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1. ........................................................................................................................................

2
1.1. . ..................................................................................................................2
1.2. ........................................................................................................3
1.3. 2- 3- . n- ......................................5
1.4. ..................................................................................................................8
1.5. . .
. -.............................................................................................................10
1.6. ..................................18
2.1. . .
, , , .
.................................................................................................................................................................................. 23
2.2. . .
.........................................................................................................................................................28

3. ......................................................................................................................32
3.1. . ....................................32
3.2. . ................................33
3.3. . .
.........................................................................................37
3.4. . .
. . ........41

4. .......................................................................................................44
4.1. . . .
. ................................44
4.2 . . .
. . ............................................59
4.3. , ....63
4.4. , . .
. . - .................................64
4.5. .
...................................................................................................................70
4.6. .......................................................................................74

5. ..............................................................................................77
5.1. , .
.....................................................................................77
5.2. . .
. . ...................................77
5.3. . .
. .............................80
5.4. : , , , .
................................................................................................................................................................ 86
5.5. , .
. , . ..........................................................................89

6. ......................................................................................................................91

6.1. . .
.............................................................................................................................................................. 91
6.2. .
, ..............................................................................................96
6.3. . .
. ....................................................104
6.4. .....................................................110
6.5. ........................................................117

7. ........................................................................................................................119
7.1. , ,
. . -............................................................119
7.2. .
...........................................135
7.3. . .
. ................................................................141



,
,
. ,

.
,
, -
, , ,
, , . .;
;

.
,
,
- , ,
.. ,
, c ;

.
, , -
, , , , . ,

; ,

..
, .
.
.
,
,
.
1
1. .
1.1. . .
mn mn ,
, m n .

a 11 a 12 ... a 1 n

a 21 a 22 ... a 2 n

A=
... ... ... ...

a m 1 a m 2 ... a m n

(1.1)

A = (ai j) (i = 1,m ; j = 1, n ). ai j, ,
; , - .
A = (ai j) B = (bi j) ,
, , A = B, ai j = bi j.
, , -. - - .
, , . mn,
, 0.
.
, m = n, n.

, ,
:
a11 0 ... 0

0 a 22 ... 0
... ... ... ... .

0 0 ... a n n
ai
:

1,
1

0
E =
...

0 ... 0

1 ... 0
.
... ...

0 ... 1

, , ( )
, .
1.2. .
,
. .
(4.1). .
a 11 a 21 ... a m 1

a 12 a 22 ... a m 2

AT =

... ... ... ...

a 1 n a 2 n ... a m n

. ,
- - .
,
: A = ( ai j).
= (ai j) B = (bi j) C = (ci j)
, ci j = ai j + bi j.
,
.
= (ai j) B = (bj k), i = 1,n , j= 1,m , k=1, p ,
, = (c i k),
:
m

c i k = ai 1 b1 k + ai 2 b2 k +... + ai m bm k = ai s bs k.
s=1

(1.2)

, - : i-
k- i-
k- .
1 2 3

1 2 1
1.1. =
= 2 0 1 .
3 1 0

3 5 4

. : 23, 33, =

11 = 11 +22 + 13 = 8,
21 = 31 + 12 + 03 = 5,
12 = 12 + 20 + 15 = 7,
22 =32 + 10 + 05 = 6,
13 = 13 + 21 + 14 = 9,
23 = 33 + 11 + 04 = 10.
8 7 9
AB =
, BA .
5 6 10
1.2. ,
1 2 1, 2 3,
1 50 . ., 2 - 70, 3 - 130 . .
.

1
20
15

1
2

2
35
27

3
10
8

. , ,
- , , ..,

20 35 10
, = (50, 70, 130).
15 27 8

:
50
20
35
10
20 50 35 70 10 130
4750

T =

.
70
15 50 27 70 8 130
3680
15 27 8

130
, 4750 . ., - 3680 ..
1.3. , .
X = (10, 15, 23).
1, 2, 3, 4. ( ) .
= (40, 35, 24, 16) , P = (5, 3, 2, 2) -
.

1
5
3
0


2
3
1
0
2
0
0
4

4
3
2
3

1. ?
2. , .
3. , .
4. .
. , , . .,
5 1 0 3

A = 3 2 0 2 ,

0 0 4 3
, , X
:

(10,15,

23)

5 1 0 3

3 2 0 2

0 0 4 3

10 5 15 3, 10 1+ 15 2, 23 4, 10 3 + 15 2 + 23 3

= (95, 40, 92, 129).


, , ,
CT:
5 1 0 3

CT = 3 2 0 2

0 0 4 3

40
283
5 40 1 35 0 24 3 16
35

= 3 40 2 35 0 24 2 16 222 .

24

40

35

24

16
144

16

, , :
283

X C T = (10,15,23) 222 =10 283 15 222 23 144 9472 .

144
, , . . 9472 .
.,
5

3
X P T = (95, 40, 92, 129) 95 5 40 3 92 2 129 2 1037 .
2

2
, X C T + X P T = 9472 + 1037 = 10509 (. ).
1.3. 2- 3- . n- .
1, 2,..., n
. , ,
n , 12...n = n!. , 1, 2, 3 3!=6
: 123, 132, 312, 321, 231, 213. , i j
(), i>j, i j,
.
( ), ()
. , ,
n , n- .
, ,
, , ,
3 1 2 4
. ,

4 2 1 3
, 3 4, 1 2, 2 1, 4 3.
( ), ().
1 2 ... n
,..
n-
q 1 q 2 ... q n
.
n

a 11 a 12 ... a 1 n

a 21 a 22 ... a 2 n
... ... ... ... .

a n 1 a n 2 ... a n n

(1.3)

n ,
, .. :
a 1 q1 a 2 q 2 ... a n q n ,

(1.4)

q1,
q2,...,
qn

1, 2,..., n. n , ..
n!. (4.4) (- 1)q, q -
.
n - , (4.3),
a 11 a 12 ... a 1 n
n! (4.4). A =

a 21 a 22 ... a 2 n
... ... ... ...
a n 1 a n 2 ... a n n

det

a 11 a 12 ... a 1 n
A=

a 21 a 22 ... a 2 n

(, , ).
... ... ... ...
a n 1 a n 2 ... a n n

1. .
2. , .
3. , .
4. , , .
5. k,
k.
6. , , .
7. i- a i j = bj
+ cj (j= 1, n ), , , i-, -
, , i- b j,
- cj.
8. ,
, .
. , .
Mi j ai j d n- n-1,
d , .
ai j d Mi j,
(-1) i + j. ai j Ai j. , Ai j = (1) i + j Mi j.
, ,
n , .
( ).
( )
. , d i-
d = ai 1 Ai 1 + ai 2 Ai 2 +... + ai n Ai n (i = 1,n )
j-

d = a1 j A1 j + a2 j A2 j +... + an j An j

(j = 1,n ).

, ( ), , ,
, .
1 2 3
1.4. 4 5 6 , , .
7 8 9
. ,

1
3
7

2
3
8

3
3 ,
9

1 2
. , 3 3
6 6

3
3,
6

. .
1
-2
3
5 - 1 ,
1.5. D = 3
4
1
2
.
. :
D = a12A12 + a22A22+a32A32=
-1
3
3
1 2 3
2 2 1
3 2 1
5 1
1 1
20 .
= 2 1
4 2
4 2
3 -1
1.6.
a 11 0
0 ... 0
a 21

a 22

0 ... 0

a 32 a 33 ... 0 ,
A = a 31
----------------an1
a n 2 a n 3 ... a n n

.
. :

A = a11 A11 = a 11

a 22

0 ... 0

a 32

a 33 ... 0

----------a n 2 a n 3 ...a n n

, , , :
a 33 0 ... 0
A = a 11 a 22

a 43

a 44 ... 0

.
----------a n 3 a n 4 ... a n n
. n A = 11 22... ann.

1 2 3 ... n
-1 0 3 ... n
1.7. -1 - 2 0 ... n .
--------------1 - 2 - 3 ... 0
. , , ,
, , ,
1 2
3 ... n
0
2
6 ... 2n
0
3 ... 2n , .
. , : 0
--------------0
0
0 ... n
, ,
, .. n!. , ,
.
1.4.

A=

a 11 a 12 ... a 1 n

a 21 a 22 ... a 2 n
... ... ... ...

a n 1 a n 2 ... a n n

=det A.
, ,
, , , = 0.
,
= = , - , .
. , , ,
.
, , 1, = 1.

A 11 A 21 ... A n 1

A 12 A 22 ... A n 2
1
= 1/
,
... ... ... ...

A 1 n A 2 n ... A n n

(4.5)

i j - a i j.
(4.5) ,

(). ( )
.
, .
, . ,

. ,
.

1.8. = 2

1
.
2
= det = 2
1
:

-2
1

1 - 2 .

2
2

-2
1
1 - 2 = 27 0, ,
2
2

A 11 A 21 A 31

= 1/ A 12 A 22 A 32 , i j (i,j=1,2,3) - i

A 13 A 23 A 33

1+1
. : A 11 ( 1)

1 -2
2 4 6,
2 2

A 12 ( 1) 1+2

2
1

-2
(4 2) 6,
2

A 13 ( 1) 1+3

2
1

1
4 1 3,
2

A 21 ( 1) 2+1

2
2

A 22 ( 1) 2+2

2
1

1
4 1 3,
2

A 23 ( 1) 2+3

2
1

A 31 ( 1) 3+1

2 1
4 1 3,
1 -2

A 32 ( 1) 3+2

2 1
( 4 2) 6,
2 -2

A 33 ( 1)

2
2

7
2

5
7

3+3

6
-2

1
-6
2 4 6, 1 =
27
1
3

6
3
-6

1
( 4 2) 6,
2
-2
( 4 2) 6,
2

3
2
2

1
6 -2 1
9

6
1 -2

2 .

1.9. : =
1 -1

2
4 .

3
2
. :
1 -1 1 0 0

2 4 0 1 0 .

3 2 0 0 1

.
2 1 -1 1 0 0 1 2 -1 0 1 0

: 5 2 4 0 1 0 2 5 4 1 0 0 .
7 3 2 0 0 1 3 7 2 0 0 1

, - , -2:
1 0 0 0 1 0

2 1 6 1 - 2 1 . , -
3 1 5 0 0 1

1 0 0 - 2 1 - 6

0 1 0 5 - 2 13 .
1 1 -1 0 0 1

1 0 0 - 8 - 5 - 6
1 0 0

0 1 0 18 11 13 . -1: 0 1 0
0 0 -1 1 1 1
0 0 -1


6
8 - 5

1
= 18 11 - 13 .

1 - 1
1

-8 -5 6

18 11 - 13 .
1 1 - 1
. ,

1.5. . .
. -.
(1.1). k
k , , ,
k- . k-
. , 1
m n.
, . ,
, . r, ,
r, , r,
. r(A). ,
0 r(A) min (m, n).
,
.
. D k-
, , (k+1)- ,
D, .. . , k.
:
1) ( ),
2) ( ) ,
3) ( ) ( ),
.
,
.
, , , .
, : A B.

),

,
1 0 0 0 0

, 0 1 0 0 0 .

0 0 0 0 0

. .

1 2

4
1.10. 2

-1 - 2

-1
3
6

- 2

0 .

. 1- , .. . , ,
() 1 = 1, .
1 -1
, M 2 =
, .
2
3

3-
,

2.

(
1
2 -1
1 -1 - 2
4
3 0, 2 3 0 0.
). : 2
-1 - 2
6
-1 6 6
, .
.
2 3 5 3 2

1.11. = 3 4 3 - 1 - 3

5 6 -1 3 -5
.
1 - 2 2 1

3 5 - 3 - 2

6 -1 3 -5
, 2 5:
1 1 - 2 2 1

; ; = 0 1 9 - 7 0

0 0 0 0 0

. : 2

5
.
1 1

0 1

0 1


- 2 2 1

9 -7 0

9 -7 0
, ,
. , 2, , r(A)=2.
. ,
, , , ,
. , ,
, , , ,
0 0
1 0 0

0 0 .
: 0 1 0

0 0
0 0 0

:
a11 x1 + a12 x2 +... + a1n xn = b1,
a21 x1 + a22 x2 +... + a2n xn = b2,
... ... ... ...
am1 x1 + am1 x2 +... + amn xn = bm.

(5.1)

i j bi (i = 1,m ; j = 1, n ) - , xj - .
, (5.1) :
AX = B,

(5.2)

A = (i j) - , (5.1),

,
X
=
(x1,
x2,...,
xn)T,
B = (b1, b2,..., bm)T - -, x j
bi.
n (c1, c2,..., cn)
(5.1), x 1, x2,..., xn
; ,
C= (c1, c2,..., cn)T , AC B.
(5.1) , ,
. , , .

a 11 a 12 ... a 1 n b 1

a 21 a 22 ... a 2 n b 2
A=
,
... ... ... ...

a m 1 a m 2 ... a m n b m
A ,
.
(5.1) .
- . ,

A
A
,
..
r(A) = r( A) = r.
(5.1) :
1) M = ( );
2) M , .. (
);
3) M ( ).
(5.1) .

r(A) = n. - (mn); m>n, m-n


. 0<r<n, .
,
, - :
a11 x1 + a12 x2 +... + a1n xn = b1,
a21 x1 + a22 x2 +... + a2n xn = b2,
... ... ... ... ... ...
an1 x1 + an1 x2 +... + ann xn = bn.

(5.3)

(5.3) : 1) ,

;
2)

;
3) .
1.12. , :
5x1 - x2 + 2x3 + x4 = 7,
2x1 + x2 + 4x3 - 2x4 = 1,
x1 - 3x2 - 6x3 + 5x4 = 0.
. :

A= 2

-1
1
-3

2 1
4 -2
-6
5

1 .

. , , ,
5 -1

= 7 0; :
2
1
5 -1 2
5 -1 2
M3 = 2 1 4 = 0, M3 = 2 1 4 = 0.
1 -3 -6
1 -3 -6
, 2, .. r(A)=2.
A
5 -1
2 1
1 -3

7 5 14
1 = 2 7
0 1
0

7
1 = -35 0,
0

, r( A) = 3. r(A) r( A), .

,
, .
,
( , ) , .

, ,
.
.
1.13. :
x + y - 3z = 2,
3x - 2y + z = - 1,
2x + y - 2z = 0.
.
1 1 -3 2

3 - 2 1 - 1

2 1 - 2 0
:
) , 3 2:
1 1 -3 2
1 1 - 3 2

3 - 2 1 - 1 ~ 0 - 5 10 - 7 ;

2 1 - 2 0
2 1 4 - 4
) (-5) :
1 1 -3 2

0 - 5 10 - 7 .

0 0 - 10 13

:
x + y - 3z = 2,
-5y + 10z = -7,
- 10z = 13.
z = -1,3. ,
y
=
-1,2.

x = - 0,7.

,
(5.3), ..
= det (ai j)
n i (i= 1,n ), i-
.
:
x i = i (i = 1,n ).

(5.4)

(5.4) ,
(5.3): ,
, :
x i = i / .
i = 0 (i= 1,n ),
. = 0,
, .
1.14. :
x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 = 5,
x1 + 2x2 - x3 + 4x4 = -2,
2x1 - 3x2 - x3 - 5x4 = -2,
3x1 + x2 +2x3 + 11 x4 = 0.
.
1 1
1
1
1
2 -1
4
=
= -142 0,
2 - 3 -1 -5
3
1 2 11
, . i (i= 1,4 ),
, x i,
:
5
1 1
1
1 5
1
1
-2
2 -1
4
1 - 2 -1
4
1=
= - 142,
2=
= - 284,
-2 - 3 - 1 - 5
2 - 2 -1 -5
0
1 2 11
3
0 2 11

1 1
5
1
1 1
1
5
1
2 -2
4
1
2 -1 - 2
3=
= - 426, 4 =
= 142.
2 -3 -2 -5
2 - 3 -1 - 2
3
1 0 11
3
1 2
0
x1 = 1/ = 1, x2 = 2/ = 2, x3 = 3/ = 3, x4 = 4/ = -1, - =(1,
2, 3, -1)T.

,
..
det A 0, , (5.3) C = A 1B.
, .
X=C, C=A1B ,
.
1.15.
x1 - x2 + x3 = 6,
2x1 + x2 + x3 = 3,
x1 + x2 +2x3 = 5.
.
1 -1

A= 2 1

1 1

1 , X = (x1, x2, x3)T, B = (6, 3, 5) T.

AX=B. = det
1 - 1 1

2 1 1 =5 0, A :

1 1 2
A 11 A 21 A 31

= 1/ A 12 A 22 A 32 .

A 13 A 23 A 33
1

X - B A: X = A 1B.

1 3 - 2

1
1
1
A1 = -3
5

1 - 2 3
, ,
x1
1 3 - 2

1
1
1
x 2 = 5 -3

1 - 2 3
x3

6

3 .

5

, :
x1 = 1/5(16+33-25) = 1/5 (6+9-10) = 1,
x2 = 1/5 (-36 +13 - 15) = 1/5 (- 18 + 3 + 5) = -2,

x3 = 1/5 (16 - 23 + 35) = 1/5 (6 -6 + 15) = 3.


