70
3,25
3,82
4,40
5,01
5,63
6,26
6,91
7,56
8,23
8,91
9,59
10,3
11,0
11,7
12,4
13,1
13,8
14,6
15,3
16,0
16,8

0,99
0,00016
0,020
0,115
0,297
0,554
0,872
1,24
1,65
2,09
2,56
3,05
3,57
4,11
4,66
5,23
5,81
6,41
7,01
7,63
8,26
8,90
9,54
10,2
10,9
11,5
12,2
12,9
13,6
14,3
15,0

9
6022
99,36
27,34
14,66
10,15
7,98
6,71
5,91
5,35
4,95
4,63
4,39
4,19
4,03
3,89
3,78
3,68

10
6056
99,40
27,23
14,54
10,05
7,87
6,62
5,82
5,26
4,85
4,54
4,30
4,10
3,94
3,80
3,69
3,59

11
6082
99,41
27,13
14,45
9,96
7,79
6,54
5,74
5,18
4,78
4,46
4,22
4,02
3,86
3,73
3,61
3,52

12
6106
99,42
27,05
14,37
9,89
7,72
6,47
5,67
5,11
4,71
4,40
4,16
3,96
3,80
3,67
3,55
3,45

476

3
5403
90,17
29,46
16,69
12,06
9,78
8,45
7,59
6,99
6,55
6,22
5,95
5,74
5,56
5,42
5,29
5,18

2
4999
99,01
30,81
18,00
13,27
10,92
9,55
8,65
8,02
7,56
7,20
6,93
6,70
6,51
6,36
6,23
6,11

F



1
4052
98,49
34,12
21,20
16,26
13,74
12,25
11,26
10,56
10,04
9,86
9,33
9,07
8,86
8,68
8,53
8,40

k1 ,
k2

k2 \k1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

= 0, 01
4
5
6
7
8
5625 5764 5889 5928 5981
99,25 99,33 99,30 99,34 99,36
28,71 28,24 27,91 27,67 27,49
15,98 15,52 15,21 14,98 14,80
11,39 10,97 10,67 10,45 10,27
9,15 8,75 8,47 8,26 8,10
7,85 7,46 7,19 7,00 6,84
7,01 6,63 6,37 6,19 6,03
6,42 6,06 5,80 5,62 5,47
5,99 5,64 5,39 5,21 5,06
5,67 5,32 5,07 4,88 4,74
5,41 5,06 4,82 4,65 4,50
5,20 4,86 4,62 4,44 4,30
5,03 4,69 4,46 4,28 4,14
4,89 4,56 4,32 4,14 4,00
4,77 4,44 4,20 4,03 3,89
4,67 4,34 4,10 3,93 3,79

102

k2 \k1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

= 0, 05
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
161
200
216
225
230
234
237
239
241
242
243
244
18,51 19,00 19,16 19,25 19,30 19,33 19,36 19,37 19,38 19,39 19,40 19,41
10,13 9,55 9,28 9,12 9,01 8,94 8,88 8,84 8,81 8,78 8,76 8,74
7,71 6,94 6,59 6,39 6,26 6,16 6,09 6,04 6,00 5,96 5,93 5,91
6,61 5,79 5,41 5,19 5,05 4,95 4,88 4,82 4,78 4,74 4,70 4,68
5,99 5,14 4,76 4,53 4,39 4,28 4,21 4,15 4,10 4,06 4,03 4,00
5,59 4,74 4,35 4,12 3,97 3,87 3,79 3,73 3,68 3,63 3,60 3,57
5,32 4,46 4,07 3,84 3,69 3,58 3,50 3,44 3,39 3,34 3,31 3,28
5,12 4,26 3,86 3,63 3,48 3,37 3,29 3,23 3,18 3,13 3,10 3,07
4,96 4,10 3,71 3,48 3,33 3,22 3,14 3,07 3,02 2,97 2,94 2,91
4,84 3,98 3,59 3,36 3,20 3,09 3,01 2,95 2,90 2,86 2,82 2,79
4,75 3,88 3,49 3,26 3,11 3,00 2,92 2,85 2,80 2,76 2,72 2,69
4,67 3,80 3,41 3,18 3,02 2,92 2,84 2,77 2,72 2,67 2,63 2,60
4,60 3,74 3,34 3,11 2,96 2,85 2,77 2,70 2,65 2,60 2,56 2,53
4,54 3,68 3,29 3,06 2,90 2,79 2,70 2,64 2,59 2,55 2,51 2,48
4,49 3,63 3,24 3,01 2,85 2,74 2,66 2,59 2,54 2,49 2,45 2,42
4,45 3,59 3,20 2,96 2,81 2,70 2,62 2,55 2,50 2,45 2,41 2,38

