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2007

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., 527 . . 161, . . 26 .
ISBN 5-276-00446-3 (.2)
ISBN 5-276-00444-7
: .., .-. , , . .
.
.
34 34 :
, , , ,
,
.
08.09.2003 09.09.2003
60x90/16
.
... 30,5 .-.. 34,5 . 2003 ., N1-30/03
1000
N681
c .., ..
ISBN 5-276-00446-3 (.2)

ISBN 5-276-00444-7
.., 2000, 2002, 2005, 2007
c .., 2000

c , 2000, 2002, 2005, 2007

35

VII



35.

. .
: , .
. . . .
35.1. . 2, M
Ox ( ), Oy ( ), Oz ( ) .. M (. 1).

35

z
z
M
y
y
x
x

. 1.

35.1. ,
, .
35.2. , , , , .

, . , (35.1) :
x = x0 , y = y0 z = z0 , 33
, Oyz, Oxz, Oxy
.
, , .
, .
. M r M
Oxy z M (. 2). r,
z M .
x, y, z :
(35.1)

x = r cos ,

y = r sin ,

z = z.

, Oz (z = z0 ), , Oz ( = 0 ) , Oz (r = r0 ).

35

5
z
M

r
M

. 2.

. .
. M -
( ), (. 3).
M M
Oxy; (0 6 6 ) -
M Oz.
z
M

z
y

r
M

. 3.

:
(35.2)

x = cos sin ,

y = sin sin ,

z = cos .

35


( = 0 ), , Oz ( = 0 )
Oz ( = 0 ).
. .
35.2. . ,
.
35.3. ( ) , :
(1)
( );
(2) , ( ).
, L (. . 4),
, : 1) P , L,
, L; 2) P
Q, L, ,
L.
P0 G, G, , 1010101010101010
.
0
1
0
1
0
1
1010101010101010101010
101010101010
1010
0
1

.
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1010101010 10101010 10101010 101010
0
1
0
1
0
1
10 10101010 101010 .
. 4
10 10101010 10L,1010,
10101010P01010

10101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010
0
1
0
1
1
0
101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010
000
10101010L
10101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010111
000
111
00000
10101010101010101010101010101010Q10101010101010101010101010101010
101010101010101010101010101010101010101011111
00000
11111
10101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010
00000
0
1
0
1
10101010101010101010101010101010101011111
00000
11111
10101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010
10p
0
1
0
1
00000
11111
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010
0
1
10101010101010101010 11111
0
1
00000
0
1
0
1
10
10101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010
0
1
101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010111111
000000
101010101010101010101010101010101010101010
000000
10101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010111111
1010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010
000000
111111
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
000000
1010101010p100101010101010101010101010101010101010101010
1010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010111111
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
10101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010
101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010
1010
101010101010104.
101010101010101010101010101010101010.
101010101010101010101010
35.4. -

, .

35

35.5. ,
, .. ,
, .
, , ,
.
35.6. G ( ) , ,
,
G.
, , x2 + y 2 = 2
x2 + y 2 = 4 , , ,
x2 + y 2 = 3, , ,
(, ).
35.1. .
35.3. . 3 1 .
.
35.7. , (x; y) D
z E.

x y , z ,
D D(f ), E E(f ).
,
: z = f (x; y), z = z(x; y). x0 , y0 ,
z0 = f (x0 ; y0 ), z0 = z(x0 ; y0 ) : z0 = z| x=x
0 . y=y0
(x; y) P (x; y)
Oxy ,
P (x; y) : z = f (P )
z = z(P ).
D Oxy.
35.1. x y z = 2x + 2y . D

35

(x; y), .. Oxy.


E .

.
.
, .
, , z ( ), ,
: z = f (x; y).
35.2. z =

1
xy

Oxy, y 6= x, (; +).
, , z
, ,
: F (x; y; z) = 0.
, (x; y) z.
35.3. x2 + y 2 + z 2 = R2
z p
.p
R2 x2 y 2 z = R2 x2 y 2 .
: z =
, R
. , .
: R2 x2 y 2 > 0
x2 + y 2 6 R2 , .. Oxy R
.
z = f (x; y) :
y\ x 0 1 2 3 4 5
0,2 10 9 8 7 6 5
0,3 9 8 7 6 5 4
0,4 8 7 6 5 4 3

x, y, z.

35

x ( x = 2) y ( y = 0, 3) : z| x=2 = 7.
y=0,3
, . (. 35.3). ,
( ),
.

.
35.4. . . ,
, V x, y z : V = xyz.
35.8. , (x; y; z) D
u E.

x, y, z , u , D D(f ), E
E(f ).
,
: u = f (x; y; z), u = u(x; y; z), = (x; y; z).
P (x; y; z) Oxyz: u = f (P ).
.
. , , .
, , n . n D (x1 ; x2 ; . . . ; xn ).
n u = f (x1 ; x2 ; . . . ; xn )
P (x1 ; x2 ; . . . ; xn ) n- :
u = f (P ).
, .

10

35

35.5. .
, 3- F (x; y; z) = 0 z = f (x; y).
;
,



F1 (x; y; z) = 0
z = f1 (x; y)

.
F2 (x; y; z) = 0
z = f2 (x; y)

, .

() .
. ( ),
.
35.9. z = f (x; y) , () ,
Oxy, ..

z = f (x; y)
:
, C .
z=C
,
(35.3)

f (x; y) = C

F (x; y; z) = 0,
:
(35.4)

F (x; y; C) = 0

35.4. , (35.3)
( R O) x2 + y 2 + z 2 = R2 .
x2 + y 2 + C 2 = R2 , C
. :
x2 + y 2 = R2 C 2 . R2 C 2 > 0,

2
Oxy O, R C 2 ,
|C|; C = 0, R. |C| = R (R2 C 2 = 0)
O, |C| > R (R2 C 2 < 0)
. . (5)
R = 4

35

11
y

|c|=0
|c|=1

- 15

15
- 12 - 7

-4

-c

12

0 |c|=4

|c|=3
|c|=2 15

. 5.

.
35.10. u = f (x; y; z)

(35.5)

f (x; y; z) = C,

C
3-
Oxyz.
35.5.1. .
35.11. , L l, . L ,
, l .
, , (.
. 6).
, z
F (x; y) = 0 Oxyz
Oz L,
Oxy F (x; y) = 0.
35.2.
Oxyz L 
F (x; y) = 0
:
.
z=0

12

35

l
0
L

x
. 6.

, F (x; z) = 0, y, F (y; z) = 0, x, Oxyz ,


Oy Ox.
.
35.12.

x2 y 2
+ 2 = 1,
a2
b
(.
7).
(35.6)

Oz,
a b, Oxy. , a = b,
,
. x2 + y 2 = a2 .
35.13. ,
x2 z 2
(35.7)
2 = 1,
a2
b
(. 8).
Oy,
Oxz o a b.

35

13

y
x

. 7.

35.14. ,
y 2 = 2pz,

(35.8)

(. 9).
, Oyz,
Ox.
35.3. ,
,
.
,
. , C,
z = 3 x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 25
(35.9)

z=3
x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 25


z = 3 x2 + y 2 = 16,
..

z=3
(35.10)
x2 + y 2 = 16

14

35

. 8.

y
. 9.

(35.9)
,
, , ,
. ,
, ,
.
35.5.2. . ,
, L P ,

35

15

. L , P ,
, .

,

Z=c
,
(35.11)
Y2
X2
+
=
1
2
2
a
b

a b, Z = c. (. 10). .
M (x; y; z) OM , N (X; Y ; c). OM , O(0; 0; 0) N (X; Y ; c):
y0
z0
x
y
z
x0
=
=

=
= .
X 0
Y 0
c0
X
Y
c
X = cx/z; Y = cy/z. 2 2
2 2
(35.11), ac 2xz2 + cb2 yz2 = 1, ,
x2 y 2 z 2
(35.12)
+ 2 2 =0
a2
b
c
. z = c,
, a = b,
x2 + y 2 = a2 .
.
y2
z2
x2
+

= 0.
2
2
a
a
c2
35.5.3. . L,
Oyz
(35.13)

X =0
.
F (Y, Z) = 0

Oz (. 11).
. . M (x; y; z) . M , Oz,
Oz L
K N (. 11). KM KN
. KM = KN . KN Y N , ..

16

35

0
y
x

. 10.

L
k

N(0;y;z)
M(x;y;z)
y

0
x

x
. 11.

p
p
KN = |Y |,p KM = OP = x2 + y 2 . , |Y | = x2 + y 2 ,
Y = x2 + y 2 . , Z N , ,
z M .
N L, (35.13),
Y Z N .

Y Z
p
2
2
x + y z,

35

17

p
F ( x2 + y 2 , z) = 0,

(35.14)

M (x; y; z)
. , ,
, (35.14) . , (35.14)
Oz L, (35.13). (35.14)
(35.13) Y Z x, y z


(35.15)

p
Y = x2 + y 2
.
Z=z

35.4. , L Oyz
Oz. L

. , (35.13), (35.14)
(35.15), .




35.

35.1. xy
.
z = 2x3y+10
: ,
:
D(f ) = {(x; y)|2x 3y + 10 6= 0}.
Oxy ,
2x 3y + 10 = 0 (. . 12)

y
10/3
-5

. 12. (35.1)

18

35

: D(f ) = {(x; y)|2x 3y + 10 6= 0}.

35.2. u = 2x y + 3z 1
: , :
D(f ) = {(x; y; z)|2x y + 3z 1 > 0}.
, 2x y + 3z 1 = 0, .
: D(f ) = {(x; y; z)|2x y + 3z 1 > 0}.

35.3. 2
z = x4 + y 2
2

: x4 + y 2 = c, c
. , c > 0. c = 0

O(0; 0). c > 0 2 c c

y
3
2
1
0
c=1 2
c=4
c=9

. 13. (35.3)

35.4. ,
y 2y + x2 + 4x + 4 = 0
2

: y x,
: (x + 2)2 + (y 1)2 = 1.
Oz, P (2; 1; 0), 1.

35

19

z
2

x
. 14. (35.4)


35.535.9 .
35.5. z =

yx
x2 +y 2 4

35.6. z =

5
3x2 y 2

35.7. z =

1
x2 +2x+y 2 2y2

35.8. z = lg (x2 + 6x + y 2 + 8)
p
35.9. z = 4 x2 4y 2

35.1035.12
.
p
35.10. u = x2 + 9y 2 + 18y + 9 z
35.11. u = lg (4x2 + 8x + y 2 2y + 5 4z)

35.12. u =

1
2xz1

1
y+2x+1

35.13, 35.14
.
35.13. z = x2 + 6x + y 2 + 9
35.14. z = x2 + 9y 2 + 18
35.1535.19 , .
35.15. x2 2x + y 2 2y 2 = 0

20

36

35.16. 4x2 + y 2 4 = 0

35.17. x y 2 2y 2 = 0

35.18. x2 y + 1 = 0

35.19. x2 + 4z 2 y 2 = 0
36.

. 2- : , , . .
36.1. . 1
. ,
:
(36.1)

a11 x2 + a22 y 2 + a33 z 2 + 2a12 xy + 2a13 xz+

+2a23 yz + 2a14 x + 2a24 y + 2a34 z + a44 = 0



(36.1).
,
.
36.1.1. .
36.1.
x2 y 2 z 2
+ 2 + 2 = 1,
(36.2)
a2
b
c
. a, b c , (36.2) .
(36.2) , . , , . ,
z = h (|h| < c),
L. ,

z=h
.
y2
z2
x2
+
+
=
1
2
2
2
a
b
c

36

21

z, , 2
2
2
L Oxy: xa2 + yb2 = 1 hc2 ,
y2

x2
 q
a 1

h2
c2

2 +  q
b 1

h2 2
c2

 = 1.

, L
r
r
h2
h2
(36.3)
a= a 1 2, b =b 1 2
c
c
(36.3) , |h| a
b . |h| = c a = b = 0,
. ,
x = h (|h| < a) y = h (|h| < b) .
, . (15).
a = b ( ).
x2 y 2 z 2
+
+
= 1.
a2 a2 c2
36.2.
: c = b = a, :
(36.4)

x2 + y 2 + z 2 = a2 .

36.1. 3x2 + 5y 2 + 7z 2 =
= 12?
: 12
:
y2
z2
x2
+
+
= 1,
4
12/5 12/7
,

q
q a = 2,
b = 12
, c = 12
5
7
36.1.2. .
36.3.
x2 y 2 z 2
+ 2 2 = 1,
(36.5)
a2
b
c
, (36.5) .

22

36

z
c

a
x

. 15.

, x, y z (36.5)
.
y = 0, Oxz ABCD (. 16)
 x2 z2
c2 = 1
a2
.
y=0

,
x = 0 EF GH
 y2
z2

=1
2
b
c2
,
x=0

Oyz.
z = h BF CG, :
 2 y2
x
h2
+
=
1
+
2
2
a
b
c2 ,
z=h

2
2
q x 2 + q y 2 = 1
2
2
a 1+ h2
b 1+ h2
.
c
c

z=h
q
q
2
h2
a = a 1 + c2 b = b 1 + hc2
h. h = 0 , Oxy a b.
a = b

(36.6)

x2 + y 2 z 2
2 = 1.
a2
c

36

23

z
C
F

G
B

y
D
E

H
A

. 16.

z = h
(


h2
2
2
2
z + y = a 1 + c2
.
z=h
. (35.5.2) (35.5.3) , . , , . ,

 x z
y
+
=
k
1
+
a
c
b ,
(36.7)
y
z
1
x
1

=
a
c
k
b

a, b c , a k (k 6= 0).
,
x2 z 2
y2
x2 y 2
2 = 1 2 ,
+ 2
a2
c
b
a2
b
.. .
,
(36.7).
M (x; y; z), (36.7),

z2
2 = 1,
c

24

36

(36.5) . , (36.7) (36.5). k,


, (36.5). ,

(

y
z
x
,
+
=
l
1

a
c
b 
(36.8)
y
x
z
1
c = l 1+ b .
a
l .
, .
,
, (. 17).

. 17.


. , ,
, , ,
.
36.4. ,
x2 y 2 z 2
(36.9)
+ 2 2 = 1,
a2
b
c
, (36.9) .

36

25

. Oxz Oyz, (. 18).


 z2 x2
 2 y2
z
a2 = 1
b2 = 1
c2
c2

y=0
x=0

. 18.

(36.9) z = h (
|h| > c),
 2 y2
2
x
+ b2 = hc2 1
a2
z=h
q
q
2
h2
a = a c2 1 b = b hc2 1, |h|. |h| < c (36.9) z = h, ,
.
(), . a = b
(36.9)
x2 y 2 z 2
+ 2 2 = 1
a2
b
c

z 2 x2 + y 2

=1
c2
b2

26

36

.
z = h (|h| > c)
(


2
2
2 h2
x + y = b c2 1
z=h
q
2
R = b hc2 1.
36.2.
4x 2y 2 + 3z 2 = 5?
2

: 5

z2
y2
x2
+

= 1,
5/4 5/3 5/2
, , Oy
36.3. 9x2 y 2 z 2 = 5?

: -5

y2 z 2
x2
+

= 1,
5
5
5/9
, ,
Ox.
36.1.3. .
36.5. ,
x2 y 2
(36.10)
z = 2 + 2,
a
b
(36.10) .
Oxz Oyz


2
x2
z = a2
z = yb2

y=0
x=0
z = h (h > 0)
 2
2
x
+ by2 h = 1
a2 h
z=h

36

27

a h b h (. 19). a2 = b2
a2 z = x2 + y 2 .
x y (36.10) , : Oxz Oyz.

h
0

. 19.

36.6. ,
x2 y 2
(36.11)
z = 2 2,
a
b
a (36.11) .
Oxz,
 2
a z = x2
(36.12)
.
y=0

x = h

( 


h2
y2
2
h2
b z 2a2 = y 2
z = a2 b2
.

x=h
x=h
h , , Oyz b2 .
,
, Oyz,

28

36

Oxz,
(36.12). z =
h, ( h 6= 0)
 2

2
2
y2
x
h = xa2 yb2
2 h b2 h = 1
a

.
z=h
z=h

z
y
0

. 20.

. (20) :
h > 0 ( ) h < 0 ( ). h = 0, .. Oxy, y2
x2

, Oxy
 xa2 y b2 = 0.
+b =0
a

.
x
yb = 0
a
, Oxy
 x y
 x y
+
=
0
b =0
a
b
a
,
z=0
z=0

Oxy .
, ,
. , , ,

 x y
 x y
+
=
kz
+ b = 1l
a
b
a

,
y
y
x
1
x

=
lz
a
b
k
a
b
k l .
,
(. 21).

36

29

. 21.

36.5. , , . ,
,
.
36.4. y = 3x2 5z 2 ?
: :
 2

x
z2
y=
+
,
1/3 1/5
, , Oy . ,

y
q Oy q
13 15 .
36.5. x = 4z 2 16y 2 ?

: :
y2
z2

,
x=
1/4 1/16
, ()
Ox Oz .



36.

36.1. ,
2x2 + 3y 2 + 4z 2 5 = 0

30

36

:
5, :
x2
y2
z2
2x2 3y 2 4z 2
+
+
=1
+
+
=1
5
5
5
5/2 5/3 5/4
a =
q
c = 54 .
: .

5
,
2

b =

5
,
3

36.2. ,
3x2 4y 2 + 5z 2 6 = 0

:
6, :
x2
y2
z2
3x2 2y 2 5z 2

+
=1

+
=1
6
3
6
6/3 3/2 6/5

, q
q
Oy, 63 65 y = 0.
: Oy
36.3. ,
4y 2 + 4z 2 5x2 7 = 0

:
7, :
y2
z2
x2
4y 2 4z 2 5x2
+

=1
+

=1
7
7
7
7/4 7/4 7/5

q , -

Ox, 74 Ox.
: Ox
36.4. ,
4y 2 + 5z 2 = 6x2 2

: 6x2
2, :
y2
z2
x2
5z 2
2
3x = 1
+

= 1
2y +
2
1/2 2/5 1/3
2

36

31

,
Ox.
: Ox.
36.5. ,
3x2 + 3z 2 = 4y 2 4

: 4y 2
4, :
x2
z2
3x2 3z 2
+
y 2 = 1
+
y 2 = 1
4
4
4/3 4/3
,
Oy.
: Oy.
36.6. ,
3z 2 + 2y 2 5x = 0

: 5x
5, :
y2
z2
2y 2 3z 2
+
x=
+
x=
5
5
5/2 5/3
,
Ox
: Ox.
36.7. ,
4y 2 3z 2 3x = 0

: 3x
3, :
4y 2 5z 2
y2
z2
x=

x=

3
3
3/4 3/5
, Oy
: Oy.

32

37


,
36.8. 6 x2 2y 2 3z 2 = 0
36.9. 2z 2 + 5 = 3y 2 + 4x2

36.10. 6x2 + 3z 2 + 4 = 5y 2
36.11. 3y 4x2 5z 2 = 0
36.12. 3x2 + 3y 2 5z = 0

36.13. 2y + 3z 2 5x2 = 0




37.

. o.
2- .
, 2 1 , ()
, . ,
.
37.1. . , , ,
(. . 22).
Oxy , O1 XY ,
.
O1
x0 , y0 , z0 : O1 (x0 ; y0 ; z0 ).
(. 2 1 ), ,
:

37

33

O1
Y

y
X

x
. 22.

(37.1)

x = X + x0 ;

y = Y + y0 ;

z = Z + z0 ,

Y = y y0 ;

Z = z z0 .

,
(37.2)

X = x x0 ;

37.2. . , O:
Oxyz () OXY Z (),
. , x, y, z
M X, Y , Z.

z
Z

Y
y

. 23.

34

37

. , , OX , :
cos XOx = 11 ,

cos XOy = 21 ,

cos XOz = 31 .

, ,
:
(37.3)

211 + 221 + 231 = 1

,
:
X
Y
Z
x 11 12 13
y 21 22 23
z 31 32 33

( ), :

x = 11 X + 12 Y + 13 Z
y = 21 X + 22 Y + 23 Z
(37.4)

z = 31 X + 32 Y + 33 Z

L, X, X :

X
x
11 12 13
X = Y ,
X = y ,
(37.5)
L = 21 22 23 ,
Z
z
31 32 33
(37.4) :
(37.6)

X = L X

L :
- 1;
- ;
- LT L1 : LT =
= L1 .
, 36 1 , . (37.4) (36.2) 36, (37.6)
.

37

35

: L1 =
= LT , (37.6) :
X = L1 X = LT X,
:
X = 11 x + 21 y + 31 z
Y = 12 x + 22 y + 23 z .
Z = 13 x + 23 y + 33 z

(37.7)

37.1. ()
Oxyz , +1:
(ijk) = +1
(ijk) = 1, .
, Oz , Ox
Oy, . Oz ,
(. 24).
z

y
x
y

. 24.
37.6.
, .
37.7. L +1, ( ). (
) L -1.
37.8. (. . 25). , Ox Oy .
,

.

36

37

. 25.

37.3. 2- . (36.1) 2-
xy, xz yz (.. a12 = a13 = a14 = 0), .
.
37.1. :
3x2 + 2y 2 + z 2 6x + 4y 4z + 5 = 0?
:
, :
3x2 + 2y 2 + z 2 6x + 4y 4z + 5 = 0
3(x2 2x + 1) + 2(y 2 + 2y + 1) + (z 2 4z + 4) = 4

(x 1)2 (y + 1)2 (z 2)2


3(x 1) + 2(y + 1) + (z 2) = 4
+
+
= 1.
4/3
4/2
4
:
2

X = x 1,

Y = y + 1,

Z = z 2.

:
X2
Y 2 Z2
+
+
= 1.
4/3
2
4

2
a = , b = 2, c = 2.
3
X, Y , Z x, y, z : X = x x0 , Y = y y0 , Z = z z0 ,
. (37.1), ,
P0 (x0 ; y0 ; z0 ).

37

37

, P0 (1; 1; 2)
.
37.2.
4x2 + y 2 3z 2 + 16x + 2y + 6z + 6 = 0?

:

, :
4x2 + y 2 3z 2 + 16x + 2y + 6z + 6 = 0

4(x2 + 4x + 4) + (y 2 + 2y + 1) 3(z 2 2z + 1) = 8

(x + 2)2 (y + 1)2 (z 1)2

=1
2
8
8/3
:
X = x + 2,

Y = y + 1,

Z =z1

Z2
X2 Y 2
+

= 1.
2
8
8/3
, OZ. OZ .
P0 (2; 1; 1), , Oz .
(36.1) 2- a12 , a13 a23 ,
(36.1) 32 .1
.
, , :

(37.8)

(a11 i )1i + a12 2i + a13 3i = 0


a12 1i + (a22 i )2i + a23 3i = 0 ,

a13 1i + a23 2i + (a33 i )3i = 0

(37.3):

21i + 22i + 23i = 1,

38

37

1 ,
(37.9):

a11
a12
a13


a22
a23
(37.9)
a12
a13
a23
a33

2 , 3


= 0.

37.9.

a11 a12 a13


a12 a22 a23 ,
(37.10)
a13 a23 a33

i (i=1,2,3).
(37.9) , (37.8) (X, Y, Z),
. (37.9) , . (37.8)
a14 11 + a24 21 + a34 31 = 0

37.10. , A
(det A 6= 0), :

det D
= 0,
det A
: 1 , 2 , 3 .

a11 a12 a13


A = a12 a22 a23 ,
a13 a23 a33
1 X 2 + 2 Y 2 + 3 Z 2 +

det A .

a11
a12
D=
a13
a14

a12
a22
a23
a24

a13
a23
a33
a34

a14
a24
,
a34
a44

, det D , .
37.3. ,
6x2 2y 2 + 6z 2 + 4zx + 8x 4y 8z + 1 = 0
,
.

37

6
0
2

39

(37.10) :

0 2
2 0
0 6

(37.9):

6
0
2

0
2
0

2
0
6




=0


(6 )(2 + )(6 ) + 4(2 + ) = 0 (2 + ) 4 (6 )2 = 0
(2 + )(4 36 + 12 2 ) = 0 ( + 2)( 8)( 4) = 0
1 = 2.

2 = 8,

3 = 4.

(37.8), (37.3).

1
(6

4)
+
2
=
0

11
31

11 = 2
(2 4)21 = 0
21 = 0

2
+
(6

4)
=
0

11
31

31 = 1
2
2
11 + 221 + 231 = 1

1
(6 8)12 + 232 = 0

12 = 2
(2 8)22 = 0
22 = 0

2
+
(6

8)
=
0

12
32

32 = 1
2
2
12 + 222 + 232 = 1

(6 + 2)13 + 233 = 0

13 = 0
0=0
23 = 1

213 + (6 + 2)33 = 0

33 = 0
2
13 + 223 + 233 = 1

L ( ):

12 12 0

0 1
L= 0
1
1
0
2
2

X = LX , ..

1
1

x = 2 X + 2 Y
y = Z
,

z = 1 X + 1 Y
2
2

4(X

2)2 + 8Y

2(Z + 1)2 5 = 0.

40

37

( )

X = X 2
,
Y =Y

Z =Z +1


4X 2 + 8Y 2 2Z 2 5 = 0

Y2
Z2
X2
+

= 1.
5/4 5/8 5/2



37.

37.1.
2x + 3y 2 4x + 6y 6z 7 = 0.
2

:
, :
2x2 4x + 3y 2 + 6y 6z 7 = 0

2(x2 2x + 1) + 3(y 2 + 2y + 1) 6z 12 = 0
z+2=

:
X = x 1,

(x 1)2 (y + 1)2
+
3
2

Y = y + 1,

Z =z+2

:
X2 Y 2
Z=
+
3
2
.
37.2.
2x2 + 5y 2 + 2z 2 2xy 4zx + 2yz + 2x 10y 2z 1 = 0,

.
: (37.10) :

2 1 2
1
A = 1 5
2 1
2

37

(37.9):

2 1
2

1 5
1

2
1
2

41




=0

: :





2

1
0

2





=0 0
0 5
5

1
1






1
2
1
2

(2 9 + 18) = 0 ( 3)( 6) = 0
1 = 6,
2 = 3,
3 = 0
(37.8)

(2 3)11 121 231 = 0

11 = 6
111 + (5 3)21 + 131 = 0
21 = 26

211 + 121 + (2 3)31 = 0

= 1
2
2
2
31
11 + 21 + 31 = 1
6

(2 6)12 122 232 = 0

12 = 3
112 + (5 6)22 + 132 = 0
22 = 13

212 + 122 + (2 6)32 = 0

= 1
2
2
2
32
12 + 22 + 32 = 1
3

1
213 123 233 = 0

13 = 2
113 + 523 + 133 = 0
23 = 0

2
+
1
+
2
=
0

13
23
33

33 = 1
2
2
13 + 223 + 233 = 1
, (37.3) L ():

16 13 12

L = 26 13 0
1
6

1
3

1
2

( ) X = LX , ..

1
1
1

x = 6X 3Y + 2Z
y = 26 X 13 Y
,

z = 1 X + 1 Y + 1 Z
6
3
2

, :
Y2
2
2
2
= 1.
2X + Y 2 = 0 X +
2

42

37

37.3. ,
x2 2y 2 + z 2 + 4xy 8zx 4yz 14x 4y + 14z + 16 = 0,


.
: (37.10) :

1
2 4
A = 2 2 2
4 2 1



1
2
4

2
2 2

4
2
1
:

1 = 3,

2 = 6,




= 0,

3 = 3

(37.8) (37.3) L:

4
15 32 3
5

2
L = 25 31 3
5
0

5
3

2
3

L:

4
X

32 Y + 3
Z
x
=

5
5
2
y = 25 X + 23 Y + 3
Z ,
5

z = 23 Y + 35 Z

X , Y , Z , , X Y , X Z , Y Z .
, :

Y2
+ Z2 = 0
X 2Y + Z = 0 X
1/2
, det A = 54, det D = 0
2


.
37.4. x2 + 2x + 2z 2 4z + 4y 2 + 2 = 0

37.5. x2 2x + y 2 + 2y + z 2 1 = 0

38

43

37.6. x2 + 4z 2 2y 2 4 = 0.
37.7. 3y 2 6y x2 + 3z 2 = 0.
37.8. 3y 2 6z 2 2x2 6 = 0.
37.9. z 2 + 2z 3x2 + 6x 3y 2 5 = 0.
37.10. 3x2 + 2z 2 6y = 0.
37.11. y 2 + 2y + z 2 2z 4x + 2 = 0.
37.12. x2 + 9y 2 + 18y + 9z + 9 = 0.
37.13. 3x2 2z 2 6y = 0.
37.14. x2 + y 2 + 5z 2 6xy + 2zx 2yz 4x + 8y 12z + 14 = 0
37.15. 4x2 + 5y 2 + 6z 2 4xy + 4yz + 4x + 6y + 4z 27 = 0.
37.16. x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 + 2x 4y 12z + 9 = 0


,

38.

. . . 1- . .
38.1. . ( 1 )
- x0 x0 (x0 ; x0 +).
.
38.1. - P0 (x0 ; y0 )


o :
n
p
(P0 ) = P (x; y)| (x x0 )2 + (y y0 )2 < .

P - P0 .

44

38

38.2. b z = f (x; y) P P0 ,
- P0 (x0 ; y0 ),
P (x; y) , , , P0 , : |f (x; y) b| < .
:
lim f (x; y) = b

xx0
yy0

lim f (P ) = b.

P P0

38.2 lim f (P ) = b:
P P0

( > 0) ((P0))(P (P0 ), ... P = P0 ) |f (P ) b| <

, 1 : , , , ,
, ; , ; ..
(38.1) (38.2) , xx
lim f (x; y) = b lim f (x; y) =
0
0
yy0
p
= b, = (x x0 )2 + (y y0 )2 P P0 .

(38.3)
38.3. b z = f (x; y) P P0 ,

p P0 ,
, P0 lim f (x; y) = b, = (x x0 )2 + (y y0 )2
0

38.1. lim
x0
y0

x2 +y 2

x2 +y 2 +42

p
: x0 = 0, y0 = 0, P0 (0; 0)
= x2 + y 2 . :
x2 + y 2

2
p
lim
= lim
=
x0
2+42
2 + y2 + 4 2
0

x
y0




2 2 + 4 + 2
2
+ 4 + 2 = 4.
= lim
= lim
0
0
2 + 4 4
2
2
2x +y2
P0 (0; 0),
x +y +42

P P0 .

38

45

, xx
lim f (x; y) 0
yy0






lim lim f (x; y)

lim lim f (x; y) ,


xx0

yy0

yy0

xx0

,
.
, .
38.1. xx
lim f (x; y) y 0
yy0

y0 , y 6= y0 , lim f (x; y), x x0 , x 6= x0 ,


xx0

lim f (x; y), lim lim f (x; y),


yy0

yy0 xx0

lim lim f (x; y) lim lim f (x; y) = lim lim f (x; y) = xx


lim f (x; y).
xx0 yy0

yy0 xx0

xx0 yy0

0
yy0

38.2. (38.1) .
:
y2

x2 + y 2

= lim p
=
x2 + y 2 + 4 2 y0 y 2 + 4 2
p

2
2
p

y
y +4+2
2
= lim
y + 4 + 2 = 4.
= lim
y0
y0
y2 + 4 4
2
2
= 4.
, lim lim 2x +y2
lim lim p

y0 x0

x0 y0

x +y +42

(.6.5)
y = f (x) lim lim xx0 0

xx0 +0

, lim f (x) .
xx0

2 lim
f (x; y) , x0
y0

P (x; y) P0 (x0 ; y0 ).
38.3. lim
x0

x2 y 2
.
x2 +y 2

y0

: y = x, .. x2 y 2
12
x2 2 x2
y = x, lim
2 +y 2 = lim x2 +2 x2 = 1+2
x
x0
y0

, , .

x0

46

38

38.1.
38.4. f (x; y)
P P0 , .
:
lim f (P ) = b lim (f (P ) b) = 0 f (P ) b

P P0

P P0

P P0 .
3- .
38.2. .
38.5. n u = f (P )
P0 , lim f (P ) = f (P0 ).
P P0

38.6. P0 , u = f (P ) , .
, ,
.
, , ..

1 .
38.2. n f1 (P ) f2 (P )
P0 , f1 (P ) + f2 (P ),
f1 (P )f2 (P ), f1 (P )f2 (P ) f1 (P )/f2 (P ),
f2 (P0 ) 6= 0.

,
.
38.7. P0
f (P ),
.
38.4. z =

1
.
xy+1

: ,
, : xy+1 = 0.

38

47

y = x + 1, .
.
: y = x + 1.
38.3. . 1 , .
, .
38.8. z = f (P )
D, . f (P )
P0 P P P0
D.
38.3. z = f (P )
D, :
(1) : N > 0 : |f (P )| 6 N P D;
(2) m M :
P1 D : f (P1 ) = m P2 D : f (P2 ) = M ;
(3) m M
: c [m; M ] P0 : f (P0 ) = c.
p
1 x2 y 2
38.5. z =
D = {(x; y)|x2 + y 2 6 1}
O(0; 0) 1.
p
: | 1 x2 y 2 | 6 1 x2 + y 2 6 1.
m = 0 x2 +
+ y 2 = 1 , M = 1
.

0 6 c 6 1
p
c = 1 x2 y 2 x2 +y 2 = 1c2 .
, . 26
38.4. 1- .
z = f (x; y). , y, y = y0 . f (x; y0)
x. x0 :
(38.1)

f (x0 + x; y0 ) f (x0 ; y0 )
.
x0
x
lim

48

38

z
1

-1
1

x
. 26. z =

p
1 x2 y 2

( ) z = f (x; y) x P0 (x0 ; y0 )
fx (x0 ; y0 ).
f (x0 + x; y0) f (x0 ; y0 )
x z = f (x; y) P0 (x0 ; y0 ) x z:
(38.2)

x z = f (x0 + x; y0) f (x0 ; y0 ).

,
x z
.
(38.3)
fx (x0 ; y0 ) = lim
x0 x
z = f (x; y) y y P0 (x0 ; y0 ):
y z = f (x0 ; y0 + y) f (x0 ; y0 ),
y z
.
fy (x0 ; y0 ) = lim
y0 y
,

,
.
P (x; y),
. z = f (x; y), , P (x; y), ..
x y.
, , :
z z
,
.
fx (x; y), fy (x; y) zx , zy
x y

38

49

n
n > 2 . ,
u = f (x; y; z) x, P0 (x0 ; y0 ; z0 ) , x x,
:
x u = f (x0 + x; y0 ; z0 ) f (x0 ; y0 ; z0 ).
u = f (x; y; z) x
P0 (x0 ; y0 ; z0 )
x u
.
ux (x0 ; y0 ; z0 ) = lim
x0 x
, .
, , . ,
- .

38.6.
p
2
2
z = x y P0 (5; 3)
:

x
2x
z
=p
;
= p
x
2 x2 y 2
x2 + y 2

5
z
5
= ;
|P0 =
x
4
52 32

y
z
2y
= p
;
= p
2
2
2
2
y
2 x y
x y

z
3
|P0 = .
y
4

z
z
|P0 = 45 ; y
|P0 = 43
: x
z
x

z = f (x; y). , z = f (x; y) . P0 (x0 ; y0 )
Oxy M0 (x0 ; y0 ; z0 ) (. 27). AM0 B, y = y0 .
z = f (x; y0) y = y0 . ,
0)
= tg , O1 X, , , Ox
, df (x;y
dx

50

38

, AM0 B M0 . ,

 
f (x0 + x; y0) f (x0 ; y0 )
z
df (x; y0)
.
= lim
=

x0
dx
x
x
P0
x=x0

z
, x
= tg . , P0
z
x
P0 (x0 ; y0 ) , Ox , M0 (x0 ; y0 ; z0 ) z = f (x; y) y = y0 .
z
x
.
z
y .

z
Z
y
01
0

y0

M0

B
P0

X
x

. 27.

z
x

38.5. .
. , , , (
) .
, , z = f (x; y)
, :


z
z
2
x

z
2z

x
=
= fx2 (x; y);
=
= fxy
(x; y).
2
x
x
y
xy

 
z
y

2z

=
= fyx
(x; y);
yx

z
x

2z
= fy2 (x; y).
2
y

38

51

u = f (x; y; z), :


u
2

u
2u

x
x
=
= fx2 (x; y; z);
=
= fxy
(x; y; z);
2
x
x
y
xy

u
2u

x
=
= fxz
(x; y; z) ..
z
xz
:
n-
(n 1)-
.
3z
, xy

2
z = f (x; y) y
2z
xy
:
 2 
z
xy
3z
=
.
xy 2
y
,
, .
,
2z
3z
2z
,
,
xy yx xy 2
z = f (x; y).
38.7. z = x2 y 3 .
:
z
z
= 2xy 3 ,
= 3x2 y 2 .
x
y


z

x
2z
=
= 2xy 3 y = 6xy 2 ,
xy
y
 
z
y

2z
=
= 3x2 y 2 x = 6xy 2 .
yx
x

52

38

,
2

2z
xy

z
yx
, ,
.. ,
, . .
, .

38.4.
, , .
, z = f (x; y) :
2z
2z
=
.
xy
yx
38.


, .

p 38.1. z = x2 3y 2

z
y .
: x
:
2x
6y
z
z
= p
= p
;
x
y
2 x2 3y 2
2 x2 3y 2

38.2. 4
z = 5xy
z
: x
y



1
3
z 
1
= 4(5 xy) 2 = 4
(5 xy) 2 (y) =
x
2
x
2y

=
.
(5 xy) 5 xy
z
, x .
A y

2x
z

=
y
(5 xy) 5 xy

38

53

38.3. z = y x .
z
: x
y
:
z
= y x ln y
x
z
y
x :
z
= xy x1
y

38.4.

3
z = log2 (3 x + 2y 2 ).
: y

z
:
x

1
3 3
3 2
1
z
x


=
=
.

3
3
x
(3 x + 2y 2 ) ln 2
2
2
3x + 2y x ln 2

z
y

x:

4y
z
.
=
y
(3 3 x + 2y 2 ) ln 2
38.5. t
x = 2cos s .
:
: s x
t


t
t
1
x
t
t 1
= 2cos s ln 2 sin
= 2cos s ln 2 sin
t
s
s
s s

, t x
:
s



t
t
t
x
t
t t
= 2cos s ln 2 sin
2 = 2cos s ln 2 sin 2
s
s
s
s s

54

39

38.6. z = 2x2 3y 2 2xy + 3x 5y + 1.


38.7. z =

2y3x
2x5y

38.8. z =

x
yx

38.9. z =

38.10. z =

xy

3
yx
x

38.11. z = 2 y

38.12. z = sin 2 y
 
y
38.13. z = tg 3
3x

38.14. z = arcsin(3y 2x)



38.15. z = arctg 3x 2 y .
38.16. u = (y)xz
38.17. u =

z
xy

38.18. u = (yz)x
38.19. y = ln(cos u sin v)
38.20,38.21 , .
p
38.20. z = x2 + y 2
38.21. z = log3 (x y 2 )




39.

. . . .

39

55

39.1. .

, ,
(). , .
z = f (x; y). ,
x y x y.
z = f (x; y) z, :
(39.1)

z = f (x + x; y + y) f (x; y).

z
z = f (x; y) P (x; y)
P1 (x + x; y + y) (. . 28).

z
M(x;y;z)
z
N
0

M0(x0;y0;z 0 )
x
P0 (x0;y0)

P(x;y)

. 28.

39.1. z = xy 2 .
: (39.1),
z = (x + x)(y + y)2 xy 2 = xy 2 + y 2 x + 2xyy+

+2yxy + x(y)2 + x(y)2 xy 2 = (y 2 x + 2xyy)+


+(2yxy + x(y)2 + x(y)2 ).

56

39

, z : y 2 x + 2xyy,
x y, 2yxy + x(y)2 + x(y)2 , x y.
, , x 0, y 0,
, .
39.2. . ,
1 y = f (x) dy , .
dx : dx = x, dy : dy = f (x)dx.
x
z = f (x; y), y : dx z = fx (x; y)dx
y ( x ): dy z = fy (x; y)dy.
39.1. z = f (x; y) x
y:
(39.2)

dz = fx (x; y)dx + fy (x; y)dy.

z = f (x + x; y + y) f (x; y),
x = dx y = dy. ,
z dz
p
(x; y) , = x2 + y 2
P (x; y) P1 (x + x; y + y):
(x; y)
(39.3)
z = dz + (x; y), lim
= 0.
0

39.2. P (x; y)
, .
(39.1), z = f (x; y)
P (x; y) ,
fx (x; y) fy (x; y).
, , , , .. . , ,
, ,
. , ,
.

39

57

z
z
39.1. x
y
z = f (x; y)
P (x; y),
P (x; y) (39.2)


. , ,
u = f (x; y; z) u
(39.4)

u =

lim
0

(39.5)

u
u
u
x +
y +
z + (x; y; z)
x
y
z


p
2
2
2
= 0
= x + y + z , du =

u
u
u
dx +
dy +
dz.
x
y
z

39.2. z = xy 2 .
z
z
dx + y
dy
: dz = x
z
z
x y .

z
z
= (xy 2 )x = y 2 ,
= (xy 2 )y = 2xy.
x
y
,
Oxy.
, dz = y 2 dx + 2xydy.
. (39.1)
39.3. . z = f (x; y) P0 (x0 ; y0 )
dz = fx (x0 ; y0 )x + fy (x0 ; y0 )y, dz = fx (x0 ; y0 )(x
x0 ) + fy (x0 ; y0 )(y y0 ). , (M0 M1 KM2 . 29) : z z0 =
= fx (x0 ; y0 )(xx0 )+fy (x0 ; y0 )(y y0 ), z K . ,
. ,
(KN
. 29). .
, KN M N (. . 29).

58

39

z
M(x;y;z)
K
dz
N

M2

M0(x0;y0;z 0 )
x
P0 (x0;y0)

M1
P(x;y)

. 29.

39.4. .
. z = f (x; y).
.
z = fx (x; y)x + fy (x; y)y + (x; y).

p (x; y) ,
= (x)2 + (y)2 . , .. x y,
(x; y) :
(39.6)

z fx (x; y)x + fy (x; y)y,

.. .
z = f (x; y),
z = f (x + x; y + y) f (x; y).

z (39.6),

(39.7)

f (x + x; y + y) f (x; y) fx (x; y)x + fy (x; y)y,


f (x + x; y + y) f (x; y) + fx (x; y)x + fy (x; y)y.

(39.7)
P (x + x; y + y),

39

59

P (x; y),
P (x; y).
n
n > 2. , n = 3
(39.8)

f (x + x; y + y; z + z)
f (x; y; z) + fx (x; y; z)x + fy (x; y; z)y + fz (x; y; z)z.

39.3. 2.9521+4.012
: z =

1
.
x2 +y 2

(39.7) :

1
1
p
+ zx x + zy y
p
2
2
2
2
(x + x) + (y + y)
x +y

:
x
zx = 2
;
(x + y 2 )3/2

zy =

y
.
(x2 + y 2 )3/2

x = 3, x = 0.05, y = 4, y = 0.01. :
3
1
4
1

+ 0.05 0.01 0.21


5 5 5
2.952 + 4.012
5 5
, , 2.9521+4.012 0.201. .
39.5. . z = f (x; y)
x y, , , : d(dz) = d2 z.
dx dy x y, (39.2), :




z
z

z
z
2
d z = d(dz) = d
dx +
dy =
dx +
dy dx+
x
y
x x
y


z
z
+
dx +
dy dy =
y x
y
2z
2z
2z 2
2z 2
dx +
dxdy +
dxdy + 2 dy
=
x2
xy
yx
y

60

39

(38.4) , :
2z 2
2z
2z 2
(39.9)
d z=
dx + 2
dxdy + 2 dy
x2
xy
y

( ):
2

3z
3z
3z 3
3z 3
2
2
dx + 3 2 dx dy + 3
dxdy + 3 dy .
d z=
x3
x y
xy 2
y
, n-
, :
n
X
nz
n
Cni i ni dxi dy ni .
(39.10)
d z=
x y
3

i=0

39.6. . z = f (x; y), t : x = x(t), y = y(t).


z t. ,
dz
dt
z
z
y
dx
dy
. x
dt
dt
, x = x(t) y = y(t)
t, z = f (x; y)
(x; y) .
t t; x y x y, z
z. z , z
:
(39.11)

z
z
x +
y + (x; y),
x
y
p
= 0, = x2 + y 2 .
z =

lim
0

(39.11) t t 0,

z
x z
y

z
=
lim
+
lim
+ lim
.
t0 t
x t0 t
y t0 t t0 t
, ,
, , . lim x
= dx
lim y
= dy

, .. dz
dt
t
dt
t
dt
t0
t0
.
(39.12)

lim

39

61




= lim

= lim lim
lim
t0
t0 t0 t
t0 t
t

p
x2 + y 2

lim
= lim
=
t0 t
t0
t
s
2 
2 s 2  2
y
dy
x
dx
+
=
+
.
= lim
t0
t
t
dt
dt

, dx
dy
.
dt
dt

, lim = 0, , t 0
t0
0. lim = lim = 0 , ,
0
t0
s 
 2
2
dx

dy
lim
+
= 0.
=0
t0 t
dt
dt
, (39.12) :
z dx z dy
dz
=
+
.
dt
x dt y dt

(39.13)

39.4.

dz
,
dt

z = y x , x = cos t, y = t3 .

: (39.13),
dz
dx
dy
= (y x )
+ (y x )y
= y x ln y sin t + 3t2 xy x1 =
dt
dt
dt
= t3 cos t ln t3 sin t + 3t2 cos t t3(cos t1) = t3 cos t1 (3 cos t 3 ln t sin t) =
2

= t(sin t)t 1 (t cos t + 2 sin t ln sin t).


z = f (x; y) , y = y(x).
z x : z = f (x; y(x)).
, t
x. (39.13)
z dx z dy
dz
=
+
.
dx
x dx y dx

(39.14)

dx
dx

= 1,
z z dy
dz
=
+
.
dx
x y dx

62

39

z
z
x. x

z = f (x; y), , y x.
dz
, (39.14),
dx
z = f (x; y(x)).
.
, z = f (x; y), x = x(u; v) y = y(u; v).
z u v. z
z
u
v
.
y
z x
, u u
, z, x y
u
u.
(39.13), dz
, dx dy
dt dt
dt
y
z x
, u u :
u
(39.15)

z x z y
z
=
+
.
u
x u y u


(39.16)

z
:
v

z
z x z y
=
+
.
v
x v y v

.
, u = F (x; y; z), x = x(t),
y = y(t), z = z(t),
(39.17)

u dx u dy u dz
du
=
+
+
.
dt
x dt
y dt
z dt

39.7. .
(39.18)

3y x3 1 = 0

x y, x y
(39.18), . , x = 0 y = 0, x y
(39.18) 30 03 1 = 0. ,
x = 1 y = log3 2 .. ,

39

63

(39.18) , x > 1,
. .

(39.19)

F (x; y) = 0,

F (x; y) .
39.3. x,
M (x M ), y, x (39.19),
, M
y = (x).
, y = (x), (39.19),
F (x; (x)) = 0,
x M .
y = f (x), , y, .
. (39.18) y:
y = log3 (x3 + 1)

(39.20)

. , ,
(39.18). (39.18). , (39.18)
y (39.20),
3 +1)

3log3 (x

x3 1 = x3 + 1 x3 1 = 0.

x M y, x (39.19).
, .
, , x2 +y 2 1 = 0 ,
, x2 +y 2 1 = 0
y:

y = 1 x2 .
y = 1 x2 ,

64

39

, , ,
. ,
3y 3y + x3 1 = 0

y, x y,
(, x = 0, y = 0; x = 1,
y = 1 ..). , y
x.
F (x; y) = 0 . , x2 +y 2 +1 = 0 x y, , ,
.
F (x; y),
F (x; y) = 0 y?

.
39.2. F (x; y) Fx (x; y)
Fy (x; y)
P0 (x0 ; y0 ) F (x0 ; y0 ) = 0, Fy (x0 ; y0 ) 6= 0, F (x; y)
P0 (x0 ; y0 ) y = y(x),
, x0 , y(x0 ) = y0 .
.
.
(39.19)
.
y = y(x), P0 (x0 ; y0 ) F (x; y(x)) 0 x.
, , = 0, (39.14)
, dF
dx

F
F dy
dF
=
+
dx
x
y dx

(39.21)

F
x

F dy
y dx

= 0,
F
dy
x
= F
.
dx
y

39

65

39.5.
y, x3 3x+y 2 xy 1 = 0,
P (1; 1).
: F (x; y) = x2 2x + 3y 2 xy 1 = 0.
= 3x2 3 y; F
= 2y x. (39.21)
F
x
y
F
3x2 3 y
3x2 3 y
dy
x
= F =
=
.
dx
2y

x
x

2y
y

x, :
(6x y )(x 2y) (1 2y )(3x2 3 y)
y =
(x 2y)2

y :
(3x2 12xy + 3 + y)(x 2y) (x 6x2 + 6)(3x2 3 y)
y =
(x 2y)3

, P (1; 1)
dy
= 1, y | x=1 = 6
x=1
y=1
y=1
dx
y x ,
Ox 45o (tg = 1).
39.8. . , y = f (x)
. ,
dy = f (x)dx , x
: x = (t).
u = f (x; y; z; . . . ; t) : n
u = f (x; y; z; . . . ; t)
u
u
u
u
dx +
dy +
dz + +
dt
x
y
z
t
, x, y, z, . . . , t
.

z = f (x; y). , x y
, :
du =

dz =

z
z
dx +
dy.
x
y

66

39

, , x y : x = x(u; v), y = y(u; v). z


u v.

z
z
du +
dv.
dz =
u
v
(39.16) (39.17)
z
z x z y
z
z x z y
=
+
,
=
+
.
u
x u y u
v
x v
y v
,




z x z y
z
z x z y
+
=
+
du +
dv =
dz =
x u y u
v
x v
y v
z x
z x
z y
z y
du +
dv +
du +
dv =
x u
x v
y u
y v




z x
x
z y
y
z
z
=
du +
dv +
du +
dv =
dx +
dy,
x u
v
y u
v
x
y
=

x
y
y
x
du +
dv = dx, a
du +
dv = dy.
u
v
u
v
, dz , ..
z
z
dz = x
dx + y
dy , x y .
,
.

39.

39.1. z = xy 2 z
dz M (2, 00; 1, 00) x = 0.20, y = 0.10
.
: z = f (x + x; y + y) f (x; y) = (x + x)
(y + y)2 xy 2 . x = 2, y = 1, M :
z = 2.20 1.102 2.00 1.002 0, 66.
z
z
dx + y
dy = y 2 x + 2xyy
dz = x
dx = x, dy = y, .. x y .
M :
dz = 1.002 0.20 + 2 2.00 1.00 0.10 = 0.60

,
z dz 0.06, .. p
2
= x + y 2 0.22
: z 0.66; dz = 0.60.

39

67

39.2. dz z = x3 y 2
:
z
z
dx +
dy = 3x2 y 2 dx + 2x3 ydy
x
y
: dz = 3x2 y 2 dx + 2x3 ydy
dz =

39.3. 1.012 0.983

: , (39.1),
dz z = x2 y 3 x = 1, y = 1,
x = 1.01 1 = 0.01, y = 0.98 1 = 0.02.
1.012 0.983 f (x + x; y + y).
z
z
dx +
dy = 2xy 3 x + 3x2 y 2 y =
dz =
x
y
= 2 1 13 0.01 + 3 12 12 (0.02) = 0.04
: z dz, :

f (x + x; y + y) f (x; y) dz f (x + x; y + y) f (x; y) + dz
, f (x; y) = 12 13 = 1, :
1.012 0.983 1 0.04 = 0.96

, , .
: 1.012 0.983 1 0.04 = 0.96
39.4. 2-
z = x2 3xy 2y 2
: 1- (39.2).
z
z
dx +
dy = (2x 3y)dx (3x 4y)dy
dz =
x
y
dz , dx dy x y, :
d2 z = d(dz) = d((2x 3y)dx (3x 4y)dy) =

= (2dx 3dy)dx (3dx 4dy)dy = 2dx2 3dxdy 3dxdy 4dy 2 =


= 2dx2 6dxdy 4dy 2
d2 z (39.11):
2z 2
2z
2z
d z=
dx + 2
dxdy + 2 =
x2
xy
y
2

= 2dx2 + 2(3)dxdy 4dy 2 = 2dx2 6dxdy 4dy 2

68

39

39.5.

dz
,
dt

z =

3x 5y, x = sin t, y =

t.

: :
dx
dy
1
3
5
z
z
,
= cos t,
= ,
=
=
,
dt
dt
x
y
2 3x 5y
2 3x 5y
2 t
dz
3
1
5

=
cos t +
dt
2 3x 5y
2 3x 5y 2 t

x = sin t y = t,
, :
5
3 cos t 2
dz
t
= p

dt
2 3 sin t 5 t

39.6.
dz
dx

z dz
, ,
x dx

z = 2 y , y = sin x.

z
: x
,
.

2 sin x

x
1
z
= 2 y ln 2
x
y


x
x
dz
1
x
= 2 y ln 2 + 2 y ln 2 2 cos x =
dx
y
y
x

x
2 sin x ln 2
1
x 
cos x =
+ 2 sin x ln 2 2
(1 x ctg x)
ln 2
sin x
sin x
sin x

39.7.
: y = xy .

dy
dx

: y = xy F (x, y) =
y1
dy
= xyyxln x1
= xy y = 0. (39.21) dx
, , y
x, y .


39.8,39.9 z dz M (x; y) x
y.
39.8. z = x2 y;

M (1; 2);

x = 0.05;

y = 0, 10.

39

39.9. z = x2 y 2 ;

M (1; 1);

69

x = 0.01;

y = 0, 02.

39.1039.13 dz .
39.10. z =

x2 +y 2
.
x2 y 2

39.11. z = xy x .

39.12. z = ln tg xy .
39.13. u = xyz.
39.1439.16 1- 2-
.
39.14. z = exy .
39.15. z = xey + yex .
39.16. z = ey sin x.
39.1739.19
.
,
.
39.17. 0.993 1.022 .

39.18. 3.98 + 2.95.


39.19. sin 31o cos 61 .
.
z = xy , y = arcsin t, x = ln t.

dz
, z = s t, t = tg x, s = 3 x.
39.21. dx

xy
t + 2, y = et ,
,

u
=
,

x
=
39.22. du
dt
z
z = cos t.
39.20.

dz
,
dt

z
x

dz
,
dx

z = y x , y = arctg x.

dz
, z = sin(u v), u = x, v = tg x.
39.24. dx
39.23.

39.25.
: y = x + log3 y.

dy
dx

39.26. 1- 2- y = y(x),
: xey + yex = 0.

70

40



40.

. . . .
40.1. .
40.1. P D
u, u = f (P ) = f (x; y; z), , D . z = f (x; y),
.
D u = F (x; y; z).
P (x; y; z) l,
P l = cos i + cos j + cos k,
, l ( 30).
P1 (x + x; y + y; z + z) D
. u P1
P l
l u.
l u = F (x + x; y + y; z + z) F (x; y; z).

l P P1 : l = P P1 .
40.2. u = F (x; y; z) P
l lim ll u .
l0

u l
,

u
.
l

l u
u
= lim
.
l0 l
l
, u P (x; y; z) l , u
; u
< 0, u .
l

, u
l
u .
(40.1)

40

71

. , x, y z P P1 P = l
l (. . 30):
(40.2)

x = l cos ; y = l cos ; z = l cos .

u , , 39 (39.4), u P (x; y; z)

u = Fx (x; y; z)x + Fy (x; y; z)y + Fz (x; y; z)z + ,
p
x2 + y 2 + z 2 , ..
, =
lim = 0.

(40.3)

p1
z
x

0
y
x
. 30. l x, y, z


l, u = l u, = l, x, y z
(40.2). (40.3) :
l u = Fx (x; y; z)l cos + Fy (x; y; z)l cos + Fz (x; y; z)l cos + .
l
l 0,
l u
u
= lim
= lim (Fx (x; y; z) cos +
l0 l
l0
l


.
+Fy (x; y; z) cos + Fz (x; y; z) cos + lim
l0 l

72

40

Fx (x; y; z), Fy (x; y; z), Fz (x; y; z)


l, lim l
= lim = 0,
l0

u
= Fx (x; y; z) cos + Fy (x; y; z) cos + Fz (x; y; z) cos .
l
(40.4) , l
i, j k, u l . , , l=i,
= Fx (x; y; z).
cos = 1, cos = 0, cos = 0 , , u
l
(40.4)

40.11. z = f (x; y). (40.5) z = f (x; y) l.


z
= fx (x; y) cos + fy (x; y) cos
l

(40.5)

40.1. z =
P0 (5; 3) l = 3i + 4j

x2 y 2

:
cos =

3
3
3
=
= ;
|l|
5
32 + 42

cos =

4
4
= ,
|l|
5

P0 (38.6). (40.5) :

53 34
z
3 3
3
=

=
l P0 4 5 4 5
4 5
20

, P0
p
2
2
z = x  y
z
| >0
l P0
3
| = 20
: z
l P0
40.2. .
.
40.3. P (x; y; z) ,
u = F (x; y; z) ,
Fx (x; y; z)i + Fy (x; y; z)j + Fz (x; y; z)k.

40

73

u = F (x; y; z) grad F (x; y; z), grad F (P ), grad u. ,


grad F (x; y; z) = Fx (x; y; z)i + Fy (x; y; z)j + Fz (x; y; z)k,

(40.6)

u
u
u
i+
j+
k.
x
y
z
, P (x; y; z) , u = F (x; y; z),
, grad F (P ).

(40.7)

grad u =

40.2. u = x2 + y 2 z 2
P0 (1; 1; 1)
: P0 :


u
u
u
u
= 2;
= 2;
= 2x;
= 2y;
x
x P0
y
y P0

u
u
= 2z;
= 2.
z
z
P0

(40.7) :

grad u = 2i + 2j 2k

: grad u = 2i + 2j 2k

40.1. grad u l =
= i cos + j cos + k cos u
l:
u
(40.8)
l grad u =
.
l
: u = F (x; y; z). ,
- .
grad u = Fx (x; y; z)i + Fy (x; y; z)j + Fz (x; y; z)k.

l grad u = grad u l =
Fx (x; y; z) cos + Fy (x; y; z) cos + Fz (x; y; z) cos =

u
,
l

.

, u
l
u = F (x; y; z) ,

74

40

, grad u l
u = F (x; y; z) l.
l grad u.
l grad u = | grad u| cos . , (40.8),
u
= | grad u| cos .
l

(40.9)

l grad u ( = 0), , , ,
u
l
| grad u|.

grad F(P 0 )
r (t 0 )
90

p0

L
F(x;y;z)-C 0=0

x
. 31.

, : grad u ,
, .
, grad u u = F (x; y; z)
,
.
grad u = grad F (x; y; z) P (x0 ; y0 ; z0 ) , .

(40.10)

F (x; y; z) = C0

F (x; y; z) C0 = 0

40

75

L, (40.10)
P0 (. 31). ,

x = x(t),
y = y(t),

z = z(t),

x(t), y(t) z(t) t, x0 = x(t0 ),


y0 = y(t0 ), z0 = z(t0 ). r = (x; y; z),
: r = r(t). ,
(x (t0 ); y (t0 ); z (t0 )) = r (t0 )
L r(t0 ).
, :
r(t0 + t) r(t0 )
t0
t
r(t0 + t) r(t0 ) L, P0 (
r(t0 )) r(t0 + t);
r(t0 +t)
r(t0 )
. t 0,
t
.
L x(t), y(t) z(t),
(40.10) ,
L . ,

r (t0 ) = lim

F (x(t); y(t); z(t)) C0 = 0.

t; , (C0 )t =
= 0,
F
F
F
x (t) +
y (t) +
z (t) = 0.
x
y
z
, t = t0
Fx (x0 ; y0 ; z0 )x (t0 ) + Fy (x0 ; y0 ; z0 )y (t0 ) + Fz (x0 ; y0 ; z0 )z (t0 ) = 0.

grad u(P0 ) = Fx (x0 ; y0 ; z0 )i + Fy (x0 ; y0 ; z0 )j + Fz (x0 ; y0 ; z0 )k

r (t0 ) = x (t0 )i + y (t0 )j + z (t0 )k,
L. ,
(40.11)

grad u(P0 ) r (t0 ) = 0.