, = (1, -2, 3)T.

(5.1) , . . A A ,

a)
r
=
n;
) r < n:
) r = n, n n ,
. ,
;
) r < n, .
x r+1, x r+2,..., xn, ,
; :
a11 x1 + a12 x2 +... + a1r xr = b1 - a1,r+1 xr+1 -... - a1nxn,
a21 x1 + a22 x2 +... + a2r xr = b2 - a2,r+1 xr+1 -... - a2nxn,
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
ar1 x1 + ar2 x2 +... + arr xr = br - ar,r+1 xr+1 -... - arnxn.
x1, x2,..., xr, (r- )
. ,
x 1, x2,..., xr. , r < n
.
(5.1) , bi = 0, . . :
a 11 x1 + a12 x2 +... + a1n xn = 0,
a21 x1 + a22 x2 +... + a2n xn = 0,
(5.5)
... ... ... ... ... ...
am1 x1 + am1 x2 +... + amn xn = 0.
- , ,
. , , - (5.5)
, , x1 = x2 =... = xn = 0.
(5.5) r.
r = n, (5.5); r < n
, , ,
.
- X = (x1, x2,..., xn)T
( A), ,

AX = X.
( A),
X. A n.
.
, A ,
A .
A AX = X (A E)X = 0, E- n- :
(a11 -)x1 + a12x2 +... + a1nxn =0,
a21x1 + (a22 -)x2 +... + a2nxn = 0,
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
an1x1 + an2x2 +... + (ann-)xn = 0.

(5.6)

,
, , ..
a1 1
A- E =

a2 1

a1 2

...

a1 n

a 2 2 ...

a2 n

.... ... ... ... ... ... ...


an1
an2
... a n n

0.

n- ,
A, A - E
A, - ,
, A.
A (A - E)X = 0
(5.6)
.
1.16. , .
x1 + x2 - 2x3 - x4 + x5 =1,
3x1 - x2 + x3 + 4x4 + 3x5 =4,
x1 + 5x2 - 9x3 - 8x4 + x5 =0.
. A A ,
:
1 1 - 2 - 1 1 1
1 1 - 2 - 1 1 1
1 1 - 2 - 1 1 1

3 - 1 1 4 3 4 0 - 4 7 7 0 1 0 - 4 7 7 0 1 .

1 5 - 9 - 8 1 0
0 4 - 7 - 7 0 - 1
0 0 0 0 0 0
, r(A) = r( A) = 2. ,
:
x1 + x2 - 2x3 - x4 + x5 = 1,
- 4x2 + 7x3 + 7x4
= 1.
x1 x2 ,
:
x1 + x2 = 2x3 + x4 - x5 + 1,
- 4x2 = - 7x3 - 7x4 + 1,
x2 = 7/4 x3 + 7/4 x4 -1/4, x1 = 1/4 x3 -3/4 x4 - x5 + 5/4 - ,
. x3, x4, x5
, . , x3 = x4 = x5 = 0 x1= 5/4, x2 = - 1/4.
C(5/4, - 1/4, 0, 0, 0) .
1.17.
.
2x1 - x2 + x3 + x4 = 1,
x1 + 2x2 - x3 + 4x4 = 2,
x1 + 7x2 - 4x3 + 11x4 = a.

. = 1

1
1 2 -1 4

5 -3 7
0

0 -5 3 -7

a - 2

-3

~ 0

2 -1
5 -3
0 0

2 . ~

-1 1 1
2 -1 4
7 - 4 11

a - 2 , ,

a - 5

4
7
0

:
x1 + 2x2 - x3 + 4x4 = 2,
5x2 - 3x3 + 7x4 = a-2,
0 = a-5.
, a=5. :
x2 = 3/5 + 3/5x3 - 7/5x4, x1 = 4/5 - 1/5x3 - 6/5x4.

1.6.
1.18. 360 ,
300 675 . .
, , :

1
3
1
4


2
2
6
1

3
1
2
5

.
. x, y, z ,
, . x 3x
, - 2y, - z.

3x +2y +z 360, ..
3x +2y + z =360.

x + 6y +2z = 300
4x + y + 5z = 675,
x, y, z ,
.
, . .

.

1 6

3 2

4 1
1 6

0 16

2
0

2 300
1 6 2 300
1 6 2 300

1
360 0 - 16 - 5 - 540 0 16 5 540

5
675
15
0 -7 2
0 - 14 4 30
2 300
1 6 2 300
1 6 2 300

5 540 0
2 9 570 0
2 9 570 .

9 570
0 - 67 - 4020
0 16 5 540
0

, :
x + 6y +2z = 300,
2y +9z = 570,
-67z = - 4020.
z = 60; z ,

y
=
15
,
,

x = 90. , C (90, 15, 60) .


1.19. 6000 , 4000 3000 .

, . 8000 ,
. ,
. 1 4,30, 5,25 2,20
. .
,
58850 . .
. , ,
: , .
x i j ( ) i- (i= 1,2,3), j-
(j = 1, 2). , .

x 11 + x 12 = 6000,

(5.7)

x 11, x 12 - , .
:
x2 1 + x22 = 4000.

(5.8)

, , x 31 =
0,
x 32 =3000.

(5.9)

:
x 11 + x 21 = 8000.

(5.10)

, , 58850 . ., :
4,3x 11 + 7,8 x 12 + 5,25 x 21 + 6,4x 22 + 3,25x 32 = 58850.

(5.11)

,
(5.7) - (5.11). (5.9) (5.11)
:
4,3x 11 + 7,8x 12 +5,25x 21 +6,4x 22 = 49100,
x
:

11,

x 12, x 21, x 22,

1
1

0
0
A=
1
0

4,3 7,8

0
1
1
5,25

0
1
0
6,4

6000

4000
.
8000

49100

:
1
0
0
1

1
0
1
0
A
0
0
1
1

4,3 7,8 5,25 6,4


1 1

0 -1

0 0

0 0

0
1
1
8,75

6000
0
1 1

8000
1
0 -1

0 0
4000
1

49100
0 3,5 5,25

0
6000
1 1

0 2000
0 -1

0
1
4000
0

6,4 30300
0
0

0
6000

0
2000

1
4000

6,4 23300

0
0
1
0
1
1
0 - 2,35

6000

2000
.
4000

- 4700

:
x 11 + x 12
= 6000,
- x 12 + x 21
= 2000,
x 21 + x 22 = 4000,
-2,35 x 22 = - 4700,
x 22 = 2000, x 21 = 2000, x 12 = 0, x 11 = 6000.
1.20.
. ,
.
94 .
574 328 .

I
2
6


II
III
1
7
12
2

IV
4
3

. x1, x2, x3, x4 ,


, .
:
x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 = 94,
2x1 + x2 + 7x3 + 4x4 = 574,
6x1 +12x2 +2x3 + 3x4 = 328.
:
1

1
1
12

1
7
2

1 94
1
1 94
1
1 1
1 1

4 574 0 - 1
5
2 386 0 - 1
5

3 328
6 - 4 - 3 - 236
0 26
0
0

1
94

2 386 .

9 2080

: r () = r () = 3, , ,
x4 - . :

x1 + x2 + x3 = 94 - x4,
- x2 + 5x3 = 386 - 2x4,
26x3 = 2080- 9x4.
x3 = 80 - 9/26 x4, x3 ,
: x2 = 14 + 7/26x4 , , : x1 = - 12/13 x4.
, . . .
x1 x4 ,
x1 = - 12/13 x4 : x1 = x4 = 0. (0, 14, 80, 0)
.
1.21. .
, . (
, ), :
n

a i jx j yi xi
j=1

(i = 1, n) ,

(5.12)

, ,
AX + Y = X,

(5.13)

= (a i j) - , - , Y -
.
(5.13)
(E - A) X = Y,

(5.14)

E - n- , (5.14)

X = (E - A) 1 Y.

(5.15)

(E - A) 1 - . b i j (E - A) 1
i,
j.
x i y j
:
n

xi bi jy j
j=1

1.22. - X = AX +Y.
Y X,

A=

0,1

0,7

0
0,6
100

0,7 0,2 ; X = 200

0,1 0,1
150

. : Y = (E - A) X, E - .
0 - 0,6
0,9

0,3 - 0,2 ,
E - A= 0

-0,7 - 0,1 0,9


,

100
0,9 100 0 0,6 150
0


200 0 + 0,3 200 - 0,2 150 30 .


150
-0,7 100 - 0,1 200 + 0,9 150
45

0 - 0,6
0,9

0,3 - 0,2
Y= 0

-0,7 - 0,1 0,9

1.23. -. ,
A. X
Y,
0,125 0,125
300
; Y=
.
1,125 0,125
400

A=

. A
. :
0,125 -
1,125

0,125
0,
0,125 -

(0,125 -)2 - 0,140625 = 0 0,125 - = 0,375.


, 1 = 0,5; 2 = - 0,25. , ,
A . X

1
X = (E - A) Y.
0,875 - 0,125
.
-1,125 0,875

E - A=
-1
B = E-A, B =

1 A 11 A 21
1 0,875 0,125

.
det B A 12 A 22
5,4 1,125 0,875

,
57,9
1 0,875 0,125 300
1 0,875 300 0,125 400
1 312,5
X=


.
5,4 1,125 0,875 400
5,4 1125
,
300 0,125 400
5,4 687,5
127,3

2.
2.1. . .
, , ,
.
:
1) , .
(, , , , , .
.).
2) , , ,
. (, ,
. .).
,

AB a (. 3.1).

A
. 2.1

( ) AB ,

|
AB
|
|
a
|
, .

AB a . a ,
, , :

a .

, , 0
. .

a b , ,
( a || b ).
( a b ), : 1) ; 2) ;
3) .
,
, .
.
,
.
.

b


a ,

|
b
|

a
|

||
a
| , a , 0 , a ,

0
a

. ,
b a
. ,

b a
.

(2.1)

a a (1) , ..

a (1) a . a 0 , a

1
ao a
|a| .
(2.2)

a b a b , a

b
b

,
a (. 3.2, ) (
). , a b ,
a b (. 3.2, ) ( ).

OA
b
AB ,,
:
,

l KL OAB...KL , OL ,

(. 3.2, ) ( ).

L
0
, , ..
, .

ab

ab
ab
b
)

a b ... l

. 2.2.
a b a b , a

(b ) . , a b a , a b
( . 2.2, ).

( a, b, c , R ) :
1. a b b a ;

2. (a b) c a (b c ) ;

4. a ( a ) 0 ;

5. ( a ) (

)a ;

3. a 0 a ;
6. 1 a = a ;

7. ( ) a a a ;
8. ( a b ) = a + b .
, 1 - 8,
3

, R .
, . (
, ) ,
(), c ().
, 0 .

AB

a
a

AB
l
l

l (

)
A 1 B 1 , AB
, , A 1 B 1 l,
, (. 3.3, , ).

a
a l
l
. 3.3 ,

a a l, ..

l a | a | cos .
(2.3)

a)

. 2.3.

a b l :
1. l ( a b ) l a l b ;
2. l ( a ) l a .
a b - l. (3.3),

l a l b ,
.. .

( )
(. 3.4), 0 , 0 -
0z - .
C

OM ,
- ,
.

x
. 2.4

x OM x ,

y OM y

z OM z , ,
0, 0, 0z

y
D

k
0 j
i

M ( x, y , z )

, , .
,
,
( )

( | i | | j | | k | 1) .

i , j, k

0,

0,

0z

1. .

a - R , , , z -

. , a
OM a , , z (. 2.4).
,

a OD DM OA OB OC .

OB

y
j , OC zk .
OA

x
i
,
OM :

a xi y j z k.

(2.4)
(3.4) , , , z .

, (3.4)

a ( x; y; z ) .

OM a ( x; y; z )

(2.5)

x i , y j , z k (.3.4),

|a| x 2 y 2 z 2 .

(2.6)
(3.3)

(3.6) cos , cos , cos , a



x a | a | cos ,

y y a | a | cos ,

z z a | a | cos .

(2.7)

(2.6) (2.7)

x
cos
|a|

x
2

x y z

y
cos
|a|

cos z
|a|

y
x2 y2z2
z
2

x y z

,
,
,

(2.8)
, (3.8)
,

cos 2 cos 2 cos 2 1 .


(2.9)
o
o
a a - , .. | a | 1 , (3.8)


a o (cos ; cos ; cos ) ,

(2.10)
.. .
,

a
, .. ( x 1 ; y 1 ; z 1 )

b ( x 2 ; y 2 ; z 2 ) ,
a b ( x 1 x 2 ; y 1 y 2 ; z 1 z 2 ),

a ( x 1 ; y 1 ; z 1 ).

(2.11)

a b . (3.1)

x2 y2 z2

x1 y1
z1 ,

x 2 x 1 , y 2 y 1 , z 2 z 1
(2.12)
.. a b ,
. ,
(3.12) , ,
,
.

r1

r
0

A ( x 1; y 1; z 1 )

B (x 2; y 2; z 2 ) ,
-

r 1 ( x 1; y 1; z 1 ) r 2 ( x 2 ; y 2 ; z 2 ) (. 3.5).

AB r 2 r 1 ( x 2 x 1 ; y 2 y 1 ; z 2 z 1 ), -


r2

AB ,
.
, ,

:

. 2.5
| AB | ( x 2 x 1 ) 2 ( y 2 y 1 ) 2 ( z 2 z 1 ) 2 .
(2.13)
0
, | AC |

| CB | . , , z ,

A ( x 1; y 1; z 1 ) B ( x 2 ; y 2 ; z 2 ) . . 3.5 ,
( AC CB ) (( x x 1; y y 1 ; z z 1 ) ( x 2 x; y 2 y; z 2 z )).
, ,

x1 x 2
,
1
y y2
y 1
,
1
z z2
z 1
.
1

( x x 1 ) ( x 2 x),

( y y 1 ) ( y 2 y ),

( z z ) ( z z ).
1
2

(2.14)
1 (3.14)

x x2
x 1
,
2

y1 y 2
,
2

z1 z 2
.
2

(2.15)

2.2. . .
.
a b ( a b ) ,

(. 3.6). ,

ab

b a

. 2.6

a b | a || b | cos .

(2.16)

|
b
|
cos

, a ( a b ), | a | cos

ba
a
b


(
),
(3.16) ,

a b | a | a b | b | b a

(2.17)
,
. (3.17)
:

a b
a b ,
|a|

, | a | 1 ,
a b
ab
ab.
1

ab
b a
.
|b|

(2.18)

(2.19)
.
.
1. :

a b ba .
2. :

( a) ( b) ( )(a b) .
3. :

( a b )c a c bc.

0
b

0
(
,
, a b ). ,
() a b
4. ( a b 0)

, ..

(a b )

( a b 0) .

.
:



a a | a || a | cos 0 | a || a || a | 2 .

a 2 | a | 2 ,

(2.20)
.. .
.


2 2 2
i , j , k , , .. i j k 1 . ,

i
, j j k i k 0 .

(
x
;
y
;
z
)
b
( x 2 ; y 2 ; z 2 ) .
1
1 1

a b ( x 1i y 1 j z 1k ) ( x 2 i y 2 j z 2 k ) x 1 x 2 y 1 y 2 z 1 z 2 , (2.21)
..
.
, (2.21) a b ,

a a a 2 | a | 2 x 12 y 12 z 12 .


| a | a a x 12 y 12 z 12 .

(2.22)
, ,

a b

( a b 0)

( x 1 x 2 y 1 y 2 z 1 z 2 0 ) . (2.23)

(3.21)
(3.22), :

cos

x 1x 2 y 1 y 2 z 1z 2

x 12 y 12 z 12 x 22 y 22 z 22

.
(2.24)

a ( x 1 ; y 1 ; z 1 ) l,

i , j , k , , . l a . l
o
e
(cos ; cos ; cos ) . , (2.19)


l a a e o x 1 cos y 1 cos z 1 cos .
(2.25)
, R3
{0, i, j, k}.
b c,
:
1. c , a b, .
. c = a b sin (a^b).
2. c a b.