477

478

82.6 (x C1)2 + y 2 = C22 . 82.7 .


. 82.8 .
82.9 y = Cx1 + C2 .
x2
83.3 y = C1 sin(4x C2 ). 83.4 y = + C1 x + C2 . 83.5 y = C1 ex +
4
1
C2 ex + sin x. 83.6 y = C1 e2x + C2 e2x + C3 cos 2x + C4 sin 2x.
2
84.4 y = (C1 x + C2 ) cos x + (C3 x + C4 ) sin x, z = 2y + y ,
2z
2z
2u 2u 2u
z. 84.5

= 0. 84.6
+
+
= 0.
x2 y 2
x2 y 2 z 2
y
= 1, .. y1 =
85.7
1 + y

(x1 ), , . 85.8 y =
4
1 2
x5
+ (x x3 ).
120 24
86.13 AC
86.12 C = AB C = A + B.
, ABC
, AB
. 86.17 P = 0, 7. 86.20 P (A) = 0, 7
87.10 P = 1/3. 87.11 P = 0, 2. 87.12 ) P = 1/360; ) P = 1/360.
C 4 C11
1
1
1
87.13 ) P = 13/230; ) P = 60/253. 87.14 81
, 2,432
, 376992
. 87.15 51
.
C5
87.16
87.20
19
C11 C79
20
C80

10
C42 C20
.
12
C24
3
C41 C48
.
4
C52

52

87.17 P =
87.21

4!
64

3
C15
=
3
C25
13 C 13
C26
26
26
C52

1
.
54

87.18 P = 2/7.

91/460. 87.22

87!3!
10!

2
C 1 C85
357
= 5390
87.19 P = 15
.
3
C100
C 1 C 1
1/15. 87.23 4C 3 32 . 87.24
36

= 1/4. 87.25
0, 22. 87.26 5!/75 = 120/16807.
88.10 P = 9/13. 88.11 P = 0, 0475. 88.12 ) 0, 1215; ) 0, 966; ) 0, 004.
43
0, 00048. 88.15 7/42768. 88.16 194/285.
88.13 P = 0, 1136. 88.14 525150
88.17 ) 0, 088; ) n 6 132. 88.18 23/95. 88.19 1/64. 88.20 0, 3; 0, 6. 88.21
m(m1)
; ) f rac2mn(m + n)(m + n 1). 88.23 P = 1/3. 88.24 P =
) (m+n)(m+n1)
A50
365
36550

Ck

0, 9724. 88.25 1 nm
k .
Cn
89.8 211/225. 89.9 ) 0, 0517; ) 0, 8980. 89.10 0, 958. 89.11 7/12. 89.12
9/220. 89.13 513/989. 89.14 ) 0, 961; ) 0, 039. 89.15 0, 9474.
90.14 P = 5/16. 90.15 P = 0, 0162. 90.16 P = 0, 00013. 90.17 m = 470.
90.18 n = 14. 90.19 P = 0, 07. 90.20 P = 0, 9498. 90.21 ) 0, 6766; ) 0, 8212;
) 0, 1788. 90.22 ) 0, 0837; ) 0, 9598. 90.23 0, 1429. 90.24 6 6 m 6 13.
1

479

6
7
8
9
p 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4

0
1
2
3
91.16
p 33/91 44/91 66/455 4/455
0
1
2
3
91.17
. 91.18 M() = 7, 8; D() = 12, 36; () =
p 0,4 0,24 0,144 0,216
3, 5157. 91.19 p1 = 0, 1; p2 = 0, 5; p3 = 0, 4. 91.20 M() = 45, 5. 91.21
3
4
.
p 0,1 0,9