76

40

, grad u(P0 ) 6= 0. (40.11) ,


grad u(P0 ) r (t0 ), L P0 .
, . u = F (x; y; z), , P0 ,
P0 , , grad F (P0 ),
, .
,
z = f (x; y),
(40.12)

grad f (x; y) = fx (x; y)i + fy (x; y)j.

z
l

z
z

= | grad z| cos ,
l
l
l grad z.
, z = f (x; y),
grad f (x0 ; y0 ) ,
P0 (x0 ; y0 ).
l grad z =

40.3. .

(40.13)

F (x; y; z) = 0,

F (x; y; z) .
P0 (x0 ; y0 ; z0 ) ,
, P0 , P0 , ,
grad F (P0 )

F (x; y; z) = 0 P0 (. . 32).
, , P0 ( 30):
A(x x0 ) + B(y y0 ) + C(z z0 ) = 0

N (A; B; C) ,
. :

40

77

grad F(P 0)
z

P0 (x0;y0 ;z0 )
y
x
. 32.

(40.14) Fx (x0 ; y0 ; z0 )(xx0 )+Fy (x0 ; y0 ; z0 )(y y0 )+Fz (x0 ; y0 ; z0 )(z z0 ) = 0

40.4. , P0 .
,
, P0 ( 31):
y y0
z z0
x x0
=
=
m
n
p
s(m; n; p) ,
:
y y0
z z0
x x0
=
=
(40.15)
Fx (x0 ; y0 ; z0 )
Fy (x0 ; y0 ; z0 )
Fz (x0 ; y0 ; z0 )

40.3.
z = x2 + 2y 2 P0 (1; 1; 3).
: (40.13): x2 +
+ 2y 2 z = 0. F (x; y; z) = x2 + 2y 2 z.
grad F (P0 ):
Fx (x; y; z) = 2x;

Fy (x; y; z) = 4y;

Fz (x; y; z) = 1

Fx (P0 ) = 2; Fy (P0 ) = 4; Fz (P0 ) = 1.

78

40

(40.14) :
2(x 1) + 4(y 1) 1(z 3) = 0,

: 2x + 4y z 3 = 0.

(40.15) :
y1
z1
x1
=
=
2
4
1
y1
x1
z1
: 2x + 4y z 3 = 0, 2 = 4 = 1
,
z = f (x; y), (40.3).
, .

(40.16)

f (x; y) + z = 0.

F (x; y; z) = f (x; y) + z. gradF (P0 ):


Fx (x0 ; y0 ; z0 ) = fx (x0 ; y0 );

Fy (x0 ; y0 ; z0 ) = fy (x0 ; y0 );

Fz (x0 ; y0 ; z0 ) = 1.
(40.14) :
fx (x0 ; y0 )(x x0 ) fy (x0 ; y0 )(y y0 ) + (z z0 ) = 0,
(40.17)

z z0 = fx (x0 ; y0 )(x x0 ) + fy (x0 ; y0 )(y y0 )

(40.15) :
y y0
z z0
x x0
=
=
(40.18)
fx (x0 ; y0 )
fy (x0 ; y0 )
1

P0 . 1 .
F (x; y; z) = 0 :
Fy (P0 )
Fz (P0 )
Fx (P0 )
; cos =
; cos =
,
(40.19) cos =
| grad F (P0 )|
| grad F (P0 )|
| grad F (P0 )|
q
| grad F (P0 )| = (Fx (P0 ))2 + (Fy (P0 ))2 + (Fz (P0 ))2 .

z = f (x; y), , :
fy (x0 ; y0 )
fx (x0 ; y0 )
1
(40.20) cos =
; cos =
; cos =
,
| grad F (P0 )|
| grad F (P0 )|
| grad F (P0 )|
q
| grad F (P0 )| = (fx (x0 ; y0 ))2 + (fy (x0 ; y0 ))2 + 1

40

79



40.

40.1. z = x2 + 2y 2
M (1; 1) , Ox 60o .
:
: cos = cos 60o = 21 ,

cos = cos(90o 60o ) = cos 30o = 23 .


, cos cos2 + cos2 = 1.
M :
z
|M = 2x|x=1 = 2;
x

z
|M = 4y|y=1 = 4.
y

z
z
1
3
z
|M =
|M cos +
|M cos = 2 + 4
= 1 + 2 3 4, 46
l
x
y
2
2
XOY ,
, M (1; 1) z =
= x2 + 2y 2 XOY 77o .
40.2. z = 2x2 + y 2 M (1; 1) ,
O(0; 0).
: , M O, . 1 ,
:
M O = (0 1; 0 1) = (1; 1)
, :
l MN =

MO
|M O|

(1)2 + (1)2 = 2


1
1
1
= ;
cos = ;
2
2
2

|M O| =
l MN

1
cos = .
2

80

40

, , :
z
z
|M = 4x|x=1 = 4;
|M = 2y|y=1 = 2
x
y




z
1
6
1

+ 2
= 4.3
|M = 4
l
2
2
2
, M ( ). XOY .
40.3. z = x2 +2y 2 M (1; 1)
.
: (40.1)
, grad z:


z
z
grad z|M =
|M ; |M = (2; 4).
x
y

40

r

2

z
z 2
+ y . , ; ..
x

2
2
2 + 4 = 20 4.47, (40.1)

40.4.

x2 y 2 z 2
+

=0
16
9
8
P0 (4; 3; 4).
: F (x; y; z) = 0,
2
2
2
: F (x; y; z) = x16 + y9 z8 .
x
;
8

2y
z
; Fz (x; y; z) =
9
4
2
1
Fx (P0 ) = ; Fy (P0 ) = ; Fz (P0 ) = 1
2
3
(39.16) :
Fx (x; y; z) =

Fy (x; y; z) =

2
1
(x 4) + (y 3) (z 4) = 0 3x + 4y 6z = 0.
2
3

40

81

(39.17) :
y3
z4
x4
=
=
1/2
2/3
1
: 3x + 4y 6z = 0;

x4
1/2

y3
2/3

z4
.
1


40.440.8
, Ox .
40.5. z = 2x2 + xy + 3y 2 ; M (2; 2); = 45o

40.6. z = x2 y 2 ; M (1; 1); = 120o

40.7. z = xy ; M (2; 1); cos = 13 ; 0 < < /2


p
40.8. z = x2 y 2 ; M (5; 3); cos = cos < 0

40.940.11
M , N .
40.9. z =

1
;
xy

40.10. z =

M (1; 1); N (1; 1)


x y; M (1; 0); N (0; 1)

40.11. u = xy + yz + zx; M (2; 1; 3); N (5; 5; 15).


40.1240.15
(.. ).
40.12. z = 2x3 + 3y 3 2xy; M (2; 1).
p
40.13. z = 2 y 2 x2 ; M (3; 5).
40.14. u = 2xyz; M (3; 2; 1).

40.15. u = 4x2 + y 2 + z 2 ; M (1; 1; 1).


40.16.
2
2
z = x2 y3 P0 (2; 3; 1).

82

41



41.

2- . . . .
. . .
41.1. . 1
(. 19.2):
(41.1)

f (x0 )
f (x0 )
(x x0 ) +
(x x0 )2 + +
f (x) = f (x0 ) +
1!
2!

f n1 (x0 )
+
(x x0 )n1 + O((x x0 )n ),
(n 1)!
O(n ) n 0,
= x x0 .
, ,
( ) . :

1
fx (x0 ; y0 )x + fy (x0 ; y0 )y +
1!

1

fxx (x0 ; y0 )x2 + 2fxy


(x0 ; y0 )xy + fyy
(x0 ; y0 )y 2 + O(3 ),
+
2!
p
= x2 + y 2 , x = x x0 , y = y y0 .
,
, :
(41.2)

(41.3)

f (x; y) = f (x0 ; y0 ) +

df (x0 ; y0 ) d2 f (x0 ; y0 )
+
+ +
f (x; y) = f (x0 ; y0 ) +
1!
2!

dn1 f (x0 ; y0 )
+
+ O(n )
(n 1)!
, (39.3)
n = 2.

41

83

O(n ) . m , :
f (x1 ; x2 ; . . . ; xm) = f (x01 ; x02; . . . ; x0m ) + fx 1 (x01 ; x02 ; . . . ; x0m )x1 +

+fx 2 (x01 ; x02 ; . . . ; x0m)x2 + + fx m (x01 ; x02 ; . . . ; x0m )xm + O(2 ),
rm
P
0
: xi = xi xi , i = 1, 2, . . . , m, =
x2i

(41.4)

i=1

41.2. . m m ,

fi (x1 ; . . . ; xm) :

f (x ; x ; . . . ; xm) = 0

1 1 2
f2 (x1 ; x2 ; . . . ; xm) = 0
(41.5)
.........

f (x ; x ; . . . ; x ) = 0
m

41.1. (41.5)
m- P0 (a1 ; a2 ; . . . ; am ), .
- X( m-
), F .

0
f1 (x1 ; . . . ; xm)
x1
..
, O = ...
(41.6)
X = ... , F (X) =
.
xm

fm (x1 ; . . . ; xm )

(41.5) :

(41.7)

F (X) = O

(41.5) .
Xn (41.7) :

x1
x1
= ... ,
(41.8)
Xn = ... ,
xnm
xm
: xi = xi xni xi = xni + xi .

84

41

(41.8) :
= X Xn

X = Xn + .

(41.8) (41.5), :

f1 (xn1 + x1 , . . . , xnm + xm ) = 0
...
f (xn + x , . . . , xn + x ) = 0
m 1
1
m
m

,
(41.2):
fi (xn1 + x1 , . . . , xnm + xm ) = fi (xn1 , . . . , xnm)+
+

m
X

fi,x
(xn1 , . . . , xnm)xj + 2 2 ,
j

j=1

f (xn ,...,xn )

m
1
fi,x
(xn1 , . . . , xnm) = i x
j
j
, (41.9)
xnj , (j = 1, 2, . . . , m)
n- xn1 , . . . , xnm , xj .

f1 (xn1 , . . . , xnm ) + f1,x


(xn1 , . . . , xnm )xn1 +, . . . , +

(xn1 , . . . , xnm )xnm = 0


+f1,x
m
...
(41.9)

fm (xn1 , . . . , xnm) + fm,x


(xn1 , . . . , xnm)xn1 +, . . . , +

+f
n
n
n
m,xm (x1 , . . . , xm )xm = 0

xnj (j = 1, . . . , m),
n + 1- (41.10)
(41.10)

xn+1
= xn1 + xn1 , . . . , xn+1
= xnm = +xnm .
1
m

, xnj (j = 1, . . . , m)
(41.5), ( ) , ..
xnj .
, xn+1
(41.9),
j
, n + 2- .
, ,
: |xnj | < j = 1, . . . , m.

41

85

, ,
.
. (41.9)
.
, (41.6), (41.9)
:
(41.11)

F (Xn ) + W (Xn ) n = 0,

W (Xn ) , ,
fi (x1 , . . . , xm )
(xn1 , . . . , xnm):

(41.12)

f1
x1

W (X) = . . .

fm
x1

...
...
...

f1
xm

...

fm
xm

(41.11), - :
(41.13)

n = W 1 (Xn )F (Xn ),

W 1 (Xn ) , , Xn .
n + 1- :
(41.14)

Xn+1 = Xn + n

41.12.
x1 , x2 , x3 , , : x, y, z.

41.1.
 2
x + 4y 2 1 = 0
= 0, 01
y x3 = 0

:
: x1 = x, x2 = y, f1 (x1 ; x2 ) = x2 + 4y 2 1, f2 (x1 ; x2 ) = y x3 ,
 2

f1
f1
1
1
= f
= 2x, x
= f
= 8y,
x + 4y 2 1
x1
x
y
2
; f2
F (X) =
3
f2
f
f
yx
= x = 3x2 , x2 = y2 = 1.
x
1

, :


2x 8y
W (X) =
3x2 1

86

41


,
F (X), W (X), x0 , y 0
.
41.1. x2 +
2
y2
+4y 2 1 = 0 x1 + (0,5)
2 = 1 a = 1 b = 0, 5.
y x3 = 0 y = x3 .
(.
. 33)
y
0,5

-1

-0.5

. 33. 41.1

, x0 = 0, 50;
y0 = 0, 25
41.1.
, .. 3 .

1 :
!
4y
1

2x+24x2 y
x+12x2 y
W 1 (X) =
3x2
x
2x+24x2 y

x+12x2 y

(41.13) = W 1 (X)F (X) :



4y(yx3 )
x = x2 +4y2 1
2 y x+12x2 y

 2x+24x
(41.15)
y = 3x2 (x2 +4y22 1) + x(yx23 )
2x+24x y
x+12x y

x0 = 0, 50, y0 = 0, 25 x0 = 0, 30; y0 = 0, 10.

41

87

x1 = x0 +x0 = 0, 8,
y1 = y0 + y0 = 0, 35.

|x0 | < 0, 01
, .
|y0 | < 0, 01
(41.15) x1 , y1 , x1 = 0, 084;
y1 = 0, 0014; x2 = x1 + x1 = 0, 716; y2 = y1 + y1 = 0, 3514.
 :
|x1 | < 0, 01
, , .
|y1 | < 0, 01
:
i
xi
yi
xi
yi
0 0,50
0,25
0,30
0,10
1 0,80
0,35
-0,084 0,0044
2 0,716 0,3514 -0,0088 -0,009
3 0,707 0,3505
i = 2: |x2 | < 0, 1;
|y2 | < 0, 01.
: x3 = 0, 71; y3 = 0, 35 0, 01.
41.3. .
41.2. , z = f (x; y)
M0 (x0 ; y0 ) D(f ) (.. x = x0
y = y0 ),
f (x0 ; y0 ) > f (x; y)
(x; y), (x0 ; y0 ) ( ) .
41.3. ,
z = f (x; y)
M0 (x0 ; y0 ) D(f ),
f (x0 ; y0 ) < f (x; y)
(x; y), (x0 ; y0 )
.
, .. , ,
.

88

41

.

.
x = x0 + x, y = y0 + y;
f (x; y) f (x0 ; y0 ) = f (x0 + x; y0 + y) f (x0 ; y0 ) = f (x0 ; y0 ).

1) f (x0 ; y0 ) < 0
, f (x; y) M (x0 ; y0 )
2) f (x0 ; y0 ) > 0
, f (x; y) M (x0 ; y0 )

.
41.1. ( ).
z = f (x; y) x = x0 , y = y0 , z
, .
, y ,
y = y0 . f (x; y0 ) x.
x = x0 ( ), ,
z
, x
x=x0 , .
y=y0
 
z
(. . 34),
, y
x=x
0
y=y0

(. . 35).

z
M0
y
P0
x
. 34.


,
,

41

89

M0

z
y

P0
x
. 35.

. .
z
z = x2 y 2 x
= +2x,
z
= 2y, x = 0 y = 0.
y
, . ,
,
. ,
, (. . 36).

z
y

. 36.
z
41.4. x
= 0
z
y = 0 , z = f (x; y).

90

41

,
(41.1) .

.
41.2. ,
M0 (x0 ; y0 ), f (x; y)
; , , M0 (x0 ; y0 )
f (x; y), ..
f (x0 ; y0 )
= 0,
x

f (x0 ; y0 )
= 0.
y

x = x0 , y = y0 :
1) f (x; y) ,
 2
2
f (x0 ; y0 )
2 f (x0 ; y0 ) 2 f (x0 ; y0 )

>0
x2
y 2
xy

( fyy
(x0 ; y0 ) < 0);
2) f (x; y) ,
 2
2
f (x0 ; y0 )
2 f (x0 ; y0 ) 2 f (x0 ; y0 )

>0
x2
y 2
xy

2 f (x0 ; y0 )
< 0;
x2

2 f (x0 ; y0 )
> 0;
x2

( fyy
(x0 ; y0 ) > 0);
3) f (x; y) , ,
 2
2
2 f (x0 ; y0 ) 2 f (x0 ; y0 )
f (x0 ; y0 )

< 0;
x2
y 2
xy
2
 2
2 f (x0 ;y0 )
2 f (x0 ;y0 )
f (x0 ;y0 )
4)
y2

= 0,
x2
xy
( ).
.

41.13. ,

(x0 ; y0 ), fxx
(x0 ; y0 ) fyy
(x0 ; y0 ) .
2

, fxx
(x0 ; y0 ) fyy
(x0 ; y0 ) fxy
(x0 ; y0 ) > 0 , (x ;y ) 2
(fxy
0 0 )

, fxx (x0 ; y0 ) < 0, fyy (x0 ; y0 ) < f (x0 ;y0 ) < 0


xx

41.2.
z = x3 + y 3 3xy

41

91

:
1) :

z
2
=
3x

3y
=
0,
x
z
= 3y 2 3x = 0.
y
:
x1 = 1,

y1 = 1 x2 = 0,

y2 = 0.

2) :
2z
2z
2z
= 6x,
= 3,
= 6y.
x2
xy
y 2
3) M (1; 1):
 2 
 2 
 2 
z
z
z
=
6,
B
=
= 6,
=
3,
C
=
A=
x2 x=1
xy x=1
y 2 x=1
y=1

y=1

y=1

AC B 2 = 36 9 = 27 > 0; A > 0( C > 0).


, (1; 1) , :
zmin = 1.

4) M2 (0; 0):
A = 0,

B = 3,

C = 0;

AC B 2 = 9 < 0.
, , ().
41.4. . , , : .
41.5. z = f (x; y)
M
M .

M . .
z = f (x; y) G .

92

41

,
, ,
. G, , ,
z = f (x; y). , , ,
,
G.
.
,
z = f (x; y) G,
, G.

z = f (x; y) G.
,
.
41.3.
z = x2 y 2 x2 + y 2 6 4.
: zx = 2x zy =
= 2y.
2x = 0,
2y = 0,

P0 (0; 0),
.
, .. x2 + y 2 = 4. z = x2 y 2
x : z = x2 (4 x2 ), .. z = 2x2 4, 2 6 x 6 2. ,
x2 + y 2 = 4 z = 2x2 4 [2; 2].
(2; 2) . z = 4x,

41

93

4x = 0, x = 0; z|x=0 = 4. z|x=2 = 4, z|x=2 = 4. ,


, 4, , -4.
, z = x2 y 2 x2 + y 2 6 4
M1 (2; 0) M2 (2; 0) x2 + y 2 = 4 M3 (0; 2) M4 (0; 2) .
, x2 + y 2 = 4 .
:
x = 2 cos t,

y = 2 sin t,

(0 6 t 6 2).

z = x2 y 2 = 4 cos2 t 4 sin2 t = 4 cos 2t.


0 6 t 6 2.
z = 4 cos 2t, z = 8 sin 2t. 8 sin 2t = 0, t1 = /2,
t2 = , t3 = 3/2, . 4 cos 2t , t = 0
t = 2, ,
: z1 = 4 ( ) z2 = 4 (
).
41.5. .
41.4. 2a , .
: x, y z,
V = xyz :
2xy + 2xz + 2yz = 2a, x > 0, y > 0, z > 0.
.
.
, .

(41.16)

u = f (x; y)

, x y
(41.17)

(x; y) = 0

94

41

P (x; y)
L Oxy, (41.17), f (x; y)
(. . 37)

z
z=f(x;y)

y
L
x
. 37.

(41.17) , y, ( x) , (41.16)
y, x. ,
, , (41.17)
.

.
41.6. . y x,
(41.17), u
x, , u
x ,
.
f
f dy
du
=
+

dx
x y dx
(41.18)

f dy
f
+
=0
x y dx

(41.17) x, :
(41.19)

dy
+
= 0.
x
y dx

41

95

x y, (41.17).
(41.19) (41.18),
:
 



f
dy
f
+
+
+
= 0,
(41.20)
x
x
y
y dx
.
, (41.20) :

f
+
= 0.
y
y
x y
(41.20):
f

+
= 0.
x
x
, :

x + x = 0,
f
(41.21)
+
= 0,
y
y

(x; y) = 0.
.. (41.21) . , (41.20)

(41.22)

F (x; y; ) = f (x; y) + (x; y)

x, y .
, (41.16)
(41.17) , (41.22), x, y (41.21) x
y ( ). ,
(41.21) , .
.
.

96

41


u = f (x1 ; . . . ; xn )

(41.23)


:
1 (x1 ; . . . ; xn ) = 0
...
m (x1 ; . . . ; xn ) = 0,

m < n

:
F (x1 ; . . . ; xn ; 1; . . . ; m) =
= f (x1 ; . . . ; xn ) + 1 1 (x1 ; . . . ; xn ) + + m m (x1 ; . . . ; xn ).
n + m ,
:
f
1
m
+

=0

1
m
x
x
x1

1
1

...

f
1
m
+ 1 x
+ + m
=0
xn
xn
n
(41.24)

1 = 0

...

m = 0
(41.24) x1 , . . . , xn (
1 , . . . , m ),
( ).

41.5. (41.16) .
:
F (x; y; ) = xyz + (2xy + 2xz + 2yz 2a).
:

yz + (y + z) = 0,

xz + (x + z) = 0,

xy + (x + y) = 0,

xy + xz + yz a = 0.

x,
y, z ; , :

41

97

. , :
= 3xyz
2a


3x
(y
+
z)
= 0,
yz
1

2a


xz 1 3y (x + z) = 0,
2a

3z

xy 1 2a
(x + y) = 0,

xy + xz + yz a = 0.

.. x, y, z , :

1 3x
(y + z) = 0,

2a

1 3y (x + z) = 0,
2a
3z

1 2a
(x + y) = 0,

xy + xz + yz a = 0.

x = y, y = z,
:
r
a
x=y=z=
.
3
,
, .. x = 0 y = 0
z = 0.
: p
,
a3 .

41.7. .
, ,
.
, ,
.
z = f (x; y)
P0 (x0 ; y0 ). grad f (P0 )
P1 (x1 ; y1 ). grad f (P1 ) ; grad f (P1 )
P2 (x2 ; y2 ) .. .
| grad f (Pn )| .

.

98

41

, (
)



41.

41.1. z = x2 +xy +y 2 6x3y

:
,
:
z
z
= 2x + y 6;
= x + 2y 3
x
y
 z


=
0
2x
+
y

6
=
0
x=3
x

z
=0
x + 2y 3 = 0
y=0
y

2
= zxx
zyy
(zxy
) .

zxx
= 2;

zyy
= 2;

zxy
= 1= 221=3>0


M (3; 0) . zxx
> 0,
.
: M (3; 0) .
41.2. z = y 3 + 3x2 y
12x 15y
: :

zx = 6xy 12; zy = 3y 2 + 3x2 15




 2
zx = 0
6xy 12 = 0
x + y2 = 5

zy = 0
3y 2 + 3x2 15 = 0
xy = 2
 2


x + 2xy + y 2 = 9
(x + y)2 = 9
x + y = 3

2
2
2
x 2xy + y = 1
(x y) = 1
x y = 1
4 , 4 :
M1 (1; 2);

M2 (2; 1);

M3 (1; 2);

M4 (2; 1)


2
= zxx
zyy (zxy
)

zxx
= 6y; zyy
= 6y; zxy
= 6x
2
2
= 6y6y (6x) = 36(y x2 )

41

99

|M1 = 36(4 1) > 0; |M2 = 36(1 4) < 0


|M3 = 36(4 1) > 0; |M4 = 36(1 4) < 0
M1 M3 , M2 M4
.

zxx
M1 M3 .

zxx
|M1 = 6 2 > 0;

zxx
|M3 = 6 (2) < 0

M1 , M3 .
41.3. z = 2x2 + (y 1)2
: ,
:

z
x
z
y

z
z
= 4x;
= 2(y 1)
x
y


=0
4x = 0
x=0

=0
2(y 1) = 0
y=1



2
= zxx
zyy (zxy
) :

zxx
= 4,

zyy
= 2,

zxy
= 0= 420=8>0

, M (0; 1) .
zxx
> 0, .
: M (0; 1) .

41.4.

p
2
2
z = 1 x y x + y 1 = 0.
p
: z = 1 x2 y 2
(. . 38), L : x + y 1 = 0
Oxy.
, P ( 12 ; 21 ), A(1; 0) B(0; 1),
A B.
, M N .

100

41

z= 1-x 2-y
M
P

x+y-1=
B

x
. 38. (41.4)

p x + y
1 = 0 y = 1 x.
z = 1 x2 (1 x)2 z = 2x 2x2 . x
2x x2 > 0 x [0; 1]
zx = 224x
,
2x2x2

zx = 0 x0 = 21 ,

1
1
: z 2 = 2 ; z(0) = 0; z(1) = 0
,
:  
1
1
1
1
x 0 = y0 = 1 x 0 = z
= ;
2
2
2
2
x1 = 0 y0 = 1 x0 = 1 z(0) = 0;
x2 = 1 y0 = 1 x0 = 0 z(1) = 0.
41.5. z = 6 3x 4y
, x2 + y 2 = 1
: :
F (x; y; ) = 6 3x 4y + (x2 + y 2 1)
:


3
,
3 + 2x = 0,
x = 2
Fx = 0,
2

F = 0,
4 + 2y = 0,
y= ,

2
2 2
y
2
x + y 1 = 0.
x + y 1 = 0.
F = 0.

3
x = 2 ,
y = 2 ,

3 2
+
2

3
3
x
=
,
,

x = 2
2
2
2
y = ,
y = ,

2
2542
2
= 25 .
= 0.
1 = 0.
42

41

x1 = 35 ,
y1 = 45 ,

1 = 52 .

101

x2 = 53 ,
y2 = 45 ,

2 = 25 .

d2 F = Fxx
dx2 +2Fxy
dxdy+Fyy
dy 2 .

Fxx
= 2; Fyy
= 2; Fxy
= 0 d2 F = 2dx2 + 2dy 2 .
1 = 52 , x1 = 35 , y1 = 54 , d2 F = 5(dx2 + dy 2 ) > 0 ,
.
2 = 25 , x2 = 53 , y2 = 54 , d2 F = 5(dx2 + dy 2 ) < 0
,


 .
4
3
4 5 = 1
zmin = 6 3 5

zmax = 6 3 35 4 54 = 11
, (zmax ) (zmin )
z = 6 3x 4y x2 + y 2 = 1 

: Mmax 53 ; 45 , Mmin 53 ; 45 .

41.6.
z = x2 xy + y 2 4y x x > 0, y > 0, 3x + 2y 12 6 0.
:



zx = 0,
x = 2,
2x y 1 = 0,

zy = 0.
x + 2y 4 = 0.
y = 3.

M (2; 3) : 2 > 0;
3 > 0; 3 2 + 2 3 12 = 0
z|M = 22 23+32 432 = 7.
. x = 0 zI = y 2 4y
2y 12 6 0, y > 0.
[0; 6].
, (zI )y = 2y 4,
(zI )y = 0 2y 4 = 0 y = 2.
zI |y=2 = 22 4 2 = 4 :
zI |y=0 = 0, zI |y=6 = 62 4 6 = 12. ,
x = 0 y = 6 : (zI ) = 12,
y = 2 : (zI ) = 4.

y = 0. , y = 0
x = 4 : (zII ) = 12, x = 21 :
(zII ) = 41 .

102

41

: 3x+2y 12 = 0, y = 6 3x

2

2
x > 0,
19x + 12.

. zIII = 19x
4
y > 0.


x > 0,
x > 0,

, x 3x
6 2 > 0.
x 6 0.
0 4. zIII [0; 4]. ,
x = 2, y = 3 : zIII = 7,
x = 0, y = 6 : zIII = 12 (, ).
,
, z = 12
M1 (0; 6) M2 (4; 0),
z = 7 M3 (2; 3).
: z = 12, z = 7


41.741.9 .
41.7. z = x2 + xy + y 2 x 2y

41.8. z = x4 + y 4 2x2 + 4xy 2y 2

41.9. z = y 2 2x2 2y + 1

41.1041.11 .
41.10. z = 2x + y x2 + y 2 = 5
41.11. z = x2 + y 2 2x + 3y = 6
41.1241.13
.
41.12. z = xy + x + y 1 6 x 6 2, 2 6 y 6 3.
41.13. z = xy x2 + y 2 6 1
41.14. , z = x2 + y 2 z = 2x + y M ,
.

42

42.

103

. . . -. .
. .
42.1. . 33 .
.
42.1. w = f (z) z,
M , z M
w. w = f (z) ,
. M , N w, .
z , w
, w = f (z)
z N w.
42.2. w = f (z) M
z w, .
, z = f 1 (w), N w M z
.
42.2. .
( n N ) wn . . z
w (
): z = r(cos + i sin ), w = (cos + i sin ),
:

= rn
= n

104

42

, w = z n ,
z (n 1)argz
|z|n .
< < (k + 1) 2
,
k 2
n
n
k = 0, 1, . . . , n 1, w (

).

n
w = z n (. 33). ,
M , z 6= 0, n
,

n
z. n w = n z.
w = ez
, z = x + iy, ez = ex (cos y + i sin y)
x = 0, y = (33.23)
ei = cos + i sin .
, 2i. , e2ki = cos 2k + i sin 2k, (k Z)
ez+2ki = ez e2ki = ez 1 = ez .

z ln z, w, , ew = z.
w = ln z , z 6= 0.
z , ,
2:
ln z = ln r + i( + 2k), k Z

( = 0, r 6= 0)
ln z k = 0 .
ln z ln z
k ( ln z). , ln z z 6= 0.
w = z a , a = + i, z a = ea ln z
42.1. ln(1)
: (-1) :
1 = 1(cos + i sin ), .. z = 1, |z| = r = 1, = .

42

105

ln z, :
ln(1) = ln 1 + i( + 2k) = i( + 2k), k Z

ln(1)
sin z, cos z
iz
iz
eiz +eiz
;
cos
z
=
sin z = e e
2i
2

: eiz = cos z + i sin z.
, (. 33) 2,
sin(z) = sin(z), cos(z) = cos(z), sin2 z + cos2 z = 1, sin 2z = 2 sin z cos z,
cos 2z = cos2 zsin2 z .. , sin z cos z
.
42.2. cos i
:
2

e1 + e1
ei + ei
=
1, 54
cos i =
2
2
1.
42.3. .
42.3. w = f (z), z = x + iy, w =
= u(x; y) + iv(x; y),
z0 = x0 + iy0 , lim f (z)
zz0

:
lim f (z) = xx
lim u(x; y) + i xx
lim v(x; y)

zz0

0
yy0

0
yy0


.
42.4. w = f (z)
z0 ,
lim f (z) = f (z0 ). f (z)
zz0

D, .
.
42.5. f (z) f (z) :
f (z + z) f (z)
f (z) = lim
z0
z

106

42

, f (z) z.
z, w = f (z).

42.3. : f (z) = z 2 z + 3ez


5 ln z + sin z + cos z + tg z
:

1
5
1
f (z) = 2z + 3ez + cos z sin z +
z
cos2 z
2 z
w u = u(x; y)
v = v(x; y), w = u+iv
.
42.1. ( ).
f (z) = u(x; y) + iv(x; y) z
u(x; y) v(x; y) , f (z) z .
 u
v
= y
,
x
(42.1)
u
v
= x
y
:

(42.2)

f (z) =

v
v
u
u
u
v
u
u
+i
=
i
=
i
=
+i
x
x
y
y
x
y
y
x

.
42.4. f (z) = z
: z = x + iy (. 33) z = z iy.
u
v
u
v
u(x; y) = x, v(x; y) = y
= 1;
= 1
6=
,
x
y
x
y
f (z) = z .
42.6. f (z)
D, (, ) .

42

107

:
( )
( ) () , , . 2u
=
(42.1) x, y, :
x2
2v 2u
2v
=
;
=
.
xy y 2
xy
, :
(42.3)

2u 2u
+
=0
x2 y 2

v(x; y) :
(42.4)

2v 2v
+
=0
x2 y 2

(42.3), (42.4) , , . ,
.
,
, III .
42.5. (x; y) = x3 y 2 (x; y) =
= x3 3xy 2 .
: , (x; y) (x; y) 2

2 2
= 3x y ,
= 6xy 2 ,
(42.3) (42.4).
2
x
x
2
2
2

= 2x3 y,
= 2x3
+
= 6xy 2 + 2x3 6= 0. 2
2
2
y
y
x
y
3 2
, (x; y) = x y
.
2

2 2
2
2
= 3x 3y ;
= 6xy;
= 6x;
= 6x
+ 2 =
x
x2
y
y 2
x2
y
3
2
= 6x 6x = 0, (x; y) = x 3xy
, (x; y) =
= x3 3xy 2 .
46 (. 46.6)

108

42

42.4. . ,
.
42.2. () f (z),
a, :
f (a)
f (a)
(z a) +
(z a)2 + . . .
f (z) = f (a) +
1!
2!

(42.5)

:
(42.6)

z2 z3
+
+...
e =1+z+
2!
3!

(42.7)

z3 z5
sin z = z
+
...
3!
5!

(42.8)

z2 z4
+
...
cos z = 1
2!
4!

( z)
z2 z3
ln(1 + z) = z
+
...
2
3

(42.9)

(1 + z)a = 1 + az +

(42.10)

n=0

a(a 1) 2 a(a 1)(a 2) 3


z +
z +...
2
3

( |z| < 1)
,
Cn (z a)n .

1 2 ( 42.4).
, ,
.
1

(18151897)
(18021829)

42

n=0

109

42.3.
Cn (za)n a : z||z a| < R,

R :
1


(42.11)
R=
Cn+1
lim Cn
n

, ,

.
42.6.

n=0

(zi)n n
.
2n

: (42.3)
|z i| < R i.
(42.11):
1
=2

R=
n
n+12
lim 2n+1 n
n

42.4.

n=0

Cn (z a)n

,
.
,
r < |z a| < R, 0 r , 0 R ,
(z a):
(42.12)

f (z) =

n=

Cn (z a)n ,

.
42.7. (42.12)
3 f (z),
(42.13)

1
X

n=
3

Cn (z a)n = C1 (z a)1 + C2 (z a)2 + . . .

(18131854)

110

42

,
a) + C2 (z a)2 + . . . .

n=0

Cn (z a)n = C0 +C1 (z

42.5. f (z)
z|r < |z a| < R , (42.12).
, , , ,
.
42.8. a f (z),
z|0 < |z a| < R, f (z) .
:
a
lim f (z).
za

a , |f (z)|
z a (.. f (z) z a)
a , lim f (z) za
.
f (z)
.
42.6. , a
f (z) , , .. :

P
f (z) =
Cn (z a)n .
n=0

, a f (z) , +
P
, .. : f (z) =
Cn (z a)n .
n=k

, a f (z)
,
, .. :

P
f (z) =
Cn (z a)n .
n=

42.14. a f (z), k
.

42

111

1
, .. z = a f (z)

1
n 1 .
f (z)

42.9. f (z) (),


z (.. ).
, , . , , sin z, cos z .
42.7. z = 0
f (z) = sinz z
: (42.7),
z:
z2 z4
sin z
= 1
+
...
z
3!
5!
(42.6) z = 0
.
42.8. z = 0
f (z) = cosz z .
: (42.8),
z:
1
z
z3
cos z
= +
...
z
z 2! 4!
(42.6) z = 0 1-
. , z = 0
1
z

=
. , z = 0
f (z)
cos z
z
,

cos z
 z  cos z + z sin z
=
cos z
cos2 z
z = 0
42.9. z = 0
f (x) = e1/z .

112

42

: (42.6) :
1
1
1
+
+...
e =1+ +
z 2!z 2 3!z 3
, , z = 0 f (z) = e1/z
.
1
z


3541
42.


42.1. z = arcsin(4x2 +
+ y2)
42.2. ,
4x 36y 3z 2 = 0
2

42.3.


x xx+ y
z =
y

z
dz

, z = xy , y = ctg x
x dx
42.5. y y ,
ln y + x = ln x

42.6. z = x + 2y
M (4; 2) N (5; 3), grad z(M )
42.4.

42.7. z = x2 + xy + y2 +
+x2y m M x 0, y 0, y 10 + x.
M0 (1; 1; 3/2) ,
.

42.1.
: |4x2 + y 2 | 1 1 4x2 + y 2 1
 2
4x + y 2 1, x y,

4x2 + y 2 1,
a = 12 ; b = 1

(. 39)

42
y

111
000
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
1

-1/2

1/2
x

-1

. 39. 42.1

42.2.
:
z2
x2

4x 36y 3z = 0 y =
9
12
Ox
2

42.3.
:

x xx+ y
x3/2 x
z=
z=
+ y 1/2
y
y

3 1/2
x 1
z
3 x 2 z
x3/2 x 1 3

= 2
=
;
=
y 2
x
y
2y
y
y2
2
3 1/2
2
3/2
2
x 1
z
3
2(x x) 3 5/2
z
4

=
=
=
+ y
;
x2
y
y3
4
4 xy y 2

3
1/2
x 1
23 x
2z
= 2
=
xy
y2
2y 2
42.4.
:
z
z
= y xy1 ;
= xy ln x
x
y


z z dy
1
dz
=
=
+
= y xy1 + xy ln x 2

dx
x y dx
sin x
xctg ln ctg x
ctg x1
= ctg x x

sin2 x
z = xy ; y = ctg x

113

114

42

42.5.
:



1
y
1
y
1
ln y + x = ln x + 1 = y = y = y
y
x
x
x



 
1
1
1

=y
1
1 y 2 =
y = y
x
x
x
x

2


1
y
2
=y
1 2 =y 1
x
x
x

42.6.
: z =

x + 2y; M (4; 2); N (5; 3)

1
1
M N = (1; 1) |M N | = 2 cos = ; cos =
2
2



z
z
z
=
cos

+
cos =

l M
x M
y M


1
1
1
2

=
=
2 x + 2y 2 2 x + 2y 2 x = 4
y=2
1 1
3
1 1
= + = ,
8
2 8 2
8 2
z ~ z ~
1 ~
1 ~

grad z(M ) =
i
+
j.
i
+
j
=
x M
y M
2 8
8

42.7.

: z = x2 + xy +

y2
2

+ x 2y

z
z
2z
2z
= 2x + y + 1;
= x + y 2;
= 2;
= 1;
x
y
x2
y 2
 z


2z
=
0
2x
+
y
+
1
=
0
x = 3
x

=1

z
=0
x+y2=0
y=5
xy
y
 2 2
2z 2z
z
2z
=

= 2 1 > 0; 2 = 2 > 0 min


x2 y 2
xy
x
xmin = 3; ymin = 5; zmin = 6, 5
x 10 + x, x 0, y 0,
ABC x = 0, y = 0 y = x+10.

42

115

M (3; 5), z = 6, 5,
ABC (. 40).
B(0;10)

K(-3,8;6,2)
M(-3;5)

D(0;2)
A(-10;0)

E(-0,5;0)

C(0;0)

. 40. 42.7

:
dz
2
= y 2 = 0 y = 2.
x = 0: z = y2 2y y [0; 10],
dy
m M B(0; 10), C(0; 0)
D(0; 2).
dz
y = 0: z = x2 + x x [10; 0],
= 2x + 1 = 0 x = 21 .
dx
, m M ,
, A(10; 0) E( 12 ; 0).
2
y = x+10: z = x2 +x(x+10)+ (x+10)
+x2(x+10) = 25 x2 +19x+30;
2
dz
= 5x + 19 = 0 x = 3, 8. m M
dx
K(3, 8; 6, 2).
z(A) = z(10; 0) = 90, z(B) = z(0; 10) = 30, z(C) = z(0; 0) =
= 0, z(D) = z(0; 2) = 2, z(E) = z(0, 5; 0) = 0, 25, z(K) = z(3, 8; 6, 2) =
= 6, z(M ) = z(3; 5) = 6, 5, z(A) = z(10; 0) =
= M = 90 z(M ) = z(3; 5) = m = 6, 5. z z0 = fx (x0 ; y0 )(xx0 )+fy (x0 ; y0 )(y y0 ),
x0 = y0 = 1; z0 = 3/2; fx (x0 ; y0 ) = 2x0 +y0 +1 = 4; fy (x0 ; y0 ) = x0 +y0 2 = 0
, , z 3/2 = 4(x 1) 8x 2z 5 = 0.

116

42


42.8. z = ln(x2 y 2
4).

42.9. , :
4x 2y 2 z 2 = 0.
42.10.
z = arcsin xy .

dz
1
, z = uv
, u = sin x, v = x.
dx
dy d2 y

, 42.12.
2
dx
dx
2y = x + ln x
42.11.

42.13.
p
2
2
z = x + y M (3; 4)

42.14. z = x2 +y 2 +y2x
m M 0 x 2, 0 y 3. M0 (1; 0; 1) ,
.

43

117

VIII



43.

. , .
. .
, , .
43.1. . , .
: f (x)
F (x), f (x), ..
(43.1)

F (x) = f (x).

: f (x) F (x),

118

43

f (x)dx, ..
(43.2)

dF (x) = F (x)dx = f (x) dx.

43.1. F (x), f (x)


f (x).
, , f (x) = cos 2x F (x) = 12 sin 2x,




1
1
sin 2x = cos 2x d
sin 2x = cos 2x dx.
2
2

. : ?
, .
43.1.
.
( ) ,
, .
: , ? .
43.2. f (x) [a; b] F (x),
F (x) + C, C .
. , F (x) f (x),
F (x)+C (F (x) = f (x) (F (x)+C) = f (x)). ,
[a; b] f (x) F (x) (x).
T (43.1) :
(x) = f (x),
F (x) = f (x).
, , :
(43.3)

((x) F (x)) = 0.

43

119

,
, . (43.3) ,
(x) F (x) = C
(43.4)

(x) = F (x) + C.

(43.4) C . ,
F (x) + C .
, cos 2x 21 sin 2x + C,
3
x2 x3 + C.
43.2. . .
43.2. F (x) f (x), F (x) + C, C ,
,
.
R
f (x) dx. :
Z
(43.5)
f (x) dx = F (x) + C.
:

f (x)
f (x) dx

,
,

, :
Z
1
cos 2x dx = sin 2x + C,
2
Z
x3
2
+ C.
x dx =
3

( ,
) .
, .

120

43

,
, f (x) F (x) .
43.1

, . , ,
Z
sin x
dx ,
x
Z
2
ex dx .
,
.
,
( ) .

43.3. .
1. :
Z
Z
(43.6)
kf (x) dx = k f (x) dx.

2.
:
Z
Z
Z
(43.7)
(f (x) (x)) dx = f (x) dx (x) dx.

(43.6) (43.7) . 2 ( ) .
3.
:
Z

(43.8)
f (x) dx = f (x).

4. :
Z

(43.9)
d
f (x) dx = f (x) dx.

43

121

5.
C:
Z

(43.10)

dF (x) = F (x) + C.

(43.5) f (x) dx =
= dF (x) (. (43.2)).

43.15. (43.9) (43.10):


R
d .
.
43.16. (43.10) , , ,
Z

x dx =

x2
+ C,
2
Z

sin2 x
+ C,
sin x cos xdx = sin x d(sin x) =
2


Z
1
(ex tg x) ex
dx =
2x
cos
Z
(ex tg x)2
x
x
+ C,
(e tg x) d(e tg x) =
2
Z
Z
arcsin 2 x
arcsin x dx

= arcsin x d(arcsin x) =
+ C,
2
2
1

x
Z
Z
ln x
ln2 x
dx = ln x d(ln x) =
+ C.
x
2

:

dy = y dx
, x ,
, x - .

122

43

, ,
,
cos x dx = d(sin x),


1
dx = d(ex tg x),
ex
2
cos x
dx

= d arcsin x,
1 x2
dx
= d ln x.
x
() . .
( ), , .
. ,
. , 2
sinx x dx ex dx
2
, , sinx x ex .
43.4. . , ( ) ,
().
,

. , ,
, .
,
.

 n+1 
Z
Z
Z :
n+1
x
x
=
+ C, (n 6= 1), n = 0 dx =
1. xn dx = d
n+1
n+1
= Zx + C, Z
dx
2.
= d(ln(x)) = ln |x| + C,
Z x
Z
3. sin x dx = d( cos x) = cos x + C,

43

4.

123

cos x dx = d(sin x) = sin x + C,


Z
dx
5.
= d(tg x) = tg x + C,
2x
cos
Z
Z
dx
6.
= d( ctg x) = ctg x + C,
2
sin
x

Z
Z 
Z
x
1
x
dx
1
dx
arctg
=
arctg
+
C,
=
d
= arctg x + C,
7.
2 + x2
2
a
a
a
a
a
1
+
x
Z
Z
Z
x
dx
x
dx

= d arcsin = arcsin + C,
= arcsin x + C,
8.
a
a
a2 xZ2
1 x2
Z
Z
ax
ax
9.
ax dx = d
=
+ C,
ex dx = ex + C,
ln a
ln a
Z

dx

10.
= ln |x + x2 a2 | + C,
x2 a2




Z
Z
x a
a + x
dx
dx
1
1
+ C,
+ C,
11.
=
ln
=
ln

2
2
2
2
x a
2a
x+a
a x
2a
a x

( ). 10 11 .
.
,

Z

43.17. , x
x.
( )
,
.
, .
43.5. .

(43.11)

f (x)dx =

f ((t))(t)dt,

124

43

,
:
Z
d f (x)dx = f (x)dx,
Z
d f ((t))(t)dt = f ((t))d((t)) = |x = (t)| = f (x)dx.
, (43.11) .
x = (t) t : t = (x)
(t) :
Z
Z
f (x)dx = f ((t) (t))dt = (t) + C = ((x)) + C.
43.18.
R (43.11) ,
, f (x)dx x
(t) dx (t)dt.
R
3
43.1. I = x2 ex dx.

:
x3 x2 . x
, . , x3 = t,
3x2 dx = dt. , x2
dt.

:
Z
3
1
1
1 3
2
et dt = et + C = ex + C.
I = x = t 3x dx = dt =
3
3
3
43.2. I =

sin kx dx.

: kx = t = dx = dt
. :
k
Z
1
1
1
sin tdt = cos t + C = cos kx + C.
I=
k
k
k
43.3. I =

dx
.
x2 a2

43

125

t = x + x2 a2
 2

x
x a2 + x
dx
=
dt = 1 +
x2 a2
x2 a2
dx
dt
dx
dt

= .
t
x2 a2
x + x2 a2
x2 a2
:
Z

dt
I=
= ln |t| + C = ln |x + x2 a2 | + C.
t
N10 .
43.6. . 1 2 .
R
43.4. I = (x 3)2 dx;
:
Z
Z
Z
Z
I = (x2 6x + 9)dx = x2 dx 6 xdx + 9 dx =

x3
x2
x3
= ( + C1 ) (6 + C2 ) + (9x + C3 ) =
3x2 + 9x + C.
3
2
3
, C1 C2 + C3 , C.

.
R 2
dx.
43.5. I = x3
x
:
Z
3
12 +1
+1
2

3
1
x
2
x
I = (x 2 3x 2 )dx = 3
3 1
+ C = x2 x 6 x + C.
5
+1
2 + 1
2
43.6. I =

dx
;
sin2 x cos2 x

:
Z
Z
Z
dx
dx
sin2 x + cos2 x
dx
=
+
= tg x ctg x + C.
I=
2
cos2 x
sin x cos2 x
sin2 x

126

43

:
Z
Z
d(2x)
dx
=2
= 2 ctg 2x + C.
I =4
2
sin 2x
sin2 2x
R
43.7. : I = tg5 x dx.

:


Z
Z
Z
1
dx
3
I = tg 3 x tg 2 xdx = tg 3 x

1
dx
=
tg
x

cos2 x
cos2 x
Z
Z
Z
Z
4
tg
x
tg 3 xdx = tg 3 d tg x tg 3 xdx =
tg 3 xdx.
4

n = 5, n = 3.
.


Z
1
tg4 x
tg x
1 dx =
I=
4
cos2 x
Z
Z
tg4 x
tg4 x tg2 x
=
tg xd tg x + tg xdx =

ln | cos x| + C.
4
4
2
,

:
1
(sin(n m)x + sin(n + m)x) ,
2
1
sin nx sin mx = (cos(n m)x cos(n + m)x) ,
2
1
cos nx cos mx = (cos(n m)x + cos(n + m)x) .
2
R
43.8. : I = sin 2x cos 3x dx.

(43.12)

sin nx cos mx =

:
Z
1
1
1
( sin x + sin 5x)dx = cos x
cos 5x + C.
I=
2
2
10

43.9. I =

dx
.
x2 a2

: ,


1
1
1
1
=

.
x2 a2
2a x a x + a

43

127


. :
Z

Z
d(x + a)
d(x a)
1

=
I=
2a
xa
x+a


x a
1
1
+ C.
=
(ln |x a| ln |x + a|) =
ln
2a
2a
x + a
N11.

43.7. . : d(uv) = udv + vdu;


, :
Z
Z
(43.13)
udv = uv vdu.
(43.13) .
, :
I)
Z
Z
Z
Pn (x)ex dx
Pn (x) sin x dx
Pn (x) cos x dx.
:
Z
Pn (x)ex dx =
 x 
e
u = Pn (x), du = Pn (x)dx,
dv = ex = d
,

Z
ex
,
Pn (x) sin x dx =
v=

 cos x 

u = Pn (x), du = Pn (x)dx,
dv = sin x dx = d
,

Z
cos x
,
Pn (x) cos x dx =
v=



sin
x
u = Pn (x), du = Pn (x)dx,
dv = cos x dx = d
,

sin x
.
v=

128

43

II)
Z
Z
Z
Pn (x) ln x dx
Pn (x) arcsin x dx
Pn (x) arctg x dx.

:
Z
Pn (x) ln x dx =
Z
dx
,
dv = Pn (x)dx, v = Pn (x) dx,
u = ln x, du =
x
Z
Pn (x) arcsin x dx =
Z
dx
, dv = Pn (x)dx, v = Pn (x) dx,
u = arcsin x, du = p
1 (x)2
Z
Pn (x) arctg x dx =
Z
dx
, dv = Pn (x)dx, v = Pn (x) dx.
u = arctg x, du =
1 + (x)2
III) ;

43.10. I =
:

x2 ln x dx.

x arctg x dx.



dx
u = ln x
du
=
x =
I =
x3
x3
2
dv = x dx = d 3 v = 3
Z
x3
1
x3
x3
2
=
ln x
x dx =
ln x
+ C.
3
3
3
9

43.11. I =

:


Z
dx
2
u = arctg x
1
x2 dx
du
=
x
2
x
+1


=
I =
2
2
= 2 arctg x 2
x2 + 1
dv = xdx = d x2 v = x2
Z 2
x2
1
x2
x +11
=
arctg x
dx =
arctg x
2
2
x2 + 1
2
Z
Z
1
dx
x2
1
1
1
dx +
=
arctg
x

x
+
arctg x + C.

2
2
x2 + 1
2
2
2

43

43.12. I =

129

x2 sin x dx.

.
:

u = x2

du
=
2xdx
= x2 cos x+
I =
dv = sin xdx = d( cos x) v = cos x


Z
u=x

du
=
dx
=
+ 2 x cos xdx =
dv = cos xdx = d(sin x) v = sin x
= x2 cos x + 2x sin x + 2 cos x + C.

43.13. I =
:

u=x
du = dx
I =
3x
dv = e dx v = 31 e3x
1
1
= xe3x e3x + C.
3
9

xe3x dx.


Z
1 3x 1
= xe
e3x dx =
3
3

, , .

,
.
R
43.14. I = eax cos nx dx.

:


ax

u = eax
du
=
ae
dx
=
I =
dv = cos nx dx v = n1 sin nx
Z
a
1 ax
eax sin nx dx =
= e sin nx
n
n


ax
u = eax
du = ae dx 1 ax
=
= e sin nx
dv = sin nx dx v = n1 cos nx n


Z
1 ax
a
a
e cos nx +
eax cos nx dx =

n
n
n
1
a
a2
= eax sin nx + 2 eax cos nx 2 I.
n
n
n
, I. , :
Z
eax (a cos nx + n sin nx)
ax
+ C.
I = e cos nx dx =
a2 + n2

130

43

C ,
.
R
x2 a2 dx.
43.15. I =
:

u = x2 a2 du = xdx

x2 dx
2
2
2
2


x
a
I =
= x x a x2 a2 =
dv = dx
v=x
Z
Z 2
2
2

dx
x

a
+
a

= x x2 a2
dx = x x2 a2 I a2
.
x2 a2
x2 a2
, :
Z

dx
,
I = x x2 a2 I a2
x2 a2

1
a
x
I = x x2 a2 arcsin + C.
2
2
a

43.

43.1 .

.
43.1. f (x) =

1
.
cos2 2x

: F (x) = 12 tg 2x + C.
: f (x) = F (x) = ( 21 tg 2x) =

1
2

2 cos12 2x =

1
.
cos2 2x

1
5

5x4 + 0 = x4 .

43.2. f (x) = x4 .
5

: F (x) = x5 + C.
5
: f (x) = F (x) = ( x5 + C) =
43.3. f (x) = x2 .

: F (x) = 2 ln | x| + C.
: f (x) = F (x) = (2 ln | x| + C) = 2( x1 )(1) + 0 = x2 .
43.2 , .
,
.

43

131

.
N1 :
R
43.4. I = sin3 x cos x dx.
:
, d(sin x) = cos xdx,
Z
sin4 x
3
+ C.
I = sin xd sin x =
4
43.5. I =

arctg x
dx.
1+x2

dx
: , d(arctg x) = 1+x
2 ,
Z
(arctg x)1/2+1
2
1/2
I = (arctg x) d arctg x =
= (arctg x)3/2 + C.
1/2 + 1
3

N2 :
R
43.6. I1 = tg x dx, I2 = ctg x dx.

Z
sin x dx
d cos x
I1 =
=
= ln | cos x| + C.
cos x
cos x
Z
Z
d sin x
cos x dx
=
= ln | sin x| + C.
I2 =
sin x
sin x
R
.
43.7. I = x dx
ln x
:
Z
I=

dx
=
x ln x

dx/x
=
ln x

d ln |x|
= ln | ln |x|| + C.
ln x

N3 N4 :
R
43.8. I = sin 5x dx.

: 5 , 5
,
15 :
Z
1
1
sin 5x d5x = cos 5x + C.
I=
5
5
R
43.9. I = ex cos ex dx.

132

43

: d(ex ) = ex dx, :
Z
I = cos ex dex = sin ex + C.
,
R
dx
43.10. I = x2 cos
2 1 .
x

I=
43.11. I =
:

d x1
1
+ C.
=
tg
x
cos2 x1

dx
.
sin2 (3x5)

1
d(3x 5)
=

ctg(3x 5) + C.
3
sin2 (3x 5)
R x3 dx
43.12. I = 5x
8.
1
I=
3




4
dx
1
1
5+x

I=
= ln
+ C.
4
( 5)2 (x4 )2
8 5 5 x4
R
2
43.13. I = x3x dx.
Z

1
I=
2

3x
3 dx =
+ C.
2 ln 3
x2

,
:
Z
Z
Z
(f (x) (x)) dx = f (x) dx (x) dx,
Z
Z
kf (x) dx = k f (x) dx.
43.14. I =

x4 10x2 +5
x2

dx.

43

133

:

Z
Z
Z
Z 
5
2
2
dx + 5 x2 dx =
x 10 + 2 dx = x dx 10
I=
x
x3
5
=
10x + C.
3
x
q 
R 
2x + x2 dx.
43.15. I =

:


Z 1
Z 1
2

x x + 2 x + C.
I = 2 x 2 dx + 2 x 2 dx = 2
3
R
43.16. I = cos 2x cos 5x dx.
: Z
Z
1
1
I=
(cos 7x + cos 3x) dx =
cos 7xd(7x)+
2
14
Z
1
1
1
+
cos 3x d(3x) =
sin 7x + sin 3x + C.
6
14
6

.
.
.

R
43.17. I = 9x2 3 x3 + 10 dx.

3
1
x + 10 = t
R
= 3 t 31 dt = 3 t13 +1 + C =
: I = 2
+1
3x dx = dt
3

= 49 t 3 t + C = 94 (x3 + 10)3 x3 + 10 + C.
R 4xdx
43.18. I =
.
5
8x2


1
8 x2 = t
R
= 2 t 15 dt = 2 t15 +1 + C =
: I =
5 +1
2x dx = dt
4
4
= 25 t 5 + C = 52 (8 x2 ) 5 + C.
R cos x dx
.
43.19. I = 24+sin
x


4 + sin x = t
R
= 2 dt = 2 ln |t| + C = 2 ln(4 +
: I =
t
cos x dx = dt
+ sin x) + C.

43.19. 4 + sin x > 0,


.

134

43

43.20. I =

R q arcsin x
1x2

dx.


arcsin x = t
I = dx
= dt
1x2



R
=
t dt =

2
t+ C =
:
t
3

= 23 arcsin x arcsin x + C.

1 x2
:
Z
Z
dx
arcsin x
arcsin x d(arcsin x) =
=
I=
1 x2

2
= arcsin x arcsin x + C.
3
.
R
43.21. I = ex (ex + 2)2 dx.
R
x
3
: I = (ex + 2)2 d(ex + 2) = (e +2)
+ C.
3
R x +sin x
dx.
43.22. I = eex cos
x
R
x cos x)
: I = d(e
= ln |ex cos x| + C.
x
e cos x
R
dx.
43.23. I = x+5
x2 +3

R
R d(x2 +3) R
1
dx

=
+
=
x2 + 3+
: I = xx2dx+3 +5 xdx
2 +3
2
x2 +3
(x2 +3)

+ ln |x + x2 + 3| + C.
R x4 dx
43.24. I = 1+x
10 .
R dx5
1
5
: I = 15 1+(x
5 )2 = 5 arctg x + C.
.
R
43.25. I = xeax dx.



u=x
R ax
du
=
dx
1
xeax


e dx =

: I =
1 ax =
ax
a
a
dv = e dx v = a e
ax
ax
= xea ea2 + C.
R
43.26. I = xn ln x dx (n 6= 1).


dx
u = ln x
R n1
du
=
xn+1
x
x
dx =
: I =
xn+1 = n+1 ln x +
n
dv = x dx v = n+1

n+1
1
+ C.
= xn+1 ln x n+1

43

135

n = 1, :
Z
Z
1
dx
= ln x d(ln x) = ln2 x + C.
I = ln x
x
2
R ax
43.27. I = e sin nx dx.
:


ax
u = eax ,

du
=
ae
dx
= 1 eax cos nx+
I =
1
dv = sin nx dx, v = n cos nx
n


Z
ax
ax

a
u=e
du = ae dx
eax cos nx dx =
+
=
dv = cos nx dx v = n1 sin nx
n


Z
a 1 ax
a
1 ax
e sin nx
eax sin nx dx =
= e cos nx +
n
n n
n
1
a
a2
eax cos nx + 2 2 I.
n Z
n
n
eax (a sin nx n cos nx)
ax
+ C.
I = e sin nx dx =
a2 + n2

,
R ax
e cos nx dx.

.
43.28. f (x) = 6x2 .
43.29. f (x) = tg 5x.
.
R dx
43.30. I = x2x
4.
R 2
43.31. I = sincosx2xdx .
R
x dx

.
43.32. I = cos
3
sin x
R
43.33. I = (1 7x)5 x dx.
R
43.34. I = etg x cosdx2 x .
R q arcsin 3 x
dx.
43.35. I =
1x2

136

43

43.36. I =
43.37. I =
43.38. I =


2 +2x

ex

(x + 1) dx.

x dx .
x2 6

e x dxx .

R
5

9 ex ex dx.
R
43.40. I = ( x 1)2 dx.
R
3
43.41. I = (x1)
dx.
x
R
43.42. I = (sin 5x cos x) dx.
43.39. I =

.
R
43.43. I = x 2x2 + 7 dx.
R
dx
43.44. I = x(2x+5)
2 +5x13 .
R
3x dx
.
43.45. I = sin
5+cos 3x
R
43.46. I = 3 tg 2x cosdx
2 2x .

.
R
x
43.47. I = 2+ln
.
x
R sin 2x dx
43.48. I = 7+cos
2 x.
R
3
43.49. I = x+x
dx.
4
x +5
.
R
43.50. I = x sin 2x dx.
R
43.51. I = arctg x dx.
R
43.52. I = e2t cos 3t dt.

44

137



44.

. .
44.1. .
34 .
A
,
xa
A
(n = 2, 3, ...),
.
(x a)n
Mx + N
. 2
(D = p2 4q < 0),
x + px + q
Mx + N
(D = p2 4q < 0, n = 2, 3...).
IV. 2
2
(x + px + q)

I.

.