3. a, b c, , .
c c = [ab]
c = a b.
a b , sin(a^b) = 0 [ab] = 0, , [aa] = 0.
: [ij] = k, [jk] = i, [ki] = j.
a b i, j, k a(a1, a2, a3), b(b1, b2, b3),

[ab] =

i
a1

j
a2

k
a3

b1

b2

b3

= i (a2b3 - a3b2) - j (a1b3 - a3b1) + k (a1b2 - a2b1).

b c,
a
b c.
a, b c i, j, k
a(a1, a2, a3), b(b1, b2, b3), c(c1, c2, c3),

abc =

a1

a2

a3

b1

b2

b3

c1

c2

c3

- ,
, .
,
, ;
a, b, c - , a b c<0 V = - a b c, V = a b c .
, ,
. , ,
. r= - , ,
, .
2.1. a b, ,
, , a.
. AB=a, AC=b, CD=h, CDa, D- , C
a.
:
b + h = AD, h = AD - b. AD a,
AD = a.
,

a h: ah=0 a( a-b)=0, = ab /a2.
,
h = (ab /a2) a - b.
2.2. a = 2m+4n b = m-n, m n -
m n 120.
. : cos = ab/ab, ab = (2m+4n) (m-n) = 2 m2 - 4n2 +2mn =
= 2 - 4+2cos120o = - 2 + 2(-0.5) = -3; a =

a ; a2 = (2m+4n) (2m+4n) =

= 4 m2 +16mn+16 n2 = 4+16(-0.5)+16=12, a = 12 . b =

b ; b2 =

= (m-n)(m-n) = m2 -2mn+ n2 = 1-2(-0.5)+1 = 3, b = 3 . : cos = 12 3 =


-1/2, = 120o.
2.3. AB(-3,-2,6) BC(-2,4,4), AD
ABC.
. ABC S, : S = 1/2 BC AD.
2
2
2
2
AD=2S/BC, BC= BC = ( 2) 4 4 = 6,
S = 1/2 AB AC . AC=AB+BC, , AC

AC(-5,2,10). ABAC =

i
j
-3 -2
-5
2

k
6
10

= i (-20 -12) - j (30 -30) + k (- 6 - 10) =

16 2 ( 2 2 1) = 16 5 ; S = 8 5 ,
= -16(2 i + k ). ABAC =
16 5 8 5
AD = 6 = 3 .
2.4. a(11,10,2) b(4,0,3). c,
a b , a, b, c .
. c
x, y, z.
c a, c b, ca = 0, cb = 0. , c = 1 a b c >0.
x,y,z: 11x +10y + 2z = 0, 4x+3z=0, x2 + y2 + z2 = 0.
z = -4/3 x, y = -5/6 x. y z
, : x2 = 36/125,
6
x = 5 5 . a b c >0,
11
4
x

10
0
y

2
3
z

> 0 5(6x-5y-8z) > 0.

z y : 625/6 x > 0,
1
6
8
, x>0. , x = 5 5 , y = - 5 , z =- 5 5 .

3.
3.1. . .

. .
- , ,
, , .
- ,
, .
- ,
,
.
- ,
.
- ,
.
- ,
, ,
.
,
,
- , , , . ,
, - .
: .
.
, , .
,
F(x,y)=0. F
, , , ,
, .
, F(x,y) ,
, F(x,y)=0, . ,
, c . ,
, , , ,
.
.
:
10. :
Ax + By + C = 0.

(3.1)

n(,) , A B .
20. :
y - yo = k (x - xo),

(3.2)

k - , k = tg , - ,
x, M (xo, yo ) - , .
(2.2) y = kx + b, M (0, b)
y.
30. :
x/a + y/b = 1,
a b - , .
40. , - A(x1, y1) B(x2, y2 ):

(3.3)

y y1
x x1

.
y2 y1 x2 x1

(3.4)

50. , A(x 1, y1)


a(m, n):
y y1 x x1

.
n
m

(3.5)

rn - = 0,

(3.6)

60. :
r - - M(x, y) , n - ,
; -
.
:
x cos + y sin - = 0,
- , x.
(x1, y1) :
y-y1 = (x-x1 ),
- . A1 x + B1 y + C1= 0, A2
x + B2 y + C2 = 0, :
(A1 x + B1 y + C1) + (A2 x + B2 y + C2 )=0,
- , 0 .
3.2. . .
y = kx + b y = k1 x + b1 :
tg =

k1 k
.
1 k1 k

1 + k1 k = 0 .
,
A1 x + B1 y + C1= 0,

(3.7)

A2 x + B2 y + C2 = 0,

(3.8)

, ,
:
A1/A2 = B1/B2 = C1/C2.
(2.7), (2.8) , A 1/A2 = B1/B2 B1/B2
C1/C2; , A1/A2 B1/B2.
d M(x, y) , M
. , d = r n - , r - -
M , , d = x cos + y sin - .
3.1. , A(3,1)
2x+3y-1 = 0 45o.
. y=kx+b.
A, , .. 1=3k+b, b=1-3k.

y= k1 x+b1 y= kx+b tg =

k1 k
. k1
1 k1 k

2x+3y-1=0 - 2/3, = 45o, k:


(2/3 + k)/(1 - 2/3k) = 1 (2/3 + k)/(1 - 2/3k) = -1.
k: k1 = 1/5, k2 = -5. b b=1-3k,
: x - 5y + 2 = 0 5x + y - 16 = 0.
3.2.. t , 3tx-8y+1 = 0
(1+t)x-2ty = 0, ?
. , , , x y
, .. 3t/(1+t) = -8/(-2t). , t: t1 = 2, t2 = -2/3.
3.4. .
.

5
6
8
4
80
72

3
1
21

,
, .
Oxy .
. x , y - .
: 5x + 8y 80, 6x + 4y 72, 3x + y 21, x 0, y 0.
:
5x + 8y = 80, 6x +4y = 72, 3x + y = 21, x = 0, y = 0,
: x/16 + y/10 = 1, x/12 + y/18 = 1, x/7 + y/21
= 1, x = 0, y = 0.
, ,
:

, 10, 7.
3.5. (A B)
(I, II, III) . 250 , - 350
. I 150 , II -240 III - 210 .

.

A
B

I
4
5


II
3
6

III
5
4

,
.
. , I x,
II - y. I 150 ,
(150 - x) . II (240 - y) .
: 250 , (x + y) .
, III (250 - x -y) .
III, 210 - (250 - x -y) = x + y - 40 . ,
.
2

I
II
III
A
x
y
250 - x - y
B
150 - x
240 - y
x + y - 40
,
.
:
S(x,y) = 4x + 3y + 5 (250 - x - y) + 5 (150 - x) +
+ 6 (240 -y) + 4 (x + y - 40) = - 2x - 4y +3280.
. x y
.
. 2 :
x 0, y 0, 250 - x - y 0, 150 -x 0, 240 - y 0, x + y - 40 0.

(3.12)

, S(x,y) , (2.12).
.3 - , :
x = 0, y = 0, 250 - x - y = 0, 150 - x = 0, 240 - y = 0, x + y - 40 = 0.

. 3.1.

: A (0,40), B (40,0), C (150,0), D (150,100), E


(10,240), F (0,240). , S(x,y)
CDEFKL.
, , ,
(

S (x,y) = -2x - 4y + 3280). S (x,y) c, - , 2x - 4y + 3280 = c. . , S


, c.
, c ,
. c, ,
. ,
, c
.
, S (x,y) = -2x - 4y + 3280
. ,
,
S (0,40) = 3120,
S (40,0) = 3200,
S (1,500) = 2980,
S (150,100) = 2580, S (10,240) = 2300, S (0,240) = 2320.
2300. E (10,
240). , x = 10, y = 240. (. 2), :
3

A
B

I
10
140


II
240
0

III
0
210

, I 10 ,
II - 240 . . 2300.
, ,
.
.
3.6.
:
S = P + I = P ( 1 + ni ).
I - , P - , S - ,
, i - .
( , , ) , Pi, n - Pni.
. S S =
P + Pni, S n, . .
. n - , , On
, , OS - c ,
S.

. 3.2.
3.3. . .
.
x, y, z
Ax + By + Cz +D = 0

(3.9)

, : (3.9),
.
n (A, B, C ), , .
(3.1) A, B, C 0.
(3.1):
1. D = 0, Ax+By+Cz = 0 - .
2. C = 0, Ax+By+D = 0 - Oz.
3. C = D = 0, Ax +By = 0 - Oz.
4. B = C = 0, Ax + D = 0 - Oyz.
: x = 0, y = 0, z = 0.
,
: 1) , , ,
); 2) , , ,
; 3) , .
.
1. ,
M 0 ( x 0 ; y 0 ; z 0 )

z
M0

N ( A; B; C ) ,


(. 4.1).

M ( x; y; z )

M
x
0

x
. 3.3

M 0M r r 0 (x x 0 ; y y 0; z z 0 )
N .
(3.23),

A( x x 0 ) B ( y y 0 ) C ( z z 0 ) 0 ,
(4.1)

, .

,
, , z.
, , (4.1) ,
, M 0 ( x 0 ; y 0 ; z 0 ) ,
.
(4.1) D Ax 0 By 0 Cz 0 ,

Ax By Cz D 0 ,

(4.2)

N ( A; B; C ) .
: (4.2), , ,
, N ( A; B; C ) .
, M ( x; y; z ) - , (3.9),

M 0 ( x 0 ; y 0 ; z 0 ) - , , ..
Ax 0 By 0 Cz 0 D 0 . (3.9),

(4.1), .
0z.
1) D 0
.

Ax By Cz 0 ,

2) C 0 Ax By D 0 , 0z
( D 0 ). ,

(4.2) A 0 ( By Cz D 0 ) B 0 ( Ax Cz D 0 ). ,
, z, 0z ..
3) B 0 C 0 Ax D 0
, 0yz ( D 0 ,
x 0 ). , A 0 , C 0 ( By D 0 )
A 0 , B 0 ( Cz D 0 ).
(4.2) .
D 0

x
y
z

1
.
D
D
D

A
B
C
D
D
D
a , b , c ,
A
B
C
x y z
1,
a b c

(3.10)

.
2. , M 0 ( x 0 ; y 0 ; z 0 )
a 1 (l 1 ; m 1 ; n 1 ) a 2 (l 2 ; m 2 ; n 2 ) .

M ( x; y; z ) .

a1 ,

a2

M 0 M ( x x 0 ; y y 0 ; z z 0 ) , .
( ),

x x0
l1
l2

y y0
m1
m2

z z0
n1 0 .
n2

(3.11)

.
3. , M 1 ( x 1 ; y 1 ; z 1 )

M 2 ( x 2 ; y 2 ; z 2 ) a (l ; m; n) .

M ( x; y; z )

M 1M ( x x 1 ; y y 1 ; z z 1 ) ,

M 1M 2 ( x 2 x 1 ; y 2 y 1 ; z 2 z 1 )

. ,

x x1

y y1

z z1

x 2 x1
l

y 2 y1
m

z 2 z1 0.
n

(3.12)

4. ,

M 1 ( x 1; y 1; z 1 ) ,

M 2 (x 2 ; y 2 ; z 2 ) M 3 (x 3; y 3; z 3 ) .
M ( x; y; z ) ,
M 1 , M , M 2 M 3 . M 1M , M 1M 2 M 1M 3 - ,
:

x x1
x 2 x1
x 3 x1

y y1
y 2 y1
y 3 y1

z z1
z 2 z1 0.
z 3 z1

(3.13)

(4.6) .
0z (. 4.2). ,
, .

D, OD - p. n o ,
, (3.10),
Q

,
..
z
o
.

n (cos ; cos ; cos )

M0
D

r no

- n o
D. D ,

.
,
cos , cos , cos .
M ( x; y; z ) .
,
OM ( x; y; z )

n o , ..

x
. 3.4

o OM p .
n
, (3.19), OM

n o (cos ; cos ; cos ) , ..

o OM n o OM x cos y cos z cos .


n

,
x cos y cos z cos p 0 ,
(3.14)

.
d M 0 ( x 0 ; y 0 ; z 0 ) ,
(4.7).
Q - M 0 (. 4.2). DQ OQ OD .
M 0 ,
, , ..
d | DQ | | OQ OD | .
OQ o OM 0 , OD p ,
n

d | o OM 0 p | .
n

OM 0 ( x 0 ; y 0 ; z 0 ) , o OM n OM x 0 cos y 0 cos z 0 cos


n
.
d | x 0 cos y 0 cos z 0 cos p | ,
(3.15)

M 0
(3.14) ( x; y; z ) M 0
.. d

.
, . (3.10) , (3.14) - .
, (3.10) ,

Ax By Cz D 0 ,
(4.7), ..
A cos , B cos , C cos , D p .
, ;

2 ( A 2 B 2 C 2 ) cos 2 cos 2 cos 2 .


(3.9) . ,

1
A2 B2 C 2

(3.16)

(3.10).
D p , .. ,
(4.2). D 0 , .
(3.10) (3.17) ,
( x; y; z ) M 0 ( x 0 ; y 0 ; z 0 ) ,
M 0

A x0 B y 0 C z 0 D
A2 B2 C 2

(3.17)

P1 : A 1 x B 1 y C 1 z D 1 0;
P 2 : A 2 x B 2 y C 2 z D 2 0 ,(3.18)
L 0 . , L 0 .
P1 P 2 L 1 L 2 . L 1 L 2
P1 P 2 . N 1 P1 N 2 P2 ,
N N
P1 P 2 .
1

cos

N1N 2
| N 1 || N 2 |

A 1 A 2 B 1 B 2 C 1C 2
A 12 B 12 C 12 A 22 B 22 C 22

(3.19)

180 o .
(4.11) , N 1 N 2
. , (3.12),

P1 || P 2

N 1 || N 2

A1 B 1 C 1

.
A2 B 2 C 2

(3.20)

(4.11) ,

N 1 N 2 . , (3.23),
P1 P 2 N 1 N 2 A 1 A 2 B 1 B 2 C 1C 2 0 .

(4.14)

3.4. . .
. .

:
1) ,.. :
A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0, A2 x + B2 y + C2 z + D2 = 0;

(3.21)

2) M1(x1, y1, z1) M2(x2, y2, z2), , ,


:
=;

(3.22)

3) M1(x1, y1, z1), , a (m, n, ), .


:
.

(3.23)

(3.4) .
a .
, (3.4) t:
x = x1 +mt, y = y1 + nt, z = z1 + t.

(3.24)

(3.2) x y,
:
x = mz + a, y = nz + b.
(3.25
(3.6) , z
:
.

(3.2) ,
- n = [n1, n2], n1(A1, B1, C1) n2(A2, B2, C2)
- . m, n (3.4)
, , ..

x = x1, ; .
x = x1, y = y1; Oz.
1.15. C , , (1,-1,3)
, .
. (1,-1,3) ,
x-y+3z+D=0. (1,-1,3),
, D: 1-(-1)+33+D = 0 D = -11. , x-y+3z-11=0.
1.16. , z
2x+y-z-7=0 60.
. , Oz, Ax+By=0,
. 0, A/Bx+y=0.

= cos 60, m = A/B.
3m2 + 8m - 3 = 0, m 1 = 1/3, m2 = -3,
1/3x+y = 0 -3x+y = 0.

1.17.

:
5x + y + z = 0, 2x + 3y - 2z + 5 = 0.
. :
m, n, - , x1, y1, z1 - - ,
. . ,
, ( , , x=0)
. ,
x=0, y + z = 0, 3y - 2z+ 5 = 0, y=-1, z=1. (x 1, y1, z1 ),
, : M (0,-1,1). ,

n1(5,1,1)

n2(2,3,-2).

n = [n1, n2] = = (-2-3)i - (-10-2)j + (15-2)k = -5i+12j+13k.


: x/(-5) = (y + 1)/12 = (z - 1)/13.
1.18. , 2-+5z-3=0 ++2z+1=0,
, (1,0,1).
. , , u(2-+5z-3) +
v(++2z+1)=0, u v .
:
(2u +v)x + (- u + v)y + (5u +2v)z - 3u + v = 0.
, , ,
. :
(2u+v)1 + ( -u + v)0 + (5u + 2v )1 -3u + v =0, v = - u.
, M, , v = - u :
u(2x-y +5z - 3) - u (x + y +2z +1) = 0.
.. u0 ( v=0, ), x2y+3z-4=0. , , .
:

(2u+ v)1 + (v - u)(-2) + (5u +2v)3 = 0, v = - 19/5u.


, :
u(2x -y+5z - 3) - 19/5 u(x + y +2z +1) = 0 9x +24y + 13z + 34 = 0.

L1 :

x x1 y y 1 z z 1

;
l1
m1
n1

L2 :

x x2
yy2 zz2

l2
m2
n2

s 1 (l 1 ; m 1 ; n 1 ) s 2 (l 2 ; m 2 ; n 2 ) .
L 1 L 2

, , , -

.
s 1 s 2 .

cos

s1 s 2

l 1l 2 m 1m 2 n 1n 2

(3.26)

()

L 1 L 2 , ,

| s 1 || s 2 |

l 12 m 12 n 12 l 22 m 22 n 22

180 o .

() .

L 1 || L 2

s 1 || s 2

l 1 m1 n1

,
l2 m2 n2

L 1 L 2

l 1l 2 m 1m 2 n 1n 2 0 .

s 1 s 2

x x1 y y 1 z z 1

l
m
n
,

(3.27)
(3.28)

M 2 ( x 2 ; y 2 ; z 2 )

s (l ; m; n)

L:

M 1M 2 ( x 2 x 1; y 2 y 1; z 2 z 1 ) (.4.4).
2

M1
. 3.5

M 1M 2 ,

| s M 1M 2 | .

|s|

(3.29)

4.
4.1. . . .
.
.
,
,
, ,
. , .
, ,
.