0 x 6 3,

0, 3 3 < x 6 5,

0, 7 5 < x 6 6, . 92.12 P (0 < < 3) = 1/3. 92.13


92.11 F (x) =

0, 9 6 < x 6 9,

1 x > 9.
P (/3 <

0 x 6 0,

3
3
1
Sin(3x) 0 < x 6 /3, . 92.15
< < 2/3) = 3 + 2 . 92.14 (x) =
2
0 x > 3 .
 3 2
x x (0; 4),
64
P (2 < < 3) = 19/64. 92.16
= 1/64, (x) =
0 x
/ (0; 4).
q
2
2
M() = /2, D() = 4 2. 92.17 () = 12 12 .
91.15

0
1
2
3
4
.
p 0,0001 0,0036 0,0486 0,2916 0,6561

0
1
2
3
4
93.12
M() = 1, 2, D() = 0, 84.
p 0,2401 0,4116 0,2646 0,0756 0,0081

0
1
2
3
4
...
93.13
. 93.14 M() = 6,
p 0,0498 0,1494 0,2241 0,2241 0,1681 . . .
D() = 5, 76. 93.15 M() = 2, D() = 2. 93.16 P (2 < < 6) = 32 . 93.17 )
P = exp1/2 exp3/2 0, 1356; ) P = exp 2 0, 1353.
94.11 ) P = 0, 5; ) P = 1; ) P = 0, 3830. 94.12 ) P = 0, 3085; )
P = 0, 9470. 94.13 ) P 0, 0122; ) P 0274. 94.14 = 0, 49 . 94.15
= 0, 3830 . 94.16 0, 75 < < 1, 40. 94.17 (99, 997; 100, 003).
95.8 0, 99954. 95.9 16/595 0, 027. 95.10 0, 94. 95.11 0, 003. 95.12
M() = 0, 295; D() 0, 024. 95.13 k = 0, 5; M() 1, 33; D() 0, 22;
() 0, 47. 95.14 0, 4972.
96.11 M() = 2, 98; M() = 11, 74. 96.12 P = 5165 = 0, 00512. 96.13
2
2
2
k = 1, F (x, y) = 4xy expx y , x > 0, y > 0, P = 1 (1 + R2 ) expR . 96.14
93.11

480

1
1
, (y) = (1+y
2 ) . 96.15 a = 2, (3/4, 5/12). 96.16
2
(1 + x )
F (x, y) = 12 [sin x + sin y sin(x + y)], M() = M() = 4 . 96.17 (x, y) =
 1
|x| + |y| 6 a2 ,
a2
.
=
0 |x| + |y| > a2 .
97.8 M() = 0, 515, M() = 0, 132, rxy = 0, 112. 97.9
r = 0, 669. 97.10
2
D() = D() = 4, M = 0.
97.11 = = 2 + 8 32/4, r =
p
2
816
0, 2454. 97.12 a = 4 2/, D() = D() = 312 , r = 0. 97.13
2 +832
a = 114 . 97.14 0, 279. 97.15 r = 0, 6. 97.16 P = exp2 exp4,5 0, 1242.
101.5 t = 1, 70, T = 2, 54. . 101.6

rxy = 0, 714, t = 1, 66, T = 10, 1. . 101.7


z = 1, 59, Z = 1, 96. .
. 101.9 z = 2, 58, U = 1, 18. . 101.10 U = 1, 85, u = 1, 645. .
.
a =

1
,
2

(x) =

F , 436
F ,
340

, 6
, 282
, 362
, 380
, 13
, 183
, 103
, 174
, 65, 71
, 147
, 13, 65
, 65
, 335
, 333
, 104
, 92
, 5
, 89
, 461
, 385
, 233
, 243
, 58
, 4
, 71
, 184
, 6
, 358
,
399
, 364
, 73
, 13
, 422
, 435