, 1 2.
Z
d(x a)
Adx
=A
= A ln |x a| + C.
I.
xa
xa
Z
Z
Adx
(x a)n+1
n
.
= A (x a) d(x a) = A
+C =
(x a)n
n + 1
A
=
+ C.
(1 n)(x a)n1
Z

, ax2 + bx + c,

(44.1)

b
1
(ax2 + bx + c) = ax + = t
2
2

138

44

1 2
(x + pq + q) = t dx = dt
Mx + N
2 p
dx
=
.
x+ =t
2
x = t p2
x + px + q
2
Z
Z
M t + (N M2p )
M (t 2p ) + N
dt =
=
dt.
2
(t 2p )2 + p(t 2p ) + q
t2 + (q P4 )
Z

p2
= a2 > 0,
q
4


Z
Z
tdt
dt
Mp
Mx + N
dx
=
M
+
N

=
x2 + px + q
t2 + a2
2
t2 + a2


M
Mp 1
t
2
2
=
ln(t + a ) + N
arctg + C.
2
2
2a
a
t a , :
Z
N M2p
x + p4
Mx + N
M
2
+ C.
(44.2)
dx =
ln(x + px + q) + q
arctg q
x2 + px + q
2
p2
P2
q 4
q 4
Z


:
) , , , .. 2x+p. 2x+p
M x+N. 2x+p N/2
N M p/2. ,
M
Mp
(2x + p) + N
= M x + N.
2
2
)
Mx + N
x2 + px + q

(2x + p) M2 + N Mc p
x2 + px + q
:
N M2p
M 2x + p
+
.
2 x2 + px + q x2 + px + q
, .

44

139


:

p2
p 2
2
+q .
x + px + 1 = x +
2
4
11,
4q p2 < 0, 7, 4q p2 > 0.

44.20. x2 +
+ px + q ax2 + bx + c,
a .
R x+1
44.1. : I = x2 +4x+8
dx.

: t, .. t = x + 2, x = t 2 dx = dt. ,
Z
Z
Z
t2+1
t1
x+1
dx
=
dt
=
=
I=
x2 + 4x + 8
(t 2)2 + 4(t 2) + 8
t2 + 4
Z
Z
dt
1
1
t
tdt
2

=
ln(t
+
4)

arctg
+C =
=
t2 + 4
t2 + 4
2
2
2
1
1
x+2
= ln(x2 + 4x + 8) arctg
+ C.
2
2
2
138 .
2x + 4.
2. , 2 , 4-2:
x+1
1 2x + 4 2
=
x2 + 4x + 8
2 x2 + 4x + 8

:
1 2x + 4
1
1 2x + 4 2
=

.
2 x2 + 4x + 8
2 x2 + 4x + 8 (x + 2)2 + 4
:
Z
Z
1
d(x2 + 4x + 8)
d(x + 2)
I=

=
2
x2 + 4x + 8
(x + 2)2 + 22
1
1
x+2
= ln(x2 + 4x + 8) ln arctg
+ C.
2
2
2
IV. IV , , :

Z
Z
Z
tdt
Mp
dt
Mx + N
dx
=
M
+
N

.
(44.3)
(x2 + px + q)n
(t2 + a2 )n
2
(t2 + a2 )n

140

44

(44.3) :
Z
Z
tdt
1
1
2
2 n
2
2
(t
+
a
)
d(t
+
a
)
=
=
+ C.
(t2 + a2 )n
2
2(1 n)(t2 + a2 )n1
R
dt
In = (t2 +a
2 )n :
Z 2
Z
1
(t + a2 ) t2
dt
= 2
dt =
In =
(t2 + a2 )n
a
(t2 + a2 )n
Z

Z
1
t2 dt
dt
= 2
.

a
(t2 + a2 )n1
(t2 + a2 )n
R
, (t2 +adt2 )n1 = In1 , :


Z
1
t2 dt
(44.4)
In = 2 In1
.
a
(t2 + a2 )n
R
2
(t2t+adt2 )n , :



u=t
du
=
dt
:

1

dv = 2 tdt2 n v =
2
2
n1
(t +a )
2(1n)(t +a )
Z
t
1
t2 dt
In1 .
=

(t2 + a2 )n
2(1 n)(t2 + a2 )n1 2(1 n)

(44.4), , :


t
1 2n 3
.
In1 +
(44.5)
In = 2
a
2n 2
2(n 1)(t2 + a2 )n1
. IV n
IV n 1.
(44.5) n 1 ,
.
R dt
44.2. : I3 = (t2 +1)
3.
: a = 1, n = 3. (44.5), :


1 233
3
t
t
I3 = 2
=
I2 +
I
+
.
2
1 232
2(3 1)(t2 + 1)2
4
4(t2 + 1)2
:
Z
223
t
1
t
dt
=
I
+
=
I
+
.
I2 =
1
1
(t2 + 1)2
222
2(2 1)(t2 + 1)
2
2(t2 + 1)

44


I1 =

I2 =

141

dt
= arctg t + C,
t2 + 1

t
1
arctg t +
+C
2
2(t2 + 1)


1
t
t
arctg t +
+
+C =
2
2(t2 + 1)
4(t2 + 1)2
3t
3
t
+
+
arctg t + C.
=
4(t2 + 1)2 8(t2 + 1) 8
R
R(x)dx, R(x) .
36

() .
R
R(x)dx
.
3
I3 =
4

44.3.
Z
2x2 + 5x 8
I=
dx.
(x 1)3 (x + 2)2

: .
:
D
A
B
C
E
2x2 + 5x 8
+
D
.
=
+
+
+
(x 1)3 (x + 2)2
(x 1)3 (x 1)2 x 1
(x + 2)2 x + 2
:
2x2 + 5x 8 = A(x + 2)2 + B(x 1)(x + 2)2 + C(x 1)2 (x + 2)2 +
+ D(x 1)3 + E(x 1)3 (x + 2).

A, B, C, D, E , :

x = 1 1 = 9A A = 91 ,

10

x = 2 10 = 27D D = 27 ,
77
,
x = 2 10 = 16A + 16C + D + 4E 4B + 4C + E = 27

x C + E = 0,

. . 8 = 4A 4B + 4C D 2E 2B 2C + E =

97
.
27

142

44

, A D.
B, C, E

C + E = 0,
97
,
2B 2C + E = 27

4B + 4C + E = 77 ,
27
, :

B=

13
13
29
, C= , E= .
27
27
27

,
Z
Z
2x2 + 5x 8
1/9
29/27
13/27
dx
=
(
+
+
+
(x 1)3 (x + 2)2
(x 1)3 (x 1)2
x1
10/27
29 1
13/27
1
1
+
+
)dx
=

(x + 2)2
x+2
18 (x 1)2 27 x 1
13
10 1
13

ln |x 1|
+
ln |x + 2| + C =
27
27 x + 2 27

13 x + 2
26x2 + 5x 34
+
ln
=
+ C.
18(x 1)2 (x + 2) 27 x 1
44.4.
Z 4
x + 5x3 6x + 5
dx.
I=
x3 + 2x2 1

: , :
x4 + 5x3 6x + 5
6x2 5x + 8
=x+3+ 3
.
x3 + 2x2 1
x + 2x2 1

x3 + 2x2 1 . x = 1.
x + 1 . , :
x3 + 2x2 1 = (x + 1)(x2 + x 1).
x2 + x 1
. ,
.

44

143

:
6x2 5x + 8
A
Bx + C
=
+
.
(x + 1)(x2 + x 1)
x + 1 x2 + x 1

:
6x2 5x + 8 = A(x2 + x 1) + (Bx + C)(x + 1) =
= (A + B)x2 + (A + B + C)x A + C.

A, B, C
, :

x = 1 = 7 = A = A = 7,
x2 6 = A + B = B = 1,

8 = A + C = C = 1.
,

7
x+1
6x2 5x + 8
=
+
.
(x + 1)(x2 + x 1)
x + 1 x2 + x 1


:
1 2x + 1 + 1
1 2x + 1
1
1
x+1
=

=
+
.
x2 + x 1
2 x2 + x 1
2 x2 + x 1 2 (x + 12 )2 54
:

Z 
7
1
1
2x + 1
1
dx =
x+3
I=
+
+
x + 1 2 x2 + x 1 2 (x + 12 )2 54
Z
Z
Z
Z
d(x + 12 )
1
d(x2 + x 1) 1
= x dx 3
dx +
+
=
2
x2 + x 1
2
(x + 12 )2 54



1
2
1
1 x + 2 25
x
2
+ C.
+ 3x 7 ln |x + 1| + ln |x + x 1| + ln
=
2
2
2 x + 1 + 5
2
2
44.5.
Z 4
x + 5x3 7x2 + 5
dx.
I=
x3 x2 + 5x 5

144

44

: , , . , :
x4 + 5x3 7x2 + 5
6x2 + 25x 35
=x+6 3
.
x3 x2 + 5x 5
x x2 + 5x 5
:
x3 x2 + 5x 5 = x2 (x 1) + 5(x 1) = (x 1)(x2 + 5).

:
6x2 + 25x 35
A
Bx + C
=
+
.
x3 x2 + 5x 5
x1
x2 + 5
:
6x2 + 25x 35 = A(x2 + 5) + (Bx + C)(x 1).
A, B, C , :

x = 1 4 = 6A = A = 3 ,
x2 6 = A + B = B = 6 A = 6 + 32 = 20
,
3

. . 35 = 5A C = C = 95 .
3
,
6x2 + 25x 35
2
1
20x/3 + 95/3
=

+
.
x3 x2 + 5x 5
3 x1
x2 + 5
:


Z 
2
1
20x/3 + 95/3
x+6+
I=
+
=
3 x1
x2 + 5
Z
Z
x dx
dx
x2
2
20
95
=
+ 6x ln |x 1| +
+
=
2
3
3
x2 + 5
3
x2 + 5
1 (x2 + 5)10
95
x2
x

+ 6x + ln
+
=
arctg
+ C.
2
3
(x 1)2
3 5
5



44.

, , .
.
R dx
.
44.1. 1 I = x5

44

: I =

d(x5)
x5

= ln |x 5| + C.

44.2. 2 I =
:
I=

(x + 2)

145

dx
.
(x+2)4

(x + 2)4+1
1
d(x + 2) =
+C =
+ C.
4 + 1
3(x + 2)3

R x+3 44.3. 3
I = x2 +4x+29 dx.
:

Z
t+1
1 2

dt =
I = | (x + 4x + 29) = x + 2 = t, dx = dt| =
2
t2 + 25
Z
Z
t dt
dt
1
1
t
2
=
+
=
ln(t
+
25)
+
arctg
+C =
t2 + 25
t2 + 25
2
5
5
1
1
x+2
= ln(x2 + 4x + 29) + arctg
+ C.
2
5
5

44.4. 4 I4 =

dx
.
(x2 +1)4

:
(44.5):
Z

1
dx
= 2
In =
2
2
n
(x + a )
a
x
5
;
I4 = I3 +
6
6(x2 + 1)3
3
x
I3 = I2 +
;
4
4(x2 + 1)2
1
x
I2 = I1 +
.
2
2(x2 + 1)
I1 =

dx
x2 +1

2n 3
x
In1 +
2n 2
2(n 1)(x2 + a2 )n1

= arctg x + C.

146

44

:
2
1
I2 = arctg x +
;
3
2(x2 + 1)


3 2
1
1
I3 =
arctg x +
+
=
4 3
2(x2 + 1)
4(x2 + 1)2
3
1
1
+
;
= arctg x +
2
8(x2 + 1) 4(x2 + 1)2


5 1
1
3
1
I4 =
+
arctg x +
+
=
4 2
8(x2 + 1) 4(x2 + 1)2
6(x2 + 1)3
5
15
5
1
= arctg x +
+
+
+ C.
8
32(x2 + 1) 16(x2 + 1)2 6(x2 + 1)3
44.5. I =

x4 3x3 5x2 +30x22


x3 x2 8x+12

dx.

:
. ,
x2 + 2x + 2
x4 3x3 5x2 + 30x 22
=x2+ 3
.
x3 x2 8x + 12
x x2 8x + 12


Z 
x2 + 2x + 2
x2+ 3
dx =
I=
x x2 8x + 12
Z
x2 + 2x + 2
x2
2x +
dx.
=
2
x3 x2 8x + 12
, x3 x2 8x + 12 = (x 2)2 (x + 3)

x2 + 2x + 2
x2 + 2x + 2
A
B
C
=
=
+
.
+
x3 x2 8x + 12
(x 2)2 (x + 3)
x 2 (x 2)2 x + 3

x2 + 2x + 2 = A(x 2)(x + 3) + B(x + 3) + C(x 2)2 .

A, B C
, :

x = 2 10 = 5B B = 2,
x = 3 5 = 25C C = 15 ,

x2 1 = A + C A = 4 .
5

44

147

x2
4
2
1
I=
2x + ln |x 2|
+ ln |x + 3| + C.
2
5
x2 5
44.6. I =

x2 5x+9
(x1)2 (x2 +2x+2)

dx.

: .
:
x2 5x + 9
A
=
+
(x 1)2 (x2 + 2x + 2)
x1
+

Cx + D
B
+
.
(x 1)2 x2 + 2x + 2

x2 5x + 9 = A(x 1)(x2 + 2x + 2) + B(x2 + 2x + 2)+


+ (Cx + D)(x 1)2 , x2 5x + 9 = (A + C)x3 +

+ (A + B 2C + D)x2 + (2B + C 2D)x + (2A + 2B + D).

x :

x3
A + C = 0,

2
x
A + B 2C + D = 1,
x
2B + C 2D = 5,

.. : 2A + 2B + D = 9.
,

7
21
7
A = , B = 1, C = , D = .
5
5
5
,
Z
x2 5x + 9
I=
dx =
(x 1)2 (x2 + 2x + 2)
Z
Z
Z
7
dx
dx
x+3
7
=
+
+
dx.
5
x1
(x 1)2 5
x2 + 2x + 2

1 2
(x + 2x + 2) = t t = x + 1, x = t 1; dx = dt.
2

148

44

Z
Z
Z
t+2
t dt
dt
x+3
dx
=
dt
=
+
2
=
x2 + 2x + 2
t2 + 1
t2 + 1
t2 + 1
1
1
= ln(t2 + 1) + 2 arctg t + C = ln(x2 + 2x + 2)+
2
2
+ 2 arctg(x + 1) + C.

:
1
7
14
7
+ (x2 + 2x + 2) +
arctg(x + 1) + C.
I = ln |x 1|
5
x 1 10
5
44.7. I =
:

2x+2
(x1)(x2 +1)2

dx.

2x + 2
A
Bx + C
Dx + E
=
+
+
.
(x 1)(x2 + 1)2
x1
x2 + 1
(x2 + 1)2
,
2x + 2 = A(x2 + 1)2 + (Bx + C)(x 1)(x2 + 1) + (Dx + E)(x 1)

2x + 2 = (A + B)x4 + (C B)x3 + (2A + D + B + C)x2 +


+ (E D + C B)x + (A C E).

A + B = 0,

C B = 0,
2A + D + B + C = 0,

E D+C B =2

A C E = 2.
: A = 1, B = 1, C = 1, D = 2, E = 0.
:

Z 
1
2x
x+1
I=

dx =
x 1 (x2 + 1)2 x2 + 1
Z
Z
Z
Z
dx
d(x2 + 1) 1
d(x2 + 1)
dx
=

=
x1
(x2 + 1)2
2
x2 + 1
x2 + 1
1
1
ln(x2 + 1) arctg x + C.
= ln |x 1| + 2
x +1 2

45

149


.
44.8. 1 I =
44.9. 2 I =

R 2x+5 44.10. 3
I = x2 +2x+5 dx.

dx
.
x+3
dx
.
(x2)5

R x+1 44.11. 4
I = x2 +4x+5 dx.
.
R
dx
44.12. I = x3 2x
2 +x .
R
x dx
44.13. I = (x1)(x+1)
2.
R
.
44.14. I = (x3dx
1)2
R
x dx
44.15. I = (5x2 +2x+4)
2.



45.

. , .
, :
Z
(45.1)
R(sin x, cos x) dx, R(sin x, cos x) .
, x2 y 3 x y,
2
3
sin
y
x cos y, a
sin

x2 cos
5
5
3
( 2) ( 5) 2 5.

150

45

45.1. . , x
:
2 tg x2
,
sin x =
1 + tg2 x2
1 tg2 x2
cos x =
.
1 + tg2 x2
:
(45.2)

tg

x
= t,
2

2t
,
1 + t2
1 t2
cos x =
,
1 + t2
2dt
dx =
.
1 + t2
sin x =

(45.1)


Z
Z
2dt
2t 1 t2
;
= R1 (t)dt,
R
1 + t2 1 + t2 1 + t2
R1 (t) t, , , , .
R dx
R dx
45.1. : sin

.
x
cos x
Z
Z
1 + t2
2
x
dx
=

| + C,
dt
=
ln
|t|
+
C
=
ln
|
tg
:
2
sin
x
2t
1
+
t
2
Z
Z
 x 
dx
dx

 = ln tg

=
+
+ C.

cos x
2 2
sin 2 + x
R
dx
45.2. I = 2 sin xcos
x+3
: (45.2):
I=

2dt
t2 +1
4t
t2 +1

1t2
1+t2

+3

dt
.
2t2 + 2t + 1

45

151

:
z1
dz
1 2
(2t + 2t + 1) = 2t + 1 = z = t =
, dt = .
2
2
2
Z
Z
1
dz
dz
I=
= arctg z + C.
=
2+1
2 + 2( z1 ) + 1
2
z
)
2( z1
2
2
z t, t x, :
x
I = arctg(2t + 1) + C = arctg(2 tg + 1) + C.
2


. , ,
,
Z
dx
.
a sin x + b cos x + c
, , .
R
45.2. sinn x cosm xdx.
45.2.1. 2k +1 (k > 0, k Z),
( ).
m = 2k + 1, sin x = t, n = 2k + 1,
cos x = t. m, n ,
.
,
, : , 2k + 1
.
R
45.3. I = sin2 x cos3 x dx.
:
) :

I = | sin x = t, cos xdx = dt| =

(1 t )t dt =

(t2 t4 )dt =

sin3 x sin5 x
t3 t5
+C =

+ C.
3
5
3
5
) :

152

45

I = sin x(1 sin x) cos xdx = sin2 x(1 sin2 x)d sin x =
Z
sin3 x sin5 x
2
4

+ C.
= (sin x sin x)d sin x =
3
5
45.4. I =

cos5 x

.
3
sin x

: cos x :
cos xdx = d(sin x),
:
cos 4 x = (1 sin2 x)2 .

:
Z

1 2 sin 2 x + sin 4 x
I=
d(sin x) =
sin 1/3
Z
Z
1/3
= (sin x)
d(sin x) 2 (sin x)5/3 d(sin x)+
Z
3
3
+ (sin x)11/3 d(sin x) = (sin x)2/3 (sin x)8/3 +
2
4
3
+
(sin x)14/3 + C.
14
45.2.2. (
0). :
(45.3)

1 cos 2x
,
2
1 + cos 2x
,
cos2 x =
2
sin 2x
sin x cos x =
.
2

sin2 x =

45.2.1
45.2.2.
R
45.5. I = sin4 x cos2 x dx

45

153

:
Z
Z
1 cos 2x sin2 2x
2
2

dx =
I = sin x(sin x cos x) dx =
2
4
Z
Z
1
1
=
sin2 2xdx
sin2 2x cos 2xdx.
8
8

45.2.2, 45.2.1.

Z
Z
1 cos 4x
1
1
dx
sin2 2xd(sin 2x) =
I=
8
2
16
1
1
1
= x
sin 4x
sin3 2x + C.
16
64
48
.
, cosk x,
N , ().
(sink x), k = |m+n|
2
, m n .
R
45.6. : I = cos3dx
.
x sin x
:

dx
cos2 x

tg2 x + 1
I=
=
d tg x =
sin x cos x
tg x
Z
tg2 x
+ ln | tg x| + C.
= tg x d tg x =
2
45.7. I =

dx
.
sin3 x cos5 x

: ,
dx
= d tg x,
cos2 x
1
1
=

sin3 x cos3 x
tg x 2
1+tg x

1
1+tg2 x

3 =

1 + tg2 x
tg x

3

154

45

Z 

3
1 + tg2 x
I=
d tg x =
tg x
Z
1 + 3 tg2 x + 3 tg 4 x + tg 6 x
1
d tg x =
=
3
tg3 x

Z 
3
1
tg 3 x +
=
+ 3 tg x + tg 3 x dx =
3
3 tg x
1
3
1
= ctg 2 x + 3 ln | tg x| + tg 2 x + tg 4 x + C.
2
2
4
45.2.3. , .
R(sin x, cos x) sin x sin x,
cos x = t.
R(sin x, cos x) cos x cos x,
sin x = t.
R(sin x, cos x) sin x
sin x, cos x cos x,, tg x = t.
R
dx
45.8. : I = a2 cos2 x+b
2 sin2 x .

: ,

.
:
dt
tgx = t = x = arctg t = dx =
.
1 + t2

1
t
,
, cos x =
tg x = t, sin x =
1 + t2
1 + t2
t2
1
2
sin2 x =
,
cos
x
=
.
1 + t2
1 + t2
:
Z
Z
Z
dt
dt
bdt
1
1+t2
I=
=
=
=
2
2
2
b t
a
2 + b2 t2
2 + (bt)2
a
b
a
+
1+t2
1+t2


b
bt
1
1
arctg + C =
arctg
tg x + C.
=
ab
a
ab
a

45

45.9. : I =

155

dx
.
sin 3 x cos2 x

: sin x sin x
,

dt
.
cos x = t = sin x = 1 t2 = x = arccos t = dx =
1 t2
:
Z
Z
dt
dt
p
=
I =
.
(1 t2 )2 t2
1 t2 (1 t2 )3 t2
.
1
(1 t2 )2 t2

, ,
1
cos x
3 x
I=
+ ln tg + C.

cos x 2 sin2 x 2
2
45.3.
:
) :

tg n xdx. -

1
1
cos2 x
n .
) : tg x = t, x = arctg t dx =
R
45.10. : I = tg4 2xdx
(45.4)

tg 2 x =

dt
.
1+t2

dt
: : tg 2x = t, x = 21 arctg t dx = 21 1+t
2.
:

Z 4
Z 
t dt
1
1
1
2
t 1+ 2
=
dt =
I=
2
t2 + 1
2
t +1
t3
t 1
tg3 2x tg 2x 1
= + arctg t + C =

+ arctg tg 2x + C =
6
2 2
6
2
2
3
tg 2x tg 2x
=

+ x + C.
6
2
R
ctg n xdx.

156

45

R
45.4. R(tg x) dx.
tg x = t,
t.
R tg x+3
dx.
45.11. I = tg
x1
:

dt
,
1 + t2
:
Z
t+3
dt.
I=
(t 1)(t2 + 1)
:
t+3
A
Bt + C
=
+
.
(t 1)(t2 + 1)
t1
t2 + 1
:
t = tg x = x = arctg t = dx =

t + 3 = A(t2 + 1) + (Bt + C)(t 1).

t = 1, , A = 2. t2 , , B = 2
C = 1.
,

Z 
2t + 1
2

=
I=
t 1 t2 + 1
Z
Z
Z
dt
d(t2 + 1)
dt
=2

=
t1
t2 + 1
t2 + 1
= 2 ln |t 1| ln(t2 + 1) arctg t + C.
, ,
1
tg 2 t + 1 =
arctg tg t = t,
cos2 t

I = 2 ln | tg x 1| + ln | cos x| x + C.

45

157



45.

. , .
R
45.1. I = cos 3x cos 9x dx.

: ,
:
Z
Z
1
1
(cos(6x) + cos 12x) dx =
(cos 6x + cos 12x) dx =
I=
2
2
1
1
sin 6x +
sin 12x + C.
12
24
45.2. I =

sin 2x cos 5x sin 9x dx.

Z:
1
I=
( sin 3x + sin 7x) sin 9x dx =
2
Z
Z
1
1
=
sin 3x sin 9x dx +
sin 7x sin 9x dx =
2
2
Z
Z
1
1
=
(cos 6x cos 12x) dx +
(cos 2x cos 16x) dx =
4
4


1 sin 12x sin 6x sin 2x sin 16x
=

+ C.
4
12
6
2
16
R
sinn x cosm x dx.
a) , .
R
45.3. I = sin2 x cos7 x dx.
Z :
Z
I = sin2 x cos6 x cos x dx = sin2 x(1 sin2 x)3 d sin x =
Z
= (sin2 x 3 sin4 x + 3 sin6 x sin8 x) dx =
sin3 x 3 sin5 x 3 sin7 x sin9 x

+ C.
=
3
5
7
9

158

45

45.4. I =

sin5 x

cos x

dx.

: : cos x = t, sin x dx =
dt.
Z

Z

(1 t2 )2

I=
t1/2 + 2t3/2 t7/2 dx =
dt =
t

4 2
2 4
= 2 t + t t t t + C =
5
9

4
2
= cos x(2 + cos2 x cos4 x) + C.
5
9
) ( , , ).
R
45.5. I = cos4 x dx.
:

2
1
+
cos
2x
,
cos4 x = (cos2 x)2 =
2
Z
Z
1
1
I=
(1 + cos 2x)2 dx =
(1 + 2 cos 2x + cos2 2x) dx.
4
4


: cos2 2x =


Z 
1
1 + cos 4x
dx =
I=
1 + 2 cos 2x +
4
2
Z
1
3
1
=
( + 2 cos 2x + cos 4x) dx =
4
2
2
1 3
1
= ( x + sin 2x + sin 8x) + C.
4 2
8

45.6. I =

cos2 3x sin4 3x dx.

1+cos 4x
,
2

45

159

Z :
I = (cos 3x sin 3x)2 sin2 3x dx =
Z
Z
1
sin2 6x 1 cos 6x
dx =
(sin2 6x sin2 6x cos 6x) dx =
=
4
2
8

Z 
1
1 cos 12x
=
sin2 6x cos 6x dx =
8
2


1 x sin 12x sin3 6x
=

+ C.
8 2
24
18
)
(m + n = 2k, k N ).
, m n .
Rq
2x
dx.
45.7. I = 3 cos
sin8 x

: m = 83 ,
n = 23 , m + n = 83 + 32 = 2.
ctg x = t,
r
2
2
dx
3 cos x
3 x.
=
ctg
2 = dt
sin x
sin2 x

Z
p
2
3 5
3
I = t 3 dt = t 3 + C = ctg x 3 ctg 2 x + C.
5
5

, ,
n- tg x ctg x.
R
45.8. I = tg4 x dx.
:





dt
=
I = tg x = t, x = arctg t, dx = 2
t + 1

Z 4
Z 
1
t dt
t2 1 + 2
=
=
dt =
2
t +1
t +1
t3
tg3 x
= t + arctg t + C =
tg x+
3
3
tg3 x
tg x + x + C.
+ arctg(tg x) + C =
3

160

45

45.9. I =

ctg 5 x dx.

:
1
dx
ctg 2 x =

= d ctg x :
2
2
sin
x
sin
x


Z
Z
1
3
2
3
1 dx =
I = ctg x ctg x dx = ctg x
sin2 x
Z
Z
ctg 4 x
3
3
= ctg x d ctg x ctg x dx =

4


Z
Z
ctg 4 x
1
1 dx =
+ ctg x d ctg x+
ctg x
4
sin2 x
Z
ctg 4 x ctg 2 x
+ ctg x dx =
+
+ ln | sin x| + C.
4
2

, , .
R
45.10. I = sindx3 x .
:




x
2t
dt
=
,
dx
=
I = tg = t, sin x =
2
1 + t2
1 + t2

Z
Z 
1
(1 + t2 )2
1
2
1
dt =
+ + t dt =
=
4
t3
4
t3
t


1
1
t2
=
2 + 2 ln |t| +
+C =
4
2t
2
1
x
1
x 1
x
ctg2 + ln | tg | + tg2 + C.
8
2 2
2
8
2
R dx
, ,

,
cos5 x

cos5 x sin5 2 + x , .
R 5+6 sin x
dx.
45.11. I = sin x(4+3
cos x)
:
tg x2 = t,

45

I=

2t
1+t2

12t
5 + 1+t
2 dt
2


=
2)
1 + t2
4 + 3(1t
1+t2

5t2 + 12t + 5
dt.
t(7 + t2 )


A Bt + C
5t2 + 12t + 5
=
+
.
t(7 + t2 )
t
7 + t2

5t2 + 12t + 5 = A(7 + t2 ) + t(Bt + C);


5
30
A = , B = , C = 12.
7
7


30
t + 12
5
7
dt =
+
I=
7t
7 + t2
t
5
15
12
= ln |t| +
ln(7 + t2 ) + arctg + C =
7
7
7
7


5
x
x
=
ln | tg | + 3 ln(7 + tg2 ) +
7
2
2
12
1
x
+ arctg( tg ) + C.
7
7 2
Z 


45.12. I =
45.13. I =

45.16. I
45.17. I
45.18. I
45.19. I

sin 6x cos 2x dx.


cos 2x cos 3x dx.

sin5 x cos2 x dx.

R
3
= cos5 x sin2 x dx.
R
= sin4 x dx.
R
= sin4 x cos6 x dx.
R
= sin4 xdxcos6 x .
R q sin x
dx.
=
cos9 x

45.14. I =
45.15. I

161

162

46

45.20. I =
45.21. I =
45.22. I =

ctg5 x dx.

dx
.
sin5 x

tg8 x dx.



46.

. . . .
, .

R
n
ax + b) dx.
46.1.

R(x;

R
n
n
R(x; ax +
b)dx, R(x; ax + b)
n
x ax + b n - ,

:

tn b
ntn1
n
(46.1)
ax + b = t , x =
, dx =
dt, ax + b = t.
a
a
,
 n1
 n
Z
Z

nt
t

b
n
;t
dt.
R(x; ax + b)dx = R
a
a
n


, .
R
46.1. : I = xx+1
dx;
x+1
: :
:
Z
I=

x + 1 = t2 , x = t2 1 dx = 2tdt.
t 2tdt
=2
t2 t 1

t2 dt
=2
t2 t 1

Z 

t+1
1+ 2
t t+1

dt.

46

163

R
t2t+1
t1
. ,
1 2
1
(t t 1) = z, t = z + dt = dz.
2
2
:

Z
Z
d(z 2 45 )
z + 23
dz
dz
=
2t
+
+
3
=
I = 2t + 2
z 2 45
z 2 54
z 2 45





5
2 5
z

3

2
2


+ C = t + ln |t t 1|+
= t + ln z + ln
5
4
5 z + 2


t 1 5
3

2
2
+C =
ln
5 t 12 + 25


3
2 x + 1 1 5
+ C.
= x + 1 + ln |x x + 1| + ln
5 2 x + 1 1 + 5
Z

)dx. 46.2. R(x; n ax+b


cx+d
:
ax + b
= tn .
cx + d

(46.2)

R q x1
46.2. : I = x x+2 dx;

:
x1
= t2 ,
x+2

I=

x1
1 + t2
4t
= t, x =

dx
=
dt.
x+2
1 t2
(1 t2 )2

4t
1 t2
t
dt = 4
1 + t2 (1 t2 )2

t2 dt
.
(t 1)(t + 1)(t2 + 1)

:
A
B
Mt + N
t2
=
+
+

(t 1)(t + 1)(t2 + 1)
t1 t+1
t2 + 1
t2 = A(t + 1)(t2 + 1) + B(t 1)(t2 + 1) + (M t + N )(t2 1).

164

46

, , .

t = 1 : = 4A = 1 = A = 14 ,

t = 1 : = 4B = 1 = B = 1 ,
4
3

t : = A + B + M = 0 = M = 0,

: = A B N = 0 = N = 21 .
:

Z 

1
4

t1

t+1

1
2

dt =
t2 + 1
1
= ln |t 1| + ln |t + 1| + arctg t + C.
2
, :
r

!
r
r

1
x1
x1
x1

+ 1 ln
1 arctg
+ C.
I = ln
x+2
2
x+2
x+2
I = 4

1
4


, ..
!
r
r
r
Z
m ax + b
n ax + b
k ax + b
R x,
,
,
dx
cx + d
cx + d
cx + d

, :
ax + b
(46.3)
= tp ,
cx + d
p - m, n, , k.
46.3.
Z
dx

.
3
x+1 4x+1

:
x + 1 3 4 ,
12, :

x + 1 = t12 = x = t12 1, dx = 12t11 dt, 3 x + 1 = t4 , 4 x + 1 = t3 .


:
Z 8
Z 11
t dt
t dt
=
12
.
12
t4 t3
t1

46

165

. ,
, :
Z 8
t dt
=
12
t1

Z 
1
t7 + t6 + t5 + t4 + t3 + t2 + t + 1 +
= 12
dt =
t1
 8

t
t7 t6 t5 t4 t3 t2
+ + + + + + + t + ln |t 1| + C.
= 12
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

t = 12 x + 1 :
p
p
p

12
12
3
(x + 1)2
(x + 1)7
(x + 1)5
x+1
+
+
+
+
I = 12(
8
7
6
5

4
6
3

x+1
x+1
x+1
+
+
+ 12 x + 1 + ln | 12 x + 1 1|) + C.
+
4
3
2

R
46.3. R(x; Ax2 + Bx + C)dx.
1
(Ax2 +Bx+C) = t ,
2
:

a2 t2 , t2 a2 , a2 + t2 .
(46.4)

, , (46.4), :

a2 t2 = t = a sin z t = a cos z,

a
a
t2 a2 = t =
t =
,
sin
z
cos
z

a2 + t2 = t = a tg z t = a ctg z.
R x2 +2x3
dx;
46.4. : I =
(x+1)3

: :
1 2
(x + 2x 3) = t x + 1 = t, x = t 1, dx = dt
2
:
Z p
Z 2
(t 1)2 + 2(t 1) 3
t 4
I=
dt
=
dt.
t3
t3

2 sin z
2
, t2 4 = 2 tg z, dt =
dz.
t=
cos z
cos2 z

166

46

:
Z
Z
Z 2
2 tg z 2 sin z
1
t 4
dt =
dz =
sin2 zdz =
I=
2
3
2
3
t
2
( cos z ) cos z


Z
1
1
sin 2z
1
=
(1 cos 2z)dz =
z
+ C = (z sin z cos z) + C.
4
4
2
4

2
2
2
, cos z = , z = arccos ,
t=
cos z
t
t

t2 4
sin z = 1 cos2 z =
.
t



2 2 t2 4
1
+C =
arccos
I=
4
t
t2



2
2 x2 + 2x 3
1
+ C.
arccos

=
4
x+1
(x 1)2
, (46.4)
(. 43.15).
R
dx
46.5. : I = (5+2x+x
2 )3 ;
:
1 2

Z
(x + 2x + 5) = t dx = dt
dx
=
p
I=
= 2

2
3
x
+
2
=
t
x
=
t

2
(5 + 2x + x )


Z
Z
dz
1
t = 2 tg z
dt
dt
=
2
cos z =
p
=
= 2
2
4 cos zdz =
2
3
t
+
4
=
(t + 4)
cos z
z
1
1
t
1
= sin z + C = sin arctg + C = q 2
+C =
4
4
2
4 z2 + 1
4

x+1
=
+ C.
4 5 + 2x + x2

R
46.4. xaxdx
2 +bx+c . . 46.3,

(46.5)

dt
1
x = , dx = 2 .
t
t

46

46.6. : I =

167

dx
;
x 5x2 2x+1

: (46.5):
Z
Z
dt
d(t 1)
dt
t2
I= q
= p
=
=
2 2t + 5
2 +4
1
5
2
t
(t

1)
t +1
t
t2


r

1

2
1


2
+
+
5
= ln |t 1 + t + 2t + 5| + C = ln 1 +
+ C.

x
x2 x

46.5. . :
Z
(46.6)
xm (a + bxn )p dx,

m,n p .
, .
1)p . a + bxn
p xm .
2) m+1
a+bxn =
n
= ts , s p.
+p axn +
3) m+1
n
+ b = ts , s p.
46.7.

Z p
3
1+ 4x

dx.
x
: :
Z
1/3
I = x1/2 1 + x1/4
dx.

1
1
m+1
1
=
= 2 .
m= , n= , p=
2
4
3
n
:
p
3
1 + x1/4 = t3 = t = 1 + x1/4 =
1/2
x1/4 = t3 1 = x = (t3 1)4 = x1/2 = (t3 1)4
=
1
3
3 2
3
3 2
=
dx
=
4(t

1)
3t
dt
=
12(t

1)
t dt
= 3
(t 1)2

168

46

Z
t 12(t3 1)3 t2 dt
= 12
I=
(t3 1)2
 3
Z
t
6
3
4
= 12 (t t )dt = 12t

7
Z

t3 (t3 1)dt =

1
+ C.
4

,
q

3
t = 1 + 4 x,

I = 12(1 +

x)

q
3

1+

1+ 4x 1
x

+ C.
7
4


46.6. . 42 , ,

, , ..
(42.3), (42.4).
u = u(x; y)
u = Ref (z), f (z) =
= u(x; y) + iv(x; y). v =
= v(x; y) = Imf (z), , f (z).
R u
u
v
=
v =
dy + (x),
1 - (42.1)
y
x
x
(x) x.
2 
-

R u
v
u
=
dx + (x) = , (x),
x
x
y
x



R
R u
u
dx +
dx + C.
(x) =
x
y
x
(x) v(x) ,
R u
v = Imf (z) =
dx + (x).
x
.
46.8. u(x; y) = x3 3xy 2 , f (z)
f (z) , f (0) = 0.

46

169

: 42.5 , u(x; y) = x3
3xy 2 ,
v
=
u(x; y) = x3 3xy 2 = Ref (z)
y
R
u
=
= 3x2 3y 2 v(x; y) = 3 (x2 y 2 )dy + (x) = 3x2 y y 3 + (x),
x
u
v
= 6xy + (x) =
= 6xy (x) = 0 (x) = C.
x
y
v(x; y) = Imf (z) = 3x2 y y 3 + C, f (z) = x3 3xy 2 + i(3x2 y
y 3 + C). C f (0) = 0,
z = x + iy = 0 x = y = 0 f (0) = 0 + iC = 0 C = 0.
f (z) = x3 3xy 2 + i(3x2 y y 3 ).
46.7. . , , , .
,

, ,
Z
Z
Z

sin
x
2
x cos x dx
dx,
ex dx,
x
.
.
Z
46.9. I = sin x cos x dx.
: ,
sin x, cos x, , 2.
Z
1
I = sin xd(sin x) = sin2 x + C,
2
Z
1
I = cos xd(cos x) = cos2 x + C,
2
Z
Z
1
1
1
I=
sin 2xdx =
sin 2xd(2x) = cos 2x + C.
2
4
4

46.21. , 43.2.

170

46

,
1 2
1
1
sin x, cos2 x

cos 2x
2
2
4
.
. , .
. , ,
Z
6x2 5x + 8
dx
x3 + 2x2 1
44.4 .

Z
3x2 + 4x
dx = ln |x3 + 2x2 1| + C
3
2
x + 2x 1

,
. , 2 (.43.4).
11 . ,
, ( .. .., , 1971) .
,
,
.



46.

46.1. I =
:

x2

(x2)2 x2

dx.

t2
6t5 dt =
4
3
t t


Z
Z
1
t4
t3 + t2 + t + 1 +
dt = 6
dt =
=6
t1
t1
I = |x 2 = t6 , dx = 6t5 dt| =

46

171


t4 t3 t2
=6
+ + + t + ln |t 1| + C =
4
3
2
p

3
3
(x 2)2
x2
x2
+
+
+
=6
4
3
2


+ 6 x 2 + ln | 6 x 2 1| + C.

46.22.
, , .
:

Z
Z p
3
(x 2)2 x 2

(x 2)1/3
dx =
I=
3
x2

3
6
(x 2)1/6 d(x 2) = (x 2)4/3 (x 2)7/6 + C.
4
7

.
, ax+b
cx+d
R q 53x
dx.
46.2. I =
4+7x

53x
: 4+7x
= t2
. x dx:

5 4t2

5 3x = t (4 + 7x) x = 2
7t + 3
8t(7t2 + 3) 14t(5 4t2 )
94t
dx =
dt
=
dt.
(7t2 + 3)2
(7t2 + 3)2
2

Z
t2 dt
94t
dt = 94
=
I= t 2
(7t + 3)2
(7t2 + 3)2
 2 Z 2 3 3
t +77
1
dt =
= 94
7
(t2 + 37 )2
Z

Z
dt
dt
3
1

.
= 94
49
7
t2 + 37
(t2 + 37 )2
Z

172

46

, 4- :
 Z

Z
dt
dt
t
7 1
I=
+
=
.
3 2
(t2 + 73 )2
t2 + 73
2(t2 + 37 )

, ,
,
!
r r
p

(5 3x)(4 + 7x) 47 21
7 5 3x

arctg
+ C.
I=
7
147
3 4 + 7x
46.3. I =

dx
.
(x1)2 (x+2)

: ,
:
q
q
p

(x12 )
x1 2
3
3
2
.
(x 1) (x + 2) = (x+2)2 (x + 2) = (x + 2) 3 x+2


x 1

I=
= t3 ,
=


x+2
x1 2
x+2

Z
2t3 + 1
dt
9t2 dt
x=
=
3
,
dx
=
.
1 t3
(1 t3 )2
1 t3
Z

dx
q
(x + 2) 3

1
1
A
Bt + C
=
=
+
,
1 t3
(1 t)(t2 + t + 1)
1 t t2 + t + 1
1
2
A = B = , C = ,
3
3

2t + 1
1
I = ln |1 t| + ln(t2 + t + 1) + 3 arctg + C.
2
3
,


3
3

1
x+2 3x1
23x1+ 3x+2

I = ln
+ C.
+ 3 arctg
2
3
33x+2
, a .
R
.
46.4. I = 2x2dx
+3x+7

46

173

:


3
t

3
1
1
2
(2x2 + 3x + 7) = t, 2x + = t, x =
, dx = dt =
I=
2
2
2
2


r
Z

dt
47
1
1

2
q
=
= ln t + t + + C =
16
47
2
2
t2 + 16

1


2
= ln 4x + 3 + 2 4x + 6x + 14 + C.
2
46.5. I =

3x7
5x2 +8x+1

dx.

:



1
t

4
, dx = dt =
I = (5x2 + 8x + 1) = t, 5x + 4 = t, x =
2
5
Z
3
(t 4) 7
5
q
=
dt =

t4 2
8
5 5
+ 5 (t 4) + 1
Z
Z
dt
3
d(t2 11)

=
7 5
=
2 5
t2 11
t2 11

3
= t2 11 7 5 ln |t + t2 11| + C =
5
p
3 2
47
5x + 8x + 1 ln |10x + 8 + 2 5(5x2 + 8x + 1)| + C.
=
5
5 5
R
dx
(x+d)ax
2 +bx+c x + d = 1t .
R
46.6. I = xxdx2 +3 .
:


Z


dt/t2
1
dt

=
I = x = , dx = 2 =
t
t
3t2 + 1/t2

Z
Z
1
d( 3t)
dt
q
=
=
=
3t2 + 1
3
( 3t)2 + 1

1
1
3
x
+
3


+
= ln | 3t + 3t2 + 1| + C = ln
+ C.

x
3 x
3

174

46

46.7. I =
:

dx
.
x2 7x2


Z
Z
2


1

dt/t
dt
t dt

I = x = , dx = 2 =
=
=
t
t
7t2 1/t3
7t2 1
r
Z
d(7t2 1)
1 7
1
1 2

1 + C.
=
= 2 7t 1 + C =
14
14
7 x2
7t2 1
.
R
46.8. I = (x2 +9)dxx2 +9 .
: x = 3 tg t,
3dt
9
2
2
dx =

x
+
9
=
9(tg
t
+
1)
=
.
cos2 t
cos2 t

Z
Z
1
1
3 dt/ cos2 t
=
cos
t
dt
=
sin t + C.
I=
27/ cos3 t
9
9
sin t x:

x
sin t = tg t cos t =
3
x
tg t
x/3
=
=p
=p
.
9 + x2
1 + (x/3)2
1 + tg2 t

x
+ C.
I=
9 9 + x2
x = 3 tg t tg t =


46.9. I =

46.10. I =

46.11. I =
46.12. I =

6 x dx

.
3
x( x+ 4 x)

R q 34x
95x

dx.

dx
.
(x+1)2 (x2)4

dx
.
11+5x+6x2

47

46.13. I =
46.14. I =
46.15. I =
46.16. I =
46.17. I =
47.

175

2x+5
7+8x11x2

dx.

dx
.
x 2x2 1

dx

.
(x2 5) x2 5

x2

dx
.
15+3x2

Rp

x(3 + 4x3 )dx.

. , . . . . .
47.1. . [a; b] y = f (x).
:
1. [a; b] n . .

xo = a < x1 < x2 < . . . < xn = b,



xi = xi xi1 .

2. i , ..
i [xi1 ; xi ].
3. f (x)
f (i ),
f (i )xi ,

n
X
f (i )xi .
(47.1)
i=1

f (x) [a; b]. f (x) [a; b]


.

176

47

4. (47.1) ,
.
.
47.1. (47.1)
lim

0
(n)

n
X

f (i )xi

i=1

, 0 (, , n ), [a; b], i ,
Rb
f (x) [a; b] f (x) dx.
a

(47.2)

lim

0
(n)

n
X
i=1

f (i )xi =

Zb

f (x) dx.

f (x)
[a; b].
: (47.1). ,
.
47.1. ( .) f (x) [a; b], Rb
f (x) dx, .. (47.1),
a

, .

Rb
a

f (x) dx:

a, b () ,
f (x) ,
f (x) dx .
[a; b] () .
, f (i )xi
. ,

.

47

177

47.2. .
(47.1) .
1. , .. k ,
Zb

kf (x) dx = k

Zb

f (x) dx.

,
Zb

kf (x) dx = lim

= lim

n
X

n
X

kf (i )xi =

i=1

f (i )xi

i=1

= k lim

n
X

f (i )xi = k

i=1

Zb

f (x) dx.

, ,
.
2. .
Zb
a

(f (x) (x)) dx.

.
,
.
3. , , ..
(47.3)

Zb
a

f (x) dx =

Za

f (x) dx.

,
, ,
(47.3) xi
.

178

47

, :
Za
Za
f (x) dx = f (x) dx.
a

, , .
Za

f (x) dx = 0.

4. [a; b] c
[a; c] [c; b],
Zb

(47.4)

f (x) dx =

Zc

f (x) dx +

Zb

f (x) dx.

, c (a; b).

[a; b] .
c . c = xm .
:
n
X

f (i )xi =

m
X

f (i )xi +

f (i )xi .

i=m+1

i=1

i=1

n
X

0 (n ),
(47.4).
, c
/ (a; b), c > b.
, b [a; c]
[a; b] [b; c].

Zc
a

Zb
a

Zc

Zb

Zc

Zc

f (x) dx =

f (x) dx =

f (x) dx +

f (x) dx,

f (x) dx.

f (x) dx

47

179

(47.3)
Zc

f (x) dx =

Zb

f (x) dx.

[a; b]
(47.4).

[a; b].
5. [a; b]
(47.5)

Rb

f (x) > 0,

f (x) dx > 0.

, f (i ) > 0 xi > 0 i, n
P

f (i )xi > 0.
i=1

0, ..

Rb

f (x) dx

.
(47.5) f (x) > 0
[a; b],
Zb

f (x) dx > 0.

, f (x) > 0 [a; b],


- d (a; b) f (x) > 0.
- [; ], d.
[a; b] ( < d < )
.
Zb
a

f (x) dx =

Z
a

f (x) dx +

f (x) dx +

Zb

f (x) dx.

, .
, [a; b]
f (x)6 0.

180

47

6. [a; b] f (x) (x) f (x) > (x),


Zb

f (x) dx >

Zb

(x) dx.

, .
, f (x) (x) > 0, 5
Zb
a

(f (x) (x)) dx > 0.

Zb

f (x) dx

Zb

Zb

(x) dx > 0

f (x) dx >

Zb

(x) dx.

7. f (x) [a; b] ,
[a; b] ,
Zb

f (x) dx = f ()(b a).

m M f (x) [a; b], .. x [a; b]

m 6 f (x) 6 M.
6,
m

Zb
a

Rb
a

dx 6

Zb

f (x) dx 6 M

Zb

dx.

dx = b a, .. f (x) = 1
n
X
i=1

f (i )xi =

n
X
i=1

1 xi = b a.

47

181

m6
Rb

Rb

f (x) dx

ba

6 M.

f (x) dx

ba = , m 6 6 M .
m M . [a; b]
f (x) m M , [a; b],
f () = ,
a

Rb

f (x) dx

Zb
a

ba

= f ()

f (x) dx = f ()(b a).

, , .
[a; b].
, .
, ,
.
47.3. . f (x) [a; b] .
Zb
f (x) dx.
a

a , . ,
, x b.
, t.

182

47

x:
(47.6)

I(x) =

Zx

f (t) dt.

.
47.2. , , ..
x

Z
f (t) dt = f (x).

(47.7)

. (47.6), (. 1, . 175, . 13.2).


x x, :
I(x + x) =

x+x
Z

f (t) dt.

, I(x) :

(47.8)

I =

x+x
Z
a

f (t) dt

Zx

f (t) dt.

[a; x+x] x [a; x] [x; x+x].


4 :
(47.9)

x+x
Z

f (t) dt =

Zx

f (t) dt +

x+x
Z

f (t) dt.

(47.9) (47.8)
(47.10)

I =

x+x
Z

f (t) dt.

(47.10) ,
I = f ()x, [x; x + x].

47

183

x:
I
= f (), [x; x + x].
x
(47.11) x 0,
(47.7).
. , .
(47.11)

47.4. -. ,
Zx
I(x) = f (t) dt
a

f (x).
,
. , F (x)
f (x), I(x) = F (x) + C
Zx

(47.12)

f (t) dt = F (x) + C.

x = a ,
Za

f (t) dt = 0,

F (a) + C = 0 C = F (a).

C (47.12) x = b,
(47.13)

Zb
a

f (t) dt = F (b) F (a).

. ,
f (x)
[a; b].
,
, .

184

47

47.1.
Z/2
I=
sin x dx.
0

/2

: I = cos x|0

= cos

+ cos 0 = 1.

47.5. . ,
Zb
f (x) dx,
a

f (x) [a; b] . x
t, :
(47.14)

x = (t).

:
() = a,
() = b.
, ,
1. (t) (t) [; ];
2. t (t)
a 6 x 6 b.
:
Zb
Z
f (x) dx = f ((t)) (t) dt
(47.15)
a

, F (x) f (x), ..
F (x) = f (x). -:

(47.16)

Zb

f (x) dx = F (b) F (a).

F (x) x = (t), F ((t))


f ((t)) (t).

47

185

, , :
( (t))t = (F (x))t = Fx xt = f (x) (t) = f ((t)) (t).
-
(47.17)

f ((t)) (t) dt = F (()) F (()) = F (b) F (a)

(47.16) (47.17) (47.15).


.
47.2. I =

R1
0

: I =

R1
0

dx
x2 +4x+20

dx

.
x2 +4x+20

1 2

(x + 4x + 20) = t,

x
+
2
=
t,
=
= 2
= a + 2 = 2,
=b+2=3

R3 dt
8
= t2 +16 = ln t + t2 + 16 |32 = ln 8 ln(2 + 20) = ln 2+
.
20
2

47.3. I =

Ra
0

a2 x2 dx.



x = a sin t,

x
=
0

t
=
0
=
: I =
dx = a cos t dt, x = a t = /2
/2
/2
/2
R
R
R p
2
a2
2
2
2
2
cos t dt = 2
a a sin ta cos t dt = a
(1 + cos 2t) dt =
=
0
0
0

sin 2t /2
a2
a2
t + 2 |0 = 4 .
2

47.6. .
u(x) v(x) , [a; b].
:
d(uv) = v du + u dv.
a b,

186

47

Zb

duv = uv|ba =

Zb

Zb

u dv,

Zb

v du.

v du +

Zb

(47.18)

u dv = uv|ba

(47.18)
.
R
47.4. I = x sin x dx.
0


u = x,
du = dx
: I =
dv = sin x dx, v = cos x
= + sin x|0 = .



R
= x cos x| + cos x dx =
0

0

y=f(x)

f(i )

x =a
0

i-1

xi

x n =b

. 41.

47.7. .
f (x) > 0 [a;b]. , [a; b] Ox,
y = f (x) x = a x = b
.
.
1.
a = x 0 < x1 < x2 < . . . < xn = b
[a; b] ()
[x0 ; x1 ], [x1 ; x2 ], . . . , [xn1; xn ]
2.
i .

47

187

3. ,
f (x) f (i ) .
[xi ; xi1 ]
f (i ) (.
41).
:
S f (1 )x1 + f (2 )x2 + . . . + f (n )xn =

n
X

f (i )xi .

i=1

4. 0 (n ).
S = lim

(47.19)

n
X

f (i )xi , ..

i=1

S=

Zb

f (x) dx.


Rb
: f (x) dx ,
a

y = f (x) > 0, Ox
x = a x = b.
47.8. . , : V = V (t). ,
t = t = .

(47.20)

S = V t.

.
1. [; ] Ot
t0 = < t1 < t2 < . . . < tn = ti = ti ti1 .
2. i .
3. ,
,

188

47

V (t) . :
(47.21)

S V (1 )t1 + V (2 )t2 + . . . + V (n )tn =

n
X

V (i )ti .

i=1

4.
(47.21) ,
:
n
X
V (i )ti , ..
S = lim
n

(47.22)

i=1

S=

V (t) dt.

:
.

47.


.
47.1.
f (x), [a; b],
n i .
: h:
ba
h=
.
n
:
xo = a, x1 = a + h, x2 = f + 2h . . . , xi = a + ih.
f (x) :
f (a + h), f (a + 2h), . . . , f (a + nh).
h
,
Sn = f (a + h) h + f (a + 2h) h + . . . + f (a + nh) h =

47

=h

n
X

189

f (a + ih).

i=1

47.2.

Rb

x dx (a < b, ), -

:
[a; b] ,

( ).
q (q > 1),
:
xo = a, x1 = aq, x2 = aq 2 , . . . , xn = aq n = b.
, q n = ab .

x1 = x1 xo = a(q 1), x2 = x2 x1 = aq(q 1), . . .

xi = xi xi1 = aq i1 (q 1).
f (x) = x
a, aq, aq 2 , . . . , aq n1 .
:
Sn = a2 (q 1) + (aq)2 (q 1) + . . . + (aq n1 )2 (q 1) =
2

= a (q 1)

n1
X

q 2i .

i=0

( ab )2 1
q 2n 1
= 2
q 1 n .
S= 2
q 1
q 1

 2

Zb
b2
1
b
q1
b2 a2
2
2
a2
x dx = a lim
(q 1) 2
=a
=
.
1 lim 2
2
q1
q1 q 1
q

1
a
2
n
a

,
.

190

47


f (x) [a; b].

:
b
Zb
x2
b2 a2
.
x dx =
=
2 a
2
a


-.
R1

47.3. I = (x 2)3 dx.


0

: I =

1
(x2)4

4
0

47.4. I =
: I =

4 = 3, 75.

R3

arctg x|1 3

47.5. I =

1
4

R1
0

dx
.
x2 +1

= arctg

3 arctg 1 =

.
12

dx
.
x2 4

1 1


= ln 1 ln 1 = 1 ln 1 = 1 ln 3.
: I = 41 ln x2
x+2 0
4
3
4
3
4
, x = (t) Rb
f (x) dx
a

x, t = t =
x = a x = b.
R9 x dx
47.6. I = x+2x .
1

: x = t2 , dx = 2t dt.
t:
,
I=

Z3
1

1 = t2 t = 1, 9 = t2 t = 3.
2t2 dt
=2
t2 + 2t

Z3
1

t dt
=2
t+2

Z3
1

t+22
dt =
t+2

47

=2

Z3 
1

2
1
t+2

191

5
dt = 2 (t 2 ln |t + 2|) |31 = 4 1 ln
3

47.7. I =

R10
3

dx

.
(x4) x+6

: x + 6 = t2 , dx = 2t dt,
t:
x = 3 t = 3,
x = 10 t = 4.



Z4
t 10 4
2t dt
1


=
I=
= 2 ln
2
(t 10) t
2 10 t + 10
3
3




!
4 10
3 10
1




ln
=
=
ln
4 + 10
3 + 10
10





10
3
+
10
4

7 + 2 10
1
1



 = ln
.
= ln
3
10 4 + 10 3 10
10
47.8. I =

R2a
0

2ax x2 dx.

: : 12 (2ax x2 ) = t
a x = t, x = a t, dx = dt, 2ax x2 = a2 t2 , x = 0 t = a,
x = 2a t = a.
Za
, I =
a2 t2 dt.
a

: t = a sin z, dt = a cos z dz,


= a cos z, t = a z = 2 , t = a z = 2 .
I = a2

Z/2

/2

Z/2
cos2 z dz = a2 (1 + cos 2z) dz =

= a2

 /2
a2
sin 2z
z+
= 2 .
2
0

a2 t2 =

192

47

47.23. z [ 2 ; 2 ], 1,2 . 184


47.24.
,
Z/2
Z/2
cos2 z dz = 2 cos2 z dz.
I=
/2

.
47.9. I =

R1

xex dx.

:

u = x;
du = dx
I =
x
dv = e dx; v = ex


Z1

= xex |1 ex dx = e ex |1 = 1.
0
0

0

47.10. I =

R1

x arctg x dx.


u = arctg x; du = 2dx
x +1
I =
x2
dv = x dx; v = 2

1

Z1 2
Z1 

1
x2
x
dx

1
1
=
arctg x
=
1 2
dx =
2+1
2
2
x
8
2
x
+
1
0
0

1
 1
1
1
1
= .
= (x arctg x)|0 =
8 2
8 2
4
4 2


47.11.
f (x), [a; b], n
i .

47

193

47.12.
y = ex [a; b] n i
.
47.13.

Rb

x dx,

f (x) = x. [a; b] n
. i .
-.
47.14. I =

1/2
R
0

47.15. I =

R3

dx .
1x2

ex dx.

47.16. I =

R1
0

dx .
x2 +4

47.17. I =

R4
1

47.18. I =

x = cos t.
47.21. I =

dx
.
(4x+1) x

Ra
0

47.20. I =

x dx
.
1+ x

1/4
R
0

47.19. I =

a2 x2 dx.

R1 q 1x
0

R1

1+x

dx. . -

arcsin x dx.

47.22. I =

R
0

x cos x dx.

194

48

48.

, , . . .
. . . .
48.1. . (47.19) .
48.1. ,
x2 y 2
+ 2 = 1.
a2
b
: ,
. 42. 0
y=

b 2
a x2 , x [0; a].
a

1
b
S=
4
a

Za

a2 x2 dx.

. 46.3,

y
b
0

a x

. 42.

48

195

1
S = |x = a sin t, x = 0 = t = 0, x = a = t = /2| =
4
Z/2
b 2
= a
cos2 t dt =
a
0

= ab

Z/2

1
1
ab
1 + cos 2t
/2
dt = ab( t + sin 2t)|0 =
.
2
2
4
4

.
S = ab.
a = b = R S = R2 .
,
, (. 43).
y

y=y (x)
D

C
B

A
y=y (x)

. 43.

, :
a 6 x 6 b,
y (x) > y (x).

(48.1)

SABCD =

Zb
a

(y (x) y (x))dx.

196

48

( ),
y (x) > y (x) x [a; b].

:

x = x(t),
y = y(t),
(48.2)

S=

Zt2

y(t)x (t) dt.

t1

(47.19) y = f (x) = y(t), dx = x (t) dt. t1


a, t2 b.
48.2. ,

x = a(t sin t),
y = a(1 cos t)
.
: t1 = 0 t2 = 2 (. 44).
y

a
a
t=2

t=0

. 44. 48.2.

S=

Z2
0

Z2
a(1 cos t)(a(t sin t)) dt = a2 (1 cos t)2 dt =
0

48

197


Z2
Z2 
1
+
cos
2t
dt =
= a2 (1 2 cos t + cos2 t) dt = a2
1 2 cos t +
2
0
0
 2


sin
2t
3
= 3a2 .
t 2 sin t +
= a2

2
4
0
, r = r().
OAB (. 45).

A
r=r()
r

d
r+

. 45.


d ,
.
1
dS = r2 d,
2
(48.3)

1
S=
2

r2 d.