. . ,
, .
,
. ,
,
.
, . ,
, ,
; S vt , S t
, v .
C ,
x C .
()
. ,
.
. D E
R . x D
y E , y f () x .
y f ( x), x D .
(4.1)
, y f (x ) D
y 2x , (12.1)
x f ( x), x D .
(4.2)
D () y ,
E . x ,
y , .
f , : y y (x) ,
y g (x) , y (x) , y F (x) .. , y f (x) x a ,
f (a ) .
, , s f (t ) ,
u f (v) , x x(t ) ..
. .
1) . ,
, , ,
, .
3
. , : 1) y 2 x 5 ;
2) y ( x 3) ( x 2) ; 3) y

5 x 2 3x ; 4) y sin 2 x 1 .

, ..
y f ( x), x D , y f (x) .
.
, ,
x , .
f ( x) g ( x)
f ( x ) g ( x) , f ( x ) g ( x)
, , ,
, g ( x) 0 .
1.

f ( x) lg( x 1) arcsin

x
.
2

x 1 0,

1
;

2
, x ( 1; 2 ] .

x 1,

2 x 2;

1 x 2.

, ,

2 x , x 0,

f ( x) 0,
x 0,
x 1, x 0.

(4.3)

,
.
. .
2) .
. , , ,
2
3
y x , y x , y x , y sin x , y cos x , y lg x .
,
.
x y , .

.
,
, .
.
3) .
, , , .
. .
,
.
y f (x )
( x; f ( x )) , ,
.
,
. , ,
0 y , .
2. , y 2 x , ,
2

, 0 y , x ,

x 0 (. 12.1). y 2 x ,
. y

2 x ,
y 2 x . x [0, ) .
(12.3)
,

. 12.2.
y
y 2x
y
4) .
x


y2

.

x 0
0 1 2
1 2
0
y x 1 1
x 1, 0 0,
y 2x x
x 0 1 .


: 1, 0 1 .

.
.
sign x (signum
12.1
12.2
) , , :

1, x 0,

sign x 0, x 0,
1, x 0.

: 1,
0. .

.
, , y ,
, y 2 x 2 5 x 2 .

, F ( x, y ) 0 ,
. ,
. ,
. , f1 ( x ) 1 x 2

f 2 ( x) 1 x 2

x 2 y 2 1 0 .

. y u , .. y f (u ), u U , u ,
, x , .. u (x) , x X U ,
y ( , ,
) x y f ( ( x )) .
,
: y f (u ) , u (x) . u
x . , ,
, , . ,
4
2
4
y tg (3 x 5) : y u , u tg t , t 3 x 2 5 .
.
(1805 1859) .

.
, , , 0.
y f (x ) ,
f ( x) f ( x) , x D .
(4.4)

, y 2 x 2 5 , y cos x , ,

y 9 x 2 , [3, 3] , ,
(12.4):

2( x) 2 5 2 x 2 5 ; cos( x) cos x ;

9 ( x) 2 9 x 2 .
0 y (., ,
y x 2 . 12.4).
y f (x ) ,
f ( x) f ( x) , x D .
(4.5)
3
, y x , y sin x , ,
y x 5 4 x 2 , (2, 2) , ,
(12.5):

( x) 3 x 3 ; sin( x) sin x ; ( x) 5

4 ( x) 2 x 5

4 x2 .

(., ,
3
y x . 12.5).
, (12.4) (12.5).
3. f ( x ) lg((2 x ) (2 x )) .
, (2 x) (2 x) 0 .
( 5), x (2, 2) (
).

2x
2 x
f ( x) lg
lg

2 ( x)
2 x

4.10 lg

2 x
f ( x) ,
2x

.. .

-2

. 4.1

. y f (x ) ()

X , x1 , x 2 , x1 x 2 ,
f ( x1 ) f ( x 2 ) ( f ( x1 ) f ( x 2 ) ) ( ,
() ).
f ( x1 ) f ( x 2 ) ( f ( x1 ) f ( x 2 ) ),
().
, ,
. .

, y x ; y x
3

: (, 0) , (0, ) .
. y f (x ) , X ,
(), M (m) ,
x X f ( x) M ( f ( x) m ).
, , , ..
m f ( x) M .
m M , . M .
M f ( x) M , f ( x) M .

() () y M ( y m ),
y M y M .
, y cos x , cos x 1 , x R .

. y f (x ) ,
T 0 , D
f ( x kT ) f ( x) ,
k Z . T .
.
, y sin x y cos x T 2 .
y tg x , y ctg x T .
. x ,
.
, , f ( x ) 0 .
y f (x ) , .
, ,
3
, . , y x 3x

x1 0 , x 2 3 , x 3 3 , y ln( x 1) x 2 .
x
. , , y a .
. y f (x ) D
E . y E
x D , x ( y ) E D .
( y ) f (x ) .
( y ) f (x ) , f (x )
( y ) , .. -.
x ( y ) , y f (x ) , f ( x ) y
x ( ).
, y f (x )
, f (x ) D
E . , . ,
(), ().
, y f (x ) x ( y )
, 0 y ,
0 x .


x , y , , y f (x) ,
y (x) . y (x)
y f (x) y x .
4. y x 5 .
3

(, ) , , . y x 3 5

x 3 y 5 . x y , y 3 x 5 .
12.2. .

y = x3

y = x2

y = x4

y = x5

. ,
.
1. y kx b .
. 4.
2.
y x , R . ,
, . 12.4 12.9.

1
-1
1

0
-1

1
0

-1

. 4.3

.4.2

-1

1
0

-1

1
x

y x

-1 0
1

1
1. 4.4

. 4.6

0 1
-1
. 4.5
-1

. 4.7

1
x2

y 3 x

3. : y a x a 0, a 1 (. 12.8).
4. : y log a x a 0, a 1 (. 12.9).

y = loga x, a > 1
y = a x,
0<a<1

y = a x,
a>1
0

y = loga x, 0 < a < 1

. 4.8

. 4.9

5. : y sin x, x R (. 12.10); y cos x, x R (. 12.11);

y tg x, x R x 2 k , k Z (. 12.12); y ctg x, x R x k , k Z (. 12.13).


y
y
y
=
sin
x
y = cos x
1
1
-

-/2

0 /2
-1

-/2

. 4.10

-/2

y = tg x

0 /2

. 4.11

-1

/2

. 4.12

- -/2

y = ctg x

/2

. 4.13

: y arcsin x , x [1, 1] (. 12.14);


x 0 , x [1, 1] (. 12.15); y arctg x , x R (. 12.16); y arcctg x , x R (.
12.17).

y = arcsin x

/2

y = arccos x

6.

y=x

/2

y = sin x

-/2 -1
1

/2

-1

-1
-/2

y = cos x

-1

. 4.14

/2

. 4.15

/2

y = arctg x
0
-/2

. 4.16

/2
0

y = arcctg x
x

. 4.17


, :
y Arcsin x , y Arccos x , y Arctg x , y Arcctg x ,

, ,
.
7. .
, : sh x , ch x ,
th x cth x .
:

e x e x ;
e x e x ; th x sh x ; cth x ch x ,
sh x
ch x
ch x
sh x
2
2

(12.6)

e .
,
(12.6):
(12.7)
ch 2 x sh 2 x 1; ch 2 x sh 2 x ch 2 x .
. 12.18, 12.19. y ch x
.

y = ch x

y = cth x

y = sh x

x
y = cth x

-1

. 4.19

. 4.18

. ,
(
) , .

f ( x) x

f ( x) arcsin 3 x 2 ctg x 3x 3 8 .

( x x2 ) ;

f ( x) 1 lg cos 2x ;

.
1)

y Pn ( x) a 0 x n a1 x n 1 ... a n 1 x a n ,
n 0 ; a 0 , a1 , ..., a n 1 , a n R (a 0 0) ,
( ).
, .
2) ,

Pn ( x)
,
Qm ( x)

Pn (x) Qm (x ) n - m - , .
-
.
3) , , ,
, .
,
f ( x) x x ,

f ( x) 5 ( x 1) ( x 2 x ) .

.
4) . , ,
f ( x) cos x , f ( x) 10 x , f ( x) arccos x log 2 x ..
y sign x , (4.3),

x3
x5
x7
x 2 n 1
n
y 1

... (1)
...
3!3 5!5 7!7
(2n 1)!(2n 1)
. ,
.

.
y f (x ) .
.
1. y f ( x a ) ( y f ( x a ) )
y f (x) 0 x a (), a 0 (. 12.20).
2. y f ( x ) b ( y f ( x ) b )
y f (x) 0 y b (), b 0 (. 12.21).
3. y f ( x a ) b y f (x )
: 0 x a (, a 0 ,
, a 0 ) 0 y b (, b 0 , , b 0 ).

1 2, , y f ( x a ) b
,
0( a; b) x0 y y f (x) .

y = f (x + b)
N

x0

x0+a

0
y0

.4.20

y = f (x - a)

y = f (x)
b

.4.21

y = f (x)

4. y f (ax) , a 0
y f (x) 0 x , a (. 12.22).
5. y bf (x) , b 0 ,
y f (x) 0 y b (. 12.23).

=2

b=2

y = f (ax)

y = f (x)

x
0
x 0 x0
a

by0

y0

y = bf (x)

y = f (x)
x

x0

.4.23

.4.22

6. y f ( x )
y f (x )
0 y (. 12.24).
7. y f (x )
y f (x )
0 x (. 12.25).

y f (x)

y0

0
x
x0
x
=
-x
0
0
0
x
8. y f ( x ) y f (x )

y f (x)

f(-x) ( x 0)
y = f(x)
( x 0) , y=

0 y (. 12.28).
.4.24

.4.25

9. y f (x)

y f (x )

0 x , f ( x ) 0 0 x
, f ( x ) 0 (. 12.29).

y f( x )

y f (x)

y f (x)

y f (x)

. 4.27

. 4.26

5. y 2 x 2 5 x 2 .
( 2), :

y 2 x 2


2 x

5
5 25 25

x 1 2 x 2 2 x

1
2
4 16 16

2
2
5
9
5
9

2 x .
4
16
4
8

,
0 5 4 ; 9 8 . x0 y

y 2x 2 (1; 2) (2; 8) (. 12.30).


y ax 2 bx c () y ax 2
, ,
y.
y
y y
6. y x 2 2 x 3 .
0 y . x 0 , y 3 , ..

A (0; 3) . x 2 2 x 3 0 ,
0 x . ,
20 x .
A y 3 (xy
c) .
B 0

. 4.28

. 4.29

y = x2 + 2x +3

3 x 2 52 x 3 x1 0 , x2 2 . , A (0; 3) B (2; 3)
E

4y 3 .

0
x
, ,
;
, 9


x
0
x
-
0
8

: x (0 2) 2 1 y 1 2 3 2 .

y = 2x2 5x + 2

, E ( 1; 2) , (. 12.31).

7. y (1 3 x ) ( x 1) .
x 1 ( ),
3 . , x 1 , y 3
( . 12.32). , x 0 , y 1 ,
y 0 , x 1 3 .

(1; 2) (3; 5 2) .

0 (1; 3) . . 12.32.

8. y 2 cos 2 x 3 1 .

y 2 cos 2 x 6 1 .
y
:
y cos 2 x y y
1 3x
3

-5

-3

-1

0
1

-3
-5

x 1
3

5 x

y cos x

y 2 cos 2 x 3 1

1) ,
0 ( 6 ; 1) . x0 y

y 2 cos 2.
x . 4.30

. 4.31

2) y cos x ( ).

3) 0 y 2 y cos 2 x
( ).
4) 0 x 2,
( ).


-,
,
. :
, - (), , (),
, ,
,
. ,
. ,
.
1.
(, ,
..). .
D (demand) S (supply) P
(price). , .
D P (. 12.34; D)
(42.8)
D Pa c,
a 0 . ,
S P
(4.9)
S Pb d ,
b 1 (. 12.34; S). (12.8) (12.9) c d ;
( , ..).
, (12.8) (12.9) ,
.
, .. :

D( P) S ( P)
(4.10)
D S (. 12.34).
P0 , (410), .
, (12.8),
, D ;
S.
.
, (. 4.33).
P1 ( ). P1
(,

D, S
). D1

D
D

D, S

D, S
S D1 . P2

D P2 , SD,
(
D ). S
D
S P3 ,
D2 , P2 ,

.
, .. .
2
,
,
2

D
D

M P : lim Pn P0 .

M 0 n

P0 P0
P0 P0
.
.
4.32
12.34

D0
D0
D1
D1

P2 P0 P3P1 P
P2 P0 P3P1 P
.
.
4.33
12.35

2. (Tornquist),
( ) ( ) : )
y ax ( x b) ( x 2 c ) , a , b c , x 0 ; )
y ax ( x c) , x 0 ; ) (
) y a ( x b) ( x c) , x b ; )
. 12.36.

a)

a
)

y ax( x b) ( x c) , x b .

l=x
)

l = l(x)
0

. 4.35

. 4.34

3. ( . (Lorentz)) (. 4.35):
l l (x) ,
x , l .
. l x , .
4.2 . . .
. . .
. n
xn , , x1 , x2 , ..., xn , ...
, xn .
, ,

xn x1 ,

x2 , ..., xn , ... .

. .
(1876 1959) .

x1 , x2 , ..., xn , ... ( ) ,
xn n - , n .

xn (n) , n 1,

xn

2, ... .

1 1
1
1, , , ... ;
2 3
n
(1) n 1
1 1
3)
1, , , ... ;
n
2 3

2) cos n 1, 1, 1, 1, ... ;

1)

4) lg(1 n) lg 2, lg 3, ... ;

5) n 1, 2, 3, ... ;

6) (1) n n 1, 2, 3, ... .

xn ,
n , , xn xk , n k .

. . 11.1 1) 6).
. xn
(), ( m ) ,
xn xn M ( xn m ).

11 1
43 2

1)

6)

x4x3x2

x3

x1

x1

x2

x4

. 4.36
xn , m ,
m xn M , n N . C max m , M .

xn C , n N .
, : 4), 5)
, ; 6) ; 1), 2), 3) .
. a

xn

xn a ,
nlim

N N ( ) , ,

n N xn a .

xn a ) ( 0) (N N ( )) (n N ) xn a . (11.1)
( nlim

, , ,
.
, .

(11.1) (10.8)

xn a a x a , n N .

x N 2x N 1

xN ,

x N 1 , x N 2 , ...

. 4.37
, a xn , 0
N , -
a (. 11.2).
, xn a , -
a .

2n 3
. , a 2 .
n 1

1. xn

11.1

2n 3
2n 3 2n 2
1
2

.
n 1
n 1
n 1
, n 1 1 , , N 1 1 1 ,
, .. , . ,
2n 3
2.
N , , n N xn 2 . , lim
n n 1
xn a

.
.
4.1. - .
4.2. .

lim xn a 0 , , N ,
a .
11.1. lim xn a , lim y n b a b , , N ,
4.3.

xn y n .

xn lim y n ), ..
4.4. ( xn y n , n N ) ( nlim

xn C .
xn y n . , xn C , nlim

4.5. xn , y n z n .

xn lim z n a ) lim y n a .
( xn y n z n , nlim
(11.2)

n
n
11.4 11.5 .
xn a ,
4.6. xn y n nlim

lim ( xn y n ) lim xn lim y n a b ;

(4.11)

lim ( xn yn ) lim xn lim y n a b ;

(4.12)

n
n

lim y n b ,

xn a
xn nlim
,
n y n
lim y n b
lim

lim y n b 0 .

(4.13)

xn a , ,
11.2. xn nlim

lim (Cxn ) C lim xn C a , C const .


n
2. , a 0
lim n a 1 .
n

(4.14)
(4.15)

a 1 . n a 1 xn , xn 0 . (10.1)

a 1


a (1 xn ) n 1 nxn . , (11.2), 0 xn
n

a 1

xn 0 , .. lim n a lim (1 xn ) lim xn 1 1 .


0 nlim
0 lim xn lim

n
n
n
n
n n

1
a 1 , 1 . , (4.13),
a
1
1
lim n a lim

1.
n
n n 1 a
lim n 1 a

3. ,

lim n n 1 .

(4.16)

n n 1 xn , xn 0 . ( 9.9),

n (1 xn ) n 1 nxn
n 1

n(n 1) 2
xn ... xnn .
2!

n(n 1) 2
n(n 1) 2
xn n 1
xn ,
2!
1 2
, n 1 ,
2
2
0 xn
0 xn2
.
n
n
2
xn 0 . ,
lim
0 , 11.2 nlim

n n
lim n n lim (1 xn ) 1 lim xn 1 .
n 1

. a 1

lim n 0 .

- ,

lim a n 1 .

(4.17)


11.1. a 0 . xn ,

(1643 1727) , , .

lim x n

lim a x n a n

(4.18)

xn x . lim ( xn x) 0 , ,
a 1 . nlim

n
lim a x n x 1.

lim (a x n a x ) lim (a x (a x n x 1)) a x lim (a x n x 1) 0 ,

..
lim x n

lim (a x n a x ) 0 lim a x n a x a n
n
n

a 1 .
0 a 1 . b 1 a . b 1 , ,

lim b

xn

lim x n

lim a

xn

1
lim
n b

xn

lim b x n

1
lim x n

1

b

lim x n

lim x n

a n

b
11.2. a 0 a 1 . xn
lim xn b 0 ,

lim log a xn log a lim xn .


n

(4.19)

lim ( xn ) ( lim xn ) .