, 103
, 29
, 338
, 309
, 185
, 422
, 190
, 7
, 7
, 277
, 278
, 345
, 295
, 327
, 281
, 27
, 243
, 256
, 103
, 375
, 375
, 379
, 106
, 339
, 130
, 71
, 176
, 411
, 378
, 13
, 461
481

482
2 , 426
, 426
, 109
, 23
, 196
, 4
, 104
, 112
, 17
, 394
, 5
, 98
, 18
, 71, 79, 126
, 336
, 13
, 28
, 192
, 189
, 332
, 23, 97
, 184
, 130
, 411
, 113
, 6
, 57
O , 9
, 376
, 104
, 129
, 284
, 380
, 383
, 383
, 383
, 383
, 411
, 411
, 8
, 246
, 147
, 103
, 296


, 350
, 458
, 378
, 115, 116
, 4
, 414
, 23
, 214
, 106
, 444
, 454
, 463
, 113
, 456
, 247
, 18
, 18
2 , 427
2 (-), 338
, 308
, 310
, 249,
310
, 322
,
364
, 310
, 313
, 435
, 309
, 339
, 387
, 190
, 445
, 362
, 362
, 4
, 114
, 376
, 73
, 107
, 18
, 18


, 445
(), 193
(), 193
, 19
, 243
, 13, 65
, 13
, 129
, 81, 127
, 128
, 81, 127
, 234
, 234
, 233
, 234
, 257
, 234
, 234
, 376
, 247
, 456
, 27
, 64
, 129
, 192
, 335
, 28
, 336
, 244
, 185
, 75
, 268
, 268
, 186
, 412
, 177, 181
, 18
, 57,
58
, 64, 147
, 148
, 213
, 57, 59
, 15
, 63

483
, 64, 67
, 57
, 63
, 12
, 194
, 209
, 57, 62
, 75
, , , 32
, 34, 35
, 400
, 400
, 8
, 129
, 246
, 259
, 266
, 114
, 447
, 269
, 259
, 270
, 186
, 293
, 443
, 446
, 186
, 57
, 8
, 346
, 235
, 236
, 18
, 461
, 197
, 173
, 337
, 96

484


1. .., .., .. . -.: , 1979.
2. .., .. .
-.: , 1969.
3. .. MathCad . -: , 2001.
4. .. Visual Basic: . -.:
, 1999. - 132 .
5. ..
. -.: , 2000. - 160 .
6. .., ..
. -.: , 1988. - 480 .
7. .., ..
. -.: , 1989.
8. ..
. -.: , 1979. - 400 .
9. .. . .: , 1998. - 479 .
10. .., .. . .
-.: , 1977.
11. .., .., ..
. II. - .: , 1986. - 415 .
12. .., .. Mathcad 8 PRO ,
Internet. -.: , 1999. - 512 .
13. .., .., .., ..
. . .., : I
II, -.: , 2001. - 980 .
14. .., .. Matcad:
: . -.: ,
1999. - 656 .
15. .. . .: , 1979. - 496 .
16. . .
. .. -.: , 1984. - 608 .
17. . .
.., : -.: , 2001. - 486 .
18. . Visual Basic 5.0. -.: , 1997. - 688 .
19. .. . -.: , 1969.

485

XI .
3
69.

3
69.

19
70.
22
70.

32
71.
33
71.

51
72.
70
72.

85
73.

86
73.

101
74.

102
74.

114
75.

116
75.

124
76. 125
76.
MathCad
132
77.
135
77.

153
78.

165
78.

179
79. ,

180
79.

486

MathCad
187
80.
192
80.

202
XII .

211
81.
211
81.
,
223
82.
236
83.

242
82.
262
83.
265
84. , ,

268
84.
282
85. 286
85.

295
XIII .
301
86.
301
86. .

310
87.
316
87. 326
88.
332
88.

339
89.
347
89.

356
90.
363
90.
372
91.
383
91.

393
92.
403
92.


93.
93.
94.
94.
95.
95.
96.
96.

97.
97.
98.
98.

99.
99.

100.
100.

101.
101.

102.
102.

487

413
422
429
435
446
453
465
470
481
491
509
517
532
539
548
553
563
569
577
588
607
610
618

622

624

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