48.3. r = cos 3
(. 46)
:
1
S =2
2

Z/6
cos2 3 d =
0

198

48

/6

. 46. 48.3

1
=
2

/6
Z/6

sin 6
1
) = .
(1 + cos 6) d = (1 +
2
6
12
0
0

48.2. .
V . ,
,
Ox. . ,
x : S = S(x). a b
.
[a, b] n
a = x0 < x1 < x2 < < xn1 < xn = b.

, Ox.
n . ,
, xi1 xi vi .

n
X
vi .
V = v1 + v2 + + vn =
i=1

, , xi1 xi .
, [x1 xi1 , - i [xi1 , xi ].

48

199


: s(i )xi .
:
n
X
s(i )xi .
(48.4)
V
i=1

(48.4)
, :
n
X
s(i )xi .
(48.5)
V = lim
0

i=1

(48.6)

V =

Zb

s(x) dx.

48.4.

x2
a2

y2
b2

z2
c2

= 1.

: , Ox. x = d (d [a; a]).


x = d, ,
y2
+
b2
2 d2 )
(a
2
a

z2
=1
c2
2 d2 )
(a
2
a

a1 = ab a2 d2 b1 = ac a2 d2 .
(. 48.2)
bc
S = a1 b1 = 2 (a2 d2 ).
a
d = x (a 6 x 6 a).
:
bc
S(x) = 2 (a2 x2 ).
a
(48.6):
Za
Za
bc 2 2
(a x ) dx =
V = S(x) dx = 2
a2
a

bc
=2 2
a


3 a
x
= 4 abc.
a2 x
3 0 3

200

48

48.25. a = b = c = R.
R a, b
c V = 43 R3 .
48.3. . (.
47) Ox..
y
y=f(x)

O
a

dS

. 47.

S(x) = y 2 .
(48.6),

(48.7)

Vx =

Zb

y 2 dx.

48.5. , ,
y = (x 1)2 , x = 0, y = 0
) ,
) .
: (48.7) x
y y x.
1
R1
(x1)5
4
) Vx = (x 1) dx = 5 = 5 ;
0
R1

) Vy = ( y + 1)2 dy = ( y2 + 43 y 3/2 + y)|10 = 6 .

48

201

48.4. . L A B (. 48).
A1 , A2 , . . . , An1 . A = A0 , B = An
, A0 A1 A2 . . . An1 An .

y
B

A i-1
A1

A n-1
Ai

x
. 48.

48.1. L ,
,
.

AB A0 A1 . . . An .

n
X
li ,
i=1

li Ai1 Ai . :
q
p
2
2
li = (xi xi1 ) + (yi yi1 ) = x2i + yi2 .
[xi1 ; xi ] :

f (xi ) f (xi1 ) = f (i )(xi xi1 )

yi yi1 = f (i )(xi xi1 )


yi = f (i )xi
q
q
q
2
2
2
2
2
xi + yi = xi + f (xi )xi = 1 + f 2 (i )xi .

202

48

i [xi1 ; xi ],
.
,
i . ,
" i , .

n q
n
X
X
1 + f 2 (i )xi .
li =
(48.8)
i=1

i=1

(48.8) 1 + f 2 (x)
[a; b].
(48.9)

l = lim

1 + f 2 (i )xi =

Zb q

1 + y 2 dx.

(48.10)

dl =

q
dx2 + dy 2 = 1 + y 2 dx.

.
n
x=x(t),
,
y=y(t)
q
q
dl = x 2 dt + y 2 dt = x 2 + y 2 dt


Zt2 q
x 2 (t) + y 2 (t) dt.
l=
t1

(48.10)
(
x = r cos ,
y = r sin ,

dx = (r cos ) d = (r cos r sin ) d,

dy = (r sin ) d = (r sin + r cos ) d.


(48.10),
p
dl = r2 + r 2 d,

48

203


Z p
r2 + r 2 d.
l=

(48.11)

48.6.
y = ln x
1 3.
:

L=

Z 3

1 + x2
dx.
x


x = tg t = dx =

dt
,
1 + t2

L=

Z/3

dt
=
sin t cos2 t

/4

=2

Z/3

sin2 t + cos2 t
dt =
sin t cos2 t

/4

ln 3 ln tg = 0, 92.
2
8



t /3
1
+ ln tg |/4 =
cos t
2

48.7. (. 48.2).
:
l=a

Z2 q

(t sin t) 2 + (1 cos t) 2 dt =

Z2 q
(1 cos t)2 + sin2 t dt =
=a
0

=a

Z2 p
0

Z2 r
Z2
t
t
2(1 cos t) dt = a
4 sin2 dt = 2a sin dt =
2
2
0

2pi
t
= 4a cos = 4a(1 1) = 8a.
2 0

204

48

48.5. . L (
48) , u = f (x; y). 48.4 L,
y = y(x)
n
X

(48.12)

f (i ; y(i ))li =

n
X
i=1

i=1

q
f (i ; y(i )) 1 + y 2 (i )xi

48.2. (48.12) ,
li 0, , , n ,
u = f (x; y),
1- ,

(48.13)

f (x; y(x))dl =

f (x; y(x))dl =

AB

dl =

lim

n
(maxli 0)

n
X

f (i ; y(i ))li ,

i=1

1 + y 2 (x)dx.

L x = x(t), y = y(t)
x = r cos , y = r sin ,

(. . 48.4) :
(48.14)

(48.15)

f (x; y)dl =

ZtB

AB

tA

ZB

f (x; y)dl =

f (x(t), y(t))

f (r cos ; r sin )

AB

x 2 (t) + y 2 (t)dt

r2 () + r 2 ()d,

tA , tB , A , B - t A
B.
48.8.
x = R cos t, y = R sin t A(0; R) B(R; 0) f (x; y) =
xy
: (48.14)
Z

AB

f (x; y)dl =

ZtB

tA

xy

x 2 (t) + y 2 (t)dt.

48

205

0 = R cos t tB = 2 , R = R cos t
tA = 0. xt = R sin t, yt = R cos t :

f (x; y)dl =

Z2
0

AB

R cos t R sin t

R2 sin2 t + R2 cos2 tdt =

= R3

Z2
0


2 2
2
sin
t
=R .
sin t cos tdt = R3
2 0
2

, A B , tA < tB .
.
AB = f (x; y).
, f (x; y) P (x; y)
AB, P ,
(.. P).
mi Ai1 Ai (. . 48) mi f (xi ; yi )li . ,
n
P
AB m
f (xi ; yi )li .
i=1

, 48.2,
:
Z
(48.16)
m=
f (x; y)dl
AB

f (x; y) = 1 48.16 48.9


AB.
48.9. ,
y = x2 x [0; 2], = 3x.
: 48.16, , y = 2x, :

Z2 p
Z 2p
3
m = 3x 1 + 4x2 dx =
1 + 4x2 d(1 + 4x2 ) =
8

3 2

1
3 2

1 + 4x2 2 = (93/2 1) = 6, 5.
=
8 3
4
0
2 ,
.

206

48

dl

y=f(x)
A
O
a

dx

. 49.

48.6. .
Ox dx ,

(. 49):
d = 2y dl,

(48.17)

= 2

AB

Zb q
ydl = 2 y 1 + y 2 dx.
a

48.10. ,
.
: , x2 + y 2 = R2 Ox.
48.7,
y 2 = R 2 x2 .
R R.
V =

ZR

y 2 dx =

ZR

4
(R2 x2 )dx = R3 .
3

(48.17).

s
p
2
p
x2 + y 2
x
x
R
y = , 1 + (y )2 = 1 + 2 =
= .
y
y
y
y

48

207

(48.17),
ZR p
ZR
R
= 2 y 1 + y (2 )dx = 2 y dx =
y
R

2Rx|R
R

= 4R .

48.7. .
.
48.11. I t: I = I(t). Q, T
.
: 1. [0; T ]
t0 = 0, t1 , t2 , . . . , tn = T n
[t0 ; t1 ], [t1 ; t2 ], . . . , [tn1 ; tn ].
ti = ti ti1 .
2. i .
3. , ti
I(t) i , ..
I(i ).
,

,

Qi I(i )i ,
Q

n
X

I(i )i .

i=1

4. Q
,
:
Q = n
lim
0

n
X

I(i )i .

i=1

208

48

(47.1)
Q=

ZT

I(t) dt.

48.12. L =100 , . ,
50. .
: x. Lx.
(L x)50.
dx
dA = (L x)50 dx.
:
A=

ZL

(L x)2 L
|0 =
(L x)50 dx = 50
2

= 25L2 = 25 1002 = 250000.


48.26. , .
48.13. V = t2 . 2
.
:
S=

Z2
0

t3 2
t dt = |0 = 1.
8
2



48.

48.1. ,

y = 2 x y = 2x (. . 50).

48

209

y
y=2x
C 2

y=2 x

B
1

. 50. 48.1

: .
)
Ox OmAB OAB:
1
Z1
Zb
Z1

1
4 3/2
S = (y y )dx = 2 x dx 2x dx = x x2 |10 = .
3
3
0
0

)
Oy OAC OmAC.

.
2
2
Z2
Z2
Z2 2
y 3
1
y
y
y 2
=
S = (x x )dy =
dy
dy =
.
2
4
4 0 12 0 3
0

48.2. , e (. 51)

x = a cos t,
y = b sin t.

: (48.2) , , :
Zt2
S = y(t)x (t) dt.
t1

210

48

, .
y = b sin t, dx = d(a cos t) = a sin t dt t [ 2 ; 0],
S = 4ab

Z0

sin2 t dt = 2ab

Z0

(1 cos 2t) dt =

/2

/2

0

1
= 2ab(t sin 2t) = ab.
2
/2

, ( . . 48.1) .
y
t=/2 b

-a

a
t=0

-b

. 51. 48.2

48.3.
r = a sin 2 (. 52).
: r = a sin 2
= 0 = 2 .
S=

1
2

Z/2
a
2 d =
sin2 2 d =
2
2

/2
Z/2

1
a2
a2
a

.
(1 cos 4) d = ( sin 4) =
=
4
4
4
8
0
2

48

211

. 52. 48.3


48.4. , y = 2 x y = 2x Ox Oy.
: (. 50)
V1 V2 . V1 OmAB, V2
OAB Ox.
,
!
Z1
Z1
3 1

x
2
1
Vx = V1 V2 = 4x dx 4x2 dx = 2x2 0 4 = .
3 0
3
0

Oy
(48.7) x y y x:

Vy =

Zb

x2 dy.


Vy =

Z2
0

y
dy
4

Z2
0

y
dy =
16


3 2


5 2

y
y

12 0 80 0

4
.
15

48.5. , R, ee .

212

48

: , x2 + y 2 = R2 Ox.

x
y = R 2 x2 , y = ,
y
s
s
q
2
x
R
x2 + y 2
2

1+y = 1+ 2 =
= .
y
y
y

Zb q
S = 2 y 1 + y 2 dx,
a

S = 2

ZR

R
2
dx = 2Rx|R
R = 4R .
y

48.6. y = ln x (x [1; 3]).


:
(48.9).

l=

Z 3
1


x = tg t
1 + x2
x =1 t =
dx =
dt
dx = cos2 t x = 3 t =
x

Z/3

dt
=
sin t cos2 t

Z/3

Z/3

/4

Z/3

sin2 t + cos2 t
dt =
sin t cos2 t

/4

sin t dt
+
cos2 t

/4

/4

dt
=
sin2 t



t /3
1
+ ln tg =
cos t
2
/4




1 cos 4
1
1

ln 3 + ln
= 2 2 ln 3 ln tg = 2 2
=
2
8
2
1 + cos 4

1 3( 2 1)
0, 91.
= 2 2 ln
2
2+1

48

213

48.7. R,

x = R cos t,
y = R sin t,
: l =

Rt2 p

x 2 + y 2 dt =

t1

R2 q

(R cos t) 2 + (R sin t) 2 dt = R

R2

dt = 2R.

48.8. r = 1 sin .
:
(48.11).
: r = cos ,
p
p
p
r2 + r 2 = (1 sin )2 + cos2 = 2(1 sin ) =
r 

 r
 
 
2
= 2 1 + cos
+ = 4 cos
+
+
= 2 cos
.
2
4
2
4
2

,
l=2

Z/2

/2

  /2


2 cos
+
d = 8 sin
+
= 8.

4
2
4
2 /2



.
48.9. ,
O.
, ,
, F = kx, k , x .
x = a
x = b.
: dA dx
dA = kx dx.

214

48

, a b
:
Zb
Zb
x2
k
A = F (x) dx = kx dx = k = (a2 b2 ).
2
2
a


48.10. , y = 0,
y = (x + 2)2 y = 4 x.

x = R cos3 4t ,
48.11. ,
y = R sin3 4t .

48.12. , r = a(1 +
+ cos ).

48.13. , x = 0,
y = 0, z = 0, x + y + z = 1. . x = const
.
48.14. , y 2 = x Ox x = C.
48.15. ,
, y = x (y [0; 1])
Oy.
48.16. , , y = 2x
(x [0; 1]) Ox.
48.17. y = ax2 (a > 0) x.

x = R cos3 4t ,
48.18.
y = R sin3 4t .

48.19. r = a (r; ).
48.20. ,
t, , V = gt, (V0 = 0).

49

49.

215

.
. . .
(47.1) :
[a; b];
f (x) .
, .
, , ,
.
49.1. .
+
R
f (x) dx.
:
a

:
1. , , b.
Rb
2. f (x) dx. b.
a

3. , b +.
+
R
f (x) dx.

(49.1)

Z+
Zb
f (x) dx = lim
f (x) dx.
b+

, (), ( ).
49.1. I =

+
R
1

: :
I=

Z+
1

dx
= lim
x b+

Zb
1

, .

x dx.

dx
.
x

216

49

= 1, ln x b +
.
6= 1:
(49.2)

I = lim

b+

Zb

1
|+
1 .
b+ (1 )x1

x dx = lim

< 1 .
1
> 1 1
.
. 53 .

y =1
y=1/x

<1
x

>1

. 53. 49.1

, , , (
x > 1 ).
49.2. I =

+
R
1

dx
.
1+x2

:
Z+
Zb
dx
dx
I=
=
lim
= lim arctg x|b1 =
2
2
b+
b+
1+x
1+x
1


.
b+
2
4
, () 4 .
= lim (arctg b arctg 1) =

49.3. I =

+
R
4

dx

.
x

49

217

:
Zb
Z+

b
dx
dx
= lim
= 2 lim x|4 = 2 lim ( b 2) = +.
I=
b+
b+
x b+
x
4

, ().
:
Zb

(49.3)

f (x) dx = lim

f (x) dx.
a

,
Z+
Zc
Z+
(49.4)
f (x) dx =
f (x) dx +
f (x) dx,

.
(49.4) (),
.
49.4. I =

+
R

:
I=

Z0

arctg x dx
+
1 + x2

Z+

arctg x dx
.
1 + x2

:
Z0
Z0
arctg x dx
1
arctg x dx
=
lim
=
lim arctg 2 x|0a =
2
2
a
1+x
1+x
2 a

1
2
2
= lim arctg a = .
2 a
8
:
Z+
0

arctg x dx
= lim
b+
1 + x2

Zb

2
1
arctg x dx
arctg
x|b0 =
=
lim
2
b+
1+x
2

2
2
1
lim arctg b = .
=
2 b+
8

arctg x dx
.
1+x2

218

49

2 2
I = +
= 0.
8
8
, () 0.
49.27.
.
49.5.
Z+
dx
.
1 + x2

:
.
dx
t = arctg x = dt =
, x = =
1 + x2
t = /2, x = = t = /2.
:
Z+
Z/2
dx
/2
dt = t|/2 = .
=
2
1+x

/2

49.28. , :
Z+

f (x) dx = F (x) +
= F (+) F (a) ,
a
a

, F (+) = lim F (x).


x+

49.2. . f (x)
[a, b) b .
Rb
f (x) dx?
a


1. b b ( > 0).
f (x) [a; b ].
b
R
2.
f (x) dx.
a

3. 0.

49

219

. , , (). ( ).
Zb

(49.5)

Zb
f (x)dx = lim
f (x)dx
0

49.6. I =

R1
0

dx
.
x1

1

: x1
x = 1 .

I=

Z1
0

dx
= lim
x 1 0

Z1
0

dx
= lim ln |x 1||01 = lim ln = .
0
x 1 0

, ( ).
f (x) (a; b], Rb
f (x) dx :
a

Zb

(49.6)

f (x) dx = lim

Zb

0
a+

f (x) dx

x = c [a; b],
(49.7)

Zb
a

f (x) dx =

Zc
a

f (x) dx +

Zb

f (x) dx.

, .
49.7.

R1

dx
.
x2

: x = 0.
R0 dx R1 dx
x2 . ,

x2
1

220

49

.


Z1
Z1
1
1 1
dx
dx
= +.
= lim
= lim | = lim 1
0
0
0 x
x2
x2

R1

dx
.
x2

49.29. , -,
R1 dx
= x1 |11 = 2.
x2

49.30. ( ).
49.3. . ,
.
, .
,
, .
49.1. [a; +) f (x) (x)

0 6 (x) 6 f (x).

+
R

f (x) dx ,

+
R

(x) dx.

+
R

(x) dx ,

+
R

f (x) dx;

49.8. : I =

+
R
1

dx
.
x3 +1

49

+
R

: (. 49.2) ,
+
R dx
1
1
dx
.

[1;
+)
6
,

2
3
2
x +1
x +1
x +1
x3 +1

221

49.2. f (x) (x) [a; b)



0 6 (x) 6 f (x),
x = b .

Rb
)
f (x) dx ,
a

Rb

(x) dx.

Rb

(x) dx,

Rb

f (x) dx.

49.9. : I =

R1
0

dx

.
3
1x5

: [0; 1)
1
x = 1.

3
1x
[0; 1) x = 1.

0 6 1 x5 6 x 1 x5 > 1 x.
1
1
6
.
3 1 x5 > 3 1 x
3
3
1x
1x5
1
[0; 1)
,
3
1x5
1

.
3
1x
R1 dx
I =
:
3
1x
0

I = lim

Z1
0

 3
dx
3
= lim 2/3 1 = .
2 0
2
1x

, .

222

49

49.4.
. 11 , , ().
.
49.3.
(49.8)

u1 + u2 +, , +un + ,

x = 1, 2, n,

f (x), , ,
[1; +),
u1 = f (1), u2 = f (2), , un = f (n), .


Z+
(49.9)
I=
f (x)dx.
1

, :
1. (49.9), (49.8).
2. (49.9), (49.8).
49.10.
1
1
1
1
+
+
+

+ ,
(49.10)
1 2 3
n
Z+
dx
.
: (49.2) I =
x
1

> 1 6 1.
, (49.10) > 1
6 1.

49.

, ().

49

223

49.1.
Z+
I=
ex dx.
0

:
Z+
Zb
I=
ex dx = lim
ex dx =
b+

1
= lim
b+
> 0


ebx 1 =

1
b
e
b+

lim eb = lim

b+

1
,

> 0,
+, p < 0.

= 0, eb + b +.

, = 0 .
, > 0
1 . 6 0 .
49.2.
Z+
I=
cos x dx.
0

: 49.28:

I = sin x +
= sin(+) sin 0.
0

sin x x + ,
1 1. , .
49.3.
I=

Z1

dx
.
1 + x2

:

I = arctg x 1 = arctg 1 arctg() = /4 + /2 = 3/4.

, lim arctg x = /2.


x+

, 3/4.

224

49

49.4.
Z+
arctg2 x dx
I=
.
1 + x2

: . , . 0:
Z+
Z0
2
arctg2 x dx
arctg x dx
+
.
I = I1 + I2 =
1 + x2
1 + x2
:
I1 =

Z0

arctg 2 x d(arctg x) =


1
1
arctg 3 x 0 = (0 (/2)3 ) = 3 /24,
3
3
Z+
I2 =
arctg 2 x d(arctg x) =
=


1
1
arctg 3 x
= ((/2)3 0) = 3 /24.
0
3
3
, :
I = I1 + I2 = 3 /24 + 3 /24 = 3 /12.
=

, .
.
49.5.
Z+
dx
.
I=
1 + x3
0

:
[1; +)
, 49.3:
1
1
6
.
1 + x3
1 + x2

49

225

(, , ).
49.6.
Z+
2
I=
ex dx.
0

:
.
:
(x 1)2 > 0 = x2 2x + 1 > 0 = x2 6 2x + 1.

ex ,
2

ex 6 e2x+1 ex 6 e e2x .

49.1 ,

Z+
I=
e2x dx
0

. .
, .
49.7.
I=

Z+

arctg x dx
.
x

:
:
I1 =

Z+

dx
.
x

, :
I1 =

Z+
1


dx
= ln x +
= ln(+) = +.
1
x

226

49

x
a arctg
> x1 ,
x
.
, .

49.8. m,
, F = xm2 , M , Ox x .
A, M x = a.
:
, ..
, .
:
Z+
m +
m
mdx
= .
A=
2 =
a
x
x
a
a

.
49.9.
I=

Z1

dx
.
x

: , x 0 1x
. , [; 1].
:
Z1

dx
I = lim = 2 lim x 1 = 2(1 lim ) = 2.
0
0
0
x

, .
49.10.
I=

Z2
0

dx
.
x1

49

227

. :
Z2
Z1
dx
dx
+
.
I = I1 + I2 =
x1
x1
1

, .
I1 :
Z1

dx
I1 = lim
= lim ln |x 1| 01 = lim ln = .
0
0
x 1 0
0

I1 , ,
I2 , .

P
1


49.11.
n n
n=1

: .49.4 Un = f (n) = n1 n , ,
R
R dx
=
I = xdx
,
x
x3/2
1

.. = 3/2, (49.2)

R dx
1

x2

, ,

P
1

n n
n=1

.
49.12.

+
R

sin xdx.

49.16.

49.13.

+
R
0

49.14.

+
R
0

49.15.

R2
0

R2
1

dx
.
a2 +b2 x2

49.17.

xdx
.
c2 +x2

49.18.

dx .
2x

dx
.
x ln x

R27

dx

3 x.

R1
0

49.19.

arcsin
x dx .
1x2

+
R

dx
.
x2 +2x+2

228

50

.
+
R x3 +1
dx.
49.20.
x4
1

49.21.

+
R

xex dx.

49.22.

R1
0

49.23.

R1
0

dx
.
(1x2 )5

dx

x 1

.
49.24.

1
2 ln 2

1
3 ln 3

1
4 ln 4

+ , + n ln1 n + ,




50.

, . .
.
50.1. . Rb
f (x) dx. f (x) [a; b]
a

F (x), -
(47.13)
Zb

f (x) dx = F (b) F (a).

f (x) ,
,
.
. , , .

50

229

f (x) .
,
, .. . ,
.
,
(50.1)

f (x) > 0 x [a; b].

[a; b] n
x0 = a < x1 < x2 < . . . < xn = b.
.
h h = ba
n
. y = f (x) A0 , A1 , A2 , . . . , Ai1 , Ai , . . . , An1
An .

y
y=f(x)
h

y0 y1

yn

b x
x1 x2

xn-1 xn

. 54.

50.2. . y = f (x) , . n o (. 54)


(50.2)

Zb
a

f (x)dx y1 h + y2 h + yn h = h

n
X
i=1

yi .

230

50

y = f (x) , ,

Zb
n1
X
yi .
(50.3)
f (x)dx y0 h + y1 h + yn1 h = h
i=0

50.2 50.3 .

50.3. . , y = f (x)
. [xi1 ; xi ] ,
Ai1 Ai (. 55).
yi1 + yi
xi .
Si =
2

y=f(x)

Ai

Ai-1

x
xi-1

xi

. 55.

,
A0 A1 A2 An , f (x), ..
Rb
f (x) dx.
a

,
,
.
. , (
) , .
.
h.

50

231

,
y1 + y2
yi1 + yi
yn1 + yn
y0 + y1
h+
h+ ...+
h+ ...+
h.
Sn =
2
2
2
2

!
n1
X
y0 + yn
Sn = h
yi .
+
2
i=1

(50.4)

Zb
a

y0 + yn
+
2

f (x) dx h

n1
X

yi , h =

i=1

ba
,
n

50.4. (). , n = 2m.


(. 56)
M

y=f(x)
M

M
y

y=Ax2+Bx+C

. 56.

x x ,
x .
f (x) M , M M .
:
y = Ax2 + Bx + C.

Zx

x x
(y + 4y + y ).
Ax2 + Bx + C dx =
6
x

232

50

, .

ba
ba
+ (y1 + 4y2 + y3 )
+ ...+
Sn = (y0 + 4y1 + y2 )
6m
6m
ba
+(ym2 + 4y2m1 + y2m )
=
6m
!
m
m1
X
X
ba
y2i1 .
y2i + 4
(y0 + y2m ) + 2
=
6m
i=1
i=1
,
Zb
h
(50.5)
f (x) dx
3

y0 + y2m + 2

m1
X

y2i + 4

y2i1 , h =

i=1

i=1

m
X

ba
.
2m

.
50.31. (47.2)
Zb

f (x) dx = lim

0
(n)

n
X

f (i )xi .

i=1

,
Zb
n
n
X
X
(50.6)
f (i ),
f (i )xi h
f (x) dx
a

i=1

i=1

ba
.
n
, , (50.6)
i .
h = xi =

,
, 50.1 .
50.5. . (. 57).
Zh
h = |y y0 |dx.
0

50

233

y=f(x)

y0
h

. 57.


,
:
y = y0 + y ()x.

Zh
M1 h 2
h = |y (|xdx 6
,
2
0

M1 y = f (x)
[a; b].

ba
,
h
n :

(50.7)

n=

M1 nh2
6 h n 6
,
2
(50.7):
ba
M1 h.
(50.8)
6
2

:
(50.9)

ba
M2 h 2 ,
12

234

50

ba
M4 h 4 .
180
Mk = max |f (k) (x)| [a; b].
, :
(50.10)

(50.11)


b

Z


f (x) dx I2n 6 |I2n In | .


15


a

:
n 2n
.
50.1. I =

R1

3x2 dx

(50.2; 50.3), (50.4) (50.5)


h = n1 = 0, 1. .
: ,
R1 2
I = 3x dx = x3 |10 = 1.
0

, , (50.2) I = 0, 3(0, 01+0, 04+


+ 0, 09 + 0, 16 + 0, 25 + 0, 36 + 0, 49 + 0, 64 + 0, 81 + 1) = 1, 155, (50.3)
I = 0, 3(0+0, 01+0, 04+0, 09+0, 16+0, 25+0, 36+0, 49+0, 64+0, 81) = 0, 855,
+0, 01+0, 04+0, 09+0, 16+0, 25+
(50.4) I = 0, 3( 0+1
2
+0, 36+0, 49+0, 64+0, 81+1) = 1, 005 , ,
(50.5) I = 0, 1(0 + 1 + 2(0, 04 + 0, 16 +
+ 0, 36 + 0, 64) + 4(0, 01 + 0, 09 + 0, 025 + 0, 049 + 0, 081)) = 1

f (x) = 3x2 , f (x) = 6x, f (x) = 6, f (x) = f IV (x) = 0. , [0, 1] M1 = 6, M2 = 6, M4 = 0
(50.8)(50.10) ,
, , :
1
ba
M1 h = 6 0, 1 = 0, 3;
(50.8) 6
2
2
ba
1
(50.9) 6
M2 h 2 =
6 0, 01 = 0, 005;
12
12

50

235

ba
M4 h4 = 0.
180
(50.2) 0, 155 <
< 0, 3 (50.3) 0, 145 < 0, 3.
, . , , .
(50.10) 6

50.32. (50.10) C (50.5) , 3 , .


50.2. [0;1],
R1
I = cos x dx 0, 0001?
0

: b-a=1 ,
:
M1 = M2 = M4 = 1,
, 104
1) (50.8).
h 6 0, 0002 = n >

1
= 5000.
0, 0002

2) (50.9).
p
1
29.
h 6 0, 0012 = n >
0, 0012

3) (50.10).
h6

p
1
4
2.
0, 0180 = n >
4
0, 0180

50.6. .
.

.

236

50

Zb X

n=0

X f (n) (a) (x a)n+1


f (n) (a)
n
(x a) dx =
|ba =
n!
n!
n+1
n=0

X
f (n) (a)
=
(b a)n+1 .
(n + 1)!
n=0

50.3. (x) =

Rx

ex dx

= 0, 005.

: .
:
Zx
Zx
2n
x4 x6 x8
nx
x2
2

+
+ . . . + (1)
+ . . .)dx
e dx = (1 x +
2!
3!
4!
n!
0

. x = 1
:
Z1

Z1 


6
8
4
x
x
x

+
+ dx =
e
dx =
1 x2 +
2
6
24
0
0

1


5
9
7 1
3
1
x
x 1 x 1 x
1
1
1
+
= x|10

+
...
0 +
. = 1 +
0


3
10
42 0 216
3 10 42 216
x2

.

,
1
< 0, 005, 0, 005
. 216
1
1
1
78
I =1 +

=
.
3 10 42
105

50

237


4349
50.


50.1.
50.2.
50.3.
50.4.
50.5.
Z4
1

3x2 + 1
dx
x3 + x + 8

tg5 xdx

arcsin x

dx
x+1
xdx
3x2 11x + 2

x3 + 5
dx
x3 x2 + 4x 4

50.6.

x
p
dx
x+1
50.7.

X
n=2

ln n
n(1 + ln4 n)

50.8. ,
x = 2, y = x, y = x12

50.9. ,
R = 10
. .

238

50



50.1.
:
:
Z
Z
d(x3 + x + 8)
(3x2 + 1)dx
=
=
x3 + x + 8
x3 + x + 8
Z
= d ln |x3 + x + 8| = ln |x3 + x + 8| + C
50.2.
:
(43.13):


Z
1

dx
u
=
arcsin
x,
du
=
arcsin x


2
1x

dx =
=
dx
dv = x+1 = d(2 x + 1) v = 2 x + 1
x+1
Z

x+1
= 2 x + 1 arcsin x 2
dx = 2 x + 1 arcsin x
1 x2
Z

dx
= 2 x + 1 arcsin x + 4 1 x + C
2
1x
50.3.
:
.39.1 46.3 t = 12 (3x2 11x + 2) = 3x 11
, z = 3t = x 11
,
2
6
11
-
x = z + 6 , dx = dz. ,

3x2 11x + 2 = 3(x2 11
= 3 z 2 97
x + 32 ) = 3 (x 11
)2 + 32 121
3
6
36
36
11
x z + 6 , dx dz,
Z
Z
Z
1
11
zdz
dz
xdx

p
p
=
+
=
3x2 11x + 2
3
z 2 97/36 6 3
z 2 97/36
p
1 p 2
11
=
z 97/36 + ln |z + z 2 97/36| + C =
3
6 3
!
r
r
2 11
11
11
2 2
11
1
x2 x + +
ln |x
+ x2 x + + | + C
=
3
3
6
6
3
3 3
3

50

239

50.4.
:
.
x3 x2 + 4x 4 = x2 (x 1) +
+ 4(x 1) = (x 1)(x2 + 4) , 34
44 :

Z 
Z
x2 4x + 9
x3 + 5
1+
dx =
dx =
x3 x2 + 4x 4
(x 1)(x2 + 4)
2
x 4x + 9
A
Bx + C
=
+
=
=
(x 1)(x2 + 4)
x1
x2 + 4
A(x2 + 4) + (x 1)(Bx + C)

=
(x 1)(x2 + 4)
A(x2 + 4) + (x 1)(Bx + C) = x2 4x + 9,
x = 1, 5A = 6 A = 6/5.
x = 0 : 4A C = 9 C = 4A 9 = 21/5. , ,
x2 A + B = 1 B = 1 A = 51 .


Z
Z 
x3 + 5
6
1 x + 21
1+
dx =

dx =
x3 x2 + 4x 4
5(x 1) 5 x2 + 4
1
21
x
6
ln(x2 + 4)
arctg + C.
= x + ln |x 1|
5
10
10
2
50.5.
:
tg x . 45.3
dz
tg x = z, x = arctg z, dx = 1+z
2 ,

Z 
Z
Z
z
z4 z2
z5
3
5
z z+ 2
dz =
dz =
+
tg xdx =
z2 + 1
z +1
4
2

1
tg4 x tg2 x 1
2
+ ln(z + 1) + C =

+ ln(tg2 x + 1) + C =
2
4
2
2
4
2
tg x tg x
=

ln | cos x| + C,
4
2
, ln(tg2 x+1) = ln cos12 x = 2 ln | cos x|.

240

50

50.6.
:

1
1
1
1
xm (a + bxn )p = x1/2 (x1/2 + 1) 2 m = ; n = ; p = , a = b = 1.
2
2
2
1

+1

. 46.5 m+1
= 21/2 = 3 n

x + 1 = z 2 x = z 2 1,

dx
= 2zdz, xdx = 4xzdz = 4z(z 2 1)2 dz.
2 x
x ,
Z4
1

x+1

dx = 4

Z3


z 4 2z 2 + 1 dz = 4

 3

z
2
z 3 + z =
5
3
2
5




9
4 4
16 3 28 2
=4 3
2+1 4 2
+1 =

=
5
5 3
5
15
!

4
7 2
=
4 3
2, 903
5
3


50.7.
: (.
49.4)
Z
Z
Z
ln x
1
d ln2 x
ln x
dx =
d ln x =
=
2
x(1 + ln4 x)
1 + ln4 x
1 + ln4 x
2
2
2




1
1
2
2
= arctg ln x =
arctg ln 2 .
2
2
2
2

X
ln n
, ,
4
n(1
+
ln
n)
n=2
.

50

241

50.8.
:
ABC . 58. (48.1), xB = 1,

-x

y=1

y=

/x 2

B
A
-2

-1

. 58. 50.8

SABC =

Z1

1
x 2
x

dx =

50.9.

 1
x2 1
4 1
1
+

1
+
+ = 1.
=

2
x 2
2
2 2

: .
59. x

-R

y
x
x+ x

. 59. 50.9

x
2
x + y 2 = R2
A = gxm = gxV xy 2 x = 2
y = R 2 x2
= x(R2 x2 )x.

242

50




ZR
2
4 R
x
x
=
A = (R2 x x3 )dx = R2
2
4 0
0
 4

R
R4
R4

=
= 107 7854000 .
2
4
4
4
, = 1 .3 = 103 3 .

.

51

243

IX

51.

,
. . .
51.1. . 47 , , y = f (x) [a; b].
z = f (x, y), S (.
35), C (. 60). S
.
S n ( ), , Si ,

244

51

y
Si

S
i

Pi

C
i

. 60. S z = f (x, y)

S =

n
P

i=1

Si . Pi Si , -

i , i (. 60). f (Pi ) = f (i ; i ).
n
P
f (i ; i)Si
f (i ; i)Si
i=1

Si .

51.1.

n
P

f (i ; i )Si n- -

i=1

, z = f (x, y) S.
51.2. f (x, y) S , n-
n
P

f (i ; i )Si i=1

Si , .
RR

f (x, y)ds S

S Si Pi Si .

(51.1)

lim

n
X
i=1

f (i ; i )Si =

ZZ
S

f (x, y)ds.

51

245

RR

, S
, f (x, y) , ds
, f (x, y)ds . , n
P

Si = S, , ,
i=1

(51.2)

lim

n
X

Si =

i=1

ZZ

ds = S,

.. S.

.
51.1.
S RR
z = f (x, y)
f (x, y)ds .
S

, , z =
= f (x, y) S.

51.2. .
(. 35) z = f (x, y) .
z = f (x, y) > 0 S.
z = f (x, y),
Oxy S (. 61). Pi Si Mi Oxy.

z
Mi
i

i
y

0
i

Pi S

x
. 61.

246

51

i = f (i ; i ) = Pi Mi , f (i ; i )Si = i Si
Si Pi Mi = i . n
n
P
P

f (i ; i )Si =
i Si
n=1

n=1

Vn , .
51.1
ZZ
n
X
f (x, y)ds = lim Vn = V,
f (i ; i )Si =
lim
n

i=1

V , , (. 61) , Oz, S . ( )
f (x, y) > 0 S.
51.3. . , , , , ,
. .
:
ZZ
ZZ
f (x, y)ds.
kf (x, y)ds = k
S

:
ZZ
ZZ
ZZ
(x, y)ds.
f (x, y)ds +
(f (x, y) + (x, y))ds =
S


RR f (x, y) > 0,
f (x, y)ds > 0.
S

m M
f (x, y), ..
ZZ
f (x, y)ds 6 M S.
m 6 f (x, y) 6 M, mS 6
S

51

247

S =
ZZ

f (x, y)ds =

m ZZ
X

m
P

Sj ,

j=1

f (x, y)ds.

j=1 S
i

. f (x, y)
S, S , RR
,
1
P (; ), f (, ) = S
f (x, y)ds.
S


f (x; y; z) S.

51.4. () .
. f (x, y) > 0, . ,
f (x, y) > 0 S
.
S y = y (x),
y = y (x), x = a x = b
(. 62). , x = const, Oy,
, a < x < b,
y = y (x),
y = y (x).
62 o x.

x=const
y=y (x)
B
K
B

S
D

E
a

y=yH(x)
x

. 62. , Oy

248

51

51.3. S, ,
a < x < b y (y = y (x) y = y (x))
OY x = const ,
Oy.
A D ( B C)
y = y (x) y = y (x).
f (x, y) > 0 S, f (x, y) S S (. 63)

D
E
C

z=f(x,y)
A
K
B

E
S

. 63. x = const

x = const
EE K K, . 63
. 64.
yR(x)
f (x, y)dy, x Q(x) =
y (x)

. ABCDA B C D
(48.6):

V =

Zb
a

Zb yZ (x)
f (x, y)dy)dx.
Q(x)dx = (
a

y (x)

51

249

z
z=f(x,y)
E

K
y=yB (x)

Q(x)
y=yH (x)
0

. 64. x = const

:
V =

Zb

dx

yZ (x)

f (x, y)dy.

y (x)

, f (x, y) > 0 :
ZZ
f (x, y)ds.
V =
S

V , y, x.

(51.3)

ZZ

f (x, y)ds =

Zb
a

dx

yZ (x)

f (x, y)dy

y (x)

, , x = const y = const, .. S
(. 65).
(51.3)

(51.4)

ZZ
S

f (x, y)ds =

Zb
a

dx

Zd
c

f (x, y)dy.

250

51

d
S
c

. 65.

51.4. dxdy = ds .
f (x, y)
(x,y)
x = const, .. F (x, y), Fy
= f (x, y), y (x
).

(51.5)

Zb

y(x) (x)

dx

y (x)

Zb

f (x, y)dy =

Zb

F (x, y)|yy dx =

(F (x, y (x)) F (x, y (x)))dx.

, , x,
.
, S ,
, S Oy Si ,
. ,
, . 66 S
a 6 x 6 c y = y1 (x),

51

251

c 6 x 6 b y = y2 (x), a 6 x 6 d y = y1 (x) d 6 x 6 b y = y2 (x),

y
y=yB (x)

y=yB (x)
2

S2

S3
y=yH (x)
y=yH (x)

S1

c d

. 66.

S S1 , S2 , S3 .

ZZ

f (x, y)ds =

f (x, y)ds +

Zc
a

dx

yZ
1 (x)

y1 (x)

f (x, y)dy +

ZZ

ZZ

f (x, y)ds +

Zd
c

dx

f (x, y)ds =

S3

S2

S1

ZZ

yZ
1 (x)

f (x, y)dy +

y2 (x)

51.1.

Zb
d

RR

dx

yZ
2 (x)

f (x, y)dy.

y2 (x)

(x + y)ds, S -

O(0; 0), A(1; 1), B(1; 0).

:
y = 0, x = 1, y = x. x = const, 0 < x < 1.
o,
y = y (x) = 0, x, y = y (x) = x. S x,
0 1 (. 67).

252

51

A(1;1)

x=const

y=x

O(0;0)

y=0

B(1;0) x

. 67. 51.1


ZZ

(x + y)ds =

dx

Z1

Z1

Zx
0

3
(x + x /2)dx =
2
2

(x + y)dy =

Z1

(xy + y 2 /2)|x0 dx =

Z1

3 x3 1 1
| = .
x dx =
2 3 0 2
2




51.

.
51.1.

R2
0

R1

dx (x2 + 3y 2 )dy.
0

:
R1 2
(x + 3y 2 )dy, x ,
0

y 1 0 x

51

253

0 2.
Z2

dx

Z2

x3
8
14
(x + 1)dx = ( + x)|20 = + 2 = .
3
3
3

Z1

(x2 + 3y 2 )dy =

Z2

(x2 y + y 3 )|10 dx =

51.2.

R2
1

dx

Rx

1/x

x2 dy
.
y2

: ,
x = const, x2
, ,
51.1.
Z2
Z2
Z2
Zx
dy
1
1
2
x
2
=
x
(
)|
dx
=
x
(x

)dx =
x2 dx
1/x
y2
y
x
1

1/x

Z2

(x3 x)dx =

x4 x2

4
2

2
1 = 4 2 1 + 1 = 9 .
4 2
4

51.3, 51.4, S
.
51.3.

R3
1

dx

x+9
R

f (x, y)dy.

x2

x+9
R
x2

f (x, y)dy

x = const o y = x2 , S , x
y = x + 9, S . S x x = 1 x = 3. ,
: y = x2 , y = x + 9, x = 1
x = 3. S . 68.
x = 1 x = 3 y =
= x+9 A(1;10) B(3;12). y = x2 D(1;1)
C(3;9).

254

51

x=1

A
x=const

10

y=x+9

1
0

D
1

x=3

y=x 2

y
y= 25-x 2

y=- 25-x

. 69. 51.4

51.4.

R3

dx

25x
R 2

25x2

x=3

x=-4

x=const

. 68. 51.3

f (x; y)dy.

51

25x
R 2

25x2

255

f (x; y)dy

x = const
o
y = 25 x2 x2 + y 2 = 25, x
S , x

y = 25 x2 x2 + y 2 = 25,
S . S x
x = 4 x = 3. x2 + y 2 = 25 x = 4 x = 3.
S . 69
x2 +y 2 = 25 x = 4 x = 3
A(-4;3), B(3;4), C(3;-4) D(-4;-3).

51.5.

R4

dy

.
51.6.

51.7.

R2
1

R4
3

Ry

dx

y3
x2 +y 2

R2
1

dx -

dy
(x+y)2

R2x
dx (2x y)dy x

(51.8) (51.9) , .
51.8.

51.9.

R2

dx

R4x

2xx2

R1

2
R3y

dy

y/2

f (x, y)dy.

f (x, y)dx.

256

52

52.

(). . .
52.1. (). , .
RR
52.1. (x + y)ds, S S

O(0; 0), A(1; 1), B(0; 2).

B(0;2) x=const
y=2-x
A(1;1)

y=x
x

O(0;0)
. 70. 52.1

:
x = 0, y = x, y = 2 x (. 70).
, 51.1
2x
R1
R
R1
RR
, (x + y)ds = dx (x + y)dy = (xy +
x

R1

R1

+ y 2 /2)|x2x dx = (x(2 x) + (2x)


x2 x2 )dx = (2x x2 + 2 2x + x2
2
0

x2

x2
)dx
2

R1

= 2 (1 x2 )dx = 2(x
0

x3 1
)|
3 0

= 2(1 31 ) = 34 .

52

257

52.2.

RR

(x + y)ds, S -

O(0; 0), A(1; 1), B(2; 0).

y
x=const x=const

A(1;1)
y=2-x
y=x
O(0;0)

C(1;0)

B(2;0)

. 71. 52.2

:
x = 0, y = x, y = 2 x (. 71).
, , , ,
OY RRRROAC ACB.RR

(x + y)ds =
(x + y)ds + (x + y)ds.
S

OAC

ACB


OAC ACB . 71 , ,
2x
RR
R1 Rx
R2
R
R1
2
(x+y)ds = dx (x+y)dy+ dx (x+y)dy = (xy+ y2 )|x0 dx+
0

R2

+ (xy +
1

R2

+ (2
1

y 2 2x
)| dx
2 0

x2
)dx
2

R1

= (x +

3 x3 1
|
2 3 0

x2
)dx
2

+ (2x

x3 2
)|
6 1

R2

+ (x(2 x) +
1

1
2

(2x)2
)dx
2

+ 4 34 2 +

1
6

= 34 .

3
2

R1

x2 dx +

52.2. .
S x = x (y), x = x (y),
y = c, y = d (. 72).
y = const, Ox, c < x < d,
x = x (y) ,

258

52

y
A

x=x (y)

x=xnp(y)
y=const

C
x

. 72. , Ox

x = x (y). . 72 o x.
52.1. S, ,
c < y < d x (x = x (y) x = x (y))
OX y = const ,
Ox.
A B ( D C)
x = x (y) x = x (y).
x
(51.3),

y:
(52.1)

ZZ
S

f (x, y)ds =

Zd

dy

xZ
(y)

f (x, y)dx.

x (y)

, (. 65) :
(52.2)

ZZ
S

f (x, y)ds =

Zd
c

dy

Zb

f (x, y)dx.

, ,
( (51.4),(52.2)) . f (x, y) =
= (x)(y),

52

259

:
ZZ

(52.3)

f (x, y)dxdy =

Zb

(x)dx

(y)dy.

Zd

f (x, y) y = const, ..
= f (x, y), (x, y), (x,y)
x
x (52.1).
(52.4)

Zd

dy

xZ
(y)

f (x, y)dx =

x (y)

Zd
c

Zd

(y)

(x, y)|x
dy =
(y)

((x (y), y) (x (y), y))dy.

, , , y.
52.3. 51.1.
: y = const, 0 < y < 1.
o,
x = x (y) = y, x, x =
= x (y) = 1. S y, 0 1 (. 73).

A(1;1)
x=y
y=const

O(0;0)

B(1;0) x

. 73. 52.3

260

52

,
ZZ

(x + y)ds =

dy

Z1

Zy

(x + y)dx =

3
y2
( + y 2 )dy =
2
2

Z1

3 y3 1 1
| = .
y dy =
2 3 0 2

Z1

x2
( + yx)|y0 dy =
2

Z1

52.4. 52.1.
: y = const 0 < y < 1.
o x = x (y) = 0, ,
o < y < 1
x = x (y) = 2 y, 1 < y < 2 x = x (y) = 2y, S
OAC CAB (. 74).

B(0;2)
x=2-y
y=const
A(1;1)

C(0;1)

y=const
x=y
x

O(0;0)
. 74. 52.4

RR

(x + y)ds =

RR

(x + y)ds +

OAC

RR

(x + y)ds.

CAB


OAC CAB . 74, , ,
:
ZZ
S

(x + y)ds =

Z1
0

dy

Zy
0

(x + y)dx +

Z2
1

Z2y
4
dy (x + y)dx = .
3
0

52

261

52.5. 52.2 (. 75).


: ,
2y
RR
R1
R
, (x + y)ds = dy (x + y)dx = 43 .
0

A(1;1)
y=const
x=2-y

x=y
O(0;0)

C(1;0)

B(2;0)

. 75. 52.5

(51.1 52.5) , , ,
.
52.3. . , f (x, y) S,
, a 6 x 6 b, c 6 y 6 d (. 76). S
x = const y = const, .
k
P
[a; b] k , [c; d] m. b a =
xl ,
cd=

m
P

j=1

l=1

yj , xl = xl xl1 , yj = yj yj1 .


n . , S = (b a)(c d), n = km, Si = xl yj .
f (x, y) (l ; j ), . 76 f (l ; j )xl yj .

262

52

y
ym =d
yj
yj-1
y0 =c
x k =b x

xl-1 xl

x0=a

. 76.

j, .. ( 76), m
m
X

f (l ; l )xl yj ,

j=1

y x.
l x
! l 0 yj 0,
k
m
P
P
lim
f (l ; j )xl yj =
xl 0
yj 0

lim

l=1

xl 0
yj 0


Rb Rd
a

k
P

l=1

j=1

m
P

f (l ; j )yj

j=1

f (x, y)dy dx =

Rb
a

dx

Rd
c

xl =
f (x, y)dy =

RR
S

f (x, y)ds.

ABCD,
oy (. 62 . 77).
x = const
y = const y = y (x) y = y (x).
xl yj
x = const ( )
o x y y = y (x) y = y (x).
l , xl

52

263

y=yB (x)
A

y=y (x) C

yj
yj-1
H

x0=a

xl-1 xl

x k =b x

. 77. Oy

, (51.3).
(52.1) , Ox (. 72).



.

52.

. 51.3 51.4.
52.1.
Z3
Zx+9
dx
f (x, y)dy.
1

x2

: 51.3 . 68 78.
,
x y = 9 y = 10 ( EC AK .
78 ). S=DEC+EAKC+ABK
ZZ
ZZ
ZZ
ZZ
f (x, y)ds.
f (x, y)ds +
f (x, y)ds +
f (x, y)ds =
S

DEC

EAKC

ABK

264

52

x=1

1) DEC x = 1, x = y,
x, 1 9 (. 78).

10 A
E

x=y-9
y=const
K
y=const
C
y=const

1
0 1

x=3

x= y

. 78. 52.1

, o y = const (1 6 y 6 9)

DEC x = 1, x x = y
ZZ

f (x, y)ds =

Z9
1

DEC

Zy
dy f (x, y)dx.
1

2) EAKC x = 1,
x = 3, y = 9, y = 10. , o
y = const (9 6 y 6 10) EAKC x = 1,
x
Z10 Z3
ZZ
f (x, y)ds = dy f (x, y)dx.
x=3
9

EAKC

3) ABK x = y9, x = 3,
y, 10 12. ,
o y = const (10 6 y 6 12) ABK
Z12 Z3
ZZ
f (x, y)ds = dy
x = y 9 x = 3
f (x, y)dx.
ABK

10

y9

52

265

, :
Zx+9
Z3
dx
f (x, y)dy =
1

x2

Z9
1

Zy
Z10 Z3
Z12 Z3
f (x, y)dx.
dy f (x, y)dx + dy f (x, y)dx + dy
1

10

y9

52.2.
Z3

dx

25x2
Z

f (x; y)dy.

25x2

: 51.4
. 69 79.

y
x=- 25-y
E
A

x= 25-y
B
K

y=const
y=const

D
N
x=- 25-y

x=3

x=-4

y=const

M
C
x= 25-y 2

x
y=const
y=const
y=const

. 79. 52.2

S
,
x , S ,
5. y = 4, y = 3, y = 3,
y = 4 ( NC, DM, AK EB . 79
).

266

52

S=NQC+DNCM+ADMK+EAKB+ETB
ZZ
ZZ
f (x, y)ds+
f (x, y)ds =
N QC

ZZ

f (x, y)ds +

ZZ

f (x, y)ds +

f (x, y)ds +

ZZ

f (x, y)ds.

ET B

EAKB

ADM K

DN CM

ZZ

:
1) NQC x2 + y 2 = 5, y = 4. y p
= const (5 6 y 6 4)
2
o,
p x = 25 y
x, x = 25 y 2 . ,

2
Z25y
Z4
ZZ
f (x, y)ds = dy
f (x, y)dx.

5
N QC
25y 2

p
2) DNCM x = 25 y 2 ,
x = 3, y, -4 -3. ,
o y = const
p
(4 6 y 6 3) DNCM x = 25 y 2 , x
x=3

ZZ

DN CM

Z3
f (x, y)ds = dy
4

Z3

f (x, y)dx.

25y 2

3) ADMK x = 4,
x = 3, y = 3, y = 3. , o
y = const (3 6 y 6 3) ADMK x = 4,
x
x=3

ZZ

f (x, y)ds =

Z3

dy

ADM K

Z3

f (x, y)dx.

4) EAKB x DNCM ,
,
ZZ

EAKB

f (x, y)ds =

Z4
3

dy

Z3

25y 2

f (x, y)dx.

52

267

5) ETB x NQC. :

2
5
Z
ZZ
Z25y
f (x, y)dx.
f (x, y)ds = dy

4
ET B
2
25y

2
2
25x
3
4
Z
Z
Z
Z25y
dx
f (x, y)dx +
dy
f (x; y)dy =

4
5
2
25x

Z3
+ dy
4

Z4

dy

Z3

f (x, y)dx +

25y 2

Z3

Z3

dy

25y 2

Z3

f (x, y)dx +

Z5
4

25y 2

f (x, y)dx +

dy

2
Z25y

f (x, y)dx.

25y 2


52.3 52.4 ,
, .
52.3.

52.4.

R2

dx

R4x

2xx2

R1

2
R3y

dy

y/2

f (x, y)dy.

f (x, y)dx.

268

53



53.

.
. .

53.1. . , ,
,
.
.
r .
2.
,
, , x = const, y = const.
= const r = const. S, DC, AB AD, BC,
= , = r = r0 , r = R (. 80).
f (x, y)
S. S n Si = l r = ri . l = l l1 ,
m
k
P
P
l , R r0 =
rj = rj rj1 , =
rj .
j=1

l=1

Si , .
80. Si = 21 rj2 l

2
l =
21 rj1

51.2
= lim

n
P

n i=1

2
rj2 rj1
l
2

RR

rj +rj1
(rj
2
n
P

f (x, y)ds = lim

f (i , i )

n i=1

rj +rj1
rj l .
2

rj1 )l =

rj +rj1
rj l .
2

f (i , i)Si =

n Si
RR, , ,
rj 0, l 0 rj1 rj .
RR
f (x, y)ds =
f (x, y)rdrd , , x = r cos , y = r sin ,
S

53

269

r=R

A
r=r 0

D
l l-1

rj-1

rj

. 80.

S
:
ZZ

(53.1)

f (x, y)ds =

ZZ

f (r cos , r sin )rdrd.

53.1. rdrd .
r .

() . . 80. r (
. 80), :
n
P
r +r
lim
f (i , i ) j 2j1 rj l =
n i=1

= lim

rj 0
l 0

m
k P
P
r +r
( f (i , i ) j 2j1 rj )l .

l=1 j=1

k m
(53.1) :

(53.2)

ZZ
S

f (r cos , r sin )rdrd =

ZR

r0

f (r cos , r sin )rdr.

270

53

ABCD,
r, r .
53.2. S r ( = const), = const
< < , r = r () r = rg ()
(81).

y
B

=const
S

A
0

r=r g( )
C

r=r ( )
D

. 81. , = const

= const (
r = r ()) , o, ( r = rg ()) x.
g
.
,
52.1 ,

(53.3)

ZZ
S

f (r cos , r sin )rdrd =

rZ
g ()

f (r cos , r sin )rdr.

r ()

, , r r = const,
(53.3) , , (53.2).
, S, (. 82),

53

(53.4)

ZZ

f (r cos , r sin )rdrd =

271

Zrl

rdr

r0

Z2 (r)

f (r cos , r sin )d.

1 (r)

53.3. S , r = const, r0 < r < R


= 1 (r) = 2 (r) .

y
B
= 2 (r)
A

r=R

S
C
r=r0
r=const
D = 1 (r)

. 82. S,

S o,
x. , r = const = 1 (r), = 2 (r),
, , , . (53.4) r ,
r. , ,
(. 82), (53.4)

(53.5)

ZZ
S

f (r cos , r sin )rdrd =

ZR

r0

rdr

f (r cos , r sin )d.

,
.
RR p
4 x2 y 2 ds 53.1.
S

, R = 2 (. 83).

272

53

=const
r=R=2

. 83. 53.1

:
x = r cos , y = r sin , x2 + y 2 = r2 , ds = rdrd,

ZZ p
ZZ
4 x2 y 2 ds =
4 r2 rdrd.
S

r : r =
= 0, r = 2, = 0, = 2. , (53.2):
ZZ

4 r2 rdrd =

Z2
0

Z2

4 r2 rdr.



!
p
Z2
Z2
2
3
(4 r )
8
4 r2 rdr =
|20 = .
d = |2
0 = 2
3
3
0

,
ZZ p
16
4 x2 y 2 ds =
.
3
S

.
RR
53.2.
yds
S

S, x2 + y 2 = 2x Ox.

53

273

: x2 +y 2 = 2x
(1;0) , 1. x2 +y 2 = 2x
x2 2x + y 2 = 0 x2 2x + 1 + y 2 = 1 (x 1)2 + y 2 = 1.
. 84.

y
=const
r=const
=arccos r
2
r=2cos

S
0

. 84. 53.2

x = r cos y = r sin x2 + y 2 = 2x r2 = 2r cos , r = 2 cos .


. r = const (. 84).
o r = 0, r = 2 cos ,
0 /2. (53.4):
ZZ

yds =

ZZ

Z/2
0

2Z
cos
Z/2
(r sin )rdrd =
sin d
r2 dr =
0

Z/2
1
r
sin |20 cos d =
8 cos3 sin d =
3
3
3

8 cos /2
2
2

2
|0 = (cos4 cos4 0) = (0 1) = .
3 4
3
2
3
3


r = const o S,

274

53

= 0, x, = arccos 2r , :
ZZ

yds =

r2 sin dsd =

Z2

arccos

r2 dr

r
2

sin d =

Z2

arccos
r2 ( cos )|0

Z2

 3



4
r
r
r
8
2
r2 1
dr =

|20 = 2 = .
2
3
8
3
3

r
2

dr =

r2 ( cos arccos

r
+ cos 0)dr =
2

Z2
0

ZZ

53.2.
RR . ,

f (x, y)ds u v ,
(53.6)

x = x(u, v), y = y(u, v)

,
u v S. x y S
u v,
(53.7)

u = u(x, y), v = v(x, y).

53.4. u v, (53.7)
x y, S, .
, , S u = const
v = const Si (. 85).
Si , , . 85, P1 , P2 , P3 P4 ,
, u, v, u + u, v + v. P1 (x1 , y1 ), P2 (x2 , y2 ), P3 (x3 , y3 ) P4 (x4 , y4 )
(53.6):

53

275

P4 P3
P1 P2

Si

v+ v
v

u u+ u
0

. 85. S
u = const v = const

(53.8)

x1
x2
x3
x4

= x(u, v),
= x(u + u, v),
= x(u + u, v + v),
= x(u, v + v),

y1
y2
y3
y4

= y(u, v),
= y(u + u, v),
= y(u + u, v + v),
= y(u, v + v).

P2 , P3 P4 P1
( 41), u v .

(53.9)

x1 = x(u, v),
y1 = y(u, v),
x
x
u = x1 + u
u,
x2 = x(u, v) + u
y
y
y2 = y(u, v) + u u = y1 + u u,
x
x
x
x3 = x(u, v) + u
u + x
v v = x1 + u u + v v,
y
y
y
u + y
y3 = y(u, v) + u
v v = y1 + u u + v v,
x
x4 = x(u, v) + x
v v = x1 + v v,
y
y4 = y(u, v) + y
v v = y1 + v v.


P1 P2 P3 P4 , (. 29)

P1~P2  P1~P4 .

y
x
(53.9) P1~P2 = (x2 x1 ; y2 y1 ; 0) = u
u; u
u; 0 P1~P4 = (x4


y
x
x1 ; y4 y1 ; 0) = v v; v v; 0 .

276

53



~k
~j
~i


y
x
(32.4): P1~P2 P1~P4 = u
u u
u 0 =
x v y v 0
v
x y
vx x




v uv = |J | uv,
u uv~
~P2 P1~P4 | = u
= u
k

S
=
|
P
i
1
i
y
y
y
x


v

,
.
Si (51.1), x y u v (53.6), ,
S , :
(53.10)

ZZ

f (x, y)ds =

ZZ

f (x(u, v), y(u, v))|J |dudv.

53.5. (53.10) ,


J =

(53.11)

x
u
y
u

x
v
y
v

, ,
|J|dudv u v.


x = r cos , y = r sin , ,
cos r sin
= r cos2 +r sin2 = r, rdrd,
J =
sin r cos
53.1.
.
RR
53.3. (y x)ds, S , S

y = x + 1, y = x + 4, y = 2x + 9 y = 2x + 5.

: S . 86.
,
x ( y), . 86 , ,
ZZ
ZZ
ZZ
ZZ
(x y)dxdy.
(x y)dxdy +
(x y)dxdy +
(x y)dxdy =
S

SDCK

SKCEA

SAEB

, , .

53

277

y
10
y=x+4
B
y=x+1
E
C
y=-2x+9

5 A
K
D

0 1

y=-2x+5
3

. 86. 53.3

u = y x, v = y + 2x.
DC, AB, AD BC : u = 1, u = 4, v = 5 v = 9. x y u v
x = 31 (v u), y = 31 (v + 2u), (53.11):


x x 1 1

1 1


1
v

= 1 (1 2) = 1 .
3 13 =
J = u
y
y = 2
32 2
1 32
3
3
3
u
v
(53.10)
ZZ

1
(y x)ds =
3

ZZ
S

1
ududv =
3

Z4

udu

Z9

dv =

1 u2 4 9 1
| v| = (16 1)(9 5) = 10.
3 2 1 5 6



.
53.