(4.20)

xn 0 .
11.3. xn , nlim

xn 0 , , n N , xn 0 . xn ,
nlim

lim ln x n

lim ( xn ) e n

ln lim x n

ln( lim x n )
n

( lim xn ) .
n

11.3. xn ,

lim

xn m lim xn .
n

(4.21)

( m , xn 0 ).
4.3. ,

n 0 ,
, .. nlim

(...).
...:

lim 0 ( 0) (N ) (n N ) .
n
n n

, 1 n (1) n 1 n ...

...
4.7. , . . . . . .
11.4. . . . .
. .
4.8. . . . . . .
11.5. . . . . . .
,
;
.
xn , ,
, (. . .).
...:

1. xn M ,
1.

lim xn 2. (M 0) (N ) (n N ) 2. xn M , .
n
3.
3. x M .

. . .:
1) xn n cos n 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ... ;


3) x n 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, ... .
2) xn n 2 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, ... ;
n

, . . . . .
11.4. xn - . . . , 1 xn - . . ., ,

n - . . . n 0 , 1 n - . . .
xn - . . . 0

M 1 .
N , n N xn M . ,
1 xn 1 xn 1 M n N . , 1 xn

.
.
, , , (11.3)
(11.5) , .

xn , lim y n , lim z n , lim an a R ,


. , nlim

n
n
n
lim n 0 n 0 ,

(an yn ) ,
1) nlim

(an y n ) ,
2) nlim

( xn y n ) ,
4) nlim

( xn y n ) ,
5) nlim

(an y n ) 0 ( y n 0, n) ,
3) nlim

( xn z n ) ,
6) nlim

, a 0;
, a 0,

8) lim (a n xn )
n

( xn z n ) ,
7) nlim

an , a 0;

n n
, a 0.

9) lim

11.5. , xn , a ,
, . . . n ,

xn a n .

(4.22)

xn a .
. xn , a : nlim

, xn a n , n - . . .
xn a , ( 0) (N ( )) (n N )
nlim

xn a n . n N ,

xn a .

n 0 . , n n , .. nlim

. . .
,

lim xn a xn a n , n - . . .

n 0 .
. xn (4.23), nlim

,
( 0) (N ( )) (n N ) n .
n xn a , n N xn a ,
xn a . ,
(11.1) nlim

(11.14)

lim x a x a , lim 0 .
n
n
n
n n

(4.24)

4.4. , .
. . . -
.

xn lim y n 0 ( y n 0) . xn y n .
nlim

n
,
:
xn y n lim n ;
1) xn 1 n , y n 1 n 2 , nlim

xn y n lim 1 n 0 ;
2) xn 1 n 2 , y n 1 n , nlim

n
xn y n lim a a ;
3) xn a n , y n 1 n , nlim

4) xn (1) n n , y n 1 n , lim xn y n lim (1)


n
n
.
, xn y n
.

, xn y n xn 0 , y n 0
0 0 .

xn , y n , xn y n
.

xn 0 , y n , xn y n 0 .
xn , y n , xn y n

,
.
.

lim

3.

2n 3 3n 2 4
5n 3n 3 7

. , ,
, n ,
.. n 3 . , (11.5), (11.3), (11.6) 11.4,

lim

2n 3 3n 2 4

5n 3n 7

lim (2 3 n 4 n 3 )

2 3 n 4 n3
lim
n

2
3
n 5 n 3 7 n
lim (5 n 2 3 7 n 3 )
n

lim 2 3 lim (1 n) 4 lim (1 n )

n
2

5 lim (1 n ) lim 3 7 lim (1 n )


n

5.

lim

2 3 0 40
2
.
50 3 70
3

2n 2 n 1

n 3 5n

n3

, ,

2n 2 n 1

2 n 1 n 2 1 n 3 0

lim
lim
0.
n 3 5n n 3
n 3 n3 5 n 2 1 1

5n 2 n 2 n 4 3
.
3
n
n 4
n 4 ,
5n 2 n 2n 4 3
5 n 2 1 n 3 2 3 n 4
lim
lim
.
n
n3 4
1 n 4 n4
n
6.

lim

lim

a0 n k a1n k 1 ... ak 1n ak

b1n m 1 ... bm 1n bm
a0 b0 , k m;
n k ( a0 a1 n a2 n 2 ... ak n k )
lim m

, k m; (4.25)
m
n n (b b n b n 2 ... b
n
)
0
1
2
m

0, k m.

n!
7. lim
.
n ( n 1)! n!
n b nm
0

n! ( ) ( 9.2), ..
n! 1 2 3 ... n ,
(n 1)! 1 2 3 ... n ( n 1) n!(n 1) .

n!
n!
1
lim
lim 0 .
n ( n 1)! n! n n!( n 1) n! n n
lim

8.

lim

lim

2n
2
3 n3

(11.10) 3

9.

lim log 2

2n
n 2n 3
lim

lim log 2

2n
2
3 n3 .

4n n 1
2 n 2 5n

(11.16) 3

4n 2 n 1
2

2 n 5n

10.

lim

n2 n 1
1 8n 2

4n 2 n 1

n 2

1
2

3.

(11.11) log 2 lim

log 2 4 2 .

n 2 5n

(11.16)

n2 n 1
n2 n 1
3
lim
(11.13) lim
(11.16)
n
n 1 8n 2
1 8n 2
1
1
3 .
8
2
3


xn

(),

x1 x2 ... xn xn 1 ... ( x1 x2 ... xn xn 1 ... ), xn


( ), x1 x2 ... xn xn 1 ... (
x1 x2 ... xn xn 1 ... ).
.
() ()
. 11.2
. . ,
, (1) n .
,
.
11.6. ( ). ,
xn , ,

. , xn () ,

lim xn sup xn

lim x inf x .
n
n n

. 11.2 .

xn ()
M sup xn m inf xn . ()

xn , ( 0) ( x N ) M x N M (m x N m ) , ,
xn (),

M x N x N 1 x N 2 ... M m x N x N 1 x N 2 ... m , ..,


xN M
N , xn

xn
x N m . , M sup xn nlim

m inf x lim x .
n
n
n

11.7. an 0 , n a n ,

lim an 1 an , :

a n 1
q 1 lim an 0 ;
n
n an
a n 1
q 1 lim an ;
2) lim
n
n an
1) lim

(4.26)
(4.27)

.
11. , a 0

an
lim
0.
n n!

(4.28)

xn 1 a n 1 ( n 1)!
(a n n!) a (n 1) xn a (n 1) , n , a (n 1) 1 , ..
xn 1 xn . , .

xn a n n! .

x n 1
a
lim
0 1,
n xn
n n 1
lim

an
11.7, lim
0.
n n!
12. , q 1

lim q n 0 .

(11.20)

q 0 . 0 q 1 , xn q n
( q n 0 ). , 11.6

xn q n

a lim q n .
n

y n q n 1 , , a , ..

lim q n 1 a . ,

a lim q n lim (q q n 1 ) q a , .. a qa
n

a (1 q ) 0 . q 1 , a 0 .
1 q 0 .

q p;
( 1) n 1 ;
n n
lim q 0 p 1; lim (1) p
0.
n
n
lim p n 0; 11.8
q 1 p.
n

lim

13.

2 n 3n

n 2 n 1

3 n 1

n .

, , 3n . , (11.5),
(11.3), (11.6) (11.20),

lim

2 n 3n

n 2 n 1

3 n 1

2 3 n 1 1

lim
.
n 2 2 3 n 3 3

xn 1 1
n

n , :
n
1
2
10
100
1000
2
2,25
2,594
2,705
2,717
xn

10000
2,718

100000
2,718

, xn n , -,
. .

xn 1 1 n n 1 n 1 n 2 .
y n xn 1 1 n 2 . y n y n 1 1 n n 1 .

(10.1),

y n 1
1
1

yn
n 1

1
1
n

n 1

n 1

n 1

n 1

n 1

n 1
n n n n 1
n 1 n 2
n 1
1

1 2

n n 2 1
n
(n 1) n (n 1) n 1
n 1
n 1
n 1 n 1 n
10.1

1 , , y n 1 y n .
1 2

n
n n 1
n 1
, y n 2.

lim y n lim xn 1 1 n lim xn lim 1 1 n lim xn , .. - xn


n
n
n
n

. :

1
lim 1
n
n

e.

(4.29)

, .
2,72 ( e 2,71828182845904523... ). ,
ln x , .. ln x log e x .

(1550-1617) .

.
( 4.2) x e ln x . 10:

lg x lg e ln x , .. lg x ln x lg e M ln x .

, M lg e 0,434294 .
. ,
lg x 0,434294 ln x ln x 2,302585 lg x .
(11.22)
.
[ 1 ].
n 1

2n 5
14. lim
.

n 2n 1
n [ 1 ]. ,

, (11.21).
n 1

2n 5
lim

n 2n 1

6
lim 1

n
2n 1

2n 1 6

n
2n 1

[1 ] lim

6
2 n 1 2 n 1 ( n 1)
6

n 1

6n 6
n 2 n 1
lim

n 1

6
lim 1

n
2n 1

(11.16) e 3 .

, , ,
., , , , ..
.
Q0 . % .
Qt t .

, x Q0 p 100 ,

Q1 Q0 (1 p 100) . x

Q0 p
p
1
,
100
100
2

p Q0 p
p
p

Q2 Q0 1

1
Q0 1
.
100
100
100
100

p
p

Q3 Q0 1
, ..., Qt Q0 1
,
100
100

.. % (1 p 100) .
,
x1

Q1 Q0

Q0 p
p
Q0 p

, x2 Q0
. ,

2 100 2 100
2 100

Q0 p
Q p
p
p
p

Q0 0
Q0 1
1

2 100
2 100 2 100
2 100
2 100

p
Q0 1
.
2

100

, 3 (n) ,
:
3
p

Q1 Q0 1
, Q1 Q0 1
n 100

3 100

t nt
nt
p

Qt Q0 1
.
100
n

(4.30)

, ( n ).
t

p
Qt lim Q0 1

n
100n

nt


p
Q0 lim 1

n
100n

p
100 n 100 n nt
p

Q0 e pt 100 .(4.31)

(11.24) () .
p p , :

Qt Q0 e pt 100 .

(4.32)
, 2 % , (11.24)
t : Qt Q0 e 0,02t ,

Q0 .
15. 1 % .
.
Q0 . (4.32), , t 182
( ),
Q Q0 e 182 100 Q0 e1,82 Q0 6 ,
.. .
-
,
, .

4.5. .
.
f(x) x0,

lim f(x) = f(x o ) .

x x 0

(4.15)

(6.15) :

lim f(x) = f( lim x o ) ,

x x 0

x x 0

, .
(6.15) , , x = xo f(x) .
y = 1/x. R, x =
0. x = 0 D(f), , ..
, 0, D(f),
. f(xo)= f(0) , xo = 0 .

f(x) xo,

lim f(x) = f(x 0 ) ,

x x0 0

xo,

lim f(x) = f(x 0 ) .

x x 0 0

xo
.
, xo, , , , -,

lim f(x) , -, f(x ).


o

x x 0 0

, ,
.
1.

lim f(x)

x x 0 0

f(xo), , f(x) xo

, .
2.

lim f(x)

x x 0 0

, , xo

.
, y = ctg x x +0 , +, , x=0
. y = E(x) ( x)
, .
, [a,b], [a,b].
.
,
- . , , :
, , , ..
. . , e
. e e =

1
n

n
lim (1 ) .
n

. ,
, .
, . 100 . . 100 %
.
, 100 . . 200 .. ,
100 . ., .
100 . . 100 1,5 = 150, - 150 1,5 = 225
(. .). 1/3 , 100 . .
100 (1 +1/3) 237 (. .). 0,1 ,
0,01 , 0,001 .. 100 . . :
100 (1 +1/10)10 259 (. .),
100 (1+1/100)100 270 (. .),
100 (1+1/1000)1000 271 (. .).

, , 271. 2,71
, 100% , ,
,

1
n

n
lim (1 ) = e.
n

4.1. , ,
xn =(n-1)/n , 1.
. , , >0 ,
N, , n > N xn -1 <.
>0. xn -1 = (n+1)/n - 1 = 1/n, N
1/n<. n>1/ , , N 1/, N =
E(1/). ,

lim
n

xn = 1.

4.2. , xn =

n2 1
n 5
.

2
n2
3n 4

. . n
,
. xn,
n2, n. ,
, :
xn =
4n 5

4.3. xn =

3n 1

1 1/ n2 1/ n 5 / n
1

.
2
1

2
/
n
3
3 4/ n

lim
n

xn.

5
6
4
6

4
4n 5
n

.
=
.
3n 1
3
3 1

n
:
.

4.4.

lim
n

( n 2 3n n ).

. ,
- . :
( n 2 3n n)( n 2 3n n)
n 3n n =
2

n 3n n
2

4.5. f(x)=21/x. ,

3n
n 3n n
2

lim f(x)
x 0

3
1
n

3
2.

. 1 .
{ xn }, 0, ..

lim
n

xn =0. , f(xn)= 2 1/ x n

-. xn = 1/n. ,

lim

lim 1/n =0,


n

1/ x n = lim 2n = +. x
n
2
n
n

xn = -1/n, .

lim 2

1/x

x 0

.
n

1/ x n = lim 2 n= lim 1/2n = 0.


2
n
n
n

4.6. ,

lim x

lim

x1,

lim
x

sin x .

x2,...,

xn,...

= . {f(xn)} = {sin xn } xn ?

xn= n, sin xn= sin n = 0 n

lim sin
n

xn=2n+/2, sin xn= sin(2n+/2) = sin /2 = 1 n


,

lim
n

xn =0.

lim
n

sin xn =1.

sin x .

4.7.

lim

sin 5x
.
x

x 0
sin 5x
sin 5x
. :
= 5
. t = 5x. x0 : t0.
x
5x
sin t
5.
(3.10), 5
t

4.8.

lim

sin 3x
.
x sin 4 x

. y=-x. x, y0.:
sin 3x = sin 3(-y) = sin (3-3y) = sin 3y.
sin 4x = sin 4(-y) = sin (4-4y)= - sin 4y.
sin 3 y
sin3y
4y 3
3
sin 3x
lim
lim
.
=- lim
y 0 sin 4 y
y 0
3y y0 sin4y 4
4
x sin 4 x

lim

4.9.

lim

arcsin x
.
x
x 0

. arcsin x=t. x=sin t x0 t0.

lim

lim

arcsin x
t
1.
=
x
sin t

lim

x2 4
x2 4
x2 4
4.10. 1)
; 2)
; 3)
.
x 1 x 2 x - 2
x 2 x 2 x - 2
x x 2 x - 2
.

1. 1 , :

lim
x 1

(x x - 2) = 1- 1- 2 = -2 .
2

, , 1 , :

x2 4
=
x2 x - 2

2
lim ( x 4)

3 3
.
2
lim ( x x - 2) 2 2
x1

x1

lim
x 1

2. , .. 0/0.
.
. x-2, x 2
:
x2 4
x 2
=
.
2
x x - 2 x +1

lim (x+1) 0, , ,
x 2

lim
x2

lim

x 4
x
=
x 2 x
x x-2
2

lim ( x 2) 4
x2
2
.
=
+1
(
x
+
1)
3
lim
x 2

3. x .
. x2
:
1

4
x2

x 4
1.
=
x x - 2 1 1 2
x x2
2

lim

4.11.

x 9

x -1 2
.
x-9

. : 3 x - 1 2 0 , x-90, ..

0
.
0

,
3 x - 1 2 ,
3

x -1 2
x-9

x-2
(x - 9)( 3 (x - 1) 2 2 3 x - 1 4)

4.12.

lim

(1

x -

1
3

(x - 1) 2 x - 1 4
2

1
1

.
4 4 4 12

2 x+5
)
.
x

. (1

2 x+5
2
2
)
= ((1 ) 2 ) 2 (1 ) 5 e 2 1 e 2 .
x
x
x

4.6.

, .. ,
(, , . .).
- . - ,
, .
:
S = P(1 + i)n.

(4.16)

P - , i - ( ), S - ,
n- .

, .
, ,
. ,
: S, n,
P. , S
, S - P . P,
S, , , S. :
P=

lim

lim

S
S
P=
n
n = 0.
(1+ i)
n
n (1+ i)

,
.
-
, . . , .
-
, ,
. (
) ,
,
, . ,
m :
S =P (1 + i/m) mn.
, m -
, i - . m,
. m :
S=

lim (1 + i/m)

lim

P (1 + i/m) mn = P

lim

((1 + i/m) m) n.

= e i, S = P e in.

- ,

. ,
, . ,
,
n
, S = Pe
.
m.
.
.
, , -
,
. , ,
. (),
() . ,
, ,
. -,
. . -
, ,
. .
4.13. 1 .
, , - 5% .