.
RR
53.1.
ln(x2 + y 2 )ds, S

S x2 + y 2 = e2 x2 + y 2 = e4 .

278

53

: S r = r0 = e, r = R = e2 , = = 0, = = 2 , (53.2),
RR
R2 Re2
Re2
2
2
2
2

ln(x + y )ds = d r ln r dr = 2|0 r ln rdr =
0

= 4

Re2
e

e4
4

r ln rdr = 4( r2 ln r|ee
2

e ln e +

e2
)
2

Re2
e

r2 1
dr)
2 r

= 2(r2 ln r

r 2 e2
)|
2 e

= 2(e4 ln e2

= e (3e 1).
RR
53.2.
r sin drd, S : r 6 a, > 2 , 6 .
S

: (53.2)
r0 = 0, R = a, = 2 , = .
RR
R
Ra
2
r sin drd =
sin d rdr = ( cos )|/2 r2 |a0 = ( cos +cos /2)
S

/2

(a2 /2 0) = a2 /2.

53.3. 53.2, S: r > 1,


r 6 2 + cos , 0 6 6 .
: S . 87.

=arccos(r-2)

1
-1

=const

r=2+cos
r=const
x
1
3

. 87. 53.3

= const S o, r = 1,
x, r
r = 2 + cos , = 0 = 2 .
2+cos
R r2 2+cos
R
R
RR
rdr = 2 |1
sin drd = sin d
sin d =

1
2

S
R
0

R
1

((2 + cos )2 1) sin d = 2 (3 + 4 cos + cos2 )d cos =


0

53

279

= 21 (3 cos + 2 cos2 + cos3 )|0 = 21 (3 cos + 2 cos2 + 31 cos3 3 cos 0


.
2 cos2 0 13 cos3 0) = 21 (6 + 2/3) = 10
3
,
r = const o S, = 0 x S,
r = 2 + cos = arccos(r 2), r
1 3.
arccos(r2)
R
R3
RR
R3
R3
arccos(r2)
sin d = r cos |0
r sin drd = rdr
dr = r(r
0

R3

2 1)dr = (3r r2 )dr =


1

3r2
2


3

r
3

|31 =

10
.
3

53.4. S: r > 1,
r 6 2 + cos , 0 6 6 2 (. 88).

y
=arccos(r-2)

r=const
1

r=const
1 2
3

. 88. 53.4

:
= const /2, RR
, .
r sin dr d =
S


/2
cos3
1
2
|0 = 21 (3 cos 2 + 2 cos2 2 31 cos3 2
= 2 3 cos + 2 cos + 3
3 cos 0 2 cos2 0 31 cos3 0) = 83 .

r = const S
(. 88), 1 6 r 6 2, 2 6
RRr 6 3,

0 2 , 0 = arccos(r 2).
r sin drd =
S

R2

rdr
1
2

R3

sin d+ rdr

=2

/2
R

27
2

96+

arccos(r2)
R

8
3

= 83 .

sin d =

/2
r2 2
| ( cos )|0 +
2 1

3r2
2

r3
3

|32 =

280

53

= const.
, , .
RR
53.5.
y(x + y)dxdy, S: xy > 1, xy 6 2,
S

y > x, y 6 3x.

: Oxy
(. 89).

y
3

y=3x
y=x

2
1

xy=2
xy=1
3 x

. 89. 53.5

,
S . ,
u = xy v = xy , ,
u = 1, u = 2, v = 1
v = 3 ,

pu
. x y
(53.11).
u v: x = v , y = uv.

x x 1



2uv 2vuv

u
u u
1
1
u
v

J = y y = v
= 4 uv v + vv v = 41 ( v1 +
u
2u 2v

u
v
1
+ v1 ) = 2v
.
(53.10) ,
u v,

ZZ
S

y(x + y)dxdy =

ZZ
S

uv

r

u
+ uv
v

1
dudv =
2v

53

1
=
2

Z2

du

Z3 
1


1
u
+ u dv =
v
2

Z2

281

u(ln v + v)|31 du =

1
u
3
= (ln 3 + 2) |21 = (ln 3 + 2).
2
2
4

53.6, 53.7
.
53.6.

R1

dx f (x, y)dy.

53.7.

RR
S

R1
0

f (x, y)dxdy, S : y > x, y > x, y 6 1.

53.8.

RR

r2 drd, S -

r = a Ox.


RR x2 y253.9.
2
2
e
dxdy, S : x + y 6 a2 .
S

53.10.

RR
S

(x + y)3 (x y)2 ds,

S , x + y = 1, x y = 1, x + y = 3,
x y = 1. : u = x + y; v = x y.

282

54


54.

. . , , .
54.1. . , V , , : F (x, y) = 0, , ,
z = z (x, y) z = z (x, y). z = z (x, y) z = z (x, y)
S, Oxy (. 90).
y=const, x=const
z
z=zB (x,y)
B
V
H
z=zH (x,y)
y
S
C

. 90. V

S z z F (x, y).
F (x, y) = 0 . = =
,
. . 90 x = const, y = const
, .
, z (x, y) > 0 z (x, y) > 0 S.

(. RR
RR
51)
z (x, y)ds
z (x, y)ds
S

54

283

oz, C, S, z = z (x, y)
z = z (x, y). V .
(54.1)

V =

ZZ

z (x, y)ds

ZZ

z (x, y)ds =

(z (x, y) z (x, y))ds

ZZ


XOY , x y z > z .
.
54.1. , :
y = x2 , y = 1, x + y + z = 4 2x + y + z = 3.
: (. 91) y = x2 (AECKD), y = 1
(ACD), z = 4 x y (DKC),
z = 3 2x y (AEC). XOY S (AOB), y = 1 y = x2 .

a)

b)

K
E
D

A
y=const

y
A

x= y

x=- y

x
. 91. 54.1

(54.1)
ZZ
ZZ
(1 + x)ds.
(4 x y (3 2x y))ds =
V =
S

y = const o S, x = y,

284

54

x, x =
0 1, ,
V =

Z1
0

y (. 91b), y,

Zy

dy

(1 + x)dx =

Z1
0

4
2
ydy = 2 y 3/2 |10 = .
3
3

54.2. ,
z = 4 x2 y 2 z = 1 + 12 (x2 + y 2 ).
:
z = 4 x2 y 2
z = 1+ 12 (x2 +y 2 ), z = 2
x2 + y 2 = 2 (. 92).

a)

b)

=const

r= 2
0

x
. 92. 54.2

, (54.1)


RR
RR
V =
4 x2 y 2 (1 + 21 (x2 + y 2 )) ds = (3 32 (x2 + y 2 ))ds =
S
RR S 2 2
3
2
= 2 (2x y )ds, S x +y 2 = 2 ,
S
2 ( . 92a
XOY . 92b). ,

r

r = o r = 2 0 2 (. 53.2). ,
x2 + y 2 = r2 , ds = rdrd (. 53).

54

V =
=

RR
3
2

S
3
2(2
2

(2 r )rdrd =

1) = 3.

3
2

R2
0

285

RR2
0

(2r r )dr =

3
2
|2
0 (r
2

r /4)|0 2 =
4

54.2. . , z = z(x, y), Oxy


S (. 93).

Mi

i
y

Pi
Si

. 93.

S n ,
51. i-
Si (. 93), Pi Si ,
i , i . i = z(i , i ),
Mi , Oxy Pi
Mi .
i , XOY Si = i cos i , cos i , ~ i , ,
Mi N
~ni .
cos 40:
cos = 1 2 2 .
1+zx +zy
q
Si
, i = cos i = ( 1 + zx 2 + zy 2 )i Si .
n- n ,
Si ,

286

54

ZZ q
n q
X
2
2
( 1 + zx + zy )i Si =
= lim
1 + zx 2 + zy 2 ds

(54.2)

i=1


F (x, y, z) = 0, 54.2:
(54.3)

ZZ
S

Fx 2 + Fy 2 + Fz 2
Fz 2

ds =

ZZ

1
|Fz |

Fx 2 + Fy 2 + Fz 2 ds.

54.3. x2 + z 2 = a2 , x2 + y 2 = a2 .
: x2 + z 2 = a2 OY ,
x2 + y 2 = a2 OZ. . 94a
1- , x2 + y 2 = a2
x2 + z 2 = a2 .

a)

b)

x=const
y= a2 -x 2

a
a
x

. 94. 54.3

81 . ,
q

2
2

z = a x zx = a2 x2 , zy = 0 , , 1 + zx 2 + zy 2 =
q
2
= 1 + a2xx2 = a2ax2 , (54.2)

= 8a

RR
S

= 8a2 .

ds
a2 x2

= 8a

Ra
0

dx
a2 x2

2 x2
aR

dy = 8a

Ra
0

2
2
y
| a x dx
a2 x2 0

Ra

= 8a dx =
0

54

287

14 ,
, . 94b.
54.3. , , . S = (x, y). S
n Si , . 51.1 . Pi i , i Si
(. 60). (i , i )
Si .
mi = (i , i )Si .
n- (51.1) ,
S = (x, y)
(54.4)

M = lim

n
X

(i , i )Si =

i=1

ZZ

(x, y)ds.

,
(54.5)

M =

ZZ

ds = S.

, S. S
(54.4) S.
(54.6)

(54.7)

(54.8)

Mx = lim

My = lim

n
X

i (i , i )Si =

i=1

n
X

ZZ

(x, y)yds,

ZZ

(x, y)xds,

i (i , i)Si =

i=1

RR

(x, y)xds
My
x =
,
= SRR
M
(x, y)ds
S

288

54

RR

(x, y)yds
Mx
S
= RR
y =
,
M
(x, y)ds

(54.9)

(54.10)

(54.11)

Ix = lim

Iy = lim

n
X

i2 (i , i )Si

i=1

n
X

ZZ

(x, y)y 2 ds,

ZZ

(x, y)x2 ds.

i2 (i , i )Si

i=1

, .
(54.12)

I0 = lim

n
X

(i2 + i2 )(i , i )Si =

i=1

ZZ

r2 (x, y)ds = Ix + Iy .

= const
:
(54.13)

Mx =

ZZ

yds,

ZZ

xds,

(54.14)

My =

(54.15)

RR

xds

1
x = RR
=
S
ds
S

(54.16)

RR

yds

1
y = RR
=
S
ds
S

(54.17)

Ix =

ZZ
S

ZZ

xds,

ZZ

yds,

y 2 ds,

54

(54.18)

Iy =

ZZ

289

x2 ds,

(54.19)

I0 =

ZZ

r2 ds = Ix + Iy .

54.4. ,
.
: , , ,
= Rr .
RR r
(54.4) M =
ds.
R
S

, , r
0 R, , 0 2. ,
ds = rdrd. ,
ZR ZR

2 r3 R 2R2
2
M=
| =
.
d r dr = |0
R
R
3 0
3
0

54.5. R. .
1
: ,
,

x
=
0.
S
=
R2 .

2
RR
RR
yds. yds = R2 2
(54.16) y = S1
S

S
(. 95), y = r sin , ds = rdrd.

y
=const

r=R
x
. 95. 54.5

290

54


RR 2
R
2
y = R2 sin d r dr =

4
R.
3

2
r3 R
(
cos
)|
2
0 3 |0
R

2
(cos 0
R2

cos ) R3 =

54.6. 54.4
I .
: Ix = Iy = I.
R2 RR 4
RR 2

d r dr =
r (x, y)ds = 2R
(54.12) I = 21 I0 = 21

r5 R
|2
0 5 |0
2R

4
R .
5



54.


,
.
54.1. S, y = ex , y =
= e2x , y = e2 .
: y = ex , y = e2x y = e2 (.
96).

y
D
B

C
S

1
x=- 2ln y
A
y=ex

y=e2

y=const
x=ln y
y=e-2x
x

. 96. 54.1

S, A(0; 1), B(1; e2 ) C(2, e2 ).

54

291

(51.2) S =

RR

ds. -

, y = const o S,
x = 12 ln y, x, x = ln y, y 1 e2 .
ln
Re2
Ry
Re2 ln y
Re2
3
S = dy
dx = x|1/2 ln y dy = 2 ln ydy.
1

1/2 ln y

,
Re2
3
e2
S = 2 (y ln y|1 dy) = 32 (e2 ln e2 ln 1 e2 + 1) = 23 (e2 + 1).
1


x = const, ABD ADC. ,
(48.1) .
54.2. R,
R,
.
: , Oz
, Ox .
. 97a , I-
, , 41
.

a)

b)
=const
S

2 2
x+y+
z = R2

r=R cos

R/2

x
. 97. 54.2

RR
(54.1) V = 4 (z z )ds, z = 0,
S
p
2
2
2
z = R x y , S . 97b.

292

54

RR p
S

R2 x2 y 2 ds 2

r . (x R2 )2 + y 2 = R4 ,
e S , , x =
2
2
= r cos , y = r sin , x2 + y 2 = r2 : x2 xR + R4 + y 2 = R4 x2 + y 2 = xR
r2 = rR cos r = R cos .
= const 0 R cos , 0
/2.

Z/2 RZcos
Z/2 
2
2 3/2 R cos
(R

r
)

V = 4 d
r R2 r2 dr = 4

d =

3
0
0

Z/2
4
=
((R2 R2 cos2 )3/2 + R3 )d =
3
0

Z/2
4
4R
+
(|/2
sin2 d cos ) =
=
R3 (1 sin3 )d =
0
3
3
0
0

/2
Z
4R3
+ (1 cos2 )d cos =
=
3
2
0
/2 !


3
3
4R3 2
cos
4R

=
+ (cos
)

.
=
3
2
3 0
3
2 3
Z/2

54.3. z =
= x2 + y 2 , x2 + y 2 = 4 (. 98).

z
4

2
2

x
. 98. 54.3

54

293

:
(54.2), zx = 2x, zy = 2y S 2 RR p
, =
1 + 4(x2 + y 2 )ds.
S

,
r 0 2, 0 2.
2

R2 R2
2 (1+4r2 )3 /2

2
17 1).
(17
=
= d r 1 + 4r dr = |0

12
6
0

, ,
.

54.4. ,

.
: , R1 R2 (. 99).

y
=const

r=R 1

r=R 2
x

. 99. 54.4

= rk2 ,
k , r
, .
r r = R1 r = R2 ,
0 2. (54.4)
R
R2
R2
RR
R2
= k |2
M=
(x, y)ds = k d rdr
0 ln r|R1 = 2k(ln R2 ln R1 ) =
r2

= 2k ln

S
R2
.
R1

R1

294

54

54.5. , y 2 = 4x + 4, y 2 = 2x + 4.
.
: ,
y = 2 y = 2 (. 100).

y
2
y=const

-1

2 x
S
-2

. 100. 54.5

, x, y = 0.
x (54.15).
y = const
2
o S, x = y 44 , x ,
2
x = y 24 .

S=

ZZ
S

ds = 2

Z2
0

12 (y 2 4)

dy

1 2
(y 4)
4

dx = 2

Z2
0

1 (y 2 4)

x| 1 (y2 2 4) dy =
4


Z2  2
Z2
y
3
y2
+2
=2
+ 1 dy = 2 (3 y 2 )dy =
2
4
4
0
0
 2

1 3
= 2 3y y = 8.
4
0

54

1
My
=
x =
M
S

ZZ

1
xds = 2
8

Z2 

21 (y 2 4)

(y 2 4)2 (y 2 4)2

4
16

dy

1
=
8

Z2

1
xdx =
8

3
dy =
8 16

Z2

Z2
0

1 2
(y 4)
4

3
(y 4 8y 2 + 16)dy =
8 16
0


32 64
2
3

+ 32 = .
=
8 16 5
3
5

3
=
8 16

295

Z2

1 (y2 4)
x2 1 (y2 2 4) dy =
4

(y 2 4)2 dy =

 2

y 5 8y 3

+ 16y =
5
3
0

54.6. , .
: Ix (54.17), Iy
(54.18). ,
.

Ix =

ZZ

y 2 ds = 2

= 2

3
y 2 (3 y 2 )dy = 2
4

Iy =

ZZ

x2 ds = 2

2
=
3

Z2 

Z2

Z2
0

dy

2
x2 dx =
3

3
(64 48y + 12y y )dy =
32
4

Z2

dy =

3
32

1 (y2 4)
x3 1 (y2 2 4) dy =
4

1 2
(y 4)
4

(y 4)
(y 4)

8
64

dx =

1
(y 2 4)
4

12 (y 2 4)

3
=
32

y 2 dy

 2




3
32
3

32
y 3 y 5 = 2 8
= .
20
20
5
0

21 (y 2 4)

Z2

Z2

Z2

(4 y 2 )3 dy =

 2
12 5 y 7
=
64y 16y + y
5
7 0
3

296

54

3
=
16

12 16 64
64 64 +

5
7

192
.
35


54.7. , S,
x2 + y 2 = 2x, x2 + y 2 = 4x, y = x, y = 0.
54.8.
z = x2 y 2 y = 0, z = 0, x = 1. .
54.9. ,
x + y 2 = 2x, x2 + y 2 = z 2 z = 0.
2

54.10. 2x + 3y + 2z = 1,
.
54.11. z 2 = x2 +y 2 ,
x2 + y 2 = 2x.
54.12. , r = a(1 + cos ). .
54.13. Ix , Iy , I0 , r = a(1 + cos ). .

55

55.

297

.
.
. .
55.1. . U = f (x, y, z)
V ,
. V .
, , , :
n
P
1. V n Vi .
Vi = V .
i=1

2. Vi Pi (i ; i ; i ).
U = f (x, y, z) f (Pi ) = f (i , i , i ).
3. f (i , i, i ) Vi Vi
n
P

f (i , i , i)Vi .
55.1.

i=1
n
P

f (i , i, i )Vi n- -

i=1

, U = f (x, y, z)
V.
55.2.
f (x, y, z) V , nn
P

f (i , i , i )Vi
i=1

Vi
.
RRR

f (x, y, z)dv
V

V Vi Pi Vi .

(55.1)

lim

RRR

n
X
i=1

f (i , i , i )Vi =

ZZZ

f (x, y, z)dV.


, V
, f (x, y, z) , dV
, f (x, y, z)dV .

298

55

n
P

Vi = V , , ,

i=1

(55.2)

lim

n
X

Vi =

i=1

ZZZ

dV = V,

.. V .
, , .
55.1.
RRR V U = f (x, y, z)
f (x, y, z)dV .
V

U = f (x, y, z),
, V .

55.2. . . 55.1, V f (x, y, z),


. 51.1 f (x, y)
S, , .

:
ZZZ
ZZZ
f (x, y, z)dV.
kf (x, y, z)dV = k
V


ZZZ
ZZZ
f (x, y, z)dV +
(f (x, y, z) + (x, y, z))dV =
V

ZZZ

(x, y, z)dV.


ZZZ
f (x, y, z)dV > 0.
f (x, y, z) > 0,
V

f (x, y, z) > (x, y, z),

55

ZZZ

299

f (x, y, z)dV >

ZZZ

(x, y, z)dV.

m M

f (x, y, z), ..
ZZZ
f (x, y, z)dV 6 M V.
m 6 f (x, y, z) 6 M, mV 6
V

.
m
P
V =
Vj ,
j=1

ZZZ
V

f (x, y, z)dV =

m ZZZ
X
j=1

f (x, y, z)dV.

Vj

. f (x, y, z) V , V , ,
P (; ; ),
ZZZ
1
f (, , ) =
f (x, y, z)dV.
V
V


f (x, y, z) V .
55.3. () .
V , V 54 (. 54.1)
. 90.
55.3. V
OZ, x = const, y = const,
.
V , z = z (x, y) o, ,
z = z (x, y) x.
55.3 x = const, y = const ,
,
S, V XOY .

300

55

V 55.3,
, Oz, V
.
.
55.4. , (. 51.4), dV = dxdydz.
,
, . , ,
. , OZ
z
x = const, y = const o V , z = z (x, y)
x, z = z (x, y). S.

(55.3)

ZZZ

f (x, y, z)dxdydz =

dxdy

ZZ

z R
(x,y)

zZ(x,y)

f (x, y, z)dz

z (x,y)

f (x, y, z)dz .

z (x,y)

(x, y),
RRR
RR
f (x, y, z)dxdydz
(x, y)dxdy, V

(51.3) (52.1).
, V ,
OZ, XOY S, OY ( 51.3, . 62),
:

(55.4)

ZZZ
V

f (x, y, z)dxdydz =

Zb
a

dx

yZ (x)

y (x)

dy

zZ(x,y)

f (x, y, z)dz.

z (x,y)

S OX ( 52.1, . 72)

55

(55.5)

ZZZ

301

f (x, y, z)dxdydz =

Zd

dy

xZ
(y)

dx

zZ(x,y)

f (x, y, z)dz.

z (x,y)

x (y)

(55.4) (55.5)
, .
x = const, y = const, z = const,
OX, OY OZ. V , , , a 6 x 6 b, c 6 y 6 d, k 6 z 6 l,

(55.6)

ZZZ

f (x, y, z)dxdydz =

Zb
a

dx

Zd

dy

Zl

f (x, y, z)dz.

(55.6)
. f (x, y, z) = (x)(y)(z),

(55.7)

ZZZ

f (x, y, z)dxdydz =

Zb
a

55.1.

RRR
V

2 6 z 6 3.

(x)dx

Zd
c

(y)dy

Zl

(z)dz.

zdxdydz, V : 1 6 x 6 2, 1 6 y 6 1,

:
(55.7), f (x, y, z) = z, a = 1, b = 2, c = 1, d = 1, k = 2,
l = 3.
3
RRR
R2
R1
R3
1 z2
2
= 5.
zdxdydz = dx dy zdz = x|1 y|1 2 = (2 1)(1 + 1) 94
2
V

55.2. 55.1 V ,
x + y + z = 1
(. 101)
:
(55.3), f (x, y, z) = z, z (x, y) = 0, z (x, y) =
= 1 x y, y (x) = 0, y (x) = 1 x, a = 0, b = 1.

302

55

a)

b) y

x=const
y=const
1

x=const
1

zB =1-x-y

yB =1-x
1
x
yH =0

1 y
zH =0

1
x

. 101. 55.2

RRR

zdxdydz =

dx

1
2

R1

R1

1x
R

1x
R

dy

1xy
R

zdz =

R1
0

dx

1x
R
0

1xy
z2
2
0

(1 + x2 + y 2 2x 2y + 2xy)dy =
0
0
 1x
1 
R
y3
1
2
2
2
dx =
y + x y + 3 2xy y + xy
=2

dx

1
2

R1
0

dy =

(1 x + x2 x3 +

+ (1 3x + 3x x )/3 2x + 2x 1 + 2x x2 + x + 2x2 + x2 )dx =




 1
R1  1
1
x3
x2
5x3
x4
x
1
2
x + 5x 3 dx = 2 3 2 + 3 12 =
=2
3
0
0
 17
1
5
1
1 1
= 2 3 2 + 3 12 = 24 .

55.3. 55.1 V ,
x2 + y 2 z 2 = 0 z = 4 (. 102a).

:
(55.3),

p
RRR
f (x, y, z) = z, z (x, y) = x2 + y 2 , z (x, y) = 4,
zdxdydz =
V
RR z2 4
RR
1
=
dxdy
=
(16 x2 y 2 )dxdy.

2
2
S

x2 +y 2

S, ,
2 (. 102b).
, x2 +y 2 r2 ,
dxdy , = const
o x, .. r 0 2,
0 2.

55

a)

303

b) y

x=const
y=const

=const

zB =4

z H= x 2 +y 2
2

r=2

x
. 102. 55.3

ZZZ

1
zdxdydz =
2

Z2
0

(16 x2 y 2 )dxdy =

1
2

ZZ

Z2

1
(16 r2 )rdr = |2
2 0


4 2
r
= (32 4) = 28
8r2
4 0

55.4. . ,

(53.10). x, y, z u, v, w, x, y z
x = x(u, v, w), y = y(u, v, w), z = z(u, v, w),

(55.8)

ZZZ
V

f (x, y, z)dxdydz =

ZZZ

f (x(u, v, w), y(u, v, w), z(u, v, w))|J|dudvdw.

55.5. (55.8) ,

304

55




J =

(55.9)

x
u
y
u
z
u

x
v
y
v
z
v

x
w
y
w
z
w

,
|J|dudvdw u, v, w.
55.5. . r, , z.
( r = const),
( = const) , Oz (z = const).
x, y, z

x = r cos ,
y = r sin ,
z = z.

(55.10)

, , (55.9), u = r, v = , w = z,



cos r sin 0
cos sin


0 = r
J = sin r cos
sin cos
0
0
1

(55.11)

= r(cos2 + sin2 ) = r.

z , x
y r , ,
, .
x, y, z (55.10) J = r (55.8)

(55.12)

ZZZ
V

f (x, y, z)dxdydz =

ZZZ

f (r cos , r sin , z)rdrddz.

z (. 90)

55

(55.13)

ZZZ

305

f (r cos , r sin , z)rdrddz =

ZZ
S

rdrd

z (r cos
Z,r sin )

f (r cos , r sin , z)dz.

z (r cos ,r sin )

z (55.13) ,
S .
.
55.3.
55.6. . ,
, .
( = const), (
= const) ( = const).

(55.14)

x = cos sin ,
y = sin sin ,

z = cos .

, , (55.9), u = , v = , w = ,

cos sin sin sin cos cos

(55.15)
J = sin sin cos sin sin cos

cos
0
sin


sin sin cos cos

= cos
cos sin
sin cos


cos sin cos cos
=
sin
sin sin sin cos



sin cos

2
2
2
3
sin cos
= cos sin
sin
cos
sin
= 2 sin (cos2 + sin2 ) = 2 sin .


sin
=
cos

306

55

J
,


2- ,


sin cos
= cos sin = (cos2 + sin2 ) = 1.

sin cos
cos
sin
x, y, z (58.14) |J| = 2 sin (55.8)


ZZZ

(55.16)

f (x, y, z)dxdydz =

ZZZ

f ( cos sin , sin sin , cos )2 sin ddd.

, ,
V
, . ,
V .
RRR 2
55.4.
(x + y 2 )dxdydz, V x2 + y 2 +
2

+z 6R .

: , (. 103).
(55.16)

z
=const
=const
r=R

V
S

=const
x
. 103. 55.4

55

RRR

(x2 + y 2 )dxdydz =

RRR

307

4 sin3 ddd.

: r
= const, = const o r = 0,
x, r = R,
= const 0 , , S = XOY V 0
2.
ZZZ

4 sin3 dd =

Z2
0

Z
0

sin3 d

ZR

4 d =


Z
5 R

(cos2 1)d cos =


= |2
0
5 0
0
 3


8 5
2 5 cos
R
cos =
R .
=
5
3
15
0



,
.



55.

.
RRR dxdydz
, V 55.1.
1xy
V

O(0; 0; 0), A(1; 0; 0), B(0; 1; 0) C(0; 0; 1).

: (. 104).
ABC x + y + z = 1.
z z = 0 z = 1 x y x = const,
y = const, .
1xy
RRR dxdydz RR dxdy 1xy
R
RR 1

=
z
dz
=
dxdy =
1xy
1xy
1xy
0
0
V RR
S
S
1
1
=
dxdy = S = 2 OA OB = 2 .
S

, V .

308

55

z
x=const
y=const

z=1-x-y
B

S
A
x

. 104. 55.1

, , S
V XOY .
RRR 3 2
55.2.
x y zdxdydz, V V

0 6 x 6 1, 0 6 y 6 x, 0 6 z 6 xy (. 105a).

a)

b)

x=const
y=const
C

x=const
B
y=x

S
A

B
x
. 105. 55.2

: V . , x = 1
A(1; 0; 0), B(1; 1; 0) C(1; 1; 1), y = x OBC, OB

55

309

BC , OC z = x2 . AOC z = xy. z x = const, y = const z = 0 z = xy


(. 105a), XOY y y = 0 y = x (. 105b) ,
x 0 1,

ZZZ

x3 y 2 zdxdydz =

Z1

x3 dx

1
=
2

x3 dx

Z1

Zx
0

Z1
0

Zx
0

y 2 dy

Zxy

zdz =


Z1
Zx
2 xy
1
z
x5 dx y 4 dy =
y 2 dy =
2 0
2
0



Z1
11 1
5 x
1
x
y
= 1 .
x5 dx =
x10 dx =
5 0
10
110 0 110
0

. , z, z,
. ,
, .
RRR p
x2 + y 2 dxdydz, V 55.3.
V

y = 0, z = 0, z = 2 x2 + y 2 = 2x.

: z z = 0 z =
RRR p
R2
RR 2 p
RR p
2
2
2
2
= 2.
z|0 x2 + y 2 dxdy =
x + y dxdydz =
x + y dxdy dz =
0
V
S
S
RR p
x2 + y 2 dxdy, S = Oxy V (. 106) =2
S

1 (1;0),
x2 + y 2 = 2x r = 2 cos (. 53.2
53).
p
, , x2 + y 2 = r, rdrd, , r r = 0
r = 2 cos , 0 2 ,

310

55

y
=const
r=2cos

. 106. 55.3

ZZ p
S

16
=
3

Z/2 2Zcos
Z/2 3 2 cos
r
x2 + y 2 dxdy = 2 d
r2 dr = 2
d =
3 0
0

16
3

Z/2
Z/2
16
cos3 d =
(1 sin2 ) cos d =
3
0

 /2


16
sin3
1
32
=
sin
1

=
.

3
3
3
9
0

55.4.
z > 1 x2 y 2 , z 6 1.

RRR

(x2 + y 2 + 2z)dxdydz, V : x2 + y 2 6 1,

: V x2 + y 2 = 1, z = 1
z = 1 x2 y 2 , x2 + y 2 = 1
1
XOY OZ z = 1. V ,
4
I- . 107.
ABC z = 1, BCDE x2 + y 2 = 1
ADE z = 1 x2 y 2 .
(55.13) , S 1,

55

311

x=const, y=const
z B =1

B
O

z H=1-x 2-y

E
S/4

D
x =const r=1
. 107. 55.4

ZZZ

(x2 + y 2 + 2z)dxdydz =

rdrd

 1
r2 z + z 2 1r2 rdrd =

+ 2r2 r4 )rdrd = 2

ZZ

ZZ

(r2 + 2z)dz =

(r2 + 1 r2 + r4 1+

r3 drd = 2

Z2
0

Z1

1r2

ZZ

ZZ

Z1

r3 dr =

2|2
0

1
r4
= .
4 0

.
55.5.

RRR
V

xyzdxdydz, V

1
8

x2 + y 2 + z 2 6 R2 , I- .
:
x = cos sin , y = sin sin , z = cos
2 sin ddd, . 108

312

55

=const
=const

r=R
y

x
. 108. 55.5

ZZZ

xyzdxdydz =

ZZZ

5 cos sin3 sin cos ddd =

Z/2
Z/2
ZR
1
=
sin 2d sin3 d sin 5 d =
2
0

/2 6 R
 /2
cos 2
1
sin4

=
=

2
2
4 0 6 0
0


R6
1
4
4
6
sin 0 R =
.
= (cos 0 cos ) sin
96
2
48


55.6.
2

x + y + z 6 R .

RRR p
1 + (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 dxdydz, V
V

:
, . 103,

ZZZ q
1 + (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 dxdydz =
V

ZZZ p
V

1 + 3 2 sin ddd =

Z2
0

Z
0

sin d

ZR p
0

1 + 3 2 d =

55

= |2
0

R


2
8
( cos )|0 (1 + 3 )3/2 =
(1 + R3 )3/2 1 .
9
9
0


ZZZ
f (x, y, z)dxdydz.
V

55.7. V : x + y + z 6 1, x > 0, y > 0, z > 0.


55.8. V : x2 + y 2 6 R2 , z > 0, z 6 H.
:
55.9.

R1

R1

dx dy

55.10.

R2

55.11.

xdx

RRR

R1

2R x

dz
.
x+y+z+1

dy

(4xy 2 )/2

dz.

(x + y + z)2 dxdydz,

V : 2az > x2 + y 2 , x2 + y 2 + z 2 6 3a2 .

2
4R2 x2 y 2
2Rxx
2R
R
R
R
dy
55.12. dx
dz.
0

55.13.

2Rxx2

RRR p
x2 + y 2 + z 2 dxdydz, V : x2 + y 2 + z 2 6 x.
V

313

314

56


56.

, , , , .
.

56.1. . (55.2),
OZ (. 90) z
(54.1),
. , (55.2),
(54.1), , , .

x=const
y=const

56.1. R (. 109)

V
zB = R 2-x 2-y
S

y
2
z H=- R 2-x -y

. 109. 56.1

56

V =

ZZZ
V

= |2
0

dV =

ZZZ

315

2 sin ddd =

Z2

sin

ZR

2 d =


3 R

4
( cos )|0 = R3 .
3 0
3


(54.1)
S = XOY V ,
RR
R (. 109).
RR p
V = (z z )ds = 2
R2 x2 y 2 ds =
S

RR
R2 RR
2
2
= 2 r R r drd = 2 d r R2 r2 dr =
0
S
 R 0

2
2
3/2

)
2(R r
= 2|2
= 43 R3 .
0
32
0

56.2. . = (x, y, z),


dV dm = (x, y, z)dv, ,
V.

(56.1)

M=

ZZZ

dm =

ZZZ

(x, y, z)dV.

= const

(56.2)

M =

ZZZ

dV = V.

56.2. R (. 109), .
: =
= k, k . (56.1)

316

56

M=

ZZZ

k3 sin ddd = k

k|2
0

Z2

sin d

ZR

3 d =


4 R

( cos )|0 = kR4 .
4 0

56.3. .
Oxy, Oxz Oyz ,
m Mxy = m, Mxz = m,
Myz = m, , , . , V
ZZZ
(x, y, z)zdV,
(56.3)
Mxy =
V

(56.4)

Mxz =

ZZZ

(x, y, z)ydV,

ZZZ

(x, y, z)xdV.

(56.5)

Myz =

= const:
ZZZ
(56.6)
zdV,
Mxy =
(56.7)
(56.8)

Mxz =
Myz =

Z VZ Z

V
ZZ
Z

ydV,
xdV.

(56.3) (56.5) (56.1) :

(56.9)

RRR

(x, y, z)xdV
Myz
V
x =
,
= RRR
M
(x, y, z)dV
V

56

(56.10)

317

RRR

(x, y, z)ydV
Mxz
V
y =
= RRR
,
M
(x, y, z)dV
V

(56.11)

RRR

(x, y, z)zdV
Mxy
V
.
= RRR
z =
M
(x, y, z)dV
V

= const :
ZZZ
1
Myz
xdV,
=
(56.12)
x =
M
V
V

Mxz
1
y =
=
M
V

(56.13)

ZZZ

ydV,

ZZZ

zdV.

1
Mxy
=
z =
M
V

(56.14)

56.3.
R,
= k.
: (. 110), z 0.

z
=const
=const

r=R

x
. 110. 56.3

318

56

x y
x = y = 0. (56.11) ,
,
RRR

kzdV

RRR 4
cos sin ddd
V
V
=
= RRR
z = RRR
3 sin ddd

kdV
V
V

1
2

R2

R2

0
/2
R

sin 2d

RR

4 d

sin d

/2
R

RR

1
2

3 d

1
2 12 (cos 0
2

cos ) R5

2(cos 0 cos 2 )

R4

2R
.
5

|2
0

12

|2
0

12

 /2
cos 2
0

 /2
cos
0

R
5
5
R 0
5

56.4. 56.3
= const.
: , x = y = 0. z
(56.14), V = 23 R3 .
3
z =
2R3

ZZZ

3
zdv =
2R3

3
=
4R3

Z2
0

ZZZ

3 cos sin ddd =

Z/2
ZR
d sin 2d 3 d =
0

3
R4
3
=
22
=
R.
8R3
4
8


4 R
3
/2
2
| ( cos 2)|0
=
8R3 0
4 0

56.4. . , , m
Ox, Oy Oz m , 2 + 2 , 2 + 2 , 2 + 2 .
V , n , n
, ,

56

(56.15)

Ix =

319

ZZZ

(x, y, z)(y 2 + z 2 )dV,

ZZZ

(x, y, z)(x2 + z 2 )dV,

ZZZ

(x, y, z)(x2 + y 2 )dV.

(56.16)

Iy =

(56.17)

Iz =

I0 , -

(56.18)

I0 =

ZZZ

(x, y, z) dV =

ZZZ

(x, y, z)(x2 + y 2 + z 2 )dV.

(56.15) (56.18) I0 Ix ,
Iy , Iz .
1
I0 = (Ix + Iy + Iz ).
2
= const (56.15) (56.18)
:

(56.19)

(56.20)

Ix =

ZZZ

(y 2 + z 2 )dV,

ZZZ

(x2 + z 2 )dV,

ZZZ

(x2 + y 2 )dV.

(56.21)

Iy =

(56.22)

Iz =

(56.23)

I0 =

ZZZ
V

dV =

ZZZ
V

(x2 + y 2 + z 2 )dV.

320

56

56.5. I R ,
= k.
: (. 103).
,
, Ix = Iy = Iz = I.
(56.19)
I0 (56.18):

2k 2
|0
3

ZZZ

2k
k5 sin ddd =
3
V

6 R

4k 6
( cos )|0 =
R .
6 0
9

2
2
I = I0 =
3
3

Z2
0

sin d

ZR

5 d =

56.6. 56.5 .
:
I0 (56.23) (56.18)
RRR 4
R2 R
RR 4
2
2
2
I = 3 I0 = 3
sin ddd = 3 d sin d d = 8
R5 .
15
0

, - , Oy,
,
C. . ,
.
RRR 2
(56.16) Iy =
(x + z 2 )dv.
V

, C
Oy RRR
(. 111),
Ic =
((x x )2 + (z z )2 ) dv.
V

, x z
,
(56.1), (56.3), (56.5):
RRR
RRR 2
2
Ic =
(x 2xx + x2 + z 2 2zz + z2 )dv =
(x + z 2 )dv + (x2 +
V
RRR V
RRR
RRR
2
zdv = Iy + (x2 + z2 )M 2x Myz
xdv 2z
+ z )
dv 2x
V

2z Mxy .
, (56.9) (56.11) , Myz = x M ,
Mxy = z M , Ic = Iy (x2 + z2 )M

56

321

z
C(x ,y ,z )

O1
O

x
x
. 111.

(56.24)

Iy = Ic + (x2 + z2 )M.

Oy, x2 + z2
, (56.24)
:
, ,
.
56.7. IT R , , .
.
: 56.6 ,
R5 .
, (56.24) Ic = 8
15
T R,
M = 34 R3 (56.24) T
R5 + R2 34 R3 = 28
R5 .
Oy, IT = Ic + (x2 + z2 )M = 8
15
15
56.5. .
,
,
, ,
.

322

56

,
, 50.
, .
( ) ( )
.
, , ()
( 50).

, ,
, .
, . . ,
, f (x, y)
S, RR:
RR
f (x, y)ds = lim
f (x, y)ds,
S

S S S

S , S, S S ,
S
.
RR
S ,
f (x, y)ds
S

, .

S R x2

e dx 4.


. 43.2, R x
2
e dx . ,
, .

56.8.

ex dx.

4.

(17811840) .

56

323

ZZ

2 y 2

ex

dxdy -

S. (49.14)

2
ZZ
Z
Z
Z
2
2
2
2
2
ex y dxdy =
ex dx
ey dy =
e d .


ZZ
S

x2 y 2

dxdy =

Z2

er rdr =


1 r2
= 2 e = (e e0 ) = .
2
0

ex dx =

. f (x, y)
RR
S, P (; ),
f (x, y)ds =
S
RR
lim
f (x, y)ds, S , S - 0 S

P (; ) ( 38).
RR
, ,
f (x, y)ds S

. .
. , , .
, , .
Rb
RR

f (x)dx,

f (x, y)ds

a
S
RRR
f (x, y, z)dv ,
V

, ,
, .

n
R
P
U d = lim
f (Mk )k ,

k=1

Mk k , U = f (M ), k
.

324

56

U = f (M ) , ,
n, n - . , (
U = f (x, y, z, t) x, y, z,
) .



56.


.
56.1. , y = x2 , z = 0 y + z = 1,
y.
: . 112a.

x=const
y=const

a)

b)
1

z=1-y

S
y=const
x=- y
y

x= y
0

z=0
x
. 112. 56.1


(56.1) z z = 0 z = 1 y
1y
RR
R
RR
RRR
RR
y(1 y)dxdy.
dz =
yz|01y dxdy =
M=
ydv =
ydxdy
V


S = XOY V . x

o y = const S (. 112b), x = y,

x, x = y, y 0 1.

56

M=

R1
0

y(1 y)dy

Ry

R1

325

y
x|y

dx = (y y )
0

R1

dy = 2 (y y y 2 y)dy =
0


 1
8
= 2 52 y 5/2 27 y 7/2 0 = 2 52 27 = 35
.

= const.
56.2. 56.1.
: V =

RRR

dV =

=
=

8
.
15

y
x|y

z|01y

dy = 2

R1

dy

R1

R1

Ry

dx

1y
R

dz =

2 3/2
y
3

y(1y)dy = 2

2 5/2
y
5

 1
=2
0

2
3

2
5

56.3. 56.1.
: OY
x = 0. y z (56.13) (56.14):

1y
1
R
R
RRR
Ry
1
8
15
y = V
35
= 37 ,
dz = 15
ydV = 8 ydy
dx
8
0

z =
=

15
8

1
V

RRR

15
8

zdV =

R1

dy

Ry

dx

1y
R

zdz =

0
0
V
y

1
1

1y
R
R
2
y
x|y z2 dy = 15
y(1 2y + y 2 )dy =
8
0
0
0

 2
15 2
2 5/2
2 7/2 1
4
2
2 3/2
=
y

2
y
+
y

+
= 7.
3
5
7
8
3
5
7
0
y

= 15
8

56.1.

56.4. 56.1.
: Ix , Iy Iz (56.20),
(56.21) (56.22):

Ix =

ZZZ

(y 2 + z 2 )dV =

Z1
0

dy

Zy

Z1
0

dy

Zy

Z1y
dx (y 2 + z 2 )dz =
0


Z1
Zy
3 1y
z
dx = dy
y2z +
y2 y3 +

3 0

326

56

1 3y + 3y 2 + y
+
3
= 2


3

dx =

1

1
2
y + 2y 2 y 3 dy
3
3

y
3
5
2 7
y 2 + 2y 2 y 2
3
3

Zy

dx =

dy =

 1
4 9/2
2 3/2 2 5/2 4 7/2
y y + y y
= 2
=
9
5
7
27
0


2
464
1 1 2
+
=
,
= 4
9 5 7 27
8505


ZZZ

Iy =

(x2 + z 2 )dV =

Z1

dy

Zy

Z1

dy

Z1 

Z1y
dx (x2 + z 2 )dz =


Zy
Z1
3 1y
z
x2 z +
x2 x2 y+
dx = dy

3 0

1 3y + 3y 2 + y
+
3

Z1 

Zy


3

dx =

 y

x3 x3 y 1
1
2
3

+ x yx + y x + y x
dx =

3
3
3
3
y


1 7/2
1 3/2 1 5/2 1 1/2
3/2
5/2
dy =
y y + y y +y + y
= 2
3
3
3
3
0
 1

4 5/2
4 7/2
2 9/2
2 3/2
y y + y + y
= 2
=
9
15
21
27
0


1 2 2 1
416
4
+ +
=
,
=
3
3 5 7 9
945
Iz =

ZZZ

(x2 + y 2 )dV =

Z1
0

Z1 
0

dy

Zy

Z1y
(x2 + y 2 )dx
dz =

 y

x3
+ y 2 x
z|01y dy =

3
y

56

= 2

Z1 
0

= 2

Z1 
0

= 2

327


1 3/2
y + y 5/2 (1 y)dy =
3


1 3/2 2 5/2
y + y y 7/2 dy =
3
3

 1


4 7/2 2 9/2
1 2 1
64
2 5/2
4
y + y y

=
.
=

15
21
9
3
5
7
3
315
0

56.5. R
H .
: Oz , Ox
, ,
Oy (. 113).

z
z
H

y, y
x

x
. 113. 56.5


Iz , , , , ,
, Iz . Iz (56.21),
, O , x 2 + y 2 = r2 ,
dV = rdrddz:
RRR 2
R2 RR 3 RH
2

Iz =
(x + y )dV = d r dr dz =
V

328

56

R
2 r4
|0 4
0

R4 H
.
2

z|H
0 =

(56.24)
Oz (), ,
M = R2 H, Oz O z R:
4
Iz = R2 H + R4 H = 32 R4 H.
56.6.
R (. 108).

1
8

: , x = y = z . 81
V = 61 R3 . . z , (56.14), z = cos ,
dV = 2 sin ddd:

z =

6
R3

ZR
Z/2 Z/2
6
zdv =
d sin cos d 3 d =
3
R

ZZZ

6
|/2
0
3
R

 /2 4 R

3
cos 2
=

R.

4
4 0
8
0

56.7. 18 R,
Ox, Oy, Oz (. 108)
.
: ,
2
W = I2 , I
.
.

(56.19),
RRR 2 (56.13)2 RRR
2
2
I = Ix = Iy = Iz = 3 I0 = 3
dV = 3
4 sin ddd =
V

/2
R
0

/2
R
0

sin d

RR
0

d =

|/2
0

R
/2 5
( cos )|0 5
0


I2
2 5
W =
=
R .
2
30

5
R ,
15

57

329


56.8. , y 2 = 4 3x, y 2 = x, z = 1, z = 1.
56.9. , y 2 + 2x2 = 4z z = 2.
56.10. H
, R1
R2 ,
.
56.11. 56.10
.
56.12. 56.10
.



57.

. ( ). . .
.
.

57.1. . 40
, 48 ,
L, .
1 . S Oxy,
F Fx = P = P (x; y) Fy = Q =
= Q(x; y)
57.1. S, F = F (x; y) = P (x; y)i + Q(x; y)j
.

330

57

y
S
B = An
Ai
A i+1

A=A 0
ri

ri+1

. 114. L

L, A
B S. n
Ai , i = 0, 1 . . . , n, A0 = A, An = B. Ai ,
AB, li = Ai Ai+1 . ri ri+1 , Ai Ai+1 ,
114 , li = ri+1 ri = (xi+1 xi )i + (yi+1 yi )j = xi i + yj j.
F , i , i , Ai , Ai+1 . , li
F F (i ; i ). F (i ; i)
li = P (i ; i )xi + Q(i ; i )yi . n-
n
n
P
P
F (i ; i )li =
P (i ; i)xi + Q(i ; i )yi

i=1

i=1

Ai Ai+1 , , ,
n .

57.2. , n- n
P

F (i ; i )li i=1

Ai Ai+1 ,

57

331

L :
Z
Z
F (x; y)dl = P (x; y)dx + Q(x; y)dy
(57.1)
L

F (x; y)dl =

AB

P (x; y)dx + Q(x; y)dy

AB

L
ZxB
Z
P (x; y)dx + Q(x; y)dy = (P (x; y(x)) + Q(x; y(x))y (x)) dx
(57.2)
xA

AB

L, y = y(x),
ZyB
Z
P (x; y)dx + Q(x; y)dy = (P (x(y); y)x (y) + Q(x(y); y)) dy
(57.3)
yA

AB

L, x = x(y),
ZtB
Z
P (x; y)dx + Q(x; y)dy = (P (x(t); y(t))x(t)+
(57.4)
tA

AB

+Q(x(t); y(t))y (t)) dt


x = x(t), y = y(t). 57.257.4 xA , yA , tA , xB , yB , tB x, y
t, , A B.
, , , ,
Z
Z
Z
P dx + Qdy

P dx + Qdy +
P dx + Qdy =
BC

AB

AC

AB

P dx + Qdy =

P dx + Qdy

BA

L ,
H
P dx + Qdy,
L

(,
H S, L
)
P dx + Qdy .
L

332

57

P dx + Qdy =

P dx + Qdy

57.1.

ydx + xdy

ydx xdy OABO (.

115)
y

B(0;2)

O(0;0)

A(1;0)

. 115. 57.1

:
OABO OA, AB BO
OA : y = 0 , , dy = 0,
Z
Z
ydx xdy = 0.
ydx + xdy = 0
OA

OA

AB : y = 2x + 2 dy = 2dx

 0
Z0
Z

x2
ydx + xdy = (2x + 2)dx 2xdx = 4 + 2x = 0
2
1
1

AB

ydx xdy =

AB

Z0

(2x + 2)dx + 2xdx = 2

Z0
1

dx = 2x|01 = 2

OB : x = 0 dx = 0,
Z
Z
ydx xdy = 0
ydx + xdy = 0
BO

BO

ydx + xdy = 0,

ydx xdy = 2

57

x2
a2

333

57.2. 57.1
2
+ yb2 = 1 (. 116).
y
b

. 116. 57.2

: x = a cos ,
y = b sin , dx = a sin d, dy = a cos d
0 2.

ydx + xdy =

R2

ab sin2 d + ab cos2 d =

R2

ab sin2 d ab cos2 d =

= ab

R2

cos 2d =

ydx xdy =

= ab

R2
0

ab
2

2
sin 2 0 = 0

d = ab|2
0 = 2ab

, , 57.1 0,
.

. , F ,
dl F dl.
, , F = F (x; y) =
= (Fx (x; y); Fy (x; y)) - A
B L :
(57.5)

A=

AB

F (x; y)dl =

AB

Fx (x; y)dx + Fy (x; y)dy

334

57

57.2. . 5
L, S, ,
.
57.1. . P = P (x; y)
Q = Q(x; y)
S, L,

ZZ 
I
Q P

dxdy
P dx + Qdy =
(57.6)
x
y
S

(57.6) P Q , Q
P
= 1,
x
y
, (57.5) S. ,
, P = 0, Q = x P = y, Q = 0 P = 21 y,
Q = 12 x. , S , ,

I
I
I
1
xdy ydx
(57.7)
S = xdy = ydx =
2
L

57.3. OAB (. 115) (. 116) .


H
: (57.7) S = 21 xdyydx
L
H
57.1 57.2 ydx xdy, L

:

H 1 HOAB :
1
S = 2 xdy ydx = 2 ydx xdy = 21 (2) = 1, .
L


H :
H
1
S = 2 xdy ydx = 12 ydxxdy = 21 (2ab) = ab, ,
L
L
RR

dxdy.
S

57.3. . ,

R P = P (x; y) Q = Q(x; y),

P dx + Qdy AB

, .. A B
5.

(17931841)

57

335

.
R
. ,
P dx + Qdy
AB

, . , - L
A, B, C, D S (. 117)

y
D
B

L
A

C
x

. 117.

P dx + Qdy =

P dx + Qdy +

P dx + Qdy =

BDA

ACB

ACBDA

P dx + Qdy

P dx + Qdy = 0

ADB

ACB


R

P dx + Qdy
AB

,
. , ,
,
. ,
. 117 H
ACBDA
P dx + Qdy = 0,
ACBDA
R
R
, ,
P dx + Qdy =
P dx + Qdy, ..
ACB

ADB

.
.
R
P dx +
57.2. ,
AB

+ Qdy D

336

57

(. 35), ,

Q
P
=
(57.8)
y
x
: . , S . 117 L
D, .. S
(57.8).
H
, P dx + Qdy .
L


(57.6) (57.8) ,
H
RR  Q P 
H
P dx + Qdy =
dS
=
0.
,

P dx + Qdy

x
y
L


R L D , ,

P dx + Qdy D
AB

,
R A B.
.
P dx + Qdy AB

D. , (57.8).
,



. 6= Q
M0 (x0 ; y0 ) P
y
x M0
M
0


Q
Q
P
> 0. x P
x y
y
M0

P

Q
x
y
. , M0 -
D , M0 , Q
P
> 0.
x
y
H
RR  Q P 
P dx + Qdy =
y d,
x
Q
x

P
y

> 0 , C , ,
RR  Q P 
H
,
d
>
0.
,
P dx + Qdy > 0,

x
y
C

,
. ,
= Q
.
D P
y
x

57.4.
57.1
Z
Z
ydx xdy.
ydx + xdy

AB

AB

57

337

ydx + xdy

P = y, Q = x,

AB

P
y

= 1,

= 1, P
= Q
y
x
, ,
57.1 R 57.2.
= 1, Q
= 1 P
6= Q

ydxxdy P = y, Q = x, P
y
x
y
x
Q
x

AB

,
, 57.1 57.2.

57.4. . P dx + Qdy,
P = P (x; y) Q = Q(x; y) D.
U = U (x; y) .
57.3. ,
P dx + Qdy D U = U (x; y), D (57.8) P
= Q
y
x
. P dx + Qdy U = U (x; y),
(57.9)
,

dU =
U
x

= P,

U
U
dx +
dy = P dx + Qdy.
x
y
U
y

= Q. 2

U
y, x, xy
= P
; U = Q
. P
Q
y yx
x
y
x
, U (x; y), , , . ,
P
= Q
.
y
x

57.3. U = U (x; y), P dx+Qdy, .


R
P dx+Qdy ,
AB

A B, A B,
(x;y)
(x;y)
R
R
x0 , y0 x, y.
dU (x; y) =
P (; )d + Q(; )d
(x0 ;y0 )

(x0 ;y0 )

338

57

, ,
(57.10)

(x;y)
Z

U (x; y) =

P (; )d + Q(; )d + C

(x0 ;y0 )

, x y
.
, U (x; y)
C = U (x0 ; y0 )
(57.10) , A(x0 ; y0 ) B(x; y).
, ABC,
AB CD, = y0 =
= const = x = const, , d = 0 d = 0 (.
118):

y
y

y0

A
x0

. 118. U = U (x; y)

(57.11)

U (x; y) =

Zx

x0

P (; y0 )d +

Zy

Q(x; )d + C

y0

P (x; y) Q(x; y) ,
(57.11) x0 = y0 = 0.
Zy
Zx
(57.12)
U (x; y) = P (; 0)d + Q(x; )d + C
0

57.5. ydx + xdy 57.1

57

339

: 57.4 ,
57.8 , , ydx + xdy , 57.12,
y
U (x; y) =

Zx

0d +

Zy

xd = xy + C

: dU = d(xy + C) = ydx + xdy.


57.6.




 y x1 + y1 dx + y2 yx2 dy, , .

: P = x1 + y1 ; Q = y2 yx2 . (57.8)
P
= y12 ; Q
= y12 . P
= Q

y
x
y
x
, ,
(57.11) (57.12), x = 0 y = 0
P (x; y) Q(x; y) , (57.11) x0 = y0 = 1
U (x; y) =

Zx 
1



Zy 
2
x
1
+ 1 d +

d =

2
1

= (ln + )|x1 +
= ln x + x ln 1 1 + 2 ln y +
:

U
x

1
x

+ y1 ;

U
y

2
y

 y
x
2 ln +
=
1

x
x
2 ln 1 x = ln x + 2 ln y + + C
y
y

x
y2




57.

.
R
57.1.
2xydx x2 dy,
AB

O(0; 0), A(2; 1) , O A


(. 119):

340

57

y
A(2;1)

C(0;1)
c

y=Const

a
b
O(0;0)

B(2;0)

. 119. 57.1, 57.2, 57.3, 57.4

OA. : OaA
y = 21 x dy = 21 dx
Z

2xydx x dy =

Z2 
0

OaA

2

4
1 3
1 2
x x dx = x =
2
6 0 3
2

ObA, Oy 2
. : ObA y = x4 dy =
= x2 dx
Z

2xydx x dy =

ObA

Z2 
0

x3 x3

2
2

dx = 0

OcA, Ox p
. : OcA y = x2
dy = 2dx2x
Z

OcA

Z2

Z2 

2
1
3
x3/2 dx =
2xydx x2 dy =
x 2x x 2x dx =
4
4
0

3 2 2 5/2
12
x = .
=

4
5
5
0

OBA. : OBA
OB BA, OB y = 0 dy = 0,

57

341

BA x = 2 dx = 0, ,
Z

2xydx x2 dy = 0 +

Z1

(4)dy = 4

OBA

OCA : OCA
OC CA, OC x = 0 dx = 0,
CA y = 1 dy = 0, ,
Z

2xydx x2 dy =

OCA

57.2.

Z2
0

2
2xdx + 0 = x2 0 = 4

2xydx + x2 dy -

OA

57.1.
OaA
Z

2xydx + x2 dy =

Z2 
0

OaA



Z2
3 2
1
3
x
=4
x2 + x2 dx =
x2 dx =
2
2
2 0
0

:
ObA :
Z

2xdx + x2 dy =

Z2 

x3 x3
+
2
2

ObA

dx =

OcA :
Z

OcA

Z2


4 2
x
=4
x3 dx =
4 0


Z2 
1
2
2xdx + x dy =
x 2x + x 2x dx =
4
0

Z2
5
2 2 5/2
5 2
x3/2 dx =
x = 4.
=
4
4
5
0

OBA :
Z

OBA

2xdx + x2 dy = 0 +

Z1
0

4dy = 4

342

57

OCA :
Z2
Z
2
2xdx + x2 dy = 2xdx + 0 = x2 0 = 4
0

OCA

,
.
.
57.3. 57.1
L .
L OBAaO :
P
= 2x2x = 4x
P = 2xy, Q = x2 Q
x
y
H
RR
R1 R2
2
2xydx x dy = 4
xdS = 4 dy xdx =
L

= 4

Z1
0

2y

2
 1
 3
Z1

y
x2
2
= 16 .

y
dy
=
2
(4

4y
)dy
=
8

2 2y
3
3
0
0

x y = Const y = 2x
x = 2.
OBAaO 57.1
Z
Z
I
4
16
2xydx x2 dy = 4 =
2xydx x2 dy +
2xydx x2 dy =
3
3
AaO

OBA

L ObAcO. :
Z

2xydx x dy = 4

= 2

Z1
0

Z1
0

dy

Z2

xdx = 2

2y 2

(4y 4y 4 )dy = 8

Z1
0


2 2 y
x 2y2

 1
y 5 y 2
12

5
2 0
5

dx =

x y = Const

x = 2y 2 x = 2 y.

57

343

ObAcO
57.1
Z
Z
I
4
16
2
2
2xydx x2 dy = 4 =
2xydx x dy +
2xydx x dy =
3
3
L

AcO

ObA

57.4. , ObAcO
( 57.1)
:
(57.7) 57.1
Z2 2
Z
Z0
Z
I
x
x
dx =
xdy =
xdy +
dx +
S = xdy =
2
2 2
L

ObA

AcO

2
2
x3
4 2
2
1 3/2

=
x
=

=
.


6 0 3 2
3
3
3
0

57.5. , 57.2

2xydx+x2 dy

: P = 2xy, Q = x2 Q
P
= 2x,
x
y
R
(57.8) , , , 2xydx + x2 dy
L

. 57.2
L
O(0; 0) A(2; 1) 4.

57.6.
2xydx + x2 dy.
: ,
, (57.8)
(57.12)
Zy
U (x; y) = 0 + x2 d = x2 y + C
o

U
x

= 2xy;

U
y

= x2

344

58


57.7.
2

AB

(x2 2xy)dx +

+ (2xy + y )dy, AB y = x A(1; 1)


B(2; 4).
R
57.8. (2ay)dx+xdy,
C

C x = a(t sin t), y = a(1 cos t),


0 6 t 6 2.
H
57.9. , 2(x2 + y 2 )dx +
2

+ (x + y) dy, C A(1; 1), B(2; 2) C(1; 3).



ABCA.
57.10.
x = a cos3 t, y = a sin3 t.
57.11. ,
, ,
. (3x2 2xy + y 2 )dx (x2 2xy + 3y 2 )dy; exy ((1 + x + y)dx + (1
dy
dx
+ x+y
.
x y)dy); x+y
58.

. . . .
-. . .

. . . .
. .
58.1. . . . D Oxyz F ,
Fx = P = P (x; y; z), Fy = Q = Q(x; y; z) Fz = R = R(x; y; z).

58

345

58.1. D,

(58.1)

F = F (x; y; z) = P (x; y; z)i + Q(x; y; z)j + R(x; y; z)k

()
58.2. L,
F = (P ; Q; R)
, .
C.
58.3. ,
C, , .

ni
Pi

i
i

. 120.

D (. 120). n
n
P
=
i . Pi i , i , i , i=1

, i . ni = n(i ; i i ), .
n
Oz. ,
. Fi = F (i ; i; i ) ni Fi i Pi .