10 6 1,053
3 , 10 6 1,052, 2 .
. ,
: 10 6 1,053; 10 6 1,052; 10 6 1,05; 10 6.
. ,
. : S -
,
R

,
i - ( ), n - ( ).
n - 1, n - 2,..., 2, 1 0 ,
R (1 + i)n - 1, R (1 + i)n - 2,..., R (1 + i), R.
.
(1+i) R. . : S = R((1 + i)n 1)/((1
+
i)
1)
=
n
n
= R((1 + i) - 1)/ i. S n; i = ((1 + i) - 1)/ i
. m , S = R((1 + i/m)mn - 1)/((1 + i/m) m - 1), i .
a n; i = (1 - (1 + i) - n)/ i .
n ,
:

lim
n

a n; i =

lim (1 - (1 + i)
n

-n

)/ i =1/i.

4.14. ,
- .
- ,

.

:
n
R((1 + i) - 1)/ i n .
a n; i 1/i, A = R/i, . .
.

2
5. .
5.1. , .
.
y = f(x) X. y = f(x) o

lim

x 0

f(x 0 x) - f(x 0 )
y
= lim
.
x x 0
x

, f(x) xo;
.
( - ), , o
, , f(x) o .

y , f (xo),

dy
,
dx

df(x 0 )
.
dx

.
, y=f(x)
o; - ,
s = s(t) to.
5.2. . .
. . .
- , u = u(x), v = v(x) - ,
:
1) () ' = 0, (cu) ' = cu';
2) (u+v)' = u'+v';
3) (uv)' = u'v+v'u;
4) (u/v)' = (u'v-v'u)/v2;
5) y = f(u), u = (x), .. y = f((x)) - , ,
f, y x y u u x ,
dy dy du

;
dx du dx

6) y = f(x) x = g(y),
dg
x y
dy

0, y x x .
y

.
1. (u)' = u1 u' ( R).
2. (au)' = au lna u'.
3. (eu)' = eu u'.
4. (loga u)' = u'/(u ln a).
5. (ln u)' = u'/u.
6. (sin u)' = cos u u'.
7. (cos u)' = - sin u u'.

8. (tg u)' = 1/ cos2u u'.


9. (ctg u)' = - u' / sin2u.
10. (arcsin u)' = u' / 1 u 2 .
11. (arccos u)' = - u' / 1 u 2 .
12. (arctg u)' = u'/(1 + u2).
13. (arcctg u)' = - u'/(1 + u2).

v
y=u , (u>0), u v , u', v'.
y=u v, ln y = v ln u.
3, 5
, :
y'/y = vu'/u +v' ln u, y' = y (vu'/u +v' ln u).
,
(u v)'=u v (vu'/u+v' ln u), u > 0.
, y = x sin x, y' = x sin x (sin x/x + cos x ln x).
y = f(x) x, ..
y',

y
= y'+, 0 0; y = y' + x.
x

, ,
dy: dy = y' . y=x, dx = x' =
1 =, dy=y'dx, . .

dy

dx

.
y , dy
.
y=f(x) y = f (x).
f(x), ,
d2y
y , f (x),
.
dx 2
:
d 3y
- y , f (x),
,
dx 3
d4y
- y I V , f I V (x),
dx 4
dny
n- - y ( n ) , f ( n ) (x),
.
dx n
5.15. y=(3x3-2x+1)sin x.
.

3,
y'=(3x3-2x+1)'sin
x
+
(3x3-2x+1)(sin
x)'
=
2
3
= (9x -2)sin x + (3x -2x+1)cos x.
5.16. y', y = tg x +

ex
.
1 x

. , : y'=(tgx +

ex
)' =
1 x

(e x ) (1 x) - (1+ x)e x
1
(1 x)e x e x
1
ex
1
xe x

(tgx)' + (
)' =
+
=

.
cos 2 x
(1 x) 2
cos2 x (1 x) 2
1 x
cos 2 x
(1 x) 2

4
u=x +1.

5.17.

y= u 2 3 u 1 ,

. , : y' x =y 'u u'x =( u 2 3 u 1


)'u(x4
(2 x4 +2+

+1)'x
3
2 x4 1

=(2u

3
2 u

) 4x 3 .

u=x4

+1,

) 4x 3 .
2

5.18. y= e x .
2
. y= e x : y = eu u = x2. :
2
y'x =y 'u u'x = (eu)'u(x2)'x = eu 2x. x2 u, y=2x e x .
5.19. y=ln sin x.
. u=sin x, y=ln u
y' = (ln u)'u(sin x)'x=

1
cos x
cos x =
ctg x .
u
sin x
1
2

5.20. y= tg x .
. , ,
5:
y x

1
2 tg x / 2

( tg

1
x) x
2

1
sec 2 x .
1
1
2
sec x ( x) x
2
2
2 tg x / 2
4 tg x / 2
1

( x 2 4) 5 (3x - 1) 7
.
(6x 3 1) 2 e tg 5x
. , :

5.21. y=ln

y=5/3ln(x2+4) +7/3ln(3x-1)-2/3ln(6x3+1)-1/3tg 5x.


, :
5 2x
7
12 x 2
5
y = 2

.
3 x 4 3x - 1 6x 1 3cos2 5x

.

. , f(x) ,
- x, f '(x) ;
g(x) , . . g(x)
x, g'(x) .
-
, ..
. ,
, .
.
. ,
,
, ,
,
, .
v x : v = f(x) -
v/x, -

dv
.
dx

u = u(t), u t.

t = t1 - t0: u = u(t1) - u(t0) = u(t0+t) - u(t0).


, .. z .= u/t.
z(t0) t0 ,
z . t0: z

u
. , ,
t 0 t

lim

: z(t0) = u'(t0).
K x.
K = K(x). , .
x+ K(x + ). ,

K = K(x + ) - K(x).
K/.
.

K
K (x) .
x 0 x

lim

u(x) x ,

u
u (x)
x 0 x

lim

.
,
. ( )
, .
( ).
, y = f(x), y = f (x).
y = f(x) x

y / y

lim x / x y
x o

f (x) .

x dy

Ex (y) = x/y f (x) = y dx .


x (
), 1%.
, , ,
.
,
.
. ,
,
.
.
,
.
. ,
- ,
.
5.3. . .
.
.
. y f (x)
x . , (14.43), y
f ( x ) x x , x 0 .

( f ( x)x x) f ( x) 0 ,
... x , lim
x 0

( x x) lim 0 .
... , x : lim
x 0
x 0

f
(
x
)

x

, x ,

y

.
. y f (x) x ,
x , .
dy df (x ) . ,
dy f ( x) x .
(14.45)
x
, .. y x .
y x 1 , , (14.45), dy dx x . (14.45)
:
dy f ( x) dx .
(5.1)
.
y f (x)
y
(. 5.1), x.
M
x. x x ,
y = f (x)
y + y
N
T N x x .
, .
A
AMB
( 10.13)
AB tg x . ,
dy

M
, tg f ( x) .
y
B
AB f ( x) x .
xx

x (5.1), dy AB , ..
x
x + x
0
y f (x) x

, x
. 5.1
x .
. ,
y f (x) x , (5.2.) y ,
x , :
y f ( x)x x dy x ,
lim ( x) 0 . , x
x 0

. .. x
, x ,
y dy f ( x )x ,
(5.3.)
.
(5.2.) . y f ( x0 x) f ( x0 ) ,
dy f ( x0 )x ,
f ( x0 x) f ( x0 ) f ( x0 )x .
(5.3.)
x0 x .
;
.

y ( ),
x .
, .

y f (x) ,
x x0 x .
x x x0 x .
(5.4.)
, (14.48),
y f ( x x) f ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) x f ( x0 ) x . (5.5)
y
y

x
f ( x0 )
100%
x 100%
f ( x0 )
f ( x0 )

( f ( x0 ) 0) . (5.6.)

15. 4 17
.
4 17 y 4 x x 17 . x0 16 ,

f ( x0 ) 4 16 2 , f ( x) 1 x
4

3
4

, f (16) 1 32 , x x x0 1 .

(14.48), :
4

x0 x 4 x0 ( x0 4 / 4) x 2 (1 32) 1 2,03125 .

(14.50) (14.51)
:
x 1 ; y f ( x0 ) x 0,03125 ;

0,03125
y x 100%
100% 1,56% .
f ( x0 )
2
. y f (x) ,
x (t ) .
x , , (14.46)
dy f ( x) dx ,
(5.7)
dx x . t ,
dy yt dt ( y x xt )dt y x ( xtdt ) y x dx ,
..
dy f ( x) dx .
(5.8)
(14.52) (14.53), , :
(14.52) dx x , (14.53) dx xt dt .
, ,
.
() ,
, ().
(14.52) (14.53) ,

f ( x)

dy
,
dx

.. dy
dx , x x (t )
.
n - . y f (x)
y f (x ) ,
. f (x) x ,
. ( )
y f (x) y f (x ) : y ( y ) f ( x) (
). , , y x 7 , y 7 x 6 , y (7 x 6 ) 42 x 5 .
, ,
( ) y f (x)
y f (x ) : y ( y ) .

, n - y f (x)
( n 1) - y (n ) f ( n ) ( x) :
y ( n) ( y ( n 1) ) f ( n ) ( x ) , n 1, 2, ...
(14.54)
( 0)
, (14.54) f ( x) f ( x) , ..
.
.
, , .
, , y e x .
n - .
1) n - y x , x 0 , R .
, :
y x 1 ;
y ( 2) ( 1) x 2 ; y (3) ( 1)( 2) x 3 ; ;
y ( n ) ( 1)( 2)...( n 1) x n .
(5.9)
, m , m N ,
( x m ) ( m ) m(m 1)( m 2)...2 1 m! , ( x m ) ( n ) 0 n m .
a 1.
2) n - y a x , a 0
, :
y a x ln a ;
y ( 2) a x ln 2 a ; y (3) a x ln 3 a ; ;
y ( n ) a x ln n a .
(5.10)
x
, y e , n
(e x ) ( n ) e x .
(5.11)
y

sin
x
3) n -
. ,
( 7):
y cos x sin( x 1 2) ;
y ( 2) sin x sin( x 2 2) ;
y (3) cos x sin( x 3 2) ;
.. ;
y ( n ) (sin x) ( n ) sin( x n 2) .
(5.12)
n
4) - y cos x :
y ( n ) (cos x) ( n ) cos( x n 2) .
(5.13)
n -
.
.
s f (t ) , s , t .
, s f (t ) , ..
f (t ) v , v t : v v (t ) .
t v (t ) , t t
v(t t ) . t
v v(t t ) v(t ) .
v t acp t .
t 0 t
a :
a lim acp lim
t 0

t 0

v
vt .
t

v s f (t ) ,
a vt ( s) s .
,
.
. y f (x)
F ( x, y ) 0 .

x , y x ,
y , . ,
x y : y ( x, y ) .
y , ( x, y )
x , y x :
y ( ( x, y )) F ( x, y, y ) .
y ( x, y ) , x y :
y F ( x, y , ( x, y )) ( x, y ) .
x
y
: , y ,
( x, y ) .
16. y , y x ln y , (e 1, e) .
x y :

y 1

y
y

y
.
y 1

x y :
y ( y 1) y y
y
y
y

.
2
2
( y 1)
( y 1)
( y 1) 3
x e 1 , y e :
y (e 1) e (e 1) 3 .
. y f (x) n -
. dy f ( x)dx
x , . dx x
x , dx : ( dx ) 0 .
y f (x)
( ) d 2 y ( ) d 2 f ( x) .
, d 2 y d ( dy ) , ,
:
d 2 y ( dy )dx ( f ( x ) dx )dx f ( x )( dx ) 2 f ( x ) dx 2 .
(14.60)
y f (x)
.
d 3 y d (d 2 y ) ( f ( x ) dx 2 )dx f ( x )dx 3 .
, n - y f (x)
( n 1) - , ..
d n y d ( d n 1 y ) ( f ( n 1) ( x)dx n 1 ) dx f ( n ) ( x) dx n .
, f ( n ) ( x) d n y dx n . , n 1, 2, 3 :

f ( x)

dy
;
dx

f ( x)

d2y
dx 2

; f ( x)

d3y
dx 3

..
.
, (n 2)
, .
, y f (x) , x (t ) , t , .. y
t . , (t )
t , f (x)
x .

d 2 y ( f ( x)) dt 2 ( f ( x) (t ))t dt 2 ( f ( x )( (t )) 2 f ( x) (t ))dt 2 ,
t2

d 2 y f ( x )dx 2 f ( x )d 2 x . x , d 2 x ( x)dx 2 0
d 2 y f ( x) dx 2 .
17. d 3 y , y 3 e 2 x 1 , x .
y 2 3 e 2 x 1 3 , y 4 3 e 2 x 1 9 , y 8 3 e 2 x 1 27 , (14.60)

d y 8 3 e 2 x 1 27 dx 3 .
3

5.4. : , , , .
.

. y f (x) ( a, b)
x0 (a, b) . , x0 f ( x0 ) ,

f ( x0 ) 0 .

x0 , .. f ( x) f ( x0 )
x ( a, b) . , y f ( x0 x) f ( x0 ) 0 x0 x (a, b) .
f (x) x0 x 0 ( x x0 )
y
y
0
lim
f ( x0 ) 0 ,

x 0 x
x
x 0 ( x x0 )
y
y
0
lim
f ( x0 ) 0 .

x 0 x
x
f ( x0 ) , , f ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) . ,
f ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) 0 . f ( x0 ) 0 .
.
. x0

, f ( x0 ) tg 0 ,
0 , .. 0 x
( x 4 x6 . 14.6).
, , .., f ( x0 ) 0 , , x0

( x2 .14.6).
. y f (x) :
1) [ a, b] ;
1) ( a, b) ;
2) f ( a) f (b) .
c (a, b) , f (c) 0 .
y f (x) [ a, b] , 13.18
m M , ..
x1 , x2 [a, b] , f ( x1 ) m , f ( x2 ) M m f ( x ) M . M m ,
f (x) [ a, b] , , f ( x ) 0
[ a, b] .
M m , c (a, b) ,
f ( a) f (b) . , f (x) c , f (c) 0 .

, [ a, b]
c , , f (x) (c, f (c ))
0 x (. 14.7). .

(1601 1665) .
(1652 1719) .

y
B

f (a )

0 a c1

c2

c3

b x

0 a

. 5.2

A
b x

. 5.3

, ,
.
. y f (x) y g (x) :
1) [ a, b] ;
2) ( a, b) ;
3) g ( x) 0 , x ( a, b) .
c (a, b) ,

f (b) f (a ) f (c )

.
g (b) g (a ) g (c )

(14.62)

, g (b) g (a ) , (a, b)
c , , g (c) 0 , g ( x ) 0 x ( a, b) .

f (b) f (a )
F ( x) f ( x ) f (a )
( g ( x) g (a )) .
g (b) g (a )
F (x ) : 1) [ a, b] ; 2) (a, b) ; 3) F ( a ) F (b) 0 .
c (a, b) , , F (c ) 0 .
f (b) f (a )
f (b) f ( a )
F ( x ) f ( x )
g ( x ) , F (c ) f (c)
g (c) 0 .
g (b) g (a )
g (b) g ( a )
, , g (c) 0 , (14.62).
. y f (x) :
1) [ a, b] ;
2) ( a, b)
c (a, b) , ,
f (b ) f ( a )
f (c ) f (b) f (a ) f (c)(b a) .
(14.63)
ba

. ,
g
(
x
) x , g (b) g ( a ) b a , g ( x) 1 , g (c ) 1 .

(14.62), (14.63).
(14.63) .

f (b) f (a ) f (a (b a ))(b a ) , 0 1,
, a (b a ) c . a x , b x x ,
f ( x x) f ( x) f ( x x) x , 0 1.
(14.64)
, (14.63).
(1736 1813) .

(. 14.8). ( f (b) f ( a )) (b a )
, , A( a, f ( a )) B (b, f (b))
y f (x) , 0 x , f (c ) (c, f (c )) .
, (a, b) c , ,
y f (x) (c, f (c )) , A B .
, , , .
,
.

.
1. 0/0. .

lim f(x) = lim g(x) = 0, lim f(x)


x a

xa

x a

g(x)

lim
x a

f (x)
, .
g (x)

2. /. .

lim f(x) = lim g(x) = , lim f(x)


x a

xa

x a

g(x)

lim
x a

f (x)
, .
g (x)

3. 0 , - , 1 00 0/0 /
.
5.22. y =

1
1
x
x 0.
x e 1

. -.
0/0, .
. ,
:

(e x 1 x)
ex 1 x
1
1
ex 1
=
=
=
=
(

)
lim
lim
lim
lim
x
x
x0 x
e x 1 x0 x(e 1) x0 (x(e 1)) x0 xe x 1 e x
(e x 1)
ex
1
= lim
=
.
lim
x
x
x
x
x
x 0 (xe 1 e )
x 0 xe e e
2
5.23. lim

ln x

.
x
. / , :
x +

lim

x +

5.24.

ln x
x

= lim

x +

1/ x
1 / (2 x )

= lim

x +

2
x

=0.

x
1/x
lim (e x) .
x0

. 1. A. A =
x
1/x
lim (e x) .
x0

1
ln( e x x)
ex 1
x
ln A = lim ( ln(e x)) = lim
= lim x
= 2, A = e2.
x 0 x
x 0 e + x
x 0
x
5.5. , .
. , . .
y=f(x) () , x 1< x2
f(x1) < f (x2) (f(x1) > f(x2)).

y = f(x) [a, b] (),


f (x) 0 (f (x) 0).
x () f(x),
x, f(x) f(x) (f(x) f(x)).
,
- .
. x f(x),
f (x) = 0, f (x) . ,
.
.
. x - . f (x)
x , x , - .
, x
.

f(x)

f (x) x f (x 0 ) x. f (x) = 0, f (x 0 )
>0 ( f (x 0 ) <0), x () f(x).
f (x 0 ) =0, ,
.
[a,b] y = f(x)
, [a,b].
5.25. f(x) = 2x3 - 15x2+ 36x - 14.
. f (x) = 6x2 - 30x +36 = 6(x -2)(x - 3), x 1 = 2 x2 =
3. . x 1 = 2
, . x 2 =
3 , x 2 = 3 .

x1 = 2 x2 = 3, : f(2) = 14 f(3) = 13.


5.26. ,
, .
a .
?
. x y. S = xy. y , . 2x + y =
a. y = a - 2x S = x(a - 2x), 0 x a/2 (
). S = a - 4x, a - 4x = 0 x = a/4,
y = a - 2a/4 =a/2. x = a/4 - , ,
. x < a/4 S >0, x >a/4 S <0, , x=a/4
S . S(a/4) = a/4(a - a/2) = a2 /8 (. ).
S [0, a/2] S(0) S(a/2) ,
. ,
y = 2x.
5.27. V=16 50 3.
( R ),
?
. S = 2R(R+).
V = R2 = V/R2 =16/ R2 = 16/ R2. , S(R) = 2(R2+16/R).
: S (R) = 2(2R- 16/R2) = 4 (R- 8/R2). S (R) = 0 R3 = 8,
, R = 2, = 16/4 = 4.

6.
, , (,
, ..) : ;
; ..
.

.

. ,
.

.
6.1. . .
.
. F ( x)
f (x) ( a; b) x ( a; b)

F ( x) f ( x) ( dF ( x) f ( x)dx ).

(6.1)

[a; b] , a
.

1. F ( x) s i n3x f ( x) 3cos3x

(; ) , F ( x) (s i n 3x) 3cos3x f ( x) .
F ( x) ln | x |
F ( x) (ln | x |) 1 x f ( x) , x 0 .
F ( x) 4 x

f ( x) 1 x ,

x 0 ,

f ( x) x

(2; 2) , F ( x) ( 4 x ) x
2

4 x 2

4 x 2 f ( x) .

, F ( x) sin 3x C , F ( x) ln | x | C F ( x) 4 x C ,
C const , f (x) ,
(16.1).
16.1 F ( x) f (x) (a; b),
F ( x) C , ,
f (x) .
, F ( x) , .. F ( x ) f ( x) , ( F ( x) C ) F ( x) f ( x)
2

C , .. F ( x ) C .

( x) f (x) , .. ( x ) F ( x) f ( x) .
x ( a; b)
( ( x ) F ( x )) ( x) F ( x ) f ( x) f ( x) 0 .
, ( x) F ( x) C , . ,
( x) F ( x) C .
F ( x) C f (x) (a; b)
f (x)

f (x)dx . ,

f (x)dx F (x) C .

(6.2)

f (x) , f ( x)dx ,
, .
, 1,

3cos3xdx s i n3x C ;
( x 4 x )d x
2

dxx ln | x | C ;
4 x2 C

.

.

16.1
,

f
(x
)


2
y F (x ) (. 16.1).
1
0
C C0 ,

y F ( x) C
y F ( x) C
y F (x)

x0

y F ( x) C

. 6.1

y F ( x) C0
()

.

3
,

,
,
,

( x0 ; y 0 ) . .
y F ( x) C .. y0 F ( x 0 ) C .
: C C0 y0 F ( x0 ) . y F ( x) C0
, ( x0 ; y0 ) .

2. f ( x) 1 x , x0 e
y0 5 .

y dx ln | x | C
x
1 ,
.

x0 e , y0 5 ; 5 ln e C , C C0 4 . ,
y ln | x | 4 .
.17 ,
. ,
.
, , ,
, .
.
, .
16.1. ;
, ..

( f ( x)d x) f ( x)

d ( f ( x)dx) f ( x)d x

(6.3)

( f ( x)dx) (F ( x) C ) F ( x) 0 f ( x)

d ( f ( x)dx) ( f ( x)dx)dx f ( x)dx

.
.
,

3co s3xdx s in3x C

, (sin 3 x C ) 3 cos 3 x .
6.2.
, ..

d F (x) F ( x) C .

(6.4)

dF (x) F (x)dx f (x)dx F (x) C .

6.3. , .., k const 0 ,

k f (x)dx k f (x)dx .

(6.5)

k f (x)dx k F (x)dx (k F (x))d x d (kF ( x)) kF (x) C k (F ( x)


C k ) C C k k (F ( x) C ) k f ( x)dx
.
1

6.4.
, ..

( f ( x) g ( x))d x f (x)d x g (x)dx .

(6.6)
16.3.
, ..
n


i 1

f ( x)dx i fi ( x)dx

i i

i 1

6.5. ( ).

f (u)du F (u) C ,

(6.7)

f (x)dx F (x) C ,
(6.8)

u (x) , .
,

f (x)dx F (x) C ,

F ( x) f ( x)

u (x) .

F (u) F ( ( x)) .
dF (u) F (u)du f (u)du .

f (u)du d F (u) F (u) C

.
,
, ,
.
,

3cos3xdx s i n3x C

3cos3udu si n3u C . ,
3cos(3e )de
x

si n(3e x ) C

( u (x) )

16.6. F ( x) f (x) ,

f (ax b)dx 1a F (ax b) C .

(6.9)

1a F (ax b) C 1a aF (ax b) f (ax b) .


,

axdx b ln | ax b |

6.7.
,

a C

f ( x)
dx ln | f ( x) | C
f ( x)
.

(6.10)

(ln | f ( x) | C ) f ( x) f ( x) .

.
, .
, , ,
.
, ,
, . (..
) ,
.
,
,
.
, u
x , ,
6.5.
,
.
1.
2.
3.

u 1 C
u
du

( 1)
1
ln | u | C
du
u
;
u
u
a du lna a C ;

9.

sin ud u co s u C ;
t g udu ln cos u C ;
du t g u C
cos
u
;

11.

sidun u ln t g

5.
7.

u C
2
;

du u C );
4.
6.
8.
10.
12.

du e u C

cos ud u si n u C ;
ct g udu ln si n u C ;
ct g u C
sidu
n u
;
2

du ln t g u C
2 4 ;
cos
u

13.

sh

15.

chduu t h

u du ch u C

ch udu s h u C ;
2

u C

14.

16.

shduu ct h
2

u C

17.

u du
a
2

uudu
a

1 ln u a C
2a u a

1 arct g u C
a
a
;

18.

1 ln u 2 a 2 C
2
;
udu 1 ln | a 2 u 2 | C
a2 u 2 2
;
arcsi n u C
adu
2
2
a
u
;
du ln u u 2 a 2 C
u2 a2
;
u 2 a2 C
uudu
2
2
a
;
2
2
a u C
audu
2
u2
;
2

19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

u du
a

u 2 a 2 du u u 2 a 2 a ln u u 2 a 2 C
2
2
;
2
2
u a2 u 2 a 2 arcs i n u C
a

u
du

2
2
a
;
au
au
bu e C
2
e cos budu b si n bua2 abcos
;
au
b cos bu eau C
2
e si n budu a si n bu
a b2
;

26.
27.
28.

(u

du
u
2k 3
du
2 k
2
2
2 k 1 2
2

a ) a (2k 2)(u a )
a (2k 2) (u a 2 )k 1 .

29.
, ,
.
21.

1
d arcsi n u C
1 du du
2
a
a2 u 2 .
1 u a a
, ,
. , 2 ,
u 0 ; 21 ( a; a ) ..
(16.9), . :

1 t g (au b) C
cos (du
au b) a
2

ct g (au b)du 1a ln

si n(au b) C

, ..
F (x ) f (x) , ,
f ( x ) dx

.

, .. ,
. , ,
,
e

x2

sin x

dx
2

dx

2
, cos x dx ,

dx
e x dx
ln x x ,
sixn x dx , cosx x dx ,
.

, .
.
6.2. .
, .
.
,
.
6.5,
,
.
.

f (u)du d ( f (u)) :

udu d (u 2 b) 2 ;
s i n udu d (cos u) ;
du u d (ln u) ; du si n 2 u d (ct g u) ..
.

4x
3.

cos udu d (s i n u) ;

3 35 7 3x 2 x 5cos x 2 2 3x 5 24 x dx
x x
x 7 2x 1
3
1 3
x
dx
(16.7) 4 x dx 3 dx 5 x dx 7 x 6 dx 5 cos xdx
2 2dx 3 x2 dx 5 2dx 4 x2 dx | : 1; 2; 3; 6; 17;
2 x 1 2
2 x 1 2
x 7
x 7
19; 22; 23| x4 3x 15x 2 3 2 7ln | x | 6 x ln6 5s i n x 2 arct g x
7
7
2
2
2
3ln | x 7 | 2 5ln | x x 1 2 | 2 2 2 x 1 2 C .

ctg
4.

d (si n u)
udu cos udu
| (16.10) |
si n u
si n u

ln |si n u | C ( 8).
du (: (7.10)
du

2
2
cos

u
cos
(
u
2)

si
n
(
u
2)
5.

d (t g(u 2))
du
2
(16.8); : 18
2
(1 t g (u 2))cos (u 2)
1 t g 2(u 2)
2

t g(u 2) 1
t g(u 2) t g( 4)
2 1 ln
C ln
C : (7.5)
2
t g(u 2) 1
1 t g(u 2)t g( 4)
ln t g u C
2 4
( 12).
2
2
udu 1 d (a u ) (16.10) 1 ln | a2 u 2 |
2 2 2 a2 u 2
2
6. a u
C ( 20).
2
2
udu 1 d (u a ) (16.8); : 1
u 2 a2 2 u 2 a2
7.
1 2 u 2 a2 C u2 a2 C
2
( 23).

3x 2
4 (3 35x)3 e 2s i n(4x 1) 7t g 5x cos2(35 5x)
8.

4 s i n3x 2ch (2 5x) dx (16.7) 3 (3 5 x) 3 4 dx e3x 2dx

dx
4 dx 2 ch (2 5 x)dx
s i n3x
cos (3 5x)
(16.9); : 1; 4; 5; 7; 9; 11; 14 12(3 5 x)1 4 5 e3x4 3
cos (4 x 1) 2 7ln cos5x 5 t g (3 5 x) 4ln | t g(3 x 2) | 3 2s h (2 5x) 5 C
2 s i n(4 x 1)dx 7 t g 5xdx 5

co s mx co s n x dx , sin mx si n nx d x , si n mx co s n x d x (6.11)

: (7.31) (7.33),

cos

2k

, sin
: (7.18); (7.19).
mx dx

2k

mx dx

(6.12)

si n3x s in 4 x si n5x dx : (7 .3 2 )
1 (cos x cos7 x)s i n5x dx 1 si n5x cos x dx 1 s i n5 x
cos7 x dx
2
2
2
: (7.33) 1 (si n 4 x s i n6 x) dx 1 (s i n( 2 x) si n12 x) dx
4
4
1 si n 4 x dx 1 s i n6 x dx 1 si n 2 x dx 1 s i n12 x dx | (16.9); :5|
4
4
4
4

9.

cos4 x 16 cos6 x 24 cos2 x 8 cos12 x 48 C .

cos
10.

2 x dx (cos2 2 x)2 dx (: (7.18)

1 cos4 x dx 1 (1 2cos4 x cos2 4 x) dx


2
4
1 1 2cos4 x 1 cos8x dx (16.7) 1 3 dx 2 cos4 xdx
4
2
4 2
1 cos8x dx (16.9); : 1; 6 3x 8 s i n 4 x 8 si n8 x 64 C
2
.
I 2 dx
.
2x 7 x 1
11.

, : (2.2) ,

2 x2 7 x 1 2( x 2 (7 2) x 1 2) 2( x 2 2 x(7 4) 49 16 49 16 1 2)
2(( x 7 4)2 41 16).
dx
I 1
(16.9); : 18 1 ln 4 x 7 41 C
2 ( x 7 4)2 41 16
41
4 x 7 41
.
dx
I
.
2 2 x 3x 2
12.
: (2.2) ,

3x2 2x 2 3( x 2 (2 3) x 2 3) 3( x 2 2 x(1 3) 1 9 1 9 2 3)
3(( x 1 3) 2 7 9).

dx
I 1
(16.9); : 21 1 arcs i n 3x 1 C.
3 7 9 ( x 1 3)2
3
7

Mx N

ax 2 bx c dx

Mx N
ax 2 bx c

dx

(6.13)
2
ax

b


, .

x 2 dx.
3x x 5
13.
2

(3x x 5) 6 x 1, x 2 (6 x 1 1) 6 2 (6 x 1) 6
I

: (2.2) ,

13 6.

3x2 x 5 3(( x 1 6) 59 36).

(6x 1) 13
d (3x2 x 5) 13
dx
1
1
I 2
dx

| (16.10);
6 3x x 5
6 3x 2 x 5 18 ( x 1 6)2 59 36
(16.9); :17 | 1 ln 3x2 x 5 13 arct g 6 x 1 C.
6
3 59
59

4
3
I 2 x 3x x 5 dx.
x2
14.

: ( 1.4) .
( : 1.2) : (1.35) ,

2x4 3x2 x 5 2 x3 4 x2 11x 21 37 .


x2
x2
I (2 x3 4 x2 11x 21 37 )dx (16.7) 2 x3dx 4 x 2dx 11 xdx
x2
21 dx 37 dx | :1; 2| x 4 2 4 x3 3 11x 2 2 21x 37ln | x 2|
C.
x2
, ,
.
( ).
x t

f (x)d x , ,

.
.

f (x)dx


.
x

(t
)

(t
)
,
,
,

(t ) , dx (t )dt . ,

f (x)dx f ( (t)) (t)dt .

(6.14)
.
, , .
(16.3),

d f ( x)dx f ( x)d x f ( (t )) (t )d t


dx t .
, ,

d f ( (t )) (t )d t f ( (t )) (t )dt

.
(16.14) .
, , (6.14), , ..

f ( (t)) (t)dt (t) C .

x ,
x (t ) t , .. t g ( x) , (t ) :

f (x)dx f ( (t )) (t)dt (t) C ( g (x)) C .

(6.15)

(6.13).
I

3x 1
2

dx

2x 5x 1 .
15.
, : (2.2),

2 x2 5x 1 2(( x 5 4)2 17 16) .


t x 5 4 x t 5 4 , dx dt . ,
3(t 5 4) 1
I 1 2
dt 3 2 t dt
11 2 dt
| :
2
2 t 17 16 4 2 t 17 16
t 17 16
23; 22| 3 t 2 17 16 11 ln t t 2 17 16 C 3 x 2 (5 2) x 1 2
2
4 2
2
2
11 ln x 5 4 x (5 2) x 1 2 C
4 2
.

(mx n)

dx
ax 2 bx c (i 1, 2)

(6.16.)
mx n 1 t .

dx
x x 2x 1 .
16.
2
x 1 t t 1 x , dx dt t . ,
dt t 2
dt
dt
I


| (16.9); : 21|
2
2
1 t 1 t 2 t 1
1 2t t
2 (t 1) 2

x (t ) .

arcsi n t 1 C arcsi n 1 x C
2
x 2
.
17.

I x 3 x 1 dx

x t 1 t x 1 , dx 3t dt . ,
3

I (t 3 1) t 3t 2dt 3 (t 6 t 3)dt 3 t 7 7 t 4 4 C

3 (( x 1) 2 3 x 1) 7 (( x 1) 3 x 1) 4 C 3( x 1) 3 x 1 ( ( x 1) 7
1 4 ) C 3( x 1)(4 x 3) 3 x 1 28 C .

t , , , t x .
,

f ( ( x))( x)dx ,

x,

t ( x) , dt (t )dt (6.15), ..
f ( ( x)) ( x)d x f (t)dt (t) C ( (x)) C

. (6.17)

x2

I 2 xe 2dx
2
1 e x .
18.
2
x t , dt 2 xdx . ,

t
d (e )
t
x2
I e dt2t

:
17
|

arct
g
e

arct
g
e
C
1 e
1 (et ) 2
.

ln 3 x
dx
x
.

19.
ln x t , dt dx x . ,

I t 3d t t 4 4 C ln 4 x 4 C

I s i n 2 x2 dx
4 si n x .
20.
2

s i n x t , dt 2 si n x cos xdx | : (7.9) |

sin 2 xdx .

I dt | (16.9); : 2 | ln 4 t C ln 4 si n 2 x C
4t
.