346

58

Fi ni i n-
n
P
Fi ni i .
n =
i=1

58.4. n- n =

n
P

i=1

Fi

ni i i , , , n ,
F
ZZ
ZZ
(58.2)
=
F nd =
F (x; y; z) n(x; y; z)d

, n
ZZ
(58.3)
=
F nd


. , , D ,
W = W (x; y; z) D ,
, F = W (x; y; z).
, , , , , .. ,
, ,
. .
, .. . , W
, (.
121)
,
, 1 W , . Q,
, , W , .

58

347

n
h

. 121.

h, Q = h. n , W ,
Q = W cos = (W n).
, (58.2), ,

ZZ
W (x; y; z) n(x; y; z)d
(58.4)
Q=

58.2. . -6
58.5.
F = (P (x; y; z); Q(x; y; z);
R(x; y; z)) M (x; y; z) V , F ,
V ,
M , V 0.

div.
ZZ
1
(58.5)
div F = lim
F nd
V 0 V

:
(58.6)
6..

div F =

Q R
P
+
+
x
y
z

(18011861) ;
. (17771855) .

348

ZZ
ZZZ
div F dV
=
F nd =

(58.7)

58

-. ,
(58.7).
58.1. (-). P = P (x; y; z),
Q = Q(x; y; z) R = R(x; y; z), F
Fx = P , Fy = Q, Fz = R, ,
V , F
, V ,
V .

, n .
- (58.7).
W . , V ,
, (58.4) (58.7)
ZZZ
ZZ
div W dV
W nd =
(58.8)
Q=

div W > 0 M ,
,
div W > 0. V , , (58.8) Q , V , , , , .
. div W < 0 M , Q < 0
V . .
F = F (x; y; z)
58.6. , div F > 0,
, , div F < 0 .
. , , , , , , .

58

349

,
, , nF , , , 1 2 (. 122), div F = 0,

RR
RR 1 2 .
F nd +
F nd = 0
1

n
2
F
n1
F
n

1
. 122.

n , n1 = n,
RR
RR
F n1 d =
F nd. , ,
2

div F = 0,
.
58.7. ,
div F = 0, ( ).

58.3.
. .
. L, A
B, D.
n-
n
X

F (i ; i ; i )li =

i=1

n
X

P (i ; i ; i)xi + Q(i ; i; i )yi + R(i ; i ; i )zi

i=1

57.2

350

58

58.8. , n- n
P
F (i ; i ; i)li ,

i=1

, AB, , , n ,
2-
Z
Z
F (x; y; z)dl = P (x; y; z)dx + Q(x; y; z)dy + R(x; y; z)dz
(58.9)
L

F (x; y; z)dl =

P (x; y; z)dx + Q(x; y; z)dy + R(x; y; z)dz

AB

AB

L : x = x(t); y = y(t)
z = z(t), (58.9)
Z
P dx + Qdy + Rdz =
(58.10)
AB

ZtB

P (x(t); y(t); z(t))x(t) + Q(x(t); y(t); z(t))y (t)+

tA

+R(x(t); y(t); z(t))z (t)dt


tA tB t A B.
(57.5)
F = F (x; y; z) = (Fx (x; y; z); Fy (x; y; z); Fz (x; y; z)) ,
- A
B L
Z
Z
Fx (x; y; z)dx + Fy (x; y; z)dy + Fz (x; y; z)dz
F (x; y; z)dl =
(58.11) A =
AB

AB

58.9. (58.9)
L F
L
I
I
(58.12)
F dl = P (x; y; z)dx + Q(x; y; z)dy + R(x; y; z)dz
L

(58.12) , L , . .

58

351

58.10. ( )
F = P (x; y; z)i + Q(x; y; z)j + R(x; y; z)k
rot F






R Q
P
Q P
R
(58.13)
rot F =

i+

j+

k=
y
z
z
x
x
y


i j k


= x
y
z
P Q R

(58.13)
rot F .

x
; y
; z
P , Q, R P
; P
; P
; Q
..,
x
y
z
x

Q
; P R
; Q P
rot F = R
y
z z
x x
y
H
rot F F dl ,
L

58.2. ( )7.
P = P (x; y; z), Q = Q(x; y; z), R = R(x; y; z),
F = F (x; y; z), , , L,
F L
.
I
ZZ
(58.14)
F dl =
n rot F d
L

(58.14) . , L
() , (58.14)
rot V , L.
, .
, (57.6) (58.14). ,
 P = P (x; y); Q = Q(x; y),
R = 0, (58.13) rot F = Q
k. , ,
P
x
y
7.

(18191903)

352

58

L Oxy, n = k.
rot F n (58.14) (57.6).
58.4. . .
58.11.
F = (P (x; y; z); Q(x; y; z);
R(x; y; z)) , rot F = 0.
58.12. U = U (x; y; z), F = F (x; y; z), (
) F = F (x; y; z).

58.3. ,
F = F (x; y; z) = P (x; y; z)i + Q(x; y; z)j + R(x; y; z)k
, , ..,



R Q P
R Q P
(58.15)
rot F =

=0
y
z z
x x
y
, , , ,
(58.16)

P
R
Q P
R Q

= 0;

= 0;

=0
y
z
z
x
x
y

. F = F (x; y; z) U = U (x; y; z), , , (58.12)


(39.7)
F = grad U =

U
U
U
i+
j+
k
x
y
z

(58.17)

P =

U
U
U
, Q=
, R=
.
x
y
z

(58.16) , , , (58.16)
, , (58.15) .
(58.15) (58.14) :

58

353

58.4. ,
F ,
R , , ,
F dl .

AB

, F = (P ; Q; R) (58.17), U = U (x; y; z)
dx + U
dy + U
dz,
dU = U
x
y
z
Z
Z
P dx + Qdy + Rdz =
F dl =
(58.18)
AB

AB

U
U
U
dx +
dy +
dz =
x
y
z

AB

ZB

dU = U (B) U (A).

B(x;y;z)
A(x 0;y0 ;z 0)

C(x;y0 ;z0)

D(x;y;z 0)
y

x
. 123. L ,

(58.11),
, , -
A B ,
A B, A B.
58.5. . , (58.12) F (x; y; z) = grad U (x; y; z) U = U (x; y; z) F = F (x; y; z).
(58.18).

354

58

A (. 123) (x0 ; y0 ; z0 ),
B (x; y; z). (58.18) (58.18)
(58.19)

U (x; y; z) =

(x;y;z)
Z

P (; ; )d + Q(; ; )d + R(; ; )d + C,

(x0 ;y0 ;z0 )

, , ,
(x; y; z), C = U (x0 ; y0 ; z0 ).

ACDB AC, CD DB (123), , , = y0 , = z0 ;
= x, = z0 ; = x, = y d = d = 0; d = d = 0; d = d = 0.
(58.19)
(58.20) U (x; y; z) =

Zx

x0

P (; y0 ; z0 )d +

Zy

y0

Q(x; ; z0)d +

Zz

R(x; y; )d + C,

z0

P , Q, R x0 = y0 = z0 = 0 (58.20)
O(0; 0; 0).
58.33. 57.3 U = U (x; y)
U = U (x; y; z),
, ,




58.

58.1. F = kr = kxi +
+ kyj + kzk R -.
: x2 + y 2 + z 2 = R2 ,
n = R1 R,

58

355

F = kR, F n = kR R1 R = Rk R2 = kR2 , , F = kr x2 + y 2 + z 2 = R2 ,
(58.8)
ZZ
ZZ
F nd = kR
d = kR4R2 = 4kR3
=

. P = kx; Q = ky; R = kz (58.6)


div F = P
+ Q
+ R
= kx
+ ky
+ kz
= 3k. x
y
z
x
y
z
(58.7)
ZZZ
ZZZ
4
dV = 3k R3 = 4kR3 .
div F dV = 3k
=
3
V

58.2. F = (2x + z)i + (y +


+2z)j +(z y)k , x = 0; y = 0;
z = 0 x 2y + 2z 6 = 0, -
.
: , , . 124.

z
C 3

B
-3

0
A

x
. 124. 58.2 58.3

F . P = 2x + z; Q = y + 2z; R = z y ,
(2x + z) (y + 2z) (z y)
div F =
+
+
=2+1+1=4
x
y
z

356

58

, (58.7)
ZZZ
ZZZ
dV =
div F dV = 4
=
V

1
1
= 4 OA BO OC = 4 6 3 3 = 36
6
6
BOC; AOC; AOB ABC OABC.
BOC (. 125): x = 0, n = i, F n = z, BOC =
3+y
3
RR
R0
R
R0 2 3+y
R
1
1
=
zdzdy = dy
zdz = 2 z |0 dy = 2 (9 + 6y +
0
3
0
BOC
 3
 3
3

+ y 2 )dy = 21 9y + 3y 2 + y3 = 12 (27 + 27 9) = 4, 5

y=Const

B
-3

C 3

. 125. 58.2 x = 0

AOC (. 126): y = 0, n = j, F n = 2z, AOC =


62z
 3
RR
R3
R
R3
=2
zdxdz = 2 zdz
dx = 2 z(62z)dz = 2 3z 2 23 z 3 0 =
0

AOC

= 2(27 8) = 18

z
3C

x=6-2z
z=Const
A
x
6

. 126. 58.2 y = 0

58

357

AOB (. 127): z = 0, n = k, F n = y, AOB =


6+2y
 0
RR
R0
R
R0
=
ydxdy = ydy
dx = y(6 + 2y)dy = 3y 2 + 23 y 3 3 =
3

AOB

= 27 + 18 = 9

y
A
6 x
y=Const
x=6+2y

3B

. 127. 58.2 z = 0

, ABC : x 2y + 2z 6 = 0;

N
N = Ai + Bj + Ck = i 2j + 2k n =
=
N
1
2
2
i 2j + 2k
= i j + k.
=
3
3
3
1+4+4
F n :
F n = 31 (2x + z 2y 4z + 2z 2y).
z = 3 x2 + y F n = 56 x 52 y 1 , ,
q
(54.2) d = 1 + z 2x + z 2y dxdy =
q
= 1 + 41 + 1dxdy = 32 dxdy,

ZZ 
5
5
3
x y 1 dxdy =
ABC =
2
6
3
AOB

3
=
2

Z0

3
=
2
=

3
2

R0

Z0 

dy

6+2y
Z 
0


5
5
x y 1 dx =
6
3


5
5
(6 + 2y)2 (6 + 2y) (6 + 2y) dy =
12
3


9 2y 35 y 2 dy =

3
2

 0
9y y 2 53 y 3 3 = 31, 5

358

58

OABC = BOC + AOC + AOB + ABC =


= 4, 5 + 18 9 + 31, 5 = 36
, .
,
, ,
( 40).
j + x2 zk
58.3. F = xy 2 i + yz
2
z = x2 + y 2
x2 + y 2 = 4 (. 98).
: z = f (x; y) (40.20)
fx (x; y)i fy (x; y)j + k
2xi 2yj + k
n= q
=p
.
2 + 4y 2
2
2

1
+
4x
1 + f x (x; y) + f y (x; y)

n Ox .
2x2 y 2 y 2 z + x2 z
F n = p
.
1 + 4x2 + 4y 2


RR 2x,
2 y 2 y 2 z+x2 z

=
d. (39.11)
1+4x2 +4y 2
q
p
1 + f 2x + f 2y ds =
1 + 4x2 + 4y 2 ds. z = x2 + y 2
d =
RR
= (2x2 y 2 + (x2 + y 2 )(x2 y 2 ))d,
xy

xy R = 2 Oxy
(. 98).

ZZ
=
(2r4 cos2 sin2 + r4 (cos2 sin2 ))rdrd =
xy

 Z2
Z2 
sin2 2
+ cos 2 d r5 dr =
=

2
0
0




2 6 2
2

sin 2 sin 2 r
16
=
+
+
.
=


6
4
16
2
3
0
0

58

359

58.4. F
ACBA 58.2 .
: P = 2x + z, Q = y + 2z, R = z y
, , (58.13)






R Q
P
Q P
R
i+
j+
k=

rot F =
y
z
z
x
x
y
= (1 2)i + (1 0)j + (0 0)k = 3i + j.
n 58.2. rot F ABC
ZZ
ZZ
ZZ
2
5
5
(1 )d =
d = dACB =
n rot F d =
3
3
3

ACB

ACB

5 21 OA OB
5363
5 SABC
=
=
= 22, 5
=
3 cos
3
2/3
32 2
, (58.14) ACBA
I
ZZ
F dl =
n rot F d = 22, 5
ACBA

ACB

F dl

ACBA

P dx + Qdy + Rdz AC; CB BA


AC: y = 0 z = 3 x2 , dy = 0 dz = 21 dx.

R
R0 7
3
dx =
x
+
(2x + y)dx + (y + 2z)dy + (z y)dz =
4
2
6
AB
 0
= 87 x2 + 23 x 6 = 40, 5
CB: x = 0 z = 3 + y, dx = 0 dz = dy.
3
R
R
(2x + y)dx + (y + 2z)dy + (z y)dz = (9 + 3y) dy =
0
CB
 3

2

= 9y + 3y2 = 13, 5
0
BA: z = 0 x = 6 + 2y, dz = 0 dx = 2dy.
R0
R
(2x + y)dx + (y + 2z)dy + (z y)dz = (24 + 9y) dy =
3
BA


0
2
= 24y + 9y2 = 31, 5
3
H
F dl = 40, 5 13, 5 + 31, 5 = 22, 5.

ACBA

, .

360

59

58.5. , F = (2xy + z 2 )i + (x2 +


+ z)j + (y + 2xz)k , , .
: P = 2xy + z 2 ; Q = x2 + z; R = y + 2xz.
(58.16)
R Q
P
R

= 1 1 = 0;

= 2z 2z = 0;
y
z
z
x
Q P

= 2x 2x = 0,
x
y
, rot F = 0 . (61.20), x0 = y0 = z0 = 0,
P (x; y; z); Q(x; y; z) R(x; y; z) .
u(x; y; z) =

Zx
0

: P =

0dx +

Zy
0

x2 dy +

Zz

(y + 2xz)dz = x2 y + yz + xz 2 + C

u
u
u
= 2xy + z 2 ; Q =
= x2 + z; R =
= y + 2xz
x
y
z

58.6. F = xi + yj + zk
, : x = a, x = a, y = a,
y = a, z = a, z = a - .
58.7. F = xyi + yzj + xzk
x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1.
58.8. F = yzi+zxj+xyk
, , .
59.

. . .
,

59

361

y
zn

B
zi
A

z0

z i-1
i
S
x

. 128.
59.1. L . L =
AB - , .. ,
, S Z (. 128).
35. L n
. ( 33) . L,
, zA = z0 zB = zn . L ,
. zi1 zi i f (i )(zi zi1 ) = f (i )zi .
n
P
f (i )zi
i=1

59.1. f (z) n
P
z L
f (i )zi ,
i=1

,
, , . L
i .

(59.1)

Z
L

f (z)dz = lim

n
X

f (i )zi

i=1

(59.1)
L
, .
, z ( 33) f (z) ( 42) , .. z = x+iy,
f (z) = u + iv, u = u(x; y), v = v(x; y). z f (z)

362

59

, , i2 = 1,
Z
Z
Z
Z
(59.2)
f (z)dz = (u + iv)(dx + idy) = udx vdy + i vdx + udy
L

Re f (z)dz = u(x; y)dx v(x; y)dy L


L
R
R
Im f (z)dz = v(x; y)dx + u(x; y)dy L L

( 57)
, 57.
L.
R
59.1. J mzdz ,
L

z = 1 + 2i (. 129)
:

y
2

x
1
. 129. 59.1
y = 2x, dy = 2dx. J mz = J m(x +
+ iy) = y. ,
Z

0z

J mzdz =

y(dx + idy) =

Z1

2xdx + i

0z

1
1
= x2 0 + i 2x2 0 = 1 + 2i

59.2.

Z1

4xdx =

|z|dz, L -

1 (. 130).

59

363

z
1

. 130. 59.2
:
: z = cos ; y =
= sin , (0 ). , z = cos + i sin , dz = ( sin +
+ i cos )d.
q
p
2
2
|z| = x + y + cos2 + sin2 = 1
,
Z
Z
|z|dz = ( sin + i cos )d = cos |0 + i sin |0 = 1 1 = 2.
AB

, , , , , , (.
57).
H
59.3. dz
z (. 131).
L

:
z z = |z|ei = ei (. 33),
dz = ieidy , (0 2).
I

|z|=1

dz
=
z

Z2
0

iei d
= i|2
0 = 2i
i
e

364

59

y
|z|=1

. 131. 59.3
59.2. .
59.1. . f (z) =
u(x; y)
H + iv(x; y) S, f (z)dz , L
Z
f (z)dz L,
,
LAB

zA zB .
R
a : (59.2) Re f (z)dz =
L
R
R
R
= udx vdy, Im f (z)dz = vdx + udy. , ,
L
L
Z L
P dx + Qdy

LAB

L, , ,
P
Q
=
.
, (57.8)
x
y
Z
Q
v P
u
udx vdy : P = u, Q = v
= ;
=
,
x
x y
y
L

Z
L

vdx + udy : P = v, Q = u

Q
u P
v
=
;
=
.
x
x y
y

59

365

f (z) = u + iv , .. v u
v
u
=
;
=
, - (42.12)
x
y y
x
,
R (57.8).
f (z)dz ,
L
R
, , , f (z)dz ,
L

,
I

(59.3)

f (z)dz = 0

. 35 . n .
59.2. n ,
n , .
f (z) 3x S, L0 , L1 , L2 (. 132)

Z
B

L2

L1
B

B
H

B
H

B
H

D
H

L0
x

. 132. 3-
A L0 B L1 C L1
D L2 ,

366

59

L = A Lo A B L1 C D L2 D C L1 B A , f (z) .
, ,
. 59.2
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
I
+
+
+
+
+
f (z)dz =
A L0 A

D C

A B

B L1 C

C L1 B

C D

D L 2 D

=0

B A


R
R
R
H
R
R
R
+
= f (z)dz,
=
,
=
,
DHC B L1 C
C L1 B
L1
RA B H B A C DR
H
= f (z)dz,
= f (z)dz. f (z)dz +
D LH2 D
L2
A L0 A
L0
L0
H
+ f (z)dz + f (z)dz = 0
L1

L2

f (z)dz =

f (z)dz +

f (z)dz

L2

L1

L0

n
I
n I
X
f (z)dz =
(59.4)
f (z)dz
L0

k=1L
k

59.2. .
f (z) S, L0 Lk ,
.
,
.
H
59.4. (z a)m dz, L , m .

: a L
m
(z
H a) m L, m , ,
(z a) dz = 0.

a L. , m 0

Z ,
H
m
(z a) dz = 0. , m < 1,

59

367

a L.
- a, L (. 133),
C : |z a| = , z = a + ei .

y
|z-a|=
a
L

. 133. - a,
L
(z a)m
L C
, 59.2



I
I

m
m
(z a) dz = (z a) dz =

L
C

=

(za)=

dz
=
(z a)k

Z2

2x S, -

m 6= 1
k = m > 0
z a = ei
dz = iei d

iei d
= i 1k
k
ik
e

= i 1k

2

= 0,
(1 k)i

ei(k1)

Z2

d
ei(k1)

368

59

.. ez T = 2i. m = 1,
(59.3)
I

|za|=

dz
=
za

Z2

iei d
= i|2
0 = 2i
i
e

, ,
(59.5)

(z a)m dz =

2i, m = 1,
0, m 6= 1.

59.3. f (z) . a
, L.
59.3.
f (z)
H
1
a 2i f (z)dz,
L

1
Resf (z) =
2i

(59.6)

f (z)dz.

f (z) a (42.4)
C2
C1
C1
+

+
+
+
f (z) = +
(z a)n
(z a)2 z a

+C0 + C1 (z a) + + Cn (z a)n + . . .
0 < |z a| < R, .. ,
R a,
a. L
0 < |z a| < R. (42.4) .
I
I
I
I

X
X
dz
dz
Ck (z a)k dz
+ C1
+
Cm
f (z)dz =
m
(z a)
za
m=2
L

k=0


H dz (59.4) H , za = 2i, , , f (z)dz =
L

C1 2i, (59.6)
a C1 f (z)
.
(59.7)

Resf (a) = C1

42 f (z),
, n-
n , .

59

369

, ,
.
a n- f (z),
:

X
Cn+1
C1
Cn
Ck (z a)k .
+
+

+
+
f (z) =
(z a)n (z a)n1
za
k=0

(z a)n

(z a)n f (z) = Cn + Cn+1 (z a) + + C1 (z a)n1 +


+

X
k=0

Ck (z a)k+n

n 1
dn1
((z a)n f (z)) = C1 (n 1)! + C0 n(n 1) . . .
n1
dz

. . . 2(z a) + C1 (n + 1)n . . . 3(z a)2 + . . .


z a

dn1
((z a)n f (z)) = C1 (n 1)! = (n 1)!Resf (a)
za dz n1
, , , f (z) n

lim

(59.8)

Resf (a) =

1
dn1
lim n1 ((z a)n f (z))
(n 1)! za dz

59.5. f (z) =
:

1
f (z)

(z+1)4
z5
z5
(z+1)4

z5
(z+1)4 .

z = 1 4- ,

4-
, f (z) =
(. 42). (59.8)



d3
z5
z 5
1
4
lim
(z + 1)
=
Res
=
(z + 1)4 z=1 3! z1 dz 3
(z + 1)4
=

1
543
1
lim (z 5 )III =
lim 5 4 3z 2 =
= 10,
3! z1
3! z1
123

a 1- ,
, 0! = 1 f 0 (z) = f (z), (59.8) n = 1
(59.9)

Resf (a) = lim (z a)f (z).


za

59.6. f (z) =

z2
.
z 2 1

370

59

1
f (z)

z 2 1
z2


(z1)(z+1)
a1 = 1,
z2
2

f (z) = z z1
2

a2 = 1.
, (59.9)

z2
z2
1
z 2
=
lim
(z

1)
=
lim
= ,
Res 2

2
z 1 z=1 z1
z 1 z1 z + 1
2


z2
1
z2
z 2
=
lim
=

,
=
lim
(z
+
1)
Res 2
z 1 z=1 z1
z 2 1 z1 z 1
2

(z)
f (z) f (z) = (z)
, (z) (z) a, (a) 6= 0, a (z), .. (a) = 0, (a) 6= 0, (59.8)

Resf (a) = lim (z a)


za

(z)
= (a) lim
za
(z)

1
(z)(a)
za

(a)
.
(a)

a f (z) =
(a) 6= 0, (a) = 0, (a) 6= 0

(z)
(z) ,


(z)
(a)
Res
= .

(z) z=a (a)

(59.10)

59.7. 59.6.
2

: f (z) = z2z1 a1 = 1 a2 = 1.
(z) = z 2 . (59.10)




z 2
z 2
z 2
1
z 2
1
Res 2
=
= ; Res 2
=
=




z 1 z=1
2z z=1 2
z 1 z=1
2z z=1
2
a f (z),
f (z)
C1 .
59.8. f (z) = e1/z z = 0.
: z = 0
f (z) = e1/z . 42.3.
1
1
1
+

+
+ ...
+
z 2!z 2
n!z n

= 1 Rese1/z z=0 = 1
e1/z = 1 +

, C1

59

371

59.4. .
59.3. . f (z) S (. 35), L,
ak S, k = 1, 2 . . . , n, L f (z) ,
2i
I

(59.11)

f (z)dz = 2i

n
X

Resf (ak ).

k=1

: ak
k ,
(. 134)

a2
a1

an

S
L
x

. 134.
, L, 1 , 2 , . . . , n
f (z) , , 59.2
I
n I
X
f (z)dz =
f (z)dz,
(59.6)

k=1

f (z)dz = 2iResf (ak ),

(59.11) , , 59.3.
I
ez dz
59.9.
z 4 + 3z 2 4
|z|=3/2

372

59

e dz
: f (z) = z4 +3z
2 4 ,
4
2
4
z +3z 4 = 0. z +3z 2 4 = 0 z 4 +3z 2 4 =
(z 1)(z + 1)(z 2i)(z + 2i),
a1 = 1, a2 = 1, a3 = 2i, a4 = 2i, .
|z| = 3/2 a1 a2 , a3 a4
(. 135).

y
Z

2
|z|=1

|z|=3/2
1

-1

2 x

-2

. 135. 59.9

I

|z|=3/2

ez dz
= 2i
z 4 + 3z 2 4



ez

Res 4
+
z + 3z 2 4 z=1




ez

+ Res 4
z + 3z 2 4 z=1

z = 1 z = 1
(59.10)


ea
ez

,
=
Res 4
z + 3z 2 4
4a3 + 6a
z=a

a = 1 a = 1


z


ez
e1
e
1
e


Res 4
;
Res
=

=


2
4
2
z + 3z 4 z=1 10
z + 3z 4 z=1
10
10e

59

373

|z|=3/2

ez dz
= 2i
z 4 + 3z 2 4

e
1

10 10e

i 2
(e 1).
5e

59.5.
.

,
.
59.10.

2
R
0

d
a+cos

(a > 1).
i

: ei = z, dz = iei d = izd, cos = e +e


=
2
z 2 +1
= 2z . 0 2, z
|z| = 1.
Z2
0

d
=
a + cos

|z|=1

dz

2
=
2
i
iz(a + z 2z+1 )

|z|=1

z 2 + 2az + 1 = 0,


1
2
z1,2 = a a 1 , Res z2 +2az+1
z1 |z| < 1,
z2 |z| > 1,

dz
=
z 2 + 2az + 1

z1


1
= 2z+2a

1
2 a2 1

2
1
2
.
=
= 2i
i 2 a2 1
a2 1

z1

.
, N (. 136) N .
.
59.4. f (z) Imz 0 aj , j = 1, 2, . . . n Imaj > 0.
f (z)
,
Z
n
X
(59.12)
Resf (aj ).
f (x)dx = 2i

j=1

374

59

aj

an-1

a2
a1
N

an
0 xk xm-1 x m N x

x2

x1

. 136.

59.11.

x2 + 1
dx.
x4 + 1
2

2-
: f (z) = zz4 +1
+1
. (.
33.6 33)


1 2
a21,2 + 1
(i 2i + 1) + 1
z 2 + 1
2
(i 1); Res 4
=
a1,2 =
= 42 3
=

3
(i 3i2 + 3i 1)
2
z + 1 a1,2
4a1,2
2 2

21i i1
2(i i2 1 + i)
2i
i + 1

=
=

.
=
= 4
(i 1)
4 i1 i1
4(i2 1)
4
2

(59.12)

!
!
Z 2

2
2
2
x +1
2.
dx
=
2i

i
=
2i

i
=

x4 + 1
4
4
2


.
59.5. f (z) = g(z)eiz , > 0, g(z) 0 |z|
, Imz 0
aj , j = 1, 2, . . . , n (Imaj > 0) xk , k = 1, . . . , m
x (. 136),

Z
n
m
X
1X
(59.13)
f (x)dx = 2i
Resf (aj ) +
Resf (xk )
2
j=1

59.12.

sin x
x dx

k=1

cos x
x dx.

59

375

: (.
43). (33.22)
Z
Z
Z ix
cos
x
sin x
e
dx =
dx + i
dx
eix = cos x + i sin x
x
x
x

iz

f (z) = ez 59.5, = 1,
g(z) = 1z 0 |z| .
z = 0 ,
iz
iz


= e1
= e0 = 1.
, Res ez
z=0

z=0

cos x
dx + i
x


1
eiz
sin x
= i
dx = 2i Res
x
2
z z=0


Z
Z
cos x
sin x
dx = 0, a
dx =
x
x

59.13.

sin x
dx
x4 1

cos x
dx
x4 1

: 59.12
Z
Z
Z
cos x
sin x
eix
dx
=
dx
+
i
dx
x4 1
x4 1
x4 1

iz

f (z) = ze4 1 (59.5),


= 1, g(z) = z411 0 z , z 4 1 = (z 1)(z + 1)(z 2 + 1)
x : a1 = 1, a2 = 1
a3 = i .
(59.10)

ei
eiz
cos 1 + i sin 1
eiaj
;
Resf
(1)
=
Res 4
=
;
=

3
z 1 z=aj
4
4
4aj

cos 1 + i sin 1
e1
i
ei
=
; Resf (i) =
=
Resf (1) =
4
4
4i
4e
(59.10)
Z
Z
cos x
sin x
dx + i
=
4
x 1
x4 1


1
= 2i Resf (i) + (Resf (1) + Resf (1))
2

376

59


cos 1 + i sin 1 cos 1 + i sin 1

i
+
= 2 sin 1
= 2i
4e
2
2e


 Z
Z
cos x
1
sin x

dx
=

+
2
sin
1
,
dx = 0
x4 1
2e
x4 1



5258
59.


, .

59.1.

Z1
0

dx

Z3x

2y(x + 2y 2 )dy.

1x2

.
59.2. , : z = x2 , x = y 2 , x = 1, z = 0.
I
(3xy +x2 )dx+8x2 dy, A(0; 1);
59.3.
ABCA

B(2; 2); C(0; 3) ,


.
59.4. F = (x + y; x + y +
+z; 2zy) O(0; 0; 0); A(3; 0; 0);
B(0; 2; 0); C(0; 0; 3) .
59.5.
F = (ex sin y; ex cos y; 1) , , .


59.1.
:
Z1
0

dx

Z3x

1x2

2y(x + 2y 2 )dy =

Z1
0

3x
(y 2 x + y 4 ) 1x2 dx =

59

Z1
0

Z1
0

Z1

377


(3 x)2 x + (3 x)4 x(1 x2 ) (1 x2 )2 dx =


(9 6x + x2 )(9 5x + x2 ) x + x3 1 + 2x2 x4 dx =

(81 54x + 9x2 45x + 30x2 5x3 + 9x2 6x3 + x4 x + x3 1+

+2x2 x4 )dx =

Z1
0

(80 100x + 50x2 10x3 )dx =

 1

50 5
50
10
265
80x 50x2 + x4 x4 = 30 +
=
3
4
3
2
6
0

.
x = 0, x = 1, y = 3 x y 2 = 1 x2 .
ABCE . 137

y
3
2
1

C
x=3-y
K
E

0
x= 1-y

D
A
1

. 137. 59.1

378

59

, ABCE : ADE, EDKB, KBC.


Z3
Z3y
Z1
Z3x
2y(x + 2y 2 )dy = dy
2y(x + 2y 2 )dx+
dx

Z2

dy

Z3

2y(x + 2y 2 )dx +

Z2

 1
2
3
yx + 4y x
(y + 4y 3 )dy +

1y 2

Z1
0

Z3

Z1

Z3
2

dy

 3y
yx2 + 4y 3 x dy +

Z1

1x2
Z1

Z2
1

Z1

1y 2

 1
yx2 + 4y 3 x 0 dy+


y(9 6y + y 2 ) + 4y 3 (3 y) dy+

(y + 4y 3 y(1 y 2 ) 4y 3

(9y 6y 2 + 13y 3 4y 4 )dy +

Z1 

2y(x + 2y 2 )dx =

Z2

1 y 2 )dy =

(y + 4y 3 )dy+


2
4
5 3
9y
13y
4y
+
2y 3 +

+
5y 3 4y 3 1 y 2 dy =
2
4
5 2
0
! 1
p
p
 2
 2
2
5
2
3

4 (1 y )
5 4 4 (1 y )
y
4
+y +
y
+
+
=

2
4
5
3
1
p

1053 972
81
54 +

18 + 16 52+
2
4
5
128
1
5 4 4
265
+
+ 2 + 16 1 + + =
.
5
2
4 5 3
6
=

59

379

59.2.
: OABCD
: OCD z = x2 OAD, OBC x = y 2
x = 1 z = 0 (. 138.a).

D(1;1;1)

x=Const

b)

a)
C(1;1;1)

y= x
B

OX

1
y
A(1;1;0)

x
S A

B(1;1;0)

y= x

x
. 138. 59.2

(
. 138b)
V =

ZZ

zds =

ZZ

x2 dxdy = 2

=2

Z1

Z1

Zx
Z1

2
2 x
x dx dy = 2 x y 0 dx =
0

1
2 7/2
4
xdx = 2 x = .
7
7
0

, y = 0. x (56.12) z
(56.13)
x2

2
x
x
1
1
x
ZZZ
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
7
7
7

xdv =
xdx
xdx
dy dz =
z dy =
x =

4
4
4

0
0
0
V
x
x
0

x
x
1
1

Z
Z
Z
Z1

7
7
7
x3 dx
dy =
x3 y
dx =
2x3 xdx =
=
4
4
4

380

59

7
z =
4

ZZZ

7
zdv =
4

Z1

Zx

7
8

dx

x4 dx

dy =

Zx

dy

Z1

1
7
7 2 9
= x2 = ;
2 9
9
0

7
8

Z1
0

Zx2

7
zdz =
4

x
7
4
x y x dx =
4

x2
z 2
dy =
2 0

Z1

x4 xdx =

P dx + Qdy =

dxdy.

y
3

x=Const

Q P

x
y

dx

:
=

Zx

1
7 2 11
7
=
x2 = .
4 11
22
0

59.3.

ZZ 

Z1

y=3-

2 S

1A

y=1+

1
x
2
1
x
2
x

. 139. 59.3

P = 3xy + x2 , Q = 8x2 ,
(. 139),
I

ABCA

(3xy + x2 )dx + 8x2 dy =

ZZ
S

Q
x

P
y

13xdxdy = 13

= 16x 3x = 13x. ,
Z2
0

3 12 x

xdx

1+ 21 x

dy =

59

381

Z2 
Z2
x
x
dx = 13 (2x x2 )dx =
= 13 x 3 1
2
2
0
0




3 2
8
x
52
= 13 4
= 13 x2
=
3 0
3
3
, ,
AB : y = 1 + 12 x, dy = 21 dx,
BC : y = 3 12 x, dy = 12 dx,
CA : x = 0, dx = 0
Z2  
I

x
2
2
2
2
3x 1 +
+ x + 4x dx+
(3xy + x )dx + 8x dy =
2
0

ABCA

Z0
Z2
Z0  

x
+
3x 3
+ x2 4x2 dx + 0dy = (6x + 11x2 )dx =
2
2
3
0
 2


11
52
= 3x2 + x3 = .
3
3
0

59.4.

: , . 140,
V = 61 OA OB OC = 16 2 3 3 = 3.

n
A
-3

B
2

x
. 140. 59.4

-
F

ZZZ
ZZ
divF = (x+y) + (x+y+z) +

x
y
divF dV = (2zy)
= F nd =
z = 1 + 1 + 2 = 4

382

59

=4

ZZZ

dV = 4V = 12

F = (x + y)i + (x + y + z)j +
+ (2z y)k .
= OBC + OBA + OAC + ABC:

y=Const

z
3 C

z= 3 3 y
2
B
2

. 141. OBC

RR

OBC (. 141): x = 0, n = i, F~ ~n = y,

ydydz =

OBC

R2
0

3 32 y

ydy

R
0

dz =

R2
0

y(3

3
y)dy
2

3 2
y
2

y
x= 3 y-3
2
A
-3

y3
2

 2

= 6 4 = 2.
0

2 B
y=Const
x

. 142. OBA

OBA (. 142): z = 0, n = k, F~ ~n = y,

RR

OBA

R2
0

y(3 32 y)dy = 2,

ydydx =

R2
0

ydy

R0

3
y3
2

dx =

59

383

x=Const

z
3 C

z=x+3
A
-3

0 x

. 143. OAC

RR
OAC (. 143): y = 0, n = j, F~ ~n = x z,
(x z)dxdz =
OAC
x+3
x+3
3
R0
R
R0
R
2
= dx (x + z)dz = (xz + z2 )
dx = (x2 + 3x + 21 (x2 + 6x +
3

+ 9))dx =

0
3
R
0

3 2
x
2

+ 6x +

9
2

dx =

x3
2

 3

9
2
+ 3x + 2 x = 27
+ 27
2
0

27
2

= 0,

ABC (. 140): ABC x3 + y2 + z3 = 1,


,

q


1
1
1
1 1 1
~
N = 3 ; 2 ; 3 , N = 9 + 4 + 9 = 617 , ~n =


~
3
2
2
N

= 17 ; 17 ; 17 ,
N
2
3
2
1
F~ ~n = (x + y) + (x + y + z) + (2z y) = (x y + 7z) =
17
17
17
17


ABC
=
=

z = 3 + x 32 y


23
21
1
1
x y + 21 + 7x y = (8x y + 21),
=
2
2
17
17


ZZ
23
1

8x y + 21 d =
2
17
ABC


= dS = dxdy = d cos = 217 d =
=

ZZ 

23
21
4x y +
4
2

OBA

Z2 
0

dxdy =

Z2
0

dy

Z0 

23
21
4x y +
4
2

3
y3
2

 0
21
23
dy =
2x y + x
4
2
3
y3
2

dx =

384

59

Z2

Z2 
0

2



!
23
3
3
21 3
dy =
y3 + y
y3
y3
2
4
2
2 2

9y 2
69y 2 69
63
63

+ 18y 18 +
y y+
2
8
4
4
2

Z2 

27
33 2
y 15y +
8
2

dy =

dy =

 2
11 3 15 2 27
y y + y =
8
2
2
0

= 11 30 + 27 = 8,
ZZ
F~ ~nd = 2 + 2 + 0 + 8 = 12.

59.5.
: , F~ = F~ (x; y; z)
, rot F~ = 0 ( 58.3).



~k 

~i
~j
x


e
cos
y
1

~i+
rot F~ = x

=
y
z
y
z
ex sin y ex cos y 1

 x


e cos y ex sin y ~
1 ex sin y ~
k=
+
j+
+

x
z
x
y
= 0 ~i + 0 ~j + (ex cos y ex cos y)~k = 0

(58.20),
x0 = y0 = z0 = 0,
Zz
Zy
Zx
V (x; y; z) = 0d + ex cos d + d + C =
0

= ex sin |y0 + |z0 + C = ex sin y + z + C


(ex sin y + z + C)
V
=
= ex sin y = Fx ,
:
x
x
x
V
(e sin y + z + C)
V
=
= ex cos y = Fy ;
=
y
y
z
(ex sin y + z + C)
= 1 = Fz
=
z

60

385


.
.

60.

.
.
. . .
. .
60.1. . y = f (x) ,
.

386

60

60.1. , x,
y = f (x) y , y , . . . , y (n) .
:
(60.1)

F (x, y , y , . . . , y (n) ) = 0.

4x y + 2y = 0 y = 2x + 1 .
y = f (x)
,
( ). .
60.2. , .
y 2xy 2 +3 = 0 , y +2y +y =
= sin x .
60.3. y = (x),
.
y = (x) .
(x, y) = 0, .
. , , y = 3x2 . , y =
= x3 + C, .
144
.
60.4.
n-
(60.2)

y = (x, C1 , C2 , . . . , Cn ),

x n
C1 , C2 , . . . , Cn .
, .

60

387

. 144. y = 3x2

y(x0 ) = y0 , y (x0 ) = y0 .. , ,
y = 3x2 y(0) = 1,
y = x3 + 1.
, y(0) = 1
,
(0,1). . 144 .
60.5. , .
.
60.6. y = (x),
, .

388

60

60.2. .
60.7.
(60.3)

F (x, y, y ) = 0.

y ,
:
(60.4)

y = f (x, y).

(60.4) , .
(60.4) f (x, y)dx dy = 0,
(60.5)

P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy = 0.

, ,
, , , , .
, (60.4) ,
, :
60.1. ( ) f (x, y)
y = f (x, y) fy (x, y)
G x y, ,
(x0 ; y0 ) , y = (x),
y(x0 ) = y0 .

, y = (x), (x0 ; y0 ) (. . 144).


60.8.
G
(60.6)

y = (x, C),

x C :
1)
C;

60

389

2) y(x0 ) = y0 ,
(x0 ; y0 ) G, C = C0 ,
y = (x, C0)
.

, y, .. (x, y, C) =
= 0, .
60.9. y = (x, C0), y = (x, C) C = C0 ,
y(x0 ) = y0 . (x, y, C0 ) =
= 0 .
60.3. . , ,
C ( C = ).
.
p

, , y = 1 y 2
y = sin (x + C). y = 1
. ,
C.
60.10. (x; y) G, ( ) .

f (x, y), fy (x, y).
,
.
,
, .
.
y = C(x C)2 C (.145) 4xyy y 3 8y 2 = 0. y = 0,
,
.

390

60

3(x-3)

2(x-2) 2
(x-1)

2
x
0

. 145. y = C(x C)2

60.4.
. y = f (x, y).
M (x, y) dy
y = dx
, ..
y = (x, C),
.
60.11. , , Ox
y = f (x, y), .
, ,

.
60.12. ,
, .
.
tg = k. , ,
tg = y = f (x, y),
:
f (x, y) = k.

60

391

60.1. y = xy .
: xy = k, y = kx, .. k,
(. 146). k, .
. , k = 1, y = x,
tg = k = 1, .. = 450 .
.
, ,
. y = Cx .
y
y=2x (k=-2)
y=x (k=-1)
y=x/2(k=-1/2)

0
y=0(k=0)

y=-x/2(k=1/2)
y=-x(k=1)

x=0(k=

y=2x(k=2)

. 146.
y = xy

(60.3) (60.4) , ,
, .. VIII.
,
.

392

60

60.5. .
60.13. ,
(60.7)

y = f1 (x) f2 (y),

..
, .
, f2 (y) 6= 0. (60.7)

dy
= f1 (x)dx,
(60.8)
f2 (y)
. (60.8), :
Z
Z
dy
+ C1 = f1 (x)dx + C2 ,
f2 (y)

Z
Z
dy
(60.9)
= f1 (x)dx + C,
f2 (y)
C = C2 C1 .
60.2. 2yy = 1 3x2

: ,
:
2ydy = (1 3x2 )dx.
, :
Z
Z
2ydy = (1 3x2 )dx = y 2 = x x3 + C.
60.3. y = xy , y(1)=2.

:
dx
dy
= ,
y
x
:
Z
Z
dx
dy
=
ln |y| = ln |x| + ln C1 ,
y
x

60

393

C0 = ln C1 .
,
:
C
y = , C = C1 .
x
y(1) = 2, 2 = C1 , .. C = 2
y = x2 .
y y = 0,
y = Cx C = 0.
60.34. . ,
y = f (ax + by + c), (b 6= 0) u = ax + by + c, u
.
60.4. y = (8x + 2y + 1)2 .
: u = 8x + 2y + 1,
u
u 1 8x

, y = 4
y=
2
2
:
u
4 = u2 .
2
:
du
du
= 2(u2 + 4) = 2
= 2dx =
u = 2u2 + 8 =
dx
u
+
4
Z
Z
du
1
u
=
=
2
dx
=
arctg
= 2x + C1 =
u2 + 4
2
2
u
u
= arctg = 4x + C = = tg(4x + C) =
2
2
= u = 2 tg(4x + C) = 8x + 2y + 1 = 2 tg(4x + C).

60.6. x y .
60.14. f (x, y) k- , t, t = 0,

f (t x, t y) = tk f (x, y).

394

60

, f (x, y) = xy y 2
,
f (t x, t y) = t x t y t2 y 2 = t2 (xy y 2 ) = t2 f (x, y).

60.15.
y = f (x, y) ,

(60.10)

P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy = 0,

P (x, y) Q(x, y) .

(60.11)
t =

y = tx,
y
x

- .

60.5.
(x2 2y 2 )dx + 2xydy = 0.

: P (x, y) = x2 2y 2
Q(x, y) = 2xy , ,
. y = tx,
dy = tdx + xdt. y dy :
(x2 2(tx)2 )dx + 2xtx(tdx + xdt) = 0

x2 dx 2t2 x2 dx + 2t2 x2 dx + 2tx3 dt = 0


x2 dx + 2tx3 dt = 0 dx + 2txdt = 0.

:
Z
Z
dx
dx
2tdt =
2tdt =
t2 = ln |x| + ln C1
x
x
C1
2
x = Cet .
t2 = ln
|x|
y, :
y2

x = Ce x2




a
b
1 y+c1
1 1 6= 0, ,
60.35. y = f ( aa12 x+b
)

=
a2 b2
x+b2 y+c2
x = u + y = v + , a1 + b1 + c1 = 0

a2 + b2 + c2 = 0,

60

395


u v. = 0, , u = a1 x + b1 y,
.
60.6.
(2x + y + 1)dx + (x + 2y 1)dy = 0.

: :
2x + y + 1
.
y =
x + 2y 1
:
a1 = 2, b1 = 1, a2 = 1, b2 = 2.
,



a1 b1 2 1
= 3 6= 0.
=
=
a2 b2 1 2

60.35
x = u + , y = v + ,


(
(
(
a1 + b1 + c1 = 0,
2 + + 1 = 0,
= 1,
=
=
a2 + b2 + c2 = 0,
+ 2 1 = 0,
= 1.
,

x = u + = u 1, y = v + = v + 1, dx = du, dy = dv,

:
(2u + v)du + (u + 2v)dv = 0,

du
u + 2v
u/v + 2
=
=
,
dv
2u + v
2u/v + 1

.. u
v:
u
du
=f
.
dv
v
:
du
dt
u
= t = u = vt =
=t+v .
v
dv
dv
:
t+v

t+2
(2t + 1)dt
dv
dt
=
= 2
= 2 ,
dv
2t + 1
t +t+1
v

396

60

, :

c
.
v2
t = u/v :
t2 + t + 1 =

u2 + uv + v2 = c.
, x y (u = x + 1, v = y 1),

:
x2 + y 2 + xy + x y = c1 , c1 = c 1.
60.7. .
60.16. ,
(60.12)

y + P (x)y = Q(x),

P (x) Q(x) - x.
Q(x) 0, (60.12)
.
Q(x) , 60.12
.
,
.
.
(60.12) .
: (Q(x) = 0), :
Z
dy
dy
dy
+ P (x)y = 0
= P (x)dx
=
dx
y
y
Z
Z
= P (x)dx ln |y| = P (x)dx + ln C1 .

60

397



y = C1 e

(60.13)

P (x)dx

= Ce

P (x)dx

= Cv(x),

v(x) = e P (x)dx C = 1.
:
(Q(x) 6= 0) (60.13), C Z(x), ..
(60.14)

y = Z(x)v(x).

, (60.14) (60.12),
, .
(60.14):
y = Z v + Zv .

(60.15)

y (60.14) y (60.15) (60.12),


Z(x):
(60.16)

Z v + Zv + P (x)Zv = Q(x) Z v + Z(v + P (x)v) = Q(x).

v ,
v + P (x)v = 0,

Z v = Q(x), Z(x) =

Q(x)
dx + C.
v(x)

(60.14) (60.13), (60.12) :


 R
Z
R
y = Z(x) v(x) =
(Q(x)e P (x)dx )dx + C0 e P (x)dx .

, ,

.
60.7.
y

2x
y = 2x.
1 + x2

398

60

: :
2x
(Q(x) 0). .. y 1+x
2y = 0

xdx
dy
=
.
y
1 + x2

y = C(1 + x2 ).

(60.17)

:
(Q(x) 6= 0) :
y = Z(x)(1 + x2 ).

(60.18)


y = Z (x)(1 + x2 ) + Z(x) 2x

y y :

2x Z(x)(1 + x2 )
= 2x
1 + x2
:
2x
Z (x) =
1 + x2

Z
2xdx
= ln(1 + x2 ) + C0 .
(60.19)
Z(x) =
2
1+x
Z (x)(1 + x2 ) + 2xZ(x)

(60.19) (60.18):

y = ln(1 + x2 ) + C0 (1 + x2 )
60.8. .

60.17.
(60.20)

y + P (x)y = Q(x)y m ,

m 6= 0, m 6= 1, .
(60.12),
(60.21)

Z = y 1m ,

60

399

, (60.20)
1
Z + P (x)Z = Q(x).
1m

(60.22)

60.8.
Z = y 1m .
:
Z = y 1m =

dZ
dy
dZ/dx
dy
= (1 m)y m
=
=
.
dx
dx
dx
(1 m)y m

(60.21):
y + P (x)y = Q(x)y m =

dZ/dx
+ P (x)y = Q(x)y m =
m
(1 m)y

dZ
+ P (x) (1 m) y 1m = Q(x) =
dx
dZ
=
+ (1 m) P (x)Z = Q(x).
dx
. .
=

60.36. , .
.



60.

60.1. ,
y + y = 0 y = sin x.
: y = cos x y = sin x,
= y + y = sin x + sin x = 0. , y = sin x
y + y = 0.
60.2. y = x.

400

60

: x = k -
y = k k = 0, k = 1, k = 2 ..,
(. 147).
y

-3

-2

-1

. 147. y = x

60.3.
(1 + x)ydx + (1 y)xdy = 0.

: :
1+x
1y
dy =
dx.
y
x
R
R 1+x
1y
dy
=

dx,
y
x

ln |y| y = ln |x| x + C ln |xy| + x y = C.


( ).
60.4. y cos x =
y(0) = 1.

y
ln y

dy
,
: y = dx
y
dy
dx
= lny
lnyy dy = cos
.
cos x dx
x
:
Z
Z
Z
Z
dx
dx
ln y
dy =
ln yd ln |y| =

y
cos x
cos x
 x 
1 2


ln y = ln tg
+
+ C.
2
2 4

60

401

y(0) = 1, :




0
1 2

+ C C = 0.
ln 1 = ln tg
+
2
2 4
:
1 2
x
ln y = ln [tg ( + )].
2
2 4

60.5. (y x)ydx+x2 dy = 0.

: , , .

(y x)y
dy
= y =
.
dx
x2
,
:
t2 (y x)y
(y x)y
(ty tx)ty
=

= f (x, y).
f (t x, t y) =
(tx)2
t2 x2
x2
xy = t, y = tx.
y = t x + t. y y
:
y = (yx)y
t x + t = (txx)tx
, t x + t = t2 + t,
x2
x2
tx = t2 .
:
Z
Z
dx
dx
dt
t2 dt =

t x = t2 2 =
t
x
x
1
1
= ln |x| + ln |C| = ln |Cx|
t
t
y
x
x
t = x , y = ln |Cx| y = ln |Cx|
.
60.6. 2xyy = x2 +y 2 ,
y(1) = 2.
2

+y
: y = x 2xy

, (f (x, y) = f (tx, ty))
. xy = t, y = tx. y = t x + t.
y y
x2 + (tx)2
1
t
x2 + y 2
t x + t =
, t x + t =
+ ,
y =
2xy
2x tx
2t 2

402

60

1
t
.
2t 2
:
t
1 t2
2tdt
dx
d(1 t2 )
dx
1

tx=

=
.
tx=
2t 2
2t
1 t2
x
1 t2
x
:
t x =

ln |1 t2 | = ln |x| + ln |C|,

t = xy ,

1
= Cx.
1 t2

x2
x
=
Cx,

= C.
x2 y 2
x2 y 2

y(1) = 2,
= C, C = 13 .
1
x
x2 y
2 = 3 ,

1
12 22

x2 y 2 + 3x = 0.
60.7. y =

y
x

+ x2 .

: .
.
: y = xy . y = Cx.
:

y = Z(x) x.
y = Z (x)x+Z(x)
:
Z (x)x + Z(x) = Z(x)x
+ x2 , Z (x) = x.
x
2
, Z(x) = x2 + C0 . ,
:
x2
y = Z(x) x = ( + C0 ) x.
2
.
60.8. y +

y
x

= x2 y 4 .

60

403

: .
.
:
dy
dx
C
y
=
y= .
y + = 0
x
y
x
x
:
Z(x)
y=
.
x

y = Z x(x) Z(x)
y y :
x2
Z (x) Z(X) Z(x)
Z (x)
Z 4 (x)
2 Z(x) 4

+
=x (
)
=

x
X
xx
x
x
x2
s
1
dZ(x)
dx
1
4
=
3
= ln |x| ln C Z(x) = 3
.
Z (x)
x
3Z (x)
3 ln (C/x)

:
1
Z(x)
= p
y=
.
x
x 3 3 ln C/x

60.9. ,
a) xy = 2y, y = 5x2 ,
) y 2y + y = 0, y = xex ,
1
) y = x2 + y 2 , y = .
x
60.10.
p

2
2
y = x + y , y(0) = 0. (. 148)
60.11.
a) y tg x = y,
xdy
ydx
) p
+
= 0.
1 x2
1 y2

60.12. (1 + ex ) y y = ex
y(0) = 1.

404

60

. 148. y =

60.13.
x+y
) y =
,
x
) xy + y 2 = (2x2 + xy)y .

p
x2 + y 2

60.14. (x2 3y 2 )dx +


+ 2xydy = 0 y(2) = 1.
60.15. y +

2y
x

= x3 .

2y
= (1 + x)3 ,
60.16. y 1+x
y(0) = 0.

60.17. y y tg x =
y(0) = 0.
60.18. y +

y
x

= xy 2 .

1
,
cos x

61

405




61.

. .
. ( ).
. ,
.
61.1. .
61.1.
(61.1)

P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy = 0

, P (x, y) Q(x, y)
, ,

P
Q
(61.2)
=
,
y
x

P
y

Q
x

G.

, (61.1) U (x, y), ..


U
U
dx +
dy.
(61.3)
dU (x, y) = P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy =
x
y
(61.3) ,
U
U
, Q(x, y) =
.
(61.4)
P (x, y) =
x
y
. y , x:
P
2U
Q
2U
=
,
=
.
y
xy
x
yx
2U
2U
xy
= yx
, P
= Q
,
y
x
, (61.1)
.
(61.1) dU (x, y) = 0.
(61.5)

U (x, y) = C.

406

U
x

61

.
= P (x, y)

(61.6)

U=

Zx

P (x, y)dx + (y),

x0

x y , y.
(y) , (61.4). (61.6) y Q(x, y):
Zx
P
U
=
dx + (y) = Q(x, y),
y
y
x0

P
y

Zx

Q
,
x

Q
dx + (y) = Q(x, y)
x

x0

Q(x, y) Q(x0 , y) + (y) = Q(x, y), (y) = Q(x0 , y).

(y) :
Zy
(y) = Q(x0 , y)dy + C1 .
y0

, U (x, y) :
Zx
Zy
U = P (x, y)dx + Q(x0 , y)dy + C1
x0

y0

(61.5) (61.1):
Zx
Zy
P (x, y)dx + Q(x0 , y)dy = C.
x0

y0

P (x0 , y0 ) G.
61.37. x0 y0 , P (x, y)
Q(x, y) .

61

407

61.1.
(3x2 + 6xy 2 )dx + (6x2 y + 4y 3 )dy = 0.
: , ,

P (x, y) = 3x2 + 6xy 2 , Q(x, y) = 6x2 y + 4y 3 ,
Q
P
= 12xy =
= 12xy.
y
x

U
= P (x, y) = 3x2 + 6xy 2 ,
x
Zx
U = (3x2 + 6xy 2 )dx + (y) = x3 + 3x2 y 2 + (y).
0

U y ,

U
= 6x2 y + (y) = Q(x, y) = 6x2 y + 4y 3 .
y
R

(y) = 4y 3 , (y) = 4y 3 dy + C0 = y 4 + C0 .

U
y

= Q(x, y),

U (x, y) = x3 + 3x2 y 2 + y 4 + C0 .

, x3 + 3x2 y 2 + y 4 = C
.
61.2. .
(61.1) , , = (x, y) ( ) ,
(61.7)

(x, y)(P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy) = dU.

(P (x, y)) =
(Q(x, y)),
(61.8)
y
x




Q
Q
P
=

.
x
y
y
x

.

:

408

61

1) = (x) (61.8) :


Q
1 P

= F (x),
(61.9)
Q y
x
R

= e F (x)dx .
2) = (y)
1
P

(61.10)
= e

Q
P

y
x

= F1 (y),

F1 (y)dy .

61.2.
(x cos y y sin y)dy + (x sin y + y cos y)dx = 0.
:
P (x, y) = x sin y + y cos y, Q(x, y) = x cos y y sin y,
Q
P
= x cos y + cos y y sin y,
= cos y,
y
x
P
Q
6=
.
y
x
. (61.9) (61.10).
1 P
Q
x cos y + cos y y sin y cos y
(

)=
=
Q y
x
x cos y y sin y

x cos y y sin y
= 1.
x cos y y sin y
, , x (61.9).
=

=e

F (x)dx

=e

1dx

= ex .

= ex ,
ex (x cos y y sin y)dy + ex (x sin y + y cos y)dx = 0,

(61.11)

, :
P1 (x, y) = ex (x sin y + y cos y), Q1 (x, y) = ex (x cos y y sin y),
P1
= ex (x cos y + cos y y sin y),
y
Q1
= ex (x cos y y sin y + cos y),
x
,

P1
y

Q1
x .

61

409

(61.11).
U
= Q1 (x, y) = ex (x cos y y sin y),
y
U
= P1 (x, y) = ex (x sin y + y cos y).
x
y,
Z
(61.12)
U = ex (x cos y y sin y)dy + (x) =

xex sin y + ex y cos y ex sin y + (x).


U x :
U
= ex sin y + xex sin y ex sin y + ex y cos y + (x) =
x
= ex (x sin y + y cos y) + (x).

U
x

= P1 (x, y),
ex (x sin y + y cos y) + (x) = ex (x sin y + y cos y),

(x) = 0, .. (x) = C1 . ,
(61.12)
U (x, y) = xex sin y + ex y cos y ex sin y = C,

ex (x sin y + y cos y sin y) = C.

61.3. .
61.2. , , , ,
.
(61.13)

F (x, y, y , y ) = 0.

, ,
,
(61.14)

y = f (x, y, y ).

61.3. (61.13), (61.14),


y = (x, C1, C2 ), C1 C2 :
1) C1 C2 y = (x, C1 , C2 )
;

410

61

2) y(x0 ) = y0 , y (x0 ) = y0 , C10 C20 , y =


= (x, C10, C20)
.

. - , (x0 , y0 ), ,
, , , , .. y .
61.4. (61.13), (61.14),
y = (x, C10, C20), y = (x, C1 , C2 ) C1 = C10
C2 = C20 .
61.38. 1) (x, y, C1, C2 ), , .
2) .
61.4. ( ).
61.1. f (x, y, y ) y = f (x, y, y )
fy (x, y, y ) fy (x, y, y ) G x,y y , (x0 , y0 , y0 ) ,
y = (x),
y(x0 ) = y0 y (x0 ) = y0 .
.
61.5. . , . :
.
.
,
.

61

411

, x = x0 , .
:

y = f (x, y, y ),
y(x0 ) = y0 ,
(61.15)

y (x0 ) = y0 .

,
. . x = a x = b,
. :

y = f (x, y, y ),
y(a) = ya ,
(61.16)
y(b) = y .
b

, ,
,
.
, y + y = 0
( )
y = A sin x + B cos x.
:
1) y(0) = y() = 0; y(0) = 0 B =
= 0, , y = A sin x y() = 0
(.149).
2) y(0) = 0, y(b) = 1; 0 < b < ; x
(. 150).
sin
sin b
3) y(0) = 0, y() = 1; ,
, (0, 0) (, 1).
61.6. , . , .
.
1. y y :
(61.17)

y = f (x).

412

61

. 149.

1
0

. 150.

y = p(x),
y = p (x). (61.17), :
p (x) = f (x),
,
p(x) =

f (x)dx = F (x) + C1 .

p(x) = y , y = F (x) + C1 . , ,
(61.17):
Z
y = F (x)dx + C1 x + C2 .
61.3. y = x2 .

61

413

: y = p(x), y = p (x) ,

p (x) = x2 .
R
3
p(x) = x2 dx = x3 + C1 . p(x) y
, :

Z  3
x
x4
y=
+ C1 dx =
+ C1 x + C2 .
3
12
2. y:
y = f (x, y ).

(61.18)

, , y = p(x) , y = p (x), ,
p(x):
p (x) = f (x, p(x)).
, :
p = p(x, C1),
y = p(x)
(61.18)
Z
y = p(x, C1 )dx + C2 .
61.4.

2xy
y(1) = 0, y (1) = 1.
y =
2
1+x

: y = p(x), y = p (x).

2xp
p (x) =
.
1 + x2

Z
Z
2xdx
dp
=
ln |p| = ln (1 + x2 ) + ln C1 .
2
p
1+x
,

p(x) = C1 (1 + x2 ).

414

61

p(x) = y , y = C1 (1 + x2 ). ,



x3
+ C2 .
y = C1 x +
3

,


 4
C + C2 = 0
y(1) = 0
C1 (1 + 31 ) + C2 = 0
3 1

y (1) = 1
C1 (1 + 1) = 1
C1 = 12

C2 = 23

C1 = 21 .
,
x3 x 2
+ .
y=
6
2 3
3. x:

y = f (y, y ).

(61.19)

p(y), y, y = p(y).
x, , y x:
dp(y)
dp(y) dy
d(y )
=
=
.
y =
dx
dx
dy
dx

dy
dx

= y = p(y),
y =

dp(y)
p(y).
dy

y y (61.19), p(y):
dp
p = f (y, p).
dy
:
p = p(y, C1 ).

61

415

p y = p(y), y x:
y = p(y, C1).
,
(x, y, C1, C2 ) = 0.
61.5. yy = y 2 .
dp
,
: y = p(y), y = p dy
:
dp
= p2 .
yp
dy
, p 6= 0, p, dp
= dy
:
p
y

ln |p| = ln |y| + ln C0 p = C1 y.

y = p(y)
y = C1 y.

, :
dy
= C1 dx ln |y| = C1 x + ln C2 y = C2 eC1 x .
y
p = 0 C1 = 0
C2 = 0.
4. F (x, y, y , y ) = 0, F (x, y, y , y )
y, y , y

R

z dx
z = y /y y = e
.
61.6. yy (y )2 = 0.

: yy (y )2 y, y y . ,
y y, y y , y y , 2 (yy (y )2 ).
:
dz
yy (y )2
y
=
=
,
z=
y
dx
y2

y
dz
= 0 = z = C1
= 0,
dx
y

416

61

1- 2-

ln |y| = C1 x + C2 y = CeC1 x , ln C = C2 .




61.

61.1.
2
2
2x
dx + y 3x
dy = 0.
y3
y4
:
y 2 3x2
2x
,
P (x, y) = 3 , Q(x, y) =
y
y4
6x
Q
6x
P
= 4 =
= 4 .
y
y
x
y
.
,
= P (x, y) = 2x
U
x
y3
U=

Zx

P (x, y)dx + (y) =

U
y

Zx

x2
2x
dx + (y) = 3 + (y).
y3
y

y , ,
2
2
= Q(x, y) = y 3x
, :
4
y
U
3x2
y 2 3x2
= 4 + (y) =
.
y
y
y4
:
1
1
(y) = 2 (y) = + C1 .
y
y
2

U = xy3 + (y) = xy3 y1 + C1


U = C:
x2 1
x2 1
+ C1 = C2 3 = C.
y3 y
y
y
61.2.
y3
2
(2xy + x y + )dx + (x2 + y 2 )dy = 0.
3

61

1- 2-

417

:
y3
P (x, y) = 2xy + x y + , Q(x, y) = x2 + y 2 ,
3
Q
P
= 2x + x2 + y 2 ;
= 2x.
y
x
2

P
Q
=
y
x
.
.
:


Q
2x + x2 + y 2 2x
1 P

=
= 1 = = (x),
1)
Q y
x
x2 + y 2


1 P
Q
2x + x2 + y 2 2x
2)

=
= (x, y).
3
P y
x
2xy + x2 y + y3
= (x) , (61.9)
R

(x) = e

F (x)dx

=e

1dx

= ex .

ex :
y3
e (2xy + x y + )dx + ex (x2 + y 2 )dy = 0.
3
, P
=
y
, .

y3
U
x
2
= P (x, y) = e (2xy + x y + ),
x
3
Zx
Zx
y3
U = P (x, y)dx + (y) = ex (2xy + x2 y + )dx + (y).
3
x

:
Z
y3
x
2
e (2xy + x y + )dx =
3

u = 2xy + x2 y + y3 , du = (2y + 2xy)dx,

3
dv = ex dx,
v = ex .

Q
x

418

61

1- 2-

Z
y3
= e (2xy + x y + ) ex (2y + 2xy)dx =
3


u = 2y + 2xy, du = 2ydx,



dv = ex dx,
v = ex .
Z
y3
x
2
x
= e (2xy + x y + ) e (2y + 2xy) + ex 2ydx =
3
y3
y3
x 2
x
2
2y 2xy + 2y] = e (x y + ).
= e [2xy + x y +
3
3
x

U = ex (x2 y + y3 ) + (y).
y , ,
U
= Q(x, y) = ex (x2 + y 2 ), :
y
U
= ex (x2 + y 2 ) + (y) = (x2 + y 2 )ex (y) = 0 (y) = C1 .
y
3

U = ex (x2 y + y3 ) + C1 = C2 . , ( ) :
y3
e (x y + ) = C.
3
x

61.3. y = x1 .
: y = f (x), , y = p(x), y = p (x),

p =

1
.
x


. :
Z
dp
1
dx
1

= dp =
dp =
p =
x
dx
x
x
Z
dx
p = ln |x| + ln C0 p = ln(C1 x).
=
x

61

1- 2-

419

y(y = p(x)), y =
ln(C1 x):
Z
dy
= ln(C1 x) dy = ln(C1 x)dx dy =
y = ln(C1 x)
dx
Z
Z
= ln(C1 x)dx y = ln(C1 x)dx.


Z
u = ln (C1 x), du = 1 dx,
x
= ln (C1 x)dx =
y =

dv = dx,
v = x.
Z
1
= x ln (C1 x) x dx = x ln (C1 x) x + C2 =
x
= x(ln C1 + ln |x|) x + C2 = x ln |x| + C x + C2 ,
C = ln C1 1.

,
y = x ln |x| + C x + C2 .

61.4.
p
1
y = a 1 + (y )2 , y(0) = a, y (0) = 0.

: y = f (y ), , y = p(x), y = p (x):
1p

1 + p2 .
p =
a
,
dp
dx
p
,
=
a
1 + p2

p
x
ln (p + 1 + p2 ) = + C1
a
p
x
+C
p + 1 + p2 = e a 1 .
.

p
x
1 + p2 = e a +C1 p.
( ):
x
x
1 + p2 = (e a +C1 )2 2pe a +C1 + p2 ,

420

61

1- 2-

1 = (e a +C1 )2 2pe a +C1

p:
x
1 x
p = (e a +C1 e( a +C1 ) ).
2
y = p(x), y
Z
x
x
x
1
a x
y=
[e a +C1 e( a +C1 ) ]dx = (e a +C1 + e( a +C1 ) ) + C2 .
2
2
, :
 a C
(e 1 + eC1 ) + C2 = a,
y(0) = a
2
1 C1
y (0) = 0
(e eC1 ) = 0.
2

, eC1 = eC1 , .. C1 = 0.
, C2 = 0.

x
a x
y = (e a + e a ).
2

61.5. yy + y 2 = y 3 ,
y(0) = 1, y (0) = 1.
: y = f (y, y ), .. .
, dp
. y = p(y) y = p dy
:
dp
yp + p2 = p3 ,
dy
, , p 6= 0, p:
dp
y
= p2 p.
dy

dy
dp
=
.
(61.1)
p2 p
y
(61.1) :
1
A
B
A(p 1) + B p
1
=
=
+
=
.
p2 p
p (p 1)
p
p1
p (p 1)

61

1- 2-

421

, , , , ..:
A(p 1) + B p = 1,

p = 1, B = 1, p = 0 A = 1.

1
1
1
=

p2 p
p p1
Z
Z
Z
dp
dp
dp
=

+
= ln |p| + ln |p 1| ln C1 .
p2 p
p
p1
, (61.1), :
p1
= C1 y.
p
p y(y = p):
y 1
1
1
1

=
C
y

=
C
y

=
1

C
y

y
=
.
1
1
1
y
y
y
1 C1 y
. :
Z
Z
C1 2
y = x + C2 .
(1 C1 y)dy = dx (1 C1 y)dy = dx y
2
, C1 C2 :

1 C21 = C2 ,
y(0) = 1
1
1 = 1C
.
y (0) = 1
1

C1 = 0. ,
C2 = 1.
:
y = x + 1.
p = 0 y = 0 y = C,
.


61.6. (x+y)dx+(x+2y)dy = 0.

422

62

61.7.
(x + sin y)dx + (x cos y + sin y)dy = 0.
61.8. ( ) (x + y 2 )dx 2xydy = 0.
61.9. y = sin x.

61.10. y = xex ,
y(0) = 1, y (0) = 0.
61.11. xy + y = 0.
61.12. xy y = x2 ex ,
y(0) = 1, y (0) = 0.
61.13. yy y 2 = y 2 ln y.

61.14. y = y 2 y,
y(1) = 41 , y (1) = 12 .




62.

. .
.
62.1. .
62.1.
(62.1)

a0 (x)y + a1 (x)y + a2 (x)y = f (x).

E f (x) = 0,
(62.2)

a0 (x)y + a1 (x)y + a2 (x)y = 0

( ). f (x) 6= 0,
(62.1) .

62

423

(62.1) y :
f (x) a1 (x)y a2 (x)y
y =
.
a0 (x)

(62.3)


y = f (x, y, y ), ( ), .
.
, a0 (x), a1 (x), a2 (x)
f (x) (a, b),
a0 (x) , (62.3) y
y
f (x) a1 (x)y a2 (x)y
,
f (x, y, y ) =
a0 (x)
a2 (x)
a1 (x)
fy (x, y, y ) =
, fy (x, y, y ) =
a0 (x)
a0 (x)

fy = . . . . . .


y, y x, (a, b).
62.1. ( -
).
a0 (x), a1 (x), a2 (x) f (x) (62.1) (a, b), a0 (x)
, y(x0 ) = y0 y (x0 ) = y0 , x0 (a, b), , .
62.2. .
62.2. y1 = y1 (x) y2 = y2 (x) (62.2), Y = C1 y1 (x) + C2y2 (x)
C1 C2 .
y1 y2 - ,

a0 (x)y1 + a1 (x)y1 + a2 (x)y1 = 0,
(62.4)
a0 (x)y2 + a1 (x)y2 + a2 (x)y2 = 0.

424

62

(62.2) Y = C1 y1 + C2 y2
(62.4), :
a0 (x)[C1 y1 + C2 y2 ] + a1 (x)[C1 y1 + C2 y2 ] + a2 (x)[C1 y1 + C2 y2 ] =
= a0 (x)[C1 y1 + C2 y2 ] + a1 (x)[C1 y1 + C2 y2 ] + a2 (x)[C1 y1 + C2 y2 ] =
= C1 [a0 (x)y1 + a1 (x)y1 + a2 (x)y1 ] + C2 [a0 (x)y2 +
+ a1 (x)y2 + a2 (x)y2 ] = C1 0 + C2 0 = 0,

.. Y = C1 y1 (x) + C2 y2 (x) (62.2).


y = (x, C1 , C2) C1 C2 ,
: Y = C1 y1 (x) + C2 y2 (x)
(62.2).
, .
y y = 0 y1 = ex , y2 = ex , y3 = 5ex
..
. ,
y2 = ex Y = C1 ex + C2 5ex
. ,
.
62.2. (62.2) [a, b],
C1 y + C2 y , .,
:
y1
6= const.
y2
,
y1 = y2 .
, .
62.3. y1 y2 x


y1 y2
= y1 y y y2
(62.5)
W (x) = W (y1 , y2 ) =
2
1
y1 y2
.

62.3. y1 y2
[a, b],
.

62

425

y2 = y1 ,





y1 y1
y1 y2 y1 y1

=
=
W (y1 , y2 ) =
y1 y1 = 0.
y1 y2 y1 y1

62.4. y1 y2 (a, b),



W (y1 , y2 ) 6= 0.
62.39. , y 0. ,
.
62.4. (
). y1 = y1 (x) y2 = y2 (x) (62.2) (a, b)
,

(62.6)

Y = C1 y1 (x) + C2 y2 (x).

(62.2) (62.6) (62.2) C1 C2 . , , ,


, :
y(x0 ) = y0 , y (x0 ) = y0 .

(
Y = C1 y1 (x) + C2 y2 (x),
Y = C1 y1 (x) + C2 y2 (x),

(
y0 = C1 y1 (x0 ) + C2 y2 (x0 ),
y0 = C1 y1 (x0 ) + C2 y2 (x0 ).

C1 C2 ,



y1 (x0 ) y2 (x0 )

W (x0 ) =
y1 (x0 ) y2 (x0 )

426

62

y1 (x) y2 (x) x = x0 .
y1 (x) y2 (x)
(a, b), x0 , W (x0 ) 6= 0. :




y1 (x0 ) y0
y0 y2 (x0 )




y1 (x0 ) y0
y0 y2 (x0 )
, C20 =
.
C10 =
W (x0 )
W (x0 )
,

Y = C10 y1 (x) + C20 y2 (x),


.
(62.6) ,

.
, y1 =
= y1 (x), , y2 = y2 (x)
.
y1 = y1 (x) y2 = y2 (x) (62.2),:
y1 + p(x)y1 + q(x)y1 = 0
y2 + p(x)y2 + q(x)y2 = 0
p(x) =

a2 (x)
a1 (x)
q(x) =
.
a0 (x)
a0 (x)

y2 , y1
, :
y1 y2 y2 y1 + p(x)(y1 y2 y2 y1 ) = 0.
(62.5)
y1 y2 y2 y1 = W (x),

W (x) = y1 y2 + y2 y1 y2 y1 y1 y2 = y1 y2 y2 y1 ,
, W (x)
W (x) + p(x)W (x) = 0,
W (x) = Ce

p(x)dx

y2 y1 y1 y2 = Ce

p(x)dx

62

427

y12 ,
 
y2
y2 y1 y1 y2
,
=
y12
y1

y2
y1

y2
=C
y1

R
1
p(x)dx
= 2 Ce
,
y1

p(x)dx

y12

dx + C1 .

, C = 1, C1 = 0. ,
Z R p(x)dx
e
(62.7)
y2 (x) = y1 (x)
dx.
y12 (x)
. - y1 (x), (62.7)
y2 , (62.6) (62.2).
62.1. y2 = y2 (x)
sin x
2
.
y + y + y = 0, y1 (x) =
x
x
: (62.7):
Z
Z
sin x
sin x
x2 R 2 dx
x2 2 ln x+ln C
x
dx =
y2 =
e
e
dx =
x
x
sin2 x
sin2 x
Z
x2 C
sin x
sin x
=
dx
=
C
(C1 ctg x).
2
x
x
sin x x2

, C = 1, C1 = 0.
:
C1 sin x + C2 cos x
cos x
, Y =
.
y2 =
x
x
(62.2), . ,
.

428

62

62.3.
. a0 y + a1 y + a2 y = 0, a0 , a1 , a2 , a0 6= 0. a0
a1 /a0 = p, a2 /a0 = q,
(62.8)

y + py + qy = 0.

y = ekx , k . (y =
= kekx , y = k 2 ekx ) ,
(62.8),
k 2 ekx + pkekx + qekx = 0.
ekx 6= 0, ekx , :
(62.9)

k 2 + pk + q = 0.

(62.9) (62.8). :
r
r
p
p2
p2
p
q, k2 =
q.
k1 = +
2
4
2
4
k , y = ekx
. :
I. k1 k2 - (k1 6= k2 );
II. (k1 = k2 );
III. .
I. : k1 6= k2 . y1 = ek1 x
y2 = ek2 x . ,
ek2 x
y2
= k1 x = e(k2 k1 )x 6= const.
y1
e
, . 62.4:
Y = C1 y1 + C2 y2 = C1 ek1 x + C2 ek2 x .
62.2. y + y 2y = 0.

62

429

:

k 2 + k 2 = 0.

:
r
1
1
+ 2 k1 = 1, k2 = 2.
k1,2 =
2
4
:
y1 = ex , y2 = e2x ,

(62.10)

Y = C1 ex + C2 e2x .

II. :
k1 = k2 = k. y = ekx . , y2 = xekx
.
y2 ,
y2 = ekx (1 + kx), y2 = k ekx (2 + kx).

y2 , y2 y2 (62.8):
kekx (2 + kx) + pekx (1 + kx) + qxekx = 0,

ekx [(k 2 + pk + q)x + (2k + p)] = 0.


k , k 2 + pk + q = 0.
, k1 = k2 = k = 2p 2k = p, .. 2k + p 0. , y2 + py2 + qy2 = 0 y2 (x) = xekx
(62.8).
y1 = ekx y2 = xekx , :
1
y1 /y2 = ekx /(xek2 x ) = 6= const.
x
(62.8)
k1 = k2 = k
(. 62.4):
(62.11)

Y = C1 ekx + C2 xekx = ekx (C1 + C2 x).

430

62

, y1 = ekx y2
(62.7).
, ..
Z
Z p R dx
e
kx
px/2
px/2
dx = e
dx = xekx .
y1 = e
, y2 = e
px
e
62.3. y 4y + 4y = 0.

: k 2 4k + 4 = 0 k1 = k2 = 2.
: y1 = e2x , y2 = xe2x ,
Y = e2x (C1 + C2 x).
III. .
:
k1 = + i, k2 = i.

(62.8), ,
:
y1 = ek1 x = e(+i)x = ex eix ; y2 = ek2 x = e(i)x = ex eix .

(eit = cos t + i sin t, eit = cos t i sin t),


y1 y2 :
y1 = ex (cos x + i sin x), y2 = ex (cos x i sin x).

. ,
1
1
y1 = (y1 + y2 ) = ex [(cos x + i sin x)+
2
2
+ (cos x i sin x)] = ex cos x,
1
1
y2 = (y1 y2 ) = ex [(cos x + i sin x)
2i
2i
(cos x i sin x)] = ex sin x.

y1 y2 y1 y2 , ,
(62.8) 62.2.
y1 y2 ,
. ,

62

431

:
Y = C1 y1 (x) + C2 y2 (x) = C1 ex cos x + C2 ex sin x,

Y = ex (C1 cos x + C2 sin x).

62.4. y + 4y + 5y = 0.
:
k 2 +4k+5 =

=
0 k1 = 2 + 4 5 = 2 + i k2 = 2
4 5 = 2i.
:
Y = e2x (C1 cos x + C2 sin x).

,
(62.8) ,
.

y + py + qy = 0

k 2 + pk + q = 0

k1 = + i
- k1 6= k2 R
k1 = k2 =
k2 = i

kR
y1 = ek1 x
y1 = ekx
y1 = ex cos x
y2 = ex sin x
y2 = ek2 x
y2 = xekx


Y = C1 ek1 x + Y = ekx (C1 +
Y
=
k2 x
x
C2 e
C2 x)
e (C1 cos x +
C2 sin x)

432

62




62.

62.1. y1 =
= x + 1 y2 = 2x + 1.
:
. - e . :


x+1
2(x + 1)
1 2x + 2
1 2x + 1
1
y1
=
=
=
=
+
=
y2
2x + 1
2(2x + 1)
2 2x + 1
2 2x + 1 2x + 1


1
1
=
1+
6= const.
2
2x + 1
, .
a:



y1 y2 x + 1 2x + 1
= 2(x + 1) (2x + 1) = 1 6= 0.
=
W (x) =

2
y1 y2 1

,
.
62.2.
y1 = sin 2x, y2 = 10 sin 2x.
:
, :



y1 y2 sin 2x 10 sin 2x
=
=
W (x) =
y1 y2 2 cos 2x 20 cos 2x

= 20 sin 2x cos 2x 20 sin 2x cos 2x 0.


,
.
62.3. y 7y + 6y = 0.

: ,
.
k 2 7k + 6 = 0.

62

433

k1 = 6, k2 = 1. y1 = e6x y2 = ex -
. ( ), , ,
:
Y = C1 y1 + C2 y2 = C1 e6x + C2 ex .
62.4.
y + 2y = 0 y(0) = 1, y (0) = 0.
:
k 2 + 2k = 0
k1 = 0, k2 = 2. ,
y1 = e0x = 1 y2 = e2x ,
.
.
Y = C1 y1 + C2 y2 = C1 + C2 e2x .
Y = 2C2 e2x
y(0) = 1 y (0) = 0 C1
C2 .
y(0) = 1 Y = C1 + C2 e20 = C1 + C2 = 1,

y (0) = 0 Y = 2C2 e20 = 2C2 = 0.

: C2 = 0, C1 = 1.
:
Y = 1.
62.5. y 10y + 25y = 0.

: k 2 10k + 25 = 0
k1 = k2 = k = 5.

(.)
y1 = e5x , y2 = xe5x , Y = C1 y1 + C2 y2 = C1 e5x + C2 xe5x = e5x (C1 + C2 x).
62.6. y 4y + 13y = 0.

434

63

: k 2 4k + 13 = 0 k1 = 2 + 3i, k2 = 2 3i. ,
(.) y1 = e2x cos 3x
y2 = e2x sin 3x.

Y = C1 y1 + C2 y2 = e2x (C1 cos 3x + C2 sin 3x).


62.7. y1 = 2x2 + 1,
y2 = x2 1 ?
62.8. y1 = ex ,
?

y2 = 3ex

62.9.
y + 25y = 0.

62.10. o e
y + 3y + 2y = 0 y(0) = 1, y (0) = 1.

62.11.
y 2y + y = 0.

62.12.
y 9y = 0.

62.13.
y + 4y = 0 y(0) = 0, y (0) = 2.




63.

.
.
2- .

63

435

63.1. .
,
.

, ,
.
(62.1)
a0 (x)y + a1 (x)y + a2 (x)y = f (x).
Y = C1 y1 + C2 y2 - . , y1 y2 - ,
, C1 C2 - .
Z1 (x) Z2 (x). ,
(63.1)

y = Z1 (x)y1 + Z2 (x)y2

(62.1).
, (63.1)
(62.1) . y x,
(63.2)
y = Z1 (x)y1 + Z1 (x)y1 + Z2 (x)y2 + Z2 (x)y2 .
, , :
Z1 (x) Z2 (x) ,
(63.3)

Z1 (x)y1 + Z2 (x)y2 = 0.

(63.3) (63.2), :
(63.4)
y = Z1 (x)y1 + Z2 (x)y2 .
,
(63.5)
y = Z1 (x)y1 + Z1 (x)y1 + Z2 (x)y2 + Z2 (x)y2 .
y (63.1), y (63.4) y (63.5)
(62.1),
a0 (x)(Z1 y1 + Z1 y1 + Z2 y2 + Z2 y2 ) + a1 (x)(Z1 y1 + Z2 y2 )+
+ a2 (x)(Z1 y1 + Z2 y2 ) = f (x),
, ,
(63.6) (a0 (x)y1 + a1 (x)y1 + a2 (x)y1 )Z1 + (a0 (x)y2 + a1 (x)y2 + a2 (x)y2 )Z2 +

436

63

+a0 (x)(Z1 y1 + Z2 y2 ) = f (x).


y1 , a0 (x)y1 + a1 (x)y1 +
a2 (x)y1 0, .. . , y2
. , (63.6)
f (x)
.
(63.7)
Z1 (x)y1 + Z2 (x)y2 =
a0 (x)
(63.3) (63.7), Z1 (x) Z2 (x):

Z1 (x)y1 + Z2 (x)y2 = 0,
(63.8)
.
Z1 (x)y1 + Z2 (x)y2 = af0(x)
(x)




y1 y2
6= 0
W (y1 , y2 ) =
y1 y2
y1 y2 , .
(63.8), , ,
y2 f (x)
y1 f (x)
Z1 (x) =
, Z2 (x) =
.
W (y1 , y2 )a0 (x)
W (y1 , y2 )a0 (x)
, :
Z
Z
y2 f (x)dx
y1 f (x)dx
(63.9) Z1 (x) =
+ C1 , Z2 (x) =
+ C2 ,
W (y1 , y2 )a0 (x)
W (y1 , y2 )a0 (x)

C1 C2 .
Z1 (x) Z2 (x) (63.1),
:
Z
y2 f (x)
(63.10) y = Z1 (x) y1 + Z2 (x) y2 == C1 y1 y1
dx+
W (y1 , y2 )a0 (x)
Z
y1 f (x)
dx + C2 y2 .
+ y2
W (y1 , y2 )a0 (x)

,
Z
y2 f (x)
dx+
(63.11)
y = y + Y = y1
W (y1 , y2 )a0 (x)

63

+y2

437

y1 f (x)
dx + C1 y1 + C2 y2 .
W (y1 , y2 )a0 (x)

63.1.
y
(63.12)
y = x.
x
:
:
y
y

y = 0 y = .
x
x
, .
y = f (y , x). y = p(x),
y = p (x):
y
p
dp
p
dp
dx

y =
p =
=
=
ln |p| = ln |x| + ln C1
x
x
dx
x
p
x
dy
= C1 x
ln |p| = ln C1 |x| p = C1 x p = y y = C1 x
dx
dy = C1 xdx y = C1 x2 + C2 .
,
(63.13)

Y = C1 x2 + C2 ,

y1 = x2 y2 = 1 , .

, (63.12)
(63.13) , C1 C2 Z1 (x) Z2 (x) :
(63.14)

y = Z1 (x)y1 + Z2 (x)y2 = Z1 (x)x2 + Z2 (x).

(63.8) Z1 (x) Z2 (x)


:


Z1 (x)y1 + Z2 (x)y2 = 0,
Z1 (x)x2 + Z2 (x) = 0,

,
Z1 (x)y1 + Z2 (x)y2 = af0(x)
Z1 (x)2x + Z2 (x) 0 = x1 = x.
(x)

,
, x:



y1 y2 x 2 1
=
= 2x.
W (y1 , y2 ) =
y1 y2 2x 0

438

63

, , ( 26). :
R 1xdx
R y2 f (x)dx
+
C
=

= x2 + C1 ,
Z1 (x) = W (y
1
2x
1 ,y2 )a0 (x)
R x2 xdx
R y1 f (x)dx
(63.15)
3
+
C
=
= x6 + C2 .
Z2 (x) = W (y
2
2x
1 ,y2 )a0 (x)

(63.14),
(63.12):
(63.16)

x
x3
x3
2
y = Z1 (x)x + Z2 (x) = ( + C1 )x
+ C2 =
+ C1 x2 + C2 .
2
6
3
2

63.2.
1
2
y + y + y = .
x
x
: (. 62.1):
y1 =

cos x
sin x
, y2 =
.
x
x

(63.15) :
Z1 (x) = sin x + A, Z2 (x) = cos x + B Y = A

sin x
cos x 1
+B
+ .
x
x
x

63.2. .
(62.1):
a0 (x)y + a1 (x)y + a2 (x)y = f (x).
,
a0 (x), a1 (x) a2 (x) x.
:
63.1. y(x) -
(62.1), Y (x) -
(62.2), y = y(x)+Y (x)
(62.1).

63

439

,
(63.17)

y = y + Y

(62.1). ,
(63.17) (62.1).
y + Y (62.1) y :
a0 (x)(
y + Y ) + a1 (x)(
y + Y ) + a2 (x)(
y + Y ) = f (x).
y Y :
(63.18) (a0 (x)
y + a1 (x)
y + a2 (x)
y ) + (a0 (x)Y + a1 (x)Y + a2 (x)Y ) = f (x).
y (62.1),
(63.19)

a0 (x)
y + a1 (x)
y + a2 (x)
y = f (x).

, e , Y
,
(63.20)

a0 (x)Y + a1 (x)Y + a2 (x)Y = 0.

(63.19) (63.20) (63.18)


f (x) + 0 f (x). , y = y + Y (62.1)
.
, (63.17) ,
.. ,
, :
(63.21)

y(x0 ) = y0 , y (x0 ) = y0 .

y1 y2 (63.18),
( ), , ,

: Y = C1 y1 + C2 y2 . (63.17)
:
(63.22)

y = y + C1 y1 + C2 y2 .

(63.21)


y0 = y0 + C1 y10 + C2 y20 ,
C1 y10 + C2 y20 = y0 y0 ,
(63.23)

y0 = y0 + C1 y10 + C2 y20 ,
C1 y10
+ C2 y20
= y0 y0 .

C1 C2 .
( ) , , .. C1 C2 , (63.17)

440

63

(63.22) (62.1),
(63.21) . .

(62.1) (63.11) Y (x)
y.




63.

63.1. y + 4y =

1
.
cos 2x

: y +
+4y = 0. k 2 +4 = 0
k1 = 2i, k2 = 2i. ,
y1 = sin 2x, y2 = cos 2x
:
Y = C1 sin 2x + C2 cos 2x.
,

y = Z1 (x) sin 2x + Z2 (x) cos 2x.
(63.8) Z1 (x) Z2 (x)
:

Z1 (x) sin 2x + Z2 (x) cos 2x = 0,
2Z1 (x) cos 2x 2Z2 (x) sin 2x = cos12x .
Z1 (x) Z2 (x)
, :



y1 y2 sin 2x

cos
2x

= 2 6= 0,
W (y1 , y2 ) =
=
y1 y2
2 cos 2x 2 sin 2x
Z
Z
cos 2x cos12x
x
y2 f (x)dx
=
dx = + C1 ,
Z1 (x) =
W (y1 , y2 )a0 (x)
2
2
Z
Z
sin 2x cos12x
1
y1 f (x)dx
=
dx = ln | cos 2x| + C2 .
Z2 (x) =
W (y1 , y2 )a0 (x)
2
4

63

441

, :
1
1
y = y + Y = x sin 2x + cos 2x ln | cos 2x| + C1 sin 2x + C2 cos 2x.
2
4
63.2. y + 5y + 6y =

1
.
1+e2x

: y +5y +
+ 6y = 0. k1 = 2, k2 = 3. ,
y1 = e2x , y2 = e3x
:
Y = C1 e2x + C2 e3x .
, :
y = Z1 (x)e2x + Z2 (x)e3x .
(63.1) Z1 (x) Z2 (x)
:

Z1 (x)e2x + Z2 (x)e3x = 0,
2Z1 (x)e2x 3Z2 (x)e3x = (1+e1 2x ) .

Z1 (x) Z2 (x),
, :



3x
y1 y2 e2x

e


=
W (y1 , y2 ) =
=
y1 y2 2e2x 3e3x
= 3e5x + 2e5x = e5x 6= 0,
Z 3x
Z
e
1+e1 2x
y2 f (x)dx
+ C1 =
dx =
Z1 (x) =
W (y1 , y2 )a0 (x)
e5x
Z
Z
d(e2x + 1)
1
1
e2x
+
C
=
ln (e2x + 1) + C1 ,
dx
+
C
=
=
1
1
2x
2x
1+e
2
e +1
2
Z
Z 2x 1
e 1+e2x
y1 f (x)dx
Z2 (x) =
+ C2 =
dx + C2 =
W (y1 , y2 )a0 (x)
e5x
Z
e3x
=
dx + C2 =
1 + e2x
dt
( ex = t x = ln t dx = )
t

442

64

Z
t3 dt
t2
=
+ C2 =
dt + C2 =
1 + t2 t
1 + t2
Z 2
Z
Z
dt
t +11
= ( 2
)dt + C2 = dt +
+ C2 =
t +1
1 + t2
= t + arctg t + C2 = | t = ex |
= ex + arctg ex + C2 .
, :
1
y = y + Y = e2x ln (e2x + 1) e2x +
2
1
+ e3x arctg ex + C1 e2x + C2 e3x = e2x ( ln (e2x + 1) 1 + C1 )+
2
3x
x
+e
(arctg e + C2 ).


63.3.
x2 y xy = 3x3 .

63.4.
y 7y + 6y = sin x.

63.5.
y + 4y = ctg 2x.




64.

( ) .
64.1. ( ).
.
, , ( )
.
, .

64

443

, ,

(64.1)

y + py + qy = f (x),

:
(64.2)

f (x) = ex (Pn (x) cos x + Qm (x) sin x)

,
(62.8)
(64.3)

y = xr ex (Pl (x) cos x + Ql (x) sin x).

, , Pn (x),
Qm (x), x n- m , Pl (x) Ql (x) x l
, l n m (l = n > m
l = m > n):
Pl (x) = Al xl + Al1 xl1 + + A0 ,
Ql (x) = Bl xl + Bl1 xl1 + + B0 ,

r + i k 2 + pk + q = 0 (
, r = 0).
, Pl (x) Ql (x) , .. x l, , ,
, (64.2) f (x)
cos x sin x, (64.3)
.
E (64.2), .
64.1. ( ). y1

(64.4)

y + py + qy = f1 (x),

y2 -
(64.5)

y + py + qy = f2 (x),

y = y1 + y2
(64.6)

y + py + qy = f1 (x) + f2 (x).

444

64

(64.6) y1 +
+ y2 , (64.4) (64.5) :
y + py + qy = (y1 + y2 ) + p(y1 + y2 ) + q(y1 + y2 ) =
= (
y + py1 + q y1 ) + (y2 + py2 + q y2 ) = f1 (x) + f2 (x).
, , , y = y1 + y2
(64.6).
f (x),
(62.8) , , .
64.1. y + 4y = 2x 3.
: y + 4y = 0 k 2 + 4k = 0
k1 = 0; k2 = 4. :
Y = C1 e0x + C2 e4x = C1 + C2 e4x .
f (x) = 2x3
f (x) = Pn (x), .. k = + i 0,
(r = 1),
(64.8) :
y = Qn (x) x = (Ax + B) x = Ax2 + Bx.
A B , y . y = 2Ax + B y = 2A
:
y + 4y = 2x 3 2A + 4(2Ax + B) = 2x 3
8Ax + (2A + 4B) = 2x 3.

64

N - -

+ i
(64.7)
f (x) = Pn (x)
k1 6= 0 k2 6=
0, r = 0
(64.8)
= 0, = 0
k1 = 0 k2 =
0, r = 1
(64.9)
k1 = k2 = 0, r =
2
x
(64.10)
f (x) = Pn (x)e
k1 6= k2 6=
, r = 0
(64.11)
= 0, 6= 0
k1 = k2 =
, r = 1
(64.12)
k1 = k2 =
, r = 2
(64.13)
f (x)
= k 6= i, r = 0
Pn (x) cos x +
Qm (x) sin x
(64.14)
= 0, 6= 0
k = i, r = 1

445


y = Qn (x)
y = Qn (x) x
y = Qn (x) x2
y = Qn (x)ex
y = Qn (x)ex x
y = Qn (x)ex x2

y = Ul (x) cos x +
Vl (x) sin x
l = max(n, m)
y = x(Ul (x) cos x +
Vl (x) sin x),
l = max(n, m)
(64.15)
f (x)
= k 6= i r = 0 y = ex (Ul (x) cos x +
ex (Pn (x) cos x+
Vl (x) sin x)
Qm (x) sin x)
l = max(n, m)
(64.16)
6= 0, 6= 0
k = i, r = 1 y
=
x
x
e (Ul (x) cos x
+
Vl (x) sin x)
l = max(n, m)
,
x .


8A = 2,
2A + 4B = 3,
A = 41 ,B = 87 . ,

7
1
y = Ax2 + Bx = x2 x,
4
8
:
7
1
y = y + Y = x2 x + C1 + C2 e4x .
4
8

446

64

64.2. 2y y y = 4xe2x .

: 2k 2 k 1 = 0 2y y y = 0
k1 = 1, k2 = 21 . :
x

Y = C1 ex + C2 e 2 .
f (x) =
= 4xe2x f (x) = Pn (x)ex , + = 0,
= 2, r = 0,
(64.10) :
y = Qn (x) ex = (Ax + B) e2x .
y y, y y , :
2y y y = 4xe2x 2e2x (4Ax + 4B + 4A)
e2x (2Ax + 2B + A) e2x (Ax + B) = 4xe2x .

e2x x ,


5A = 4,
7A + 5B = 0,
28
.
A = 54 , B = 25
,
4
28
y = (Ax + B)e2x = e2x ( x ),
5
25

x
4
28
y = y + Y = e2x ( x ) + C1 ex + C2 e 2 .
5
25

64.3. y y = 3e2x cos x.

: k 2 1 = 0
y y = 0 k1 = 1, k2 = 1.
:
Y = C1 ex + C2 ex .

64

447

f (x) =
= 3e2x cos x f (x) = ex (Pn (x) cos x+Qm (x) sin x),
i = 2 1 i (r = 0),
(64.15) :
y = e2x (A cos x + B sin x).

y :
y = 2e2x (A cos x + B sin x) + e2x (A sin x + B cos x) =
= e2x ((2A + B) cos x + (2B A) sin x),
y = 2e2x ((2A + B) cos x + (2B A) sin x)+

+ e2x ((2A + B) sin x + (2B A) cos x) = e2x ((4A + 2B + 2B


A) cos x + (4B 2A 2A B) sin x) =

= e2x ((3A + 4B) cos x + (3B 4A) sin x)


y y ,
y y = 3e2x cos x

e2x ((3A + 4B) cos x + (3B 4A) sin x)

e2x (A cos x + B sin x) = 3e2x cos x.

e2x
:
(2A + 4B) cos x + (2B 4A) sin x = 3 cos x.

cos x sin x
, A B:

2A + 4B = 3,
2B 4A = 0,
3
, B = 53 .
A = 10
,


3
3
y = e2x (A cos x + B sin x) = e2x
cos x + sin x ,
10
5



3
3
cos x + sin x + C1 ex + C2 ex .
y = y + Y = e2x
10
5

64.4. y 5y + 6y = ex + x2 .

448

64

: k 2 5k+6 = 0
k1 = 2, k2 = 3.
:
Y = C1 e2x + C2 e3x .

()

y 5y + 6y = ex ,

()

y 5y + 6y = x2 ,

y1 y2 .
() (67.10)
y1 = A1 ex ,
, = 1 , 0 (r = 0).
y1 y1 , y1 y1 (),

y 5y + 6y = ex A1 ex 5A1 ex + 6A1 ex = ex .
ex , 2A1 = 1, A = 21 ,
y1 = 12 ex .
() (6.7)
:
y2 = A2 x2 + B2 x + C2 ,
,
= 0, 0 (r = 0).
y2 y2 , y2 y2 (),

y 5y + 6y = x2 2A2 5(2A2 x + B2 ) + 6(A2 x2 + B2 x + C2 ) = x2 .


:

6A2 x2 + (6B2 10A2 )x + (2A2 5B2 + 6C2 ) = x2 .

x
, A2 , B2 C2 :

6A2 = 1,
6B2 10A2 = 0,

2A2 5B2 + 6C2 = 0,

A2 = 61 , B2 =

5
, C2
18

19
.
108

64

449

1
5
19
y2 = x2 + x +
.
6
18
108
, ..
1
5
19
1
.
y = y1 + y2 = ex + x2 + x +
2
6
18
108
:
1
5
19
1
+ C1 e2x + C2 e3x .
y = y + Y = ex + x2 + x +
2
6
18
108




64.

64.1. y 2y + 2y = x2 .

: . y 2y +2y = 0.
k 2 2k + 2 = 0
k1 = 1 + i k1 = 1 i,
(. ) Y = ex (C1 cos x + C2 sin x).
f (x) = x2 ,
y = Ax2 +Bx+C.
y = 2Ax + B y = 2A y
:
y 2y + 2y = x2 2A 2(2Ax + B) + 2(Ax2 + Bx + C) = x2 .

x:
2Ax2 + (2B 4A)x + (2A 2B + 2C) = x2 .

x:

A = 21 ,
2A = 1,
2B 4A = 0,
B = 1,

2A 2B + 2C = 0,
C = 21 .


:
1
1
1
1
y = Ax2 + Bx + C = x2 + x + = (x2 + 2x + 1) = (x + 1)2 .
2
2
2
2

450

64

, :
1
y = y + Y = (x + 1)2 + ex (C1 cos x + C2 sin x).
2
64.2.
y 2y 3y = (2x 3)ex .

: . y 2y 3y. k 2 2k 3 = 0
k1 = 1, k2 = 3. ,
(. ): Y = C1 ex + C2 e3x .

k1 = a = 1, r = 1,
:
y = Qn (x)eax xr = (Ax + B) ex x = (Ax2 + Bx) ex .

y = (2Ax + B)ex (Ax2 + Bx)ex =

= (Ax2 + (2A B)x + B)ex


y = (2Ax + (2A B))ex (Ax2 + (2A B)x + B)ex .

y, y y ,
:
y 2y 3y = (2x 3)ex

(2Ax + (2A B))ex (Ax2 + (2A B)x + B)ex

2(Ax2 + (2A B)x + B)ex 3(Ax2 + Bx)ex = (2x 3)ex .

ex 6= 0
x :
0 x2 8Ax + (2A 4B) = 2x 3.

x, :

8A = 2,
A = 41 ,

2A 4B = 3,
B = 58 .


:
5
1
1
y = (Ax2 + Bx)ex = ( x2 + x)ex = (2x2 + 5x)ex .
4
8
8

64

451


:

1
y = y + Y =
2x2 + 5x ex + C1 ex + C2 e3x .
8
64.3.
y + 4y + 5y = 2 cos x sin x.
: k 2 + 4k + 5 = 0
k1 = 2 + i k2 = 2 i.
:
Y = e2x (C1 cos x + C2 sin x).
, bi = i , r = 0

y = A cos x + B sin x.
, y = A sin x + B cos x,
y = A cos x B sin x.
y, y y ,
y + 4y + 5y = 2 cos x sin x A cos x B sin x+
+4(A sin x + B cos x) + 5(A cos x + B sin x) = 2 cos x sin x.

, :

(4A + 4B) cos x + (4B 4A) sin x = 2 cos x sin x.

, , cos x sin x
:

4A + 4B = 2,
A = 38 ,

4B 4A = 1,
B = 18 .


y = A cos x + B sin x = 83 cos x + 81 sin x, :
y = y + Y =

3
1
cos x + sin x + e2x (C1 cos x + C2 sin x).
8
8

64.4. y + y = xex + 2ex .

452

64

: k 2 + 1 = 0
k1 = i, k2 = i,
Y = C1 cos x + C2 sin x.

f (x) = f1 (x) + f2 (x) = x ex + 2ex .

f1 (x) = x ex
y1 = (Ax + B) ex ,
f2 (x) = 2 ex y2 = Cex .
, , f (x),
, .
,
y = y1 + y2 = (Ax + B)ex + Cex .

y = Aex + (Ax + B)ex Cex = (Ax + B + A)ex Cex ,


y = A ex + (Ax + B + A)ex + Cex = (Ax + B + 2A)ex + Cex

y, y y :

y + y = xex + 2ex (Ax + B + 2A)ex + Cex + (Ax + B)ex + Cex =

= xex + 2ex .
:

2A xex + (2A + 2B)ex + 2Cex = xex + 2ex .

, ,

A = 12 ,
2A = 1,
2A + 2B = 0, B = 21 ,

2C = 2,
C = 1.

:
1
1
1
y = (Ax + B)ex + Cex = ( x )ex + ex = (x 1)ex + ex .
2
2
2
,
1
y = y + Y = (x 1)ex + ex + C1 cos x + C2 sin x.
2

65

453


64.5. y + y = 5x + 3.
64.6. y 2y 3y = (x +
+ 2)e3x .
64.7. y + y 2y = 8 sin 2x.

64.8. y + 2y + y = ex + ex .




65.

. y (n) =
f (x). . n- .
65.1. . n- :
(65.1)

F (x, y, y , y , . . . , y (n) ) = 0

, , ,
(65.2)

y (n) = f (x, y, y , y , . . . , y (n1) ).

n- x, y, y , y , . . . , y (n1) , y (n) .
2- ,
(n = 2), , ,
.
65.1. ( )

y (n) = f (x, y, y , y , . . . , y (n1) )
f (x, y, y , y , . . . , y (n1) )
y, y , y , . . . , y (n1) ,
(n1)
, x = x0 , y = y0 , y = y0 , . . . , y (n1) = y0
y = y(x),
(n1)

y|x=x0 = y0 , y |x=x0 = y0 , y |x=x0 = y0 , . . . , y (n1) |x=x0 = y0

454

65

.
65.1. n-

(65.3)

y = (x, C1 , C2 , . . . , Cn ),

n C1 , C2 , . . . , Cn , , :
-
C 1 , C 2 , . . . , Cn ;
- C1 , C2 , . . . , Cn , (65.3) .
(x, y, C1 , C2 , . . . , Cn ) = 0,
, .
, C1 , C2 , . . . , Cn , .
.
() n- :
1) ( )
2) .
, ,
, :
(65.4)

y|x=x0

y (n) = f (x, y, y , y , . . . , y (n1) ),


(n1)
.
= y0 , y |x=x0 = y0 , y |x=x0 = y0 , . . . , y (n1) |x=x0 = y0

x [a; b],
, . y(x)

y (x) = f (x), a 6 x 6 b, y(a) = y(b) = 0,
f (x) ,
. (n > 2) .
[a; b]. .
.
n- , .

65

455

65.2. y (n) = f (x). n-


y (n) = f (x).

(65.5)

x
, , y (n) = (y (n1) ) ,
Z
(n1)
y
= f (x)dx + C1 ,
C1 - .
,

Z Z
(n2)
y
=
f (x)dx dx + C1 x + C2 .

n , (65.5)
Z Z Z
Z
y=
. . . f (x)dxn + C1 xn1 + C2 xn2 + + Cn1 x + Cn .
{z
}
|
n

.
65.1.
y = 12x 6 y|x=1 = 0, y |x=1 = 1, y |x=1 = 2.
: :
Z

y = (y ) = 12x 6 y = (12x 6)dx = 6x2 6x + C1 ,


Z

y = (y ) = 6x 6x + C1 y = (6x2 6x + C1 )dx =
= 2x3 3x2 + C1 x + C2 ,

y = (y) = 2x3 3x2 + C1 x + C2


Z
C1 x2
x4
x3 +
+ C2 x + C3 .
y = (2x3 3x2 + C1 x + C2 )dx =
2
2
4

y = x2 x3 + C12x + C2 x + C3 .
n 1 = 2 :
x4
C1 x2
3
y=
x +
+ C2 x + C3 ,
2
2
y = 2x3 3x2 + C1 x + C2 ,
y = 6x2 6x + C1

456

65

0 = 12 1 + C21 + C2 + C3 ,
1 = 2 3 + C1 + C2 ,

2 = 6 6 + C1 .

C1 = 2, C2 = 0, C3 = 21 ,
y=

1
x4
x3 + x2 .
2
2

65.3. .

(65.6)

a0 (x)y (n) + a1 (x)y (n1) + a2 (x)y (n2) + + an (x)y = f (x)

n- , a0 (x), a1 (x), . . . , an (x) f (x)


x.
f (x) 6= 0, (65.6)
( ).
f (x) 0, (65.6)
(65.7)

a0 (x)y (n) + a1 (x)y (n1) + a2 (x)y (n2) + + an (x)y = 0

(
).
n- .
65.2. a0 (x), a1 (x), a2 (x), . . . , an (x)
f (x) (65.6) (a, b),
a0 (x) ,

(n1)

y|x=x0 = y0 , y |x=x0 = y0 , y |x=x0 = y0 , . . . , y (n1) |x=x0 = y0


(a < x0 < b),

, .
y1 (x), y2 (x), . . . , yn (x) (65.7),


y1 (x)

y
(x)
.
.
.
y
(x)
2
n

y1 (x)

(x)
.
.
.
y
(x)
y
n
2

...
yn (x)
y2 (x)
(65.8)
W (x) = y1 (x)


...
...
...
...
(n1)

(n1)
(n1)
y
(x) . . . yn
(x)
(x) y2
1

65

457

.
(a, b) , y1 (x), y2 (x), . . . , yn (x)
n- (a, b).

(n = 2), n- , .
65.3. y1 (x), y2 (x), y3 (x), . . . , yn (x) n- (65.7),
(a, b) ,
:
(65.9)

Y = C1 y1 (x) + C2 y2 (x) + + Cn yn (x)

C1 , C2 , . . . , Cn .
65.4. y (65.6), Y
(65.7), y = y + Y (65.6).
65.40. , n (65.7) , , .
, (65.6), (65.7),
.
, , .
65.4. n- .
65.2. n- :
(65.10)

a0 y (n) + a1 y (n1) + a2 y (n2) + + an y = f (x),

a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . , an - , a0 6= 0.

(65.11)

a0 y (n) + a1 y (n1) + a2 y (n2) + + an y = 0

a0 6= 0:
(65.12)

y (n) + b1 y (n1) + b2 y (n2) + + bn y = 0.

458

65

(65.12) , (65.9), .. y = ekx .


1)
(65.13)

k n + b1 k n1 + b2 k n2 + + bn = 0.

2)
k 1 , k 2 , . . . , kn .

3) , :
k y kx ;
k1 , r(k1 =
= k2 = = kr = k1 ) r
y1 = ek1 x , y2 = xek1 x , y3 = x2 ek1 x , . . . , yr = xr1 ek1 x ;
k1 = + i k2 =
i y1 = ex cos x y2 = ex sin x;
k1 = + i k2 =
i r 2r :
y1 = ex cos x, y2 = xex cos x, . . . , yr = xr1 ex cos x,
yr+1 = ex sin x, yr+2 = xex sin x, . . . , y2r = xr1 ex sin x.

, ..
. .
4) n
y1 , y2 , . . . , yn , (65.12)

(65.14)

Y = C1 y1 + C2 y2 + C3 y3 + + Cn yn ,

C1 , C2 , . . . , Cn - .

65.2. y IV 13y + 36y = 0.


:
:
k 4 13k 2 + 36 = 0;


k1 = 3, k2 = 3, k3 = 2, k4 = 2;

:
y1 = e3x , y2 = e3x , y3 = e2x , y4 = e2x ;

65

459

:
Y = C1 e3x + C2 e3x + C3 e2x + C4 e2x .

(65.10) , ,
,
( ).

, 63.2
.
65.3. y IV y = x3 + 1.

: k 4 1 = 0
k1 = 1, k2 = 1, k3 = i, k4 = i.
:
Y = C1 ex + C2 ex + C3 cos x + C4 sin x.
f (x) = x3 +1 f (x) = Pn (x), = 0, .. r = 0,
(67.07):
y = A0 x3 + A1 x2 + A2 x + A3 .
y , :
A0 x3 A1 x2 A2 x A3 = x3 + 1.

x :
A0 = 1, A1 = 0, A2 = 0, A3 = 1,

y = x3 1.
, :
y = y + Y = x3 1 + C1 ex + C2 ex + C3 cos x + C4 sin x.

460

65




65.

65.1. y IV = sin x.
:
:
R
y IV =R sin x y = sin xdx = cos x + C1 ,
y = ( cos x + C1 )dx = sin x + C1 x + C2 ,
R
2
y = ( sin x + C1 x + C2 )dx = cos x + C1 x2 + C2 x + C3 ,
R
3
2
y = (cos x + C1 x2 + C2 x + C3 )dx = sin x + C1 x6 +
2
+C2 x2 + C3 x + C4 .
C1 C2 ,
:
y = sin x + C1 x3 + C2 x2 + C3 x + C4 .
65.2.
y = ex y(0) = 1, y (0) = 0, y (0) = 1.
:

y = ex ,
Z

y = ex dx = ex + C1 ,
Z
y = (ex + C1 )dx = ex + C1 x + C2 ,
Z
x2
y = (ex + C1 x + C2 )dx = ex + C1 + C2 x + C3 .
2


x2
y = e + C1 + C2 x + C3 y(0) = 1 + C3 = 1 C3 = 0,
2

x
y = e + C1 x + C2 y (0) = 1 + C2 = 0 C2 = 1,
x

y = ex + C1 y (0) = 1 + C1 = 1 C1 = 0.


:
y = ex x.
65.3.
y 2y y + 2y = 0.

65

461

: 3- .

k 3 2k 2 k + 2 = 0;


k1 = 2, k2 = 1, k3 = 1;
:
y1 = e2x , y2 = ex , y3 = ex ;
:

Y = C1 y1 + C2 y2 + C3 y3 = C1 e2x + C2 ex + C3 ex .

65.4.
y + 3y + 3y + y = 0.
: 3- .

k 3 + 3k 2 + 3k + 1 = 0, (k + 1)3 = 0;


k1 = k2 = k3 = 1, r = 3;
:
y1 = ex , y2 = xex , y3 = x2 ex ;
:

Y = C1 y1 + C2 y2 + C3 y3 = C1 ex + C2 xex + C2 x2 ex =
= ex (C1 + C2 x + C3 x2 ).

65.5.
y IV + 2y + y = 0.
: 4- .
:
k 4 + 2k 2 + 1 = 0,

(k 2 + 1)2 = 0;


k1 = k2 = i, k3 = k4 = i, .. r = 2;

462

65

:
y1 = cos x, y2 = xcosx, y3 = sin x, y4 = x sin x;
:

Y = C1 cos x + C2 x cos x + C3 sin x + C4 x sin x.

65.6. y IV y = 5 cos x.
: 4- . k 4 1 = 0 k1 = 1, k2 =
1, k3 = i, k4 = i. ,
:
Y = C1 ex + C2 ex + C3 cos x + C4 sin x.

f (x) = Pn (x) cos x + Qm (x) sin x, + i i, k3 = i (r = 1), , :
y = (A cos x + B sin x) x.

y
, :
4A sin x 4B cos x = 5 cos x,

4A = 0, 4B = 5, A = 0, B = 45 . ,
:
5
y = x sin x,
4

5
y = y + Y = x sin x + C1 ex + C2 ex + C3 cos x + C4 sin x.
4
65.7.
y + y 2y = x ex .
: 3- . k 3 + k 2 2k = 0 k1 = 0, k2 = 1, k3 =
2,
Y = C1 + C2 ex + C3 e2x .

f (x) = f1 (x) + f2 (x),


f1 (x) = x = Pn (x), f2 (x) = ex = Pn (x)ex . :

65

463

f1 (x) (k1 = 1 = 0, (67.08):


y1 = Qn (x)x = (Ax + B)x = Ax2 + Bx,
f2 (x) (k2 = 2 = 1, (67.11):
y2 = Qn (x)xex = Cxex .
:
y = y1 + y2 = Ax2 + Bx + Cxex .
y
y = 2Ax + B + Cex + Cxex ,
y = 2A + 2Cex + Cxex ,
y = 3Cex + Cxex

y + y 2y = x ex (3Cex + Cxex )+

(2A + 2Cex + Cxex ) 2(2Ax + B + Cex + Cxex ) = x ex ,

, ,

4Ax + (2A 2B) + 3Cex = x ex .

A = 41 ,
4A = 1,
2A 2B = 0, B = 14 ,

3C = 1,
C = 31 .

1
1
1
1
1
y = x2 x xex = x(x + 1) xex ,
4
4
3
4
3

1
1
y = y + Y = x(x + 1) xex + C1 + C2 ex + C3 e2x .
4
3


65.8.
1
1
y IV = cos2 x y(0) =
, y (0) = 0, y (0) = , y (0) = 0.
32
8
65.9.

y = 24x + 6.
65.10.
y V y IV y + y = 0.

464

66

65.11.
y IV + 5y + 4y = 0.
65.12. y + y = cos 2x.
65.13.
y IV 2y + y = x3 .
65.14.
y + y = x2 + 1 + 3xex .



66.

. , .
66.1. . ( ), ,
, .. . .
, .
66.1. , , , , .
: y = f (x) . M (x, y) , . , (. 151).
|BM | = |M A|, , , |OP | = |P A| = x.
. 151 ,
y
y
= tg = .
tg(180o ) =
x
x

66

465

y
B
M
y=f(x)
y

. 151. 66.1

, tg ,
M (x, y) y ,
:
y
y = ,
x
.
, :
dy
y
dy
dx
y
= =
=
=
y = =
x
dx
x
y
x
C
ln |y| = ln |x| + ln C = y = .
x
.
66.2. t m(t).
m(0) = 200 . 300 , , ( ,
) 1550 .
:
dm
= km,
dt
k > 0, , .
.
Z
Z
dm
dm
= kdt =
= kdt = ln |m| = kt + ln C
m
m
= ln |m| = ln ekt + ln C = m = Cekt .

466

66


.
m(0) = 200 ., :
200 = Cek0 = C = 200.
, :
m(t) = 200ekt .
k ,
1
1
m(t) = m(0) = 200 = 100 . t = T = 1550 .
2
2
:
1
= e1550k = 2 = eln 2
2
ln 2
= 1550k = ln 2 = k =
0, 000447.
1550
,
100 = 200e1550k = e1550k =

ln2

m(t) = 200e 1550 t .


t = 300, , 300 :
ln2

m(300) = 200 e 1550 300 200 e0,000447300 176, 5 .


66.3. .
,
, . .
:
M m. F , m :
M m
,
r2
r
, k



3

k = 6, 66 108
2 .
F =k

66

467

F = ma,
m :
M m
d2 r
M
d2 r

()
=
k
.
m 2 = k 2
dt
r
dt2
r2
, .
, .
:
dr
t = 0 : r = R,
= V0 ,
dt
R (R = 63 107 ), V0 .
:
d2 r
dV
dV dr
dV
dr
= V,
=
=
=
V
,
dt
dt2
dt
dr dt
dr
V .
(*), :
M
dV
= k 2 ,
dr
r
. :
Z
Z
dr
dr
V2
kM
V dV = kM 2 =
V dV = kM
=
=
+ C1 .
r
r2
2
r
R(0) = R, V = V0 , C1 :
()

kM
kM
V02
V02
=
+ C1 = C1 =
+
.
2
R
R
2

r :
 2

V2
kM
kM
V02
V2
kM
V0
kM
=

=
+

.
2
r
R
2
2
r
2
R
,
2
( V2 > 0). r kM
r
2
, V2 > 0
r
2kM
V02 kM

> 0 V0 >
.
2
R
R

468

66

,
, , :
r
2kM
.
( )
V0 =
R
r = R
. (*) , g = 981
2

2
d r

= g = kM ,
dt2
R2
2

M = gRk .

M (***), :
q
q

2kgR2
2gR
=
2 981 63 107 11, 2 105
V0 = 2kM
=
=
=
R
Rk
c
.
= 11, 2
c

66.2. , . . () m, , . 0
. Oy , .
t y
( 152).

0
y
y

. 152. ,

, .. y = f (t).
.

66

469

F1 ,
. F1 Oy, :
F1y = ky. k (k > 0).
F1y ,
, .
F2 ,
. F2 V
. F2 Oy
dy
( > 0).
F2y = V =
dt

n
X
ma=
Fi ,
i=1

n
P
Fi a ,
i=1
.

2
Oy , a Oy ddt2y ,

dy
d2 y
m 2 = ky ,
dt
dt

d2 y
dy
(66.1)
m 2 + + ky = 0.
dt
dt
(66.1)
.
,
Oy, F (t)
t, (66.1)
dy
d2 y
+

+ ky = F (t)
dt2
dt
.

(66.2)

470

66

m ,
k
F (t)

= 2b,
= 2 ,
= f (t),
m
m
m

d2 y
dy
(66.3)
+
2b
+ 2 y = f (t), y + 2by + 2 y = f (t).
2
dt
dt

.
1. f (t) = 0
b = 0 .
(66.1) :
y + 2 y = 0.

(66.4)

k 2 + 2 = 0 k1 = i, k2 =
= i, (66.4) :
(66.5)

Y = C1 cos t + C2 sin t.

C1 C2 A > 0 0 , C1 C2 :
C1 = A sin 0 , C2 = A cos 0 ,
p

1
.
A = C12 + C22 , 0 = arctg C
C2
C1 C2 (66.5),
:
Y = A sin 0 cos t + A cos 0 sin t,
, , :

(66.6)

Y = A sin(t + 0 ).

, . T ,
2, ,
T = 2/.
. A , 0 .
, (66.6) . 153.

66

471

y
y=A

T=--2

2 o

y=-A
. 153.

2. f (t) = 0, b 6= 0
. (66.1):
y + 2by + 2 y = 0.

(66.7)


k 2 + 2bk + 2 = 0

k1,2 = b b2 2 .
.
a) , b >
. (66.7)

(66.8)

(b+ b2 2 )t

Y = C1 e

(b b2 2 )t

+ C2 e

,
( ). , ,
(Y 0 t ).
) b = :
(66.9)

Y = (C1 + C2 t)ebt .

t , , , C1 +C2 t.
) b < .

k1,2 = b 2 b2 i,

(66.7)

bt
2
2
Y = e (C1 cos( b t) + C2 sin( 2 b2 t)) =

Aebt sin( 2 b2 t + 0 ) = Aebt sin(


t + 0 ),

472

66


= 2 b2 .
A
bt
e , . b > 0,
t , .. .
. 154.

y
~ )
Y=Ae -bt sin(t+
o

. 154.