.
.
.
.

u u( x) v v( x) ,

, d (uv) udv vdu ,


udv d (uv) vdu . ,

u dv d (uv) vdu udv u v vd u .

(6.18)
( , ).
(16.18) ,
. (16.18)
u dv ( , ,

). du
v , v - ,
.
2x
21. I xe dx .

u x,
dv e 2xdx .
du dx ,

2x
| (16.9); : 4 | e 2 . (6.18),

xe dx 12 xe
I ln x dx
.
2x

22.

I u ln x
dv dx

2x

v e2xdx

1 e 2 xdx 1 xe 2 x 1 e 2 x C
2
2
4
.

du dx x x ln x x dx x ln x x C
x
vx
.

(16.18) .
23.

I (a x 2 bx c) cos x d x

2
I u ax bx c du (2ax b)dx ax bx c si n x
dv cos x dx v si n x

du 2adx
1 (2ax b) si n x dx u 2ax b

dv s i n x dx v cos x

2
ax bx c s i n x 1 2ax b cos x 2a cos x dx

2
ax bx c s i n x 2ax 2 b cos x 2 a3 s i n x C

. (6.20)
2

, (16.18)
1.

P (x)e
n

kx

dx

P (x) si n kx dx , P (x) cos kx dx ,


n

(6.21)

Pn ( x) , k .
, u Pn (x) , dv
.
, ,
. , n - (16.18)
(: 21, 23).
2.

P (x) ln x dx , P (x) arcsi n x dx , P (x) arccos x dx ,


P (x)arct g x dx , P (x)arcctg x dx .
(6.22)
n

dv Pn ( x)dx , u
( 22).
24.

I arcsi n x dx

2
I u arcsi n x du dx 1 x x arcs i n x xdx 2
dv dx

vx
1 x

x arcsi n x 1 x 2 C .

Pn ( x ) ln

m N , m 1 .

xdx

(6.23)

i
(16.18), u ln x , i m, m 1, ..., 1 , dv Pn ( x)dx .

25.

I x ln 2 x d x

du 2 ln xdx x x 2 ln 2 x x 2 2 ln x dx
I u ln x
2 x
2
dv xdx
v x2 2

2
2
u ln x
du dx x
x ln 2 x x ln xdx
x ln 2 x
2
dv xdx v x 2
2
2
x 2 ln x 2 1 xdx x 2 ln 2 x 2 x 2 ln x 2 x 2 4 C
2
.
2

3. ,
. ,
.

I a 2 x 2dx

26.
.
,

a2 x2 .
I

a2 x2
a2 x2

dx a 2

dx
a2 x2

xdx
a2 x2 .

(6.18)

ux
du dx
2
2
xdx
2
2 x a x
a 2 x 2dx
xdx

2
2
dv

x
a x
a2 x2

I a 2 arcsi n x x a 2 x 2 I
a
.
I ,
2
2
2
2
2
a x d x a 2 arcsi n x a x a x 2 C

(6.24)

x 2 a 2dx x x 2 a 2 2 a 2 ln | x x 2 a 2 | 2 C
I e cos b x d x

. (6.25)

ax

27.

du ae dx e ax si n bx a e ax si n bx dx
I ue
dv cos bxdx v si n bx b
b
b

ax
du aeaxdx eax sin bx a eax cos bx a eax cos bxdx
u e
dv sin bxdx v cos bx b
b
b
b
b
.
ax

ax

,
2
I b s i n bx 2a cos bx e ax a 2 I
b
b ,

I e ax cos bxdx

b sin bx a cos bx ax
e C
a2 b2
.

(6.26)

I e ax s i n bxdx a si n bx2 b 2cos bx e ax C


a b
.

(6.27)
, .. ,
, .

Ik

dx
( x a 2 )k .
2

28.
:

( x2 a2 ) x2
1
dx
1
x 2dx
I k 12
dx

a
( x 2 a 2 )k
a 2 ( x2 a 2 )k 1 a 2 ( x 2 a 2 )k .
(6.18)

ux
du dx
xdx
xdx
1

dv 2
v
2 k
2
2 k 1
( x2 a 2 )k
(x a )
2(k 1)( x a )
x
1
dx

2
2 k 1
2

2(
k

1)
2(k 1)( x a )
( x a 2 )k 1 .

x
1 I
I k 12 I k 1 12
2
2 k 1
2(k 1) k 1
a
a 2(k 1)( x a )

x
2k 3 I
2
2
2 k 1
2a (k 1)( x a )
2a 2 (k 1) k 1

I k 1

(6.28)

dx
( x a2 )k 1 .
2

, I k 1 , (6.28) I k
. , k 2

I2

dx
x
1
dx
x
1 arctg x
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
a
( x a ) 2a ( x a ) 2a x a 2a ( x a ) 2a3
2

C .

(6.29)

I xneax cos bx dx

I xneax sin bx dx

,
n N , ,
x : 27; 28. ,
: 27; 28,
n
I {xn e1ax4cos
4 2 bx
4 4dx
3 x
u

dv

eax (b sin bx a cos bx)


2nb 2 x n1eax sin bx dx
2
2
a b
a b

2na 2 xn1eax cos bx dx


a b
,
ax
n e (a sin bx b cos bx)
I {xn e1ax4sin
2na 2 x n1eax sin bx dx
2
2
4 2 bx
4 4dx
3 x
a b
a b
u
dv
2nb 2 xn1eax cos bx dx
a b
.
(6.24) (6.28) 6.5, : 25 29.

I x3e x dx
2

29.
.
2 = t, dt = 2x dx. ,

2
2
u t
du dt 1 t
I 1 tet dt
(te et dt ) 1 ( x 2e x e x ) C
t
t
dv e dt v e
2
2
2
.

.

.
6.3. . .
. .
.
)

n -

P n ( x) a0 x n a1x n1 ... an1x an ,

(6.30)

n N , ak (k 0, 1, ..., n)
, .
(16.30) ( ),
, .. Pn ( ) 0 .
16.2. x1 (16.30) ,
Pn ( x) x x1 , ..
Pn ( x) ( x x1 ) Pn 1 ( x) ,

(6.31)

Pn1( x) n 1 .
16.3. ( ). Pn ( x) n 1
, .
.
.
16.4. Pn ( x) n

n x xk a0 x , ..
Pn ( x) a0 ( x x1)( x x2 )...( x xn ) .
(6.32)

, 16.3 (16.30) , , x1 .
16.2 (16.31). Pn1( x) ,
, , x2 .

Pn1( x) ( x x1)( x x2 )Pn2 ( x) .

, 16.32.
x1 , x2 , , xn - k ,
k . k 1 . ,
, (16.32) :

Pn ( x) a0 ( x x1)k1 ( x x2 )k2 ...( x xm ) ,


(1730 1783) .

(6.33)

x1 , x2 , , xm k1 k 2 ... km n .
, , P7 ( x) 3( x 2) ( x 1) ( x 4) : x1 2
4

4; x2 1 2; x3 4 .
(16.33) , n - n ,
, .
16.5. (16.30) ,
.

16.6. Pn ( x)
a bi k , a bi
.
, :

( x (a ib))k ( x (a ib))k ((( x a) ib)(( x a) ib))k (( x a) 2 b 2) k


( x2 2ax a 2 b 2 )k ( x 2 px q)k ,
p 2a , q a b .
, , ,
.

:
2

Pn ( x) a0 ( x x1)k1 ( x x2 )k2...( x xs )ks )( x 2 p1x q1)l1...( x 2 pm x qm )lm ,(6.34)

k1 k 2 ... ks 2(l1 l 2 ... lm ) n .


,
.
. ,
, ( ), ..

f ( x)

Qm ( x)
Pn ( x) ,

(6.35)

Qm ( x) Pn ( x) m - n - . m n (m n) ,
(16.35) ().
,

x2 3
x3 2 x 2 x 2 ,

3x 4
3
x x2 2 ,

x2 x 1
x2 6x 7 ,

x 2x 2x x 5
x2 1
.
5

, (: 1.4),

Qm ( x)
R ( x)
S m n ( x) l
Pn ( x)
Pn ( x) ,
(6.36)
Sm n ( x) , , Rl ( x) (l n) .
30. (16.36) .
(: 1.4),

x 5 2 x3 2 x 2 x 5
x5 x3
x3 2 x 2 x 5

x2 1
x3 x 2

x3
2x 5
2 x2 2

x5 2 x 3 2 x 2 x 5 x3 x 2 3
x2 1
x2 1 .
(6.36),
Smn ( x) Rl ( x) Pn ( x) :

P (x) dx S
Qm ( x)
n

m n

( x)

Rl ( x)
R ( x)
dx Sm n ( x)dx l dx
Pn ( x)
Pn ( x) .

, (16.35) .
:

A
k
2. ( x a) , k 2 ;
Mx N
2
(
x
px q)k , k 2 ,
4.

A
x

a;
1.
Mx N
2
x
px q ;
3.

6.37

A, M , N , a, p, q , k N , x px q
2

, .. p 4 q 0 .
.
16.7. (16.35) ,
(16.34),
1 4:
2

Ak1
Bk2
Qm ( x)
A
A2
B1
B2
1

...

...

...
Pm ( x) x x1 ( x x1)2
( x x1)k1 x x2 ( x x2 )2
( x x2 )k2

Eks
E1
E2
C1x D1
C x D2

...

2 2
...
2
ks 2
x xs ( x xs )
( x xs ) x p1x q1 ( x p1x q1)2

M lm x Nlm
Cl1 x Dl1
M1x N1
M 2x N2

...

...

x2 pm x qm ( x 2 pm x qm )2
( x2 p1x q1)l1
( x2 pm x qm )lm ,
(6.38)

A1, A2, ..., B1, B2, ..., E1, E2, ..., C1, D1, ..., M 1, N1, ...
, .
(16.38) .
31. ,
:

x2 3
3
2
1) x 2 x x 2 ;
8x3 10 x2 30 x 19
2
2
3) ( x 2) ( x 4 x 5) ;

3x 4
2
2) x x 2 ;
2 x3 18x 1
2
2
4) ( x 4 x 5) .
3

1)

x3 2x2 x 2 x( x2 1) 2( x2 1) ( x 1)( x 1)( x 2) .


x2 3
A B C
3
2
x 2x x 2 x 1 x 1 x 2 .

2) x x 2 ( x 1) ( x 1) ( x 1)( x x 1) ( x 1)( x 1)
3

( x 1)( x2 2 x 2) .

3x 4 A Bx C
x x2 2 x 1 x2 2x 2 .
8x3 10 x2 30 x 19 A B Cx D
2
2
x 2 ( x 2)2 x 2 4 x 5
3) ( x 2) ( x 4 x 5)
.
3
2 x 18x 1 Ax B Cx D
2
2
x2 4 x 5 ( x2 4 x 5)2 .
4) ( x 4 x 5)
3

(6.37).
1.

x A a dx
(x Aa)

(16.9); : 2 ln x a C

1
dx (16.9); : 1 A
C
1 k ( x a)k 1

2.
.
3. 13.
4. (16.9) : 1; 17 20; 29 ( 33 5)).
,
:
.
.

A1, A2, ..., B1, B2, ... (6.38).


. :
) Pn ( x) , .. (16.34).
) (6.35)
(6.38).
) (16.38) Pn (x )

; Qm ( x) Pn ( x) Sn 1( x) Pn ( x) , Sn1( x)
. ,
, ..

Qm ( x) Sn1( x) .

(6.39)
) ,
, x ,
.
) (6.35) (6.38)
.
. (6.39) x
, ,
, .
, Pn (x )
.
.
32. 31.
,
).
2

1) ) x 3 A( x 1)( x 2) B ( x 1)( x 2) C ( x 1)( x 1) .


) .

x 1 : 2 A( 2)( 3) A 1 3 ;
x 1 : 2 B 2( 1) B 1 ;
C 1 3.
x 2:
1 C 3

x2 3
1 1 1
3
2
3( x 1) x 1 3( x 2) .
) x 2 x x 2
2

2) ) 3 x 4 A( x 2 x 2) ( Bx C )( x 1)
) ,
,

x 1 : 7 A 5 A 7 5 .

(7 5) x2 (1 5) x (6 5) Bx2 (C B) x C

B C .

B 7 5,
C B 1 5,
C
6 5
B 7 5,

3x 4 7
7x 6
3
2
2
5(
x

1)
x x 2
5( x 2 x 2) .

x,

C 6 5.

3) ) 8x 10 x 30 x 19 A( x 2)( x 4 x 5) B( x 4 x 5)
3

( x 2)2 (Cx D) .
) x 2 : 17 B 17 B 1 .
8x3 9x2 26x 24 ( A C ) x3 (2 A 4C D) x 2 ( 3A 4C 4D) x
( 10 A 4D) .
A C
8,
2 A 4C D 9,
3A 4C 4D 26
10 A
4D 24
A 2,

8x3 10 x2 30 x 19 2 1 6 x 11
2
2
x 2 ( x 2)2 x 2 4 x 5
) ( x 2) ( x 4 x 5)
.
3
2
4) ) 2 x 18x 1 ( Ax B)( x 4 x 5) Cx D

C 6,

D 11.

3
3
2
2
x

18
x

Ax

(4
A

B
)
x
(5 A 4B C ) x 5B D .
)
2,
A
4A B
0,
5 A 4B
C 18,

5B D
1

A 2, B 8, C 4, D 41.
2x3 18x 1 2x 8 4 x 41
2
2
x2 4 x 5 ( x2 4 x 5)2 .
) ( x 4 x 5)

.
.
1. ,
(6.36).
2.

.
3. .
33. 30 32.

x5 2 x3 2 x 2 x 5dx x3 x 2 3
dx x3dx
2
2

x 1
x 1
1)
xdx 2 dx 3 2dx x 4 4 x2 2 2 x 3arctg x C
x 1
.
2
( x 3) dx
1 1 1
dx | (16.9); :2 |
3
2

3( x 1) x 1 3( x 2)
2) x 2 x x 2

ln | x 1| 3 ln | x 1| ln | x 2 | 3 C .

3)

(3x 4)dx
7
7 x 6 dx 7 dx 1 (7 x 6)dx

3
2
2
5 x 1 5 x2 2x 2
x x 2 5( x 1) 5( x 2 x 2)
.

2
2

(
x

1)
1 .
x

2
x


t x 1 . x t 1 , dx dt
2dt | :19;17 | 7 ln | t 2 1| 2
( x7x1)26 1 dx 7t 2t 11 dt 7 tt2 dt
1 t 1
2
arctg t C 7 ln | x 2 x 2 | 2 arctg ( x 1) C .

I 7 ln x 1 5 7 ln | x 2 2 x 2 | 10 arctg ( x 1) 5 C .
3
2
I 8x 102x 2 30 x 19 dx (16.7) 2 dx dx 2
x2
( x 2) ( x 4 x 5)
( x 2)
4)
26 x 11 dx.
x 4x 5
t x2
6 x 11 dx x t 2 6t 1 dt 6 tdt dt 3 ln | t 2 1|
(x 2)2 1
t2 1
t2 1 t2 1
dx dt
arctg t C 3 ln | x 2 4 x 5 | arctg ( x 2) C .

I 2 ln | x 2 | 1 ( x 2) 3 ln | x 2 4 x 5 | arctg ( x 2) C .
3
I 2 x2 18x 12 dx | (16.7) | 2 2 x 8 dx 24 x 41 2dx
( x 4 x 5)
x 4x 5
( x 4x 5)
5)
.
t x2
2 x 8 dx x t 2 2t 12 dt 2 tdt 12 dt
( x 2)2 1
t2 1
t2 1 t2 1
dx dt
ln | t 2 1| 12arctg t C ln | x2 4 x 5 | 12arctg ( x 2) C .

t x2
4 x 41 dx x t 2 4t 33 dt 4 tdt 33
dt
2
2
2
2
2
((x 2)2 1)2

(
t

1)
(
t

1)
(
t
1)2
dx dt
d (t 2 1)
dt | :1; 29 | 2 33(t 2(t 2 1)
2 2
2 33 2
(t 1)
(t 1)2
t2 1
arctg t 2) C 2 2
33 2 x 2 33 arctg ( x 2) C
x 4x 5 2 x 4x 5 2
.

2
33 2 x 2
x 4x 5 2 x 4x 5
x 62 9 arctg ( x 2)
33 arctg ( x 2) C ln x 2 4 x 5 33
2
2
2( x 4 x 5) 2
C .

I ln | x2 4 x 5 | 12arctg ( x 2)

6.4.

f (x)dx

.
,
f
(x
)

, ,

g (t)dt ,

f (x)dx ,

g (t ) , , ,

f (x)dx .

2x
x
I 2e x e dx
e 1
,

x
x
2
. t e , e t , x 2 ln t , dx 2 dt t .
4
3
I 2 2t2 t dt 2 2t2 1 dt
t 1 , ..
(t 1)

R (, R( x) ).
x .
, , , .. ,
(, ,
2
2
). , R(u, v) (2uv 3u v 5) (3u 4u 1)
.

, R(u, v) ,

t , .. u (t ) , v g (t ) , R(u, v) R( (t ), g