3.
f (t) = a sin t
b = 0. (66.3) :
(66.10)

y + 2 y = a sin t.

y + 2 y = 0
(66.6) Y = A sin(t + 0 ).
(66.10) .
) , .. 6= . i 6= i, ,
k 2 + 2 = 0, (67.13) y

y = A sin t + B cos t.
y y (66.10)
2 (A sin t + B cos t) + 2 (A sin t + B cos t) = a sin t,

66

473

, :

a
2 A + 2 A = a, = A = 2
2,
2
2
B + B = 0, = B = 0.

,
a
y= 2
sin t,
2
(66.10)
a
sin t + A sin(t + 0 ).
(66.11)
y =y+Y = 2
2
, , 2 2
.
, = , (66.11) .
) , .. = .
i = i k 2 + 2 = 0,
(66.10) (67.14)
y = (A sin t + B cos t) t.

y y (66.10) , = ,
a
A = 0, B = 2
.
y :
at
y=
cos t,
2
(66.10) :
at
(66.12)
y = y + Y = cos t + A sin(t + 0 ).
2
t (66.12) ,
(. 155).
, , .
(66.1) (66.3)
, .

474

66

y
a
y= 2 t

a
y=- 2 t
a
t cos t
. 155. y = 2



66.

66.1. , , a.
: . 156
( M B) ( CB).

y=f(x)

y
M(x,y)

. 156. 66.1

CMB |CB|
= tg . |CB| = |M C| tg .
, , |M
C|
, |M C| = y, tg = y (

66

475

) ,
|CB| = |yy |.

|M B| , :
p
p
p
|M B| = (CB)2 + (M C)2 = (yy )2 + y 2 = |y| 1 + (y )2 .
a:
p
|CB| + |M B| = |yy | + |y| 1 + (y )2 = a.

y , :
a2 y 2

.
y =
2ay

dx
2ydy
=

.
a2 y 2
a
, :
x
ln |a2 y 2 | = + ln C.
a
,
:
x
y 2 = a2 Ce a ,

2
2
C > 0, y < a (
).
66.2. , t = 0
T (0) = T0 = 100 , T1 = 60o t1 = 20 . ,
30o , , 20o .
: t
T = T (t).
dT

dt
T = 20o ,
,
dT
= k(T 20),
dt
k .

476

66


, , :
Z
Z
dT
dT
= kdt =
= kdt = ln |T 20| =
T 20
T 20
= kt + ln C = ln |T 20| = ln ekt + ln C = T 20 = Cekt
:
T = Cekt + 20.
,
T (0) = 100 :
100 Cek0 + 20 = C = 80.
,
T = 80ekt + 20.
ek ( k).
T (20) = 60 :
 1/20
1
1
.
= ek =
60 = 80ek20 + 20 = e20k =
2
2
, :

 t/20
1
+ 20.
T = 80
2
,
30 :
 t/20
 t/20
1
1
1
30 = 80
+ 20 =
=
=
2
8
2
 3  t/20
1
t
1
=
=
= 3 = t = 60 .
=
2
2
20

, 30o
60 .
66.3. , .
: , , .
Ox. ,

66

477

.
AM , M O (. 157).

K1

M(x,y)
A
K

N
0

B
y=f(x)

. 157. 66.3

y = f (x) x ,
.
y = f (x) KK1 M N
. , ,
, AM Ox, OKM = AM K1 =
= OM K = . , OKM
O, |OMp
| = |OK|.
OM B , |OM | = x2 + y 2 (), |OK|
Y y = y (X x). , Y = 0 (
Ox), X = x yy ,
|X| = |OK| = X = x +

y
.
y

|OM | |OK|,
p
y
y
p
,
x2 + y 2 = x + , y =
y
x + x2 + y 2
.

, .. , y = f ( xy ):
y
y
y/x

p
p
()
y =
=
=f
.
2
2
x
1 + 1 + (y/x)2
x+ x +y

478

66

(*) x, ..
s 
p
 
2
2
2
x
+
x
+
y
x
x
x
dx
+1=f
=
= +
.
()
x =
dy
y
y
y
y

(**) t = xy ,
x = ty, x = t y + t,

2
t y + t = t + t + 1 = t y = t2 + 1.
. :

dy
dt

=
= ln |y| = ln |t + 1 + t2 | + ln C
2
y
t +1

y = C(t + 1 + t2 ).
(t = xy ),

s
 2
x
x
.
y =C + 1+
y
y
, :
p
y2
= x + x2 + y 2 .
C
x :
p
y2
x = x2 + y 2 ,
C
:
y4
2y 2 x

+ x2 = x2 + y 2 ,
2
C
C
:
 2



y
C
2x
y2
= y 2 = y 2 = 2Cx + C 2 = y 2 = 2C x +
.

2
C
C
2
, , , ,
.

66.4. 6
4 .
, ,
1/12 , ?

66

479

: V (
/) , h
, :
p
V = 2gh,

g = 9, 8 /c2 , () , ( = 0, 6).
dt dh (dh < 0).
dw .
,
|dh| R ( R = 2), ..:
dw = R2 |dh| = R2 dh.
, dw , , V dt.
r = 1/12 , :
p
2
2
dw = r V dt = r 2ghdt.
dw, :
p
R2 dh = r2 2ghdt.

, , :
dt =

R2

dh
2R2
= t = C 2
h.
2g h
r 2g

t = 0 h = h0 = 6 .
:
2R2 p
2R2 p

0=C 2
h0 = C = 2
h0 .
r 2g
r 2g

, t
h :

2R2 p
t = 2 ( h0 h).
r 2g

tk , h = 0:
2R2 p
h0 .
tk = 2
r 2g

480

67

: R = 2 ; h0 = 6 ; = 0, 6; r = 1/12 ;
g = 9, 8 /c2 , :

2 22 6

1062 c 17, 7.
tk =
0, 6 (1/12)2 2 9, 8


66.5. ,
, ,
.
66.6. ,
.
66.7.
V0 = 20 /. 2
, 40 V1 = 8 /.
.
.
66.8.
. A0 .
t .
66.9. ,
M0 (1; 2) :
OAM B, , , M (x, y) , ,
M Oy, 3 ..
66.10. m
. ,
t, V = V0 .



67.

. . , .

67

481

67.1. .
, . .
, ,
m F . r = r(t) .
x(t), y(t), z(t),

(67.1)
r(t) = x(t)i + y(t)j + z(t)k.

dy
dz
dx
d
r
= i + j + k,
(67.2)
v =
dt
dt
dt
dt
d2 r d2 x d2 y d2 z
(67.3)
a = 2 = 2 i + 2 j + 2 k.
dt
dt
dt
dt
F , , , :
dx dy dz
dx dy dz
(67.4)
F = Fx (t, x, y, z, , , )i + Fy (t, x, y, z, , , )j+
dt dt dt
dt dt dt
dx dy dz
+ Fz (t, x, y, z, , , )k.
dt dt dt
:
d
r
m
a = F mr = F (t, r, ).
dt
, , , :
d2 x
m dt2 = Fx (t, x, y, z, dx
, dy , dz ),

dt dt dt

2
(67.5)
m ddt2y = Fy (t, x, y, z, dx
, dy , dz ),
dt dt dt

d2 z
, dy , dz ).
m dt2 = Fz (t, x, y, z, dx
dt dt dt

,
( ) m : x = x(t), y = y(t), z = z(t).

482

67


, .
, , , :
dy
1
= f1 (x, y1 , y2 , . . . , yn ),

dx

dy
= f2 (x, y1 , y2 , . . . , yn ),
dx
(67.6)

........................

dyn
= fn (x, y1 , y2 , . . . , yn ).
dx
(67.6)
y1 (x), y2 (x), . . . , yn (x), .
, , .
, , (67.5) ,
dy
du d2 y
dz
d2 x
u(t) = dx
=
=
,
(t)
=
,
(t)
=
.

,
2
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt dt2
d
d d2 z
,
= dt , (67.5) :
dt dt2

du

= m1 Fx (t, x, y, z, u, , ),

dt

= m1 Fy (t, x, y, z, u, , ),

dt

= m1 Fz (t, x, y, z, u, , ),
d
dt
(67.7)

dx

= u(t),

dt

dy

= (t),

dt

dz
= (t).
dt

dx
= f1 (t, x, y, z),

dt

dy
(67.8)
= f2 (t, x, y, z),
dt

dz
= f3 (t, x, y, z)
dt

67

483

( )
.
67.1. (67.8), ..
fi (t, x, y, z), i = 1, 2, 3,
fi fi fi
, ,
G, ,
x y z
t0 , x0 , y0 , z0 , G,
x = x(t), y = y(t), z = z(t), :
x(t0 ) = x0 , y(t0 ) = y0 , z(t0 ) = z0 .
.
67.2. . n
n- , .
, .
.
67.1.
 dx
= x + y,
dt
dy
= x y.
dt
: t :
dx dy
d2 x
+ .
=
dt2
dt
dt

()


()

dy
dt

():

dx
d2 x
=
+ x y.
dt2
dt

y = dx
x
dt
():
dx
dx
d2 x
=
+
x

(
x).
dt2
dt
dt

d2 x
2x = 0.
dt2

484

67

2
=
0

k
=
2, k2 =
1

= 2. , :

x = C1 e

2t

2t

+ C2 e

y :

dx
x = C1 ( 2 1)e 2t C2 ( 2 + 1)e 2t .
y=
dt


2t
2t
x = C1 e + C2 e ,

y = C1 ( 2 1)e 2t C2 ( 2 + 1)e 2t .
.
67.3. . ,
, , .
67.2.
dx
x
dt = 2x+3y ,

dy
dt

y
.
2x+3y

: ,
:
x
dx
dy
dx
=
=
ln |x| = ln |y| + ln C1 x = C1 y.
dy
y
x
y

:
dx
dy
2x
3y
dx
dy
2 +3
=
+
2 +3 =1
dt
dt
2x + 3y 2x + 3y
dt
dt
2dx + 2dy = dt 2x + 3y = t + C2 .

x = C1 y,
2x + 3y = t + C2 ,

C1 (t+C2 )
,
x = 2C
1 +3

y=

t+C2
.
2C1 +3

67

485

67.4. . n :
dx
1
= a11 x1 + a12 x2 + + a1n xn ,

dt

dx2
(67.9)
dt = a21 x1 + a22 x2 + + a2n xn ,

.................................

dxn
dt = an1 x1 + an2 x2 + + ann xn .

dX
= A X,
dt

dx1

x1
a11 a12 . . . a1n
dt
dx2
x2
a21 a22 . . . a2n
dX dt

A =
.. , dt = .. .
... ... ... ... ,X =
.
.
dxn
an1 an2 . . . ann
xn

(67.10)

dt

x1 = p1 et , x2 = p2 et , . . . , xn = pn et .

(67.10) (67.9),
p 1 , p 2 , . . . , pn :

(a11 )p1 + a12 p2 + + a1n pn = 0,

a12 p1 + (a22 )p2 + + a2n pn = 0,


(67.11)

....................................

an1 p1 + an2 p2 + + (ann )pn = 0.

(67.11) ,
, ..



(a11 )
a
p
.
.
.
a
12
2
1n




a
(a

)
.
.
.
a
21
22
2n
= 0.

(67.12)


.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.



an1
an2
. . . (ann )

(67.9).
n .
n :1 , 2 , . . . , n ,
A.
, . .

486

67

, k
(p1k ; p2k ; . . . ; pnk ), k = 1, 2, . . . , n. n :
1-e , = 1 :
x11 = p11 e1 t , x21 = p21 e1 t , . . . , xn1 = pn1 e1 t ;
2- , = 2 :
x12 = p12 e2 t , x22 = p21 e2 t , . . . , xn2 = pn2 e2 t ;
................................................................................................
n-e , = n :
x1n = p1n en t , x2n = p2n en t , . . . , xnn = pnn en t ;
,
:

x = C1 x11 + C2 x12 + . . . + Cn x1n

1
x2 = C2 x21 + C2 x22 + . . . + Cn x2n
(67.13)
.................................

xn = C1 xn1 + C2 xn2 + . . . + Cn xnn .

67.3.
.
 dx
dt = x + 2y,
dy
dt = y + 2x.
: a11 = 1, a12 = 2, a21 = 2, a22 = 1, x1 = x, y2 = y.
(67.12)



(1 )
2
= 0 ( 1)2 4 = 0


2
(1 )

1 = 3, 2 = 1. ,
x11 = p11 e1 t = p11 e3t , x21 = p21 e1 t = p21 e3t ,
x12 = p12 e2 t = p12 et , x22 = p22 e2 t = p22 et .
(67.11) = 1 = 3 p11
p22 :
(
(1 3)p11 + 2p21 = 0,
2p11 + (1 3)p22 = 0,

p12 = p21 . .
, p11 = 1, p21 = 1. , k1 = 3
x11 = e3t , x21 = e3t .

67

487

= 2 = 1
(
(1 (1))p12 + 2p22 = 0,
2p12 + (1 (1))p22 = 0,
p12 = p22 . p12 = 1, p22 = 1.
, x12 = et x22 = et .
(67.13) :

x(t) = x1 = C1 x11 + C2 x12 = C1 e3t + C2 et ,
y(t) = x2 = C1 x21 + C2 x22 = C1 e3t C2 et .
,
. .



67.

67.1.
 dx
= x + 5y,
dt
dy
= x 3y.
dt
: t :
dy
dx
d2 x
+
5
.
=
dt2
dt
dt

dy
:
dt

d2 x
dx
=
+ 5(x 3y).
dt2
dt
x)/5
y = ( dx
dt
():
dx
x
dx
d2 x
dt
+
5(x

3
)
=
dt2
dt
5
, :
()

d2 x
dx
+
2
+ 2x = 0.
dt2
dt
k 2 + 2k + 2 = 0 k1 =
= 1 + i, k2 = 1 i, , x
:
x = et (C1 cos t + C2 sin t).

488

67

y , dx
,
dt


1
1 dx
x = et ((C2 2C1 ) cos t (C1 + 2C2 ) sin t).
y=
5 dt
5


x = et (C1 cos t + C2 sin t),
y = 15 et ((C2 2C1 ) cos t (C1 + 2C2 ) sin t),
.

67.2.
dx
dt = 2y,
dy
= 2z,
dt
dz
= 2x.
dt
: t :
d2 x
dy
=
2
.
dt2
dt

dy
:
dt

d2 x
= 2 (2z) = 4z.
dt2

t:
d3 x
dz
=
4
.
dt3
dt

dz
:
dt
d3 x
= 4 (2x) = 8x.
dt3
3-
x.
2
k3 8 = 0 (k
2) (k +
+2k + 4) = 0 k1 = 2, k2 = 1 + 3i, k3 = 1 3i.

x:

x = C1 e2t + et (C2 cos ( 3t) + C3 sin ( 3t)).

67

489

y:

1 dx
1
= (2C1 e2t et (C2 cos ( 3t) + C3 sin ( 3t))+
y=
2

2 dt
t
3 (C3 cos ( 3t) C2 sin ( 3t))),
e

, ,

1
y = C1 e2t + et (( 3C3 + C2 ) cos ( 3t) ( 3C2 + C3 ) sin ( 3t)).
2

1 t
2t
z = C1 e e (( 3C3 + C2 ) cos ( 3t) ( 3C2 C3 ) sin ( 3t)).
2

67.3.
 dx
= x2 + xy,
dt
dy
= xy + y 2 .
dt

:
dx dy
d(x + y)
+
= x2 + xy + xy + y 2
= x2 + 2xy + y 2
dt
dt
dt
d(x + y)
d(x + y)
1

= (x + y)2
=
dt

= t + C1 .
dt
(x + y)2
x+y
, :
x2 + xy
dx
x (x + y)
dx
x
dx/dt
=

dy/dt
xy + y 2
dy
y (x + y)
dy
y
dy
dx
=
ln |x| = ln |y| + ln C2 x = C2 y.

x
y


1
x+y
= t + C1 ,
x = C2 y,

1
1
y = (t+C1 )(C2 +1) = (C2 +1)t+C3 ,

C3 = C1 C2 + C1 .

C2
,
x = (C2 +1)t+C
3

490

67

67.4.
 dx
= 4x 3y,
dt
dy
= 3x + 4y.
dt

: ,
(67.9), a11 = 4, a12 = 3, a21 = 3,
a22 = 4, x1 = x, x2 = y. (67.12)


(4 )

3

= 0 (4 )2 = 9

3
(4 )

1 = 4 + 3i, 2 = 4 3i.

x11 = p11 e1 t = p11 e(4+3i)t , x21 = p21 e1 t = p21 e(4+3i)t ,

x12 = p12 e2 t = p12 e(43i)t , x22 = p22 e2 t = p22 e(43i)t .


(67.11) = 1 = 4 + 3i



(4 (4 + 3i))p11 3p21 = 0,
ip11 p21 = 0,

3p11 + (4 (4 + 3i))p21 = 0,
p11 ip21 = 0,

ip11 = p21 .
. , p11 = 1, p21 = i
x11 = p11 e(4+3i)t = e(4+3i)t = e4t (cos 3t + i sin 3t),

x21 = p21 e(4+3i)t = ie(4+3i)t = ie4t (cos 3t + i sin 3t) =

= e4t (sin 3t i cos 3t).


= 2 = 4 3i (67.11)
:


(4 (4 3i))p12 3p22 = 0,
ip12 p22 = 0,

3p12 + (4 (4 3i))p22 = 0,
p12 + ip22 = 0,

ip12 = p22 . , . p12 = 1, p22 = i


x12 = p12 e(43i)t = e(43i)t = e4t (cos 3t i sin 3t),

x22 = p22 e(43i)t = ie(43i)t = ie4t (cos 3t i sin 3t) =


= e4t (sin 3t + i cos 3t).

:
x = x1 = C1 x11 + C2 x12 = C1 e4t (cos 3t + i sin 3t)+

67

491

+C2 e4t (cos 3t i sin 3t) = e4t ((C1 + C2 ) cos 3t + (C1 C2 )i sin 3t) =
= e4t (C1 cos 3t + C2 sin 3t),

y = x2 = C1 x21 + C2 x22 = C1 e4t (sin 3t i cos 3t)+

+C2 e4t (sin 3t + i cos 3t) = e4t ((C1 + C2 ) sin 3t (C1 C2 )i cos 3t) =

= e4t (C1 sin 3t C2 cos 3t),


C1 = C1 + C2 , C2 = (C1 C2 ) i.

67.5.
 dx
= 5x y,
dt
dy
= x + 3y.
dt

: ,
(67.9), : a11 = 5, a12 = 1, a21 = 1,
a22 = 3, x1 = x, x2 = y. (67.12)


(5 )

1

2 8 + 16 = 0 ( 4)2 = 0

1
(1 )

= 4 2.
x1 = e4t (a1 t + a2 ), x2 = e4t (b1 t + b2 ).
x1 x2 t:
dx2
dx1
= a1 e4t + 4(a1 t + a2 )e4t ,
= b1 e4t + 4(b1 t + b2 )e4t ,
dt
dt
1 dx2
, dt , x1 x2 . dx
dt
e4t 6= 0,

a1 + 4(a1 t + a2 ) = 5(a1 t + a2 ) (b1 t + b2 ),
b1 + 4(b1 t + b2 ) = a1 t + a2 + 3(b1 t + b2 ).


t, :


4a1 = 5a1 b,
a1 + 4a2 = 5a2 b2 ,
4b1 = a1 + 3b1 ,
b1 + 4b2 = a2 + 3b2 .

, a1 = b1 , :a2 b2 = a1 .
a1 = C1 , a2 = C2 , b1 = C1 , b2 = a2 a1 = C2 C1 ,
,

x = x1 = e4t (C1 t + C2 ),
y = x2 = e4t (C1 t + C2 C1 ).

492

67


67.6.
 dx
= y,
dt
dy
= x.
dt

67.7.
dx
dt = y + z,
dy
= x + z,
dt
dz
= x + y.
dt

67.8.
(
x
dx
= x+y
,
dt
dy
y
= x+y .
dt
: 1) . 2)
.
67.9.
 dx
= 7x + 3y,
dt
dy
= 6x + 4y.
dt

67.10.
 dx
= x y,
dt
dy
= x + 3y.
dt

67.11.
 dx
= x 2y,
dt
dy
= x y.
dt

68

493




68.

. .
. . -. .
68.1. .
, , .
. , , .
. , , , ,
.
.
,
,
.

, , ,
, , - , .
. , .
- , ,
xn (
).
, , , . .
.

494

68

.
68.2.
.

. , ( 20 21).
( ):
(68.1)
(68.2)

F (x, y, y , y , . . . , y (n1) , y (n) ) = 0,


(n1)

y(x0 ) = y0 , y (x0 ) = y0 , y (x0 ) = y0 , . . . , y (n1) (x0 ) = y0

,
(n1) (n)
F (x0 , y0 , y0 , y , . . . , y0
, y0 ) = 0,
n-
(68.3)

(n)

(n1)

y0 = f (x0 , y0 , y0 , y0 , . . . , y0

).

(68.1), , , x, y, y , y , . . . , y (n) , y (n+1) :


(68.4)

F1 (x, y, y , y , . . . , y (n) , y (n+1) ) = 0.


(n)

(68.4) (68.2) y0
(68.3),
(n)

(n+1)

F1 (x0 , y0 , y0 , y0 , . . . , y0 , y0

) = 0,

(n+1)

y0
.
, x = x0 .
y = y(x) (68.1)
( ):
n
(x x0 )2
x x0
(n) (x x0 )
+y (x0 )
+ +y
+. . .
(68.5) y(x) = y(x0 )+y (x0 )
1!
2!
n!
(68.5) x0 , :
2
n
(n) (x x0 )
(x x0 )
x x0
+ y0
+ + y0
+ ...,
(68.6)
y(x) = y0 + y0
1!
2!
n!

68

495


, .
68.1. ( )

y = 2xy + 4y,
y(0) = 0,
(68.7)
y (0) = 1.

: ,
x0 .
(68.7): y = 2xy + 4y y0 = 2 0 1 + 4 0 = 0.
(68.7),
(68.8)

y = 2y + 2xy + 4y = 6y + 2xy y0 = 6 1 + 2 0 0 = 6.

(68.8),
(68.9) y IV = 6y + 2y + 2xy = 8y + 2xy y0IV = 8 0 + 2 0 6 = 0.
(68.9),
(68.10) y V = 8y +2y +2xy IV = 10y +2xy IV y0V = 106+20 0 = 60.
: y0V I = 0, y0V II = 840 ..
x0 = 0,
:
y=
3

6
60
840 7
1
x + x3 + x5 +
x + ...
1!
3!
5!
7!
7

y = x + x1! + x2! + x3! + . . . .


X
n=0

Cn (x x0 )n .

Cn (n = 1, 2, . . . )
x x0
.

496

68

68.3. .
- .
, . ,
, .
y(x),
yi xi .
yi
, , . , y(x), x,
:
(68.11)

(68.12)

y (x) 2 y (x) 3
y (x)
x +
x +
x + +
y(x + x) = y(x) +
1!
2!
3!
y (k) (1 ) k
+
x ,
k!
y (x) 2 y (x) 3
y (x)
x +
x
x + +
y(x x) = y(x)
1!
2!
3!
(k)
(2 ) k
ky
+ (1)
x ,
k!

1 2 , (x x, x + x).
(68.11)
(68.13)

y(x + x) y(x)
= y (x) + O(x),
x

(68.12)
(68.14)

y(x) y(x x)
= y (x) O(x),
x

O(x) ,
.
(68.13) (68.14) -
(68.15)

y (x) =

y(x + x) y(x)
O(x),
x

68

497

y(x) y(x x)
O(x),
x
(68.15) (68.16) .
(68.15) (68.15), y
x.
(68.11) (68.15),
- .

(68.16)

(68.17)

y (x) =

y(x + x) y(x x)
= y (x) + O(x2 )
2x

y(x + x) y(x x)
O(x2 ),
2x
x2 .
y , (68.11) (68.12:
(68.18)

y (x) =

(68.19)

y(x + x) 2y(x) + y(x x)


= y (x) + O(x2 ),
2
x

y(x + x) 2y(x) + y(x x)


O(x2 ),
2
x
x2 .

, , -
. , .
(68.20)

y (x) =

68.4. ( ). , , ,
.


y = f (x, y), x0 6 x 6 xn
(68.21)
y(x0 ) = y0 .

498

68

x0 6 x 6 xn y = (x), (x0 , y0 ).

x0 < x1 < x2 < < xi1 < xi < < xn

n x = (xn x0 )/n (.158).


x . (68.21) (x0 , y0 ) y0 = f (x0 , y0 ).
(x0 , y0 ) :
y y0 = f (x0 , y0 ) y = y0 + f (x0 , y0 ).

(x0 , x1 ) y = (x)
(.158), y1 x1 :
y1 = y0 + f (x0 , y0 ) (x1 x0 ),

, x1 x0 = x,

y1 = y0 + f (x0 , y0 )x.

x1 y1 (68.21),
y1 = f (x1 , y1 ).
(x1 , x2 )
y = (x) , (x1 , y1 ) k = y1 = f (x1 , y1 ):
y y1 = f (x1 , y1 ) (x x1 ) y = y1 + f (x1 , y1 ) (x x1 ).

x = x2 , y = (x) x2 :
y2 = y1 + f (x1 , y1 )(x2 x1 ) y2 = y1 + f (x1 , y1 )x.

, y = (x) x3 , x4 , . . . , xn . xi+1
xi :
(68.22)

yi+1 = yi + f (xi , yi )x

(i = 0, 1, 2, 3 . . . , n 1).

, x1 , x2, x3 , . . . , xn (. 158). ( ) .

68

499

y1
y0

(x n ;yn )
0

x0

x1

x2 x3

xn

. 158.

.
. ,
,
(x0 , xn ).
, yi (x)2 . y = (x)
x = xi (i = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n), ,
:
(68.23)

y(x + xi ) = y(xi ) + y (xi )xi + O(x2i ).

xi = xi+1 xi = x = const :

(68.24)

yi+1 = yi + f (xi , yi )x + O(x2 ).

(68.22)
O(x2 ).
n O(x2 ). ,
xn x0
L
L
x =
= n=
,
n
n
x

L
O(x2 ) = L O(x).
n O(x2 ) =
x

500

68

.
68.2.
y = y 2 x2 , y(1) = 1,
(1, 2). x = 0, 1.
: y = (x) (68.22).
.
y .
i
xi
yi
f (xi , yi ) = yi2 x2i f (xi , yi )x = (yi2 x2i )x
1
2
3
4
5
0
1,0
1
0
0
1
1,1
1
-0,21
-0,021
2
1,2
0,979
-0,4816
-0,0482
3
1,3
0,9308 -0,8236
-0,0824
4
1,4
0,8484 -1,2402
-0,1240
5
1,5
0,7244 -1,7252
-0,1725
6
1,6
0,5519 -2,2554
-0,2255
7
1,7
0,3264 -2,7835
-0,2784
8
1,8
0,0480 -3,2377
-0,3238
9
1,9
-0,2758 -3,5339
-0,3534
10
2,0
-0,6292
68.5. -. , , ,
x, n.
, .
-.
-
. , O(x2 ),
.
(68.21)
xi 6 x 6 xi+1
(68.25)

yi + yi x

2
x
yi

+ . . . , x = xi+1 xi = const.
2
,
(68.21) :
(68.26)

yi+1 =

y = f (x, y), y =

f
f
d
f (x, y) =
+ f (x, y)
dx
x
y

...

68

501

,
d
x, y) f (x, y)]/x,
(68.27)
y f (x, y) = [f (
dx
x
, y x.
(68.25) , (68.27)
:
(68.28)

yi+1 = yi + (f (xi , yi ) + f (xi + x, yi + x))x.

, , , - ,
, (68.28) (68.21)
.
(68.28) x,
x:
f (xi , yi )
f (xi , yi )
+
)x2 + . . .
(68.29) yi+1 = yi + ( + )f (xi , yi )x + (
x
y
, , , ,
(68.25). (68.25), (68.26), (68.29)
, :
1
1
(68.30)
+ = 1, = , = f (xi , yi ).
2
2
,
. . (68.23)
(68.28),
-.
x
x
, yi +
f (xi , yi )))x,
(68.31)
yi+1 = yi + ((1 )f (xi , yi ) + f (xi +
2
2
0 < 6 1. ,
. , ,
- (68.31),
O(x2 ), .. - .
= 1 = 12 .
:
1
1
(68.32)
yi+1 = yi + f (xi + x, yi + x f (xi , yi ))x.
2
2
. 159.
:
1
yi+ 1 = yi + f (xi , yi )x ( 1).
2
2

yi+
1 = f (xi+ 1 , yi+ 1 ) ( 2).
2

502

68

y i+1
yi

xi

x i+1/2

x i+1

. 159. - = 1

yi+1 = yi + x yi+
1 , .
2

( = 12 ) :
(68.33)

yi+1 = yi + (f (xi , yi ) + f (xi + x), yi + x f (xi , yi ))

x
.
2

. 160.

y i+1
2

yi

xi

x i+1

. 160. - = 1/2

yi+1 = yi + f (xi , yi )x (1)


yi+1
= f (xi+1 , yx+1 ) (2)

yi+1/2
=

yi + yi+1
(3)
2

68

503

yi+1 (68.33).
, , -.

- . .
,
:
yi+1 = yi +

x
(k1
6

+ 2k2 + 2k3 + k4 ),

k1 = f (xi , yi ),
(68.34)

k2 = f (xi +

x
, yi
2

x
k ),
2 1

k3 = f (xi +

x
, yi
2

x
k ),
2 2

k4 = f (xi + x, yi + xk3 ).
(68.34) . ( O(x4 ))
.
- :
- ;
- , .. yi+1 yi ;
- .
, .
68.3.
 xy
y = 2 , 0 6 x 6 1,
y(0) = 1.

: , ,
2
. y = C ex /4 .
y(0) = 1
2 /4

y = ex

x = 0, 1 a.

504

68

68.3
.
1
2
3
4
5
6

- -

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

xi

0,0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1,0

2- - 2- - 4- - y
=
2 /4
x

e
=1
= 0, 5
yi
yi
yi
yi

yi

1,0000
1,0000
1,0050
1,0151
1,0303
1,0509
1,0772
1,1095
1,1483
1,1942
1,2479

1,0000
1,0025
1,0100
1,0227
1,0407
1,0644
1,0940
1,1301
1,1732
1,2241
1,2836

1,0000
1,0025
1,0100
1,0227
1,0408
1,0645
1,0942
1,1303
1,1735
1,2244
1,2839

1,0000
1,0025
1,0100
1,0227
1,0408
1,0645
1,0942
1,1303
1,1735
1,2245
1,2841

1,0000
1,0025
1,0100
1,0227
1,0408
1,0645
1,0942
1,1303
1,1735
1,2244
1,2840

-
, , n n
. ,
(68.35)

y = (x, y, y )

, z = y z = y :
(
z = (x, y, z),
(68.36)
y = z = g(x, y, z).

(68.37)

Y = F (x, Y ),
 
 
 
z
z

Y =
, Y =
, F =
.

y
y
g

68

505

, (68.37) , .
:
y(x0 ) = y0 z(x0 ) = z0 , Y (x0 ) = Y0 .
- (68.34) :
x
(K1 + 2K2 + 2K3 + K4 ),
6
K1 = F (xi , Yi ),

Yi+1 = Yi +

x
x
, Yi +
K1 ),
2
2
x
x
, Yi +
K2 ),
K3 = F (xi +
2
2
K4 = F (xi + x, Yi + xK3 ).
K2 = F (xi +

68.6. .
. y = y(x),
(a, b)
(68.38)

y + (x)y + (x)y = (x)


(68.39)

y(a) = ya ,
y(b) = yb .

(a, b)
x0 = a, x1 , x2 , . . . , xi, . . . , xn1 , xn = b. x = h = ba
, i-
n
xi = x0 + i h ( xi = xi1 + h).
i = (xi ), i = (xi ), i = (xi ), y0 = ya , yn = yb .
(68.38) - (68.18)
(68.20):
yi+1 yi1
yi+1 2yi + yi1
+

+ i yi = i , (i = 1, 2, 3 . . . , n 1).
i
h2
2h
(68.40) (68.38)
(h2 ),
(68.40)

506

68

(68.39), y1 , y2 , . . . , yi , . . . , yn1 . , , :
(68.41)

yi+1 (2 + i h) + yi (2h2 i 4) + yi1 (2 i h) = 2h2 i .


(68.42)

ai = 2 i h, bi = 2h2 i 4, ci = 2 + i h, fi = 2h2 i ,

(68.41) ,

(68.43)

ai yi1 + bi y1 + ci yi+1 = fi , (i = 1, 2, 3 . . . , n 1).

, (68.43) y0 , yn fi , ai , bi , ci
(68.44)

|bi | > |ai | + |ci |.

68.7. . (68.43) , .
, y (68.43).
yi yi+1
(68.45)

yi = Li yi+1 + Ki , i = 1, 2, 3, . . . , n 1.

y = y0 = ya L0 = 0, K0 = ya ,
(68.45) i = 0 a1 y0 + b1 y1 + c1 y2 = f1 ,
i = 1 (68.43),
(68.46)

(b1 + a1 L0 )y1 + c1 y2 + a1 K0 = f1 ,

y1 y2 :
(68.47)

y1 = L1 y2 + K1

f1 a1 K0
c1
, K1 =
.
b1 + a1 L0
b1 + a1 L0
, (68.47) , y1
a1 y1 +b2 y2 +c2 y3 = f2 , i = 2
(68.43). y2 y3 :
f2 a2 C1
c2
, K2 =
.
y2 = L2 y3 + K2 , L2 =
b2 + a2 L1
b2 + a2 L1
L1 =

68

507

, y2 , y3 y4 ..
yn1 = Ln1 yn + Kn1 (68.43) i,

fi ai Ki1
ci
yi+1 +
.
yi =
bi + ai Li1
bi + ai Li1
, Li Ki (68.45)

ci

Li = bi +ai Li1 ,
(68.48)

K = f1 ai Ki1 , i = 1, 2, 3, . . . , n 1,
i
bi +ai Li1

L0 = 0, K0 = ya . Li Ki .
yn = yb (a, b)
, Ln1 Kn1 yn1 (68.45)
yi1 = Li1 yi + Ki1 yn1 = Ln1 yb + Kn1 .

yn1 (68.48),
yn2 = Ln2 yn1 + Kn2 , . . . , y1 = L1 y2 + K1 ,
.. .
, . (68.48), ai , bi , ci , fi (68.42)
(i = 1, 2, 3, . . . , n 1) - . (68.45),
yn ,
yn1 , yn2 , . . . , y1 o.
,
, yn yn1
i.
: . n

n3 . ,

.

508

68

68.4.
h = 0, 1.

y y = x, 0 6 x 6 1,
y(0) = 0,

y(1) = 0,

:
- .

y0 = 0,
yi+1 (2 + h2 )yi + yi1 = xi h2 , i = 1, 2, 3, . . . , n 1,

yn = 0.
, ai = 1, bi = (2 + h2 ), ci = 1, fi = ih3 , xi = ih, L0 = 0,
K0 = 0.
Li Ki
. L9 K9 y10 = 0 (68.45)
y9 , y8 , y7 , . . . , y1 .
( ):
e
(ex ex ) x.
y= 2
e 1
i
Li
Ki
yi
y
0
0
0
0
0
3
1
0,498
0, 498 10
-0,0147
-0,0147
2
2
0,661
0, 165 10
-0,0286
-0,0287
2
3
0,741
0, 345 10
-0,0408
-0,0409
4
0,788
0, 587 102 -0,0504
-0,0506
2
5
0,818
0, 890 10
-0,0565
-0,0568
1
6
0,839
0, 125 10
-0,0581
-0,0585
1
7
0,854
0, 167 10
-0,0544
-0,0547
1
8
0,865
0, 213 10
-0,0442
-0,0443
1
9
0,873
0, 265 10
-0,0265
-0,0265
10
0
0

, .
. ,
.

68

509


6066
68.


68.1. (1 + y 2 )dx + xydy = 0.
68.2. 2x2 y = x2 + y 2 .
68.3. x2 + xy = y,
y(1) = 0.
68.4. x(2x2 + y 2 ) + y(x2 +
+ 2y 2 )y = 0.
68.5. y + 2y = 0,
y(0) = 0, y (0) = 2.
68.6. , (3; 1),
Ox Oy.
68.7. y 3y + 2y = sin x.


68.1.
: ydy
dx
.
=

,
1 + y2
x
d(1 + y 2 )
dx
. ln |1 + y 2 | = 2 ln |x| + ln |C|
=
2
2
1+y
x
2
: 1 + y = xC2
68.2.
:
2
2
2
y. y = x 2x+y2 , y = 12 xy + 12 .
xy = t y = t x+t.
1 2 1
t2 2t + 1
(t 1)2

tx+t= t + tx=
=

2
2
2
2
Z
Z
d(t 1)
1
dx
dx
dt

=
=
=

(t 1)2
2x
(t 1)2
2x
t1

510

68

1
1
C
1
t=
ln |x| ln |C|
= ln t 1 =
2
t1
x
ln Cx
1

=
: y = x 1 +

ln Cx
!
1

+1

1
y
=
+1
x
ln Cx

ln Cx

68.3.
:
. y xy = x.
dy
dx
y
=
y = Cx.
y = 0
x
y
x
y = z(x)x
= x z (x) = 1 dz(x) =
y = z (x)x + z(x) z (x)x + z(x) z(x)x
x
= dx z(x) = x + C0
y = z(x)x = (x + C0 )x.
y(1) 0 0 = (1 + C0 ) C0 = 1.
: y(1) = 0 y = (1 x)x = x x2
68.4.
: ,
.
P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy = 0, P (x, y) = 2x3 + xy 2 ,
Q
P
= 2xy =
= 2xy. dU (x, y) = P (x, y)dx +
Q(x, y) = x2 y + 2y 3 ,
y
x
(x,y)
R
+ Q(x, y)dy = 0, U (x, y) =
P (, )d + Q(, )d + C.
(x0 ,y0 )

x0 = y0 = 0, (60.12)
U (x, y) =

Zx

P (, 0)d +

Zy

Q(x, )d + C.


U (x, y) =

Zx
0

(2 2 + 0)d +

Zy
0

(x2 + 2 3 )d + C =

68

511

x 

2
4 y
x4 x2 y 2 y 4

4
2

=
+
+
+
+C
= + x
2 0
2
2 0
2
2
2
C1 ,
:
: x4 + x2 y 2 + y 4 = C0
68.5.
:
2- .
K 2 + 2K = 0, K(K + 2) = 0 K1 = 0;
K2 = 2.
: y = C1 eK1 x + C2 eK2 x = C1 + C2 e2x ; y = 2C2 e2x .


y(0) = 0 0 = C1 + C2
C2 = 1; C1 = 1
y (0) = 2 2 = 2C2
: y = 1 e2x
68.6.
: (. . 161).
, AB = BM , AO = OC; AC = 2x; M C = y;
y
C
= 2x
.
y = tg = M
AC

-3 -2 -1 0

2
1

M(x,y)
C
1 2

. 161. 68.6

y
dx
x.
y = 2x
dy
=

y
=
c
y
2x
(3; 1), 1 = c 3 c = 13
p
: y = x3 (x = 3y 2 ).
68.7.

512

68

: 2- .

K 2 3K+2 = 0, K1 = 2; K2 = 1 Y = C1 e2x +C2 ex .
,
: y = A cos x+B sin x.
y = A sin x + B cos x, y = A sin x B cos x. y,
y , y
A cos x B sin x 3(A sin x + B cos x) + 2(A cos x + B sin x) = sin x

(A 3B + 2A) cos x + (B + 3A + 2B) sin x = sin x



3
1
A 3B = 0
B= ; A=
3A + B = 1
10
10
1
y = 10
(3 cos x + sin x)
1
(3 cos x + sin x) + C1 e2x + C2 ex
: y = y + Y = 10


68.1.
e (1 + y ) = 1.
y

68.2.
(4x 3y)dx + (2y 3x)dy = 0.

68.3.
xy 2y = 2x4 .

68.4.
(y 2 3x2 )dy
2x
dx
+
= 0, y(1) = 1.
3
y
y4

68.5.
2(y ) = y (y 1), y(1) = 2, y (1) = 1.
2

68.6. ,
,
68.7.
y y = e2x cos x

513

35.5. Oxy x2 +y 2 = 4. 35.6. Oxy


x2 +y 2 = 3. 35.7. (x+1)2 +(y1)2 = 4. 35.8.
(x + 3)2 + y 2 = 1. 35.9.
x2
+y 2 = 1. 35.10. z 6 x2 +9y 2 +18y+9. 35.11. z < x2 +2x+y 2 /4y/2+5/5.
4
35.12. 2xz 1 > 0 y +2x+1 > 0. 35.13.
2
x2
(x+3)2 +y 2 = c. 35.14. 9(c18)
+ (y+1)
=1
c18
c > 18. 35.15. (x 1)2 + (y 1)2 = 4. 35.16.
2
x4 + y 2 = 1. 35.17.
x 1 = (y + 1)2 . 35.18. y 1 = x2 . 35.19.
2
2
x4 + z 2 y4 = 0.
36.8. . 36.9. Oz. 36.10.
Oy. 36.11.
Oy. 36.12. Oz. 36.13.
Ox.
37.4. (x + 1)2 +

y2
1/4

(z1)2
1/2

= 1. 37.5. (x 1)2 + (y +
2

1)2 + z 2 = 3. 37.6. x4 y2 + z 2 = 1. 37.7.


2
(y 1)2 x3 + z 2 = 1. 37.8. 2
2
x3 + z 2 y2 = 1. 37.9.
2
2
2
(x 1)2 + y 2 (z+1)
= 1. 37.10. y = x2 + z3 .
3
2
(z1)2
37.11. x = (y+1)
+
. 37.12. 4
4
x2
2
z = 9 (y + 1) . 37.13.
2
2
2
2
y = x2 z3 . 37.14. X2 + Y 2 Z3 = 1,
1 = 3, 2 = 6, 3 = 2, det A = 36, det D = 216. 37.15.
X2
Y2
Z2
+
+
= 1, 1 = 2, 2 = 5, 3 = 8, det A = 80, det D = 2560.
16
32/5
4
37.16.
det D = 42.
38.6.

z
x

X2
7

= 4x2y+3;

Y2
7/2

z
y

= 6y2x5. 38.7.

Z2
7/3

= 1, 1 = 1, 2 = 2, 3 = 3, det A = 6,
z
x

3(2x5y)2(2y3x) z
; y
(2x5y)2

514

( yx)+x
2(2x5y)+5(2y3x)
z
x
z

.
38.8.
=
= 2(yx)
; y
2 y . 38.9.
(2x5y)2
x
( yx)2
z
1
3
z
3
z
1
. 38.10. x
=
= (yx)
= (yx)
; y
2;
2.
y
3 3 (xy)2
3 3 (xy)2
x
y

z
x

1
;
y

x
y

z
y

ln 2 y12 .

= 2 ln 2
= 2


z
=
cos 2x y 4yx3/2 . 38.13. x
z
x

2
;
1(3y2x)2

z
y

1
. 38.16.
(1+(3x2y)2 )y
u
= y xz ln y x. 38.17. u
=
z
x
(yz)x ln(yz); u
= x(yz)x1 z;
y
v
.
coscos
usin v

38.20.
2z
xy

2z

x2
xy
.
(x2 +y 2 )3

2y
.
(xy 2 )2 ln 3

38.21.

cos2

z
x

38.12.


y
9x4/3

33x

3
.
1(3y2x)2
u
=
x

= cos

z
y

38.15.

=
z
x

cos2

y xz ln y z;

2 y
1

z
x

38.11.
z
y

;
2 y

y
63x y

33x

. 38.14.

3
;
1+(3x2 y)2
u
y

z
y

xzy xz1 ;

1
xz2 y ; u
= xyz 2 ; u
= xy
. 38.18. u
=
y
z
x
y
u
u
= x(yz)x1 y. 38.19. u
= cos sin
; y =
z
usin v v
x2 +y 2
x2 +y 2

2z
x2

x2
x2 +y 2

2z

y 2

= (xy21)2 ln 3 ;

2z
y 2

x2 +y 2

y2
x2 +y 2

x2 +y 2
2z
;
2
2
(xy ) ln 3
xy
4y 2

39.8. z 0, 32; dz = 0, 30. 39.9. z 0, 03; dz = 0, 03. 39.10.


(ydx + xdy). 39.11. dz = (y x + xy x ln y)dx + x2 y x1 dy.
dz = (x24xy
y 2 )2
39.12. dz = y sin2 2x (dx xy dy). 39.13. dz = yzdx + xzdy + xydz. 39.14.
y

dz = exy (ydx + xdy); d2 z = exy (y 2 dx2 + 2(1 + xy)dxdy + x2 dy 2 ). 39.15.


dz = (ey + yex )dx + (xey + ex )dy; d2 z = yex dx2 + 2(ey + ex )dxdy + xey dy 2 .
39.16. dz = ey (cos dx + sin xdy); d2 z = ey sin x(dx2 2dxdy + dy 2 ). 39.17.
t
= arcsin
+ 1 . 39.21.
1,01. 39.18. 2,63. 39.19. 0,25. 39.20. dz
dt
t ln2 t ln t 1t2
et t+2
et t+2
1
1
1
du
et
dz

(
=
).
39.22.
=
+
+
sin t.

3
2
2
dt
cos x
dt
cos t
cos2 t
3 xtg x 3 x
2 cos t t+2
2

x1
dz
z
z
= y x ln y; dx
= y x ln y + xy
.
39.24.
=
cos(tg
x
39.23. x
x)( 2tgxx +
2
x
+1
x

x
16

.
40.6.
1

3. 40.7.
).
39.25.
y
=
y
ln
3/(y
ln
3

1).
40.5.
cos2 x
2
(1 4 2)/3. 40.8. 21 2 . 40.9. 1. 40.10. 12 . 40.11. 68/13. 40.12.

509. 40.13. gradz = (3/2; 5/2); | grad z| =


gradz
=
(22;
5);
|
grad
z|
=

34/2. 40.14.
grad z = (4; 6; 12); | grad z| = 14. 40.15. grad z = (8; 2; 2);
| grad z| = 6 2. 41.7. zmin = 1. 41.8. zmin = 8. 41.9. .
41.10. zmax = 5 x = 2, y = 1; zmin = 5 x = 2, y = 1.
18
36
x = 12
, y = 13
. 41.12. z = 5, z = 11. 41.13.
41.11. zmin = 13
13
1
1
z = 2 , , z = 2 .

515

2
1
arcsin x 2 +C. 43.31. ln | cos 2s|+
2
6
+ C. 43.34. etg x + C. 43.35.
C. 43.32. 23 (sin x) + C. 43.33. (17x)
42

2
1 x2 +2x
5/2
2 6 + C. 43.38. 2e x .
(arcsin
x)
+
C.
43.36.
e
+
C.
43.37.
x
5
2
5
x 6/5
43.39. 6 (9 e ) .

43.28. 2x3 . 43.29.

1
ln | cos 5x|.
5
2/3

43.30.

3
2
43.40. x2 43 x x+x+C. 43.41. x3 32 x2 +3xln x+C. 43.42. 41 cos 2x

1
1
2
cos
6x.
43.43.
(2x
+
7)
2x2 + 7 + C. 43.44. ln |x2 + 5x 13| + C. 43.45.
3
6

(2+ln x)2
3
3x
3
+C.
43.46.
tg
2x
+C. 43.48. ln(7+
2 5+cos
2x+C.
43.47.
3
2
2
2
cos2 x)+C. 43.49. 21 5 arctg x 5 + 13 ln(x4 +5)+C. 43.50. 21 cos 2x+ 14 sin 2x+
2t

C. 43.51. x arctg x 12 ln(1 + x2 ) + C. 43.52. e13 (3 sin 3t + 2 cos 3t) + C. 44.8.


1
3
x+1
2
ln |x+3|+C. 44.9. 5(x2)
+C. 44.11.
4 +C. 44.10. ln(x +2x+5)+ 2 arctg
2
1
2(x2x+3
12 arctg(x + 2) + C. 44.12. ln |x| ln |x 1| x1
+ C. 44.13.
+4x+5)


2
1
2
+ C. 44.14. 3x + 1 ln x +x+1

arctg 2x+1
+ C.
5(x+1)
+ 14 ln x1
2 +
x+1
3(x
1)
9
(x1)
3
3
3


1

44.15. 5x+1
+ C.
+ 28887519 arctg 5x+1
+ 76(5x215
38
2(5x2 +2x+4)2
+2x+4)
19

1
1
45.12. 16
cos 8x 18 cos 4x + C. 45.13. 21 sin x + 10
sin 5x + C. 45.14.

3
2
cos3 x
2 cos5 x
cos7 x
2
1
3 + 5 7 + C. 45.15. 3 sin x( 5 sin x 11 sin3 x 17 sin5 x) + C.
1 3
1
1
45.16. 83 x sin42x + sin324x + C. 45.17. 16
( 16 x 16
sin 4x + 128
sin 8x +
5
1
1
4
1
5
3
3
sin 2x) + C. 45.18. 5 tg x + 3 tg x + 6 tg x 4 ctg x 3 ctg x + C. 45.19.
20

2
2 tg x( 13 tg x + 17 tg3 x) + C. 45.20. 41 ctg4 x + ctg2 x + ln | sin x| + C. 45.21.
1
1
tg7 x 15 tg5 x + 13 tg3 x + x + C. 45.22. 16
( 41 ctg4 x2 2 ctg2 x2 + 6 ln | tg x2 | +
7
2 tg2 x2 + 14 tg4 x2 ) + C.

(34x)(95x)
( 12 x+1)12
12
+ C. 46.10.

+ 20215 ln |51 40x +


46.9. ln
12
x
5
x
q
p
4 5(3 4x)(9 5x)| + C. 46.11. 3 x+1
+ C. 46.12. 16 ln |12x + 5 +
x2
p
2 6(6x2 + 5x
+ 11)| + C.

2
arcsin 11x4

+ C.
7 + 8x 11x2 + 1163
46.13. 11
93
11

46.14. arccos

x 2

+ C. 46.15.

46.16. 5xx2 5 + C. 46.17.


47.11. h

n1
P

f (a + ih), h =

i=0
1
(a2
2

1
x

1
15
q

ba
.
n

15+3x2
x

3+4x3
.
x

47.12.

b2 ) . 47.14. 6 . 47.15.
47.13.
2
1 + ln 49 . 47.18. 4 . 47.19. a4 . 47.20.

+ C.

3x3 + 4 = t2 .
heh
eh 1


eb ea , h =

ba
.
n

1+ 5
ln 2 .

e3 e2 . 47.16.
47.17.

1. 47.21. 2 . 47.22. 2.

516

48.10. 32
. 48.12. 32
. 48.13. 16 . 48.14. c2 . 48.15. 3 .
. 48.11. 38
3
R2
a2


1
x2 + 1 + 4a
48.16. 2 5. 48.17. x2 4a2
ln 
2ax + 4a2 x2 + 1 . 48.18. 6R.
p
p
2
48.19. a2 + 1 + 2 + ln + 1 + 2 . 48.20. gt2 . 49.12.

. 49.13. 2ab
. 49.14. . 49.15. 2 2. 49.16. .
2
49.17. 7,5. 49.18. 8 . 49.19. . 49.20. . 49.21. .
49.22. . 49.23. .49.24. .
51.5. 14/3.

51.6. ln(25/24). 51.7. 67 . 51.8. y = 2x x2 , y = 4x, x = 0, x = 2.


p

51.9. x = y 2 /2, x = 3 y 2 , y = 0, y = 1. 52.3. y = 2x x2 , y =

1 1y 2
1

R
R1
R
R
f (x, y) dx + dy
f (x, y) dx +
4x, x = 0, x = 2, dy

2
0
0
y /4
+

2R 2

1+

dy

1/2
R

dx

53.6.

R2

f (x, y) dx. 52.4. x = y 2 /2, x =

y 2 /4

R2x

R2

f (x, y) dy +

R1

dx f (x, y) dy +
0

1/2

/4
R

3/4
R

1/ R
cos

R3

p
3 y 2 , y = 0, y = 1,

dx

3x
R 2

/2
R

/4

1/R
sin

f (x, y) dy.

f ( cos , sin ) d +

1y 2

1/R
sin

f ( cos , sin ) d.

4 4 3
a.
3

53.9. (1 ea ).
0
/4

17/24.
53.10. 20/3. 54.7. 3(/4 + 1/2. 54.8. 1/6. 54.9. 32/9. 54.10.
21
49
35
4
4
4
54.11. 26. 54.12. x = 5a/6, y = 0. 54.13. 32 a , 32 a , 16 a .
53.7.

55.7.

R1

dx

1x
R
0

dy

f ( cos , sin ) d. 53.8.

R 1xy
0

f (x, y, z)dz.

8
dy f (x, y, z)dz. 55.9. 15
55.8.
dx
(31 + 12 2 27 3. 55.10.

0
R
R2 x2

5
4 2/3. 55.11. a5 (18 3 97
). 55.12. 83 R3 ( 34 ). 55.13. /10.
6
RR

RR2 x2

RH

56.8. 32/9. 56.9. z = 4/3, x = y = 0, 56.10. x = y = 0, z = 2H/3.


56.11. H 2 (R24 R14 )/4. 56.12. 41 H 2 (R24 3R14 + 2R12 R22 ), 41 H 2 (3R24
R14 2R12 R22 ).
19
57.8. 2a2 57.9. 34 57.10. 38 a2 57.11. x3 x2 y y 3 + C;
57.7. 40 30
58.8. u = xyz + C 60.9.
exy (x + y) + C; ln |x + y| + C 58.6. 24a3 58.7. 3
16

517

. 60.11. x2 +y 2 = ln Cx2 , (1 1 x2 )(1 1 y 2 ) = Cxy.

y
y2
60.12. 2e 2 = e(1 + ex ). 60.13. y = Cx x2 , y 2 = Cxe x . 60.14.
q
y = x 1 83 x.
4

. 60.17. y = cosx x . 60.18.


60.15. y = 61 x4 + xC2 . 60.16. y = (x+1) (x+1)
2
2
1
y = x2 +Cx
. 61.6. x2 + xy + y 2 = C. 61.7. 21 x2 + x sin y cos y = C. 61.8.
2
ln |x| yx = C.

61.9. y = sin x + C1 x + C2 . 61.10. y = (x + 2)ex + x 1. 61.11.


y = C1 + C2 ln |x|. 61.12. y = ex (x 1). 61.13. ln y = C1 ex + C2 ex . 61.14.
2
y = x4 12 .
62.7. . 62.8. . 62.9. Y = C1 cos 5x + C2 sin 5x. 62.10. Y = ex .
62.11. Y = ex (C1 + C2 x). 62.12. Y = C1 e3x + C2 e3x . 62.13. Y = sin 2x.
cos x
+ C1 ex + C2 e6x . 63.5.
63.3. y = x3 + C1 + C2 x2 . 63.4. y = 5 sin x+7
74
y = 41 sin 2x ln(tg 2x) + C1 cos 2x + C2 sin x.

64.5. y = 52 x2 2x+C1 +C2 ex . 64.6. y = x8 (x+ 27 )e3x +C1 ex +C2 e3x . 64.7.
y = 52 (3 sin 2x + cos 2x) + C1 ex + C2 e2x . 64.8. y = 14 ex + (C1 + C2 x + 21 x2 )ex .
4

65.8. y = x48 + x8 + cos322x . 65.9. y = x4 + x3 + C12x + C2 x + C3 . 65.10.


Y = C1 + C2 x + C3 ex + C4 xex + C5 ex . 65.11. Y = C1 cos x + C2 sin x +
C3 cos 2x + C4 sin 2x. 65.12. y = 61 sin 2x + C1 + C2 cos x + C3 sin x. 65.13.
5
4
4
3
y = x20 + x2 + 3x3 + 12x2 + C1 + C2 x + (C3 + C4 x)ex . 65.14. y = x12 x3 +
3 2
x + ex ( 32 x 15
) + C1 + C2 x + C3 ex .
2
4
66.5. y 2 x2 = c. 66.6. (x y)2 = Cy. 66.7. V = 1, 28 /. 66.8.
A = A0 ekt . 66.9. xy = 2. 66.10. y = 21 gt2 + V0 t.


x = C1 et + C2 e2t ,
x = C1 cos t + C2 sin t,
y = C3 et + C2 e2t ,
67.6.
67.7.
67.8.
y = C2 cos t C1 sin t.

t
2t
z = (C1 + C3 )e + C2 e .
(

1)
,
x = C2C(t+C
x = C1 et + C2 e10t ,
1 +1
67.9.
1
y = 2C1 et + C2 e10t .
y = Ct+C
.
+1
2

518

x = e2t (C1 + C2 t),


67.10.
y = e2t (C1 + C2 + C2 t).

x = C1 cos t + C2 sin t
67.11.
2)
2)
cos t + (C1 +C
sin t.
y = (C1 C
2
2

519

1. . . . - . : , 1984.
2. . ., . ., . .
. - . : , 1987.
3. . . . . : , 1985.
4. . . . - . : , 1988.
5. . ., . .
. - . : , 1980; 1984; 1988.
6. . ., . .
. - . : , 1980; 1988.
7. . ., . . : . . : , 1982.
8. .. . - .
: , 1985.
9. . ., . ., . .
: 2 . - . : . ., 1986. - . 1, 2.
10. . ., . . . - . : ,
1981.
11. . ., . . . - . : , 1983.
12. . ., . . . - .
: , 1980. - . 1; 1982. - . 2.
13. .
. .. - . : , 1996.
14. .. . -
, 1971.
15. . . . - . :
, 1986.
16. . . . - . : . .,
1981. - . 1, 2.
17. . . . - . : . .,
1988. - . 1 - 3.
18. . . . - . :
, 1989.

520

19. . ., . ., . ., . .
: . . . - . : , 1984.
20. . ., . ., . ., . .
: . . - . :
, 1986.
21. . . /
/. - . : . ., 1983.
22. . .., .1, 8-
., , 2007.
23. . ., . . . - . :
. ., 1986.
24. . . . - . :
, 1987.
25. . . . - . : ,
1983. - .1, 2.
26. . . . - . : . ., 1985.
27. . ., . ., . .
: . - . : . ., 1972.

, 345
, 345
, 329, 345
, 267
, 302
, 303

, 199
, 90
, 386, 410
, 123
, 183
, 273
, 301

, 244
, 186
, 28
, 13
, 22
, 73
() , 411

, 256
, 390
, 386
, 222
, 161
,
125
, 127
, 184
, 136
, 148
, 407
, 348

, 242
, 25
, 3
, 347
, 383

, 408

, 453

, 383
, 60
,
63
,
61

, 77
, 15
521

522
,
285
, 410
, 203
, 330
, 425
, 425

n- , 457
, 396
n- , 459
, 423

, 429
, 88
, 285
, 436
, 487
, 486
, 95
, 506
-, 502
, 499
, 285
, 317
, 92
, 410
, 88
, 422, 456
, 118
, 47
, 214
, 335
, 77


, 386
, 386
, 280
, 199

, 198
, 22
, 422, 456
, 389
, 425
, 174
, 389
, 13
, 26

, 32
, 116
, 283
, 205
, 20
, 15
, 33
, 55
, 56
, 6
, 351
, 347
, 43
2 ,
36
, 220

, 180
, 71

, 83
, 349
, 245
,
482
, 71
, 350


, 316
, 285


, 440
, 5
, 122
, 244
, 454
, 334
, 388, 424
-, 348
, 351
, 295
, 149
,
405
, 398
, 392
, 93
, 186
, 229
-, 182
, 231
, 425
, 429
, 4
, 11
, 349
, 490
1- , 47
,
49
, 387
, 20
, 12

523

524

VII.

3
35.

3
35.

17
36.
20
36. 29
37.

32
37.

40
38. ,

43
38.
52
39.

54
39.
66
40.
70
40.

79
41.
82
41.

98
42.
103
42.
112
VIII. 117
43.
117
43.

130
44.
137
44.

144
45. 149
45.

157

46.
46.

47.
47.
48.
48.

49.
49.
50.

50.
IX. .

51.
51.

52.
52.
.

53.
53.

54.
54.

55.
55.

56.
56.

57.

57.

58.

525

162
170
175
188
194
208
215
222
228
237

243
243
252
256
263
268
277
282
290
297
307
314
324
329
339
344

526

58.

59.
59.

354
360
376

X.
385
60. .
. .
385
60.


399
61.

405
61.


416
62.

422
62.


432
63.

434
63.

440
64.

442
64.

449
65. 453
65.


460
66.
464
66.

474
67.
480
67.

487
68.

493

68.

527

509
513
519
521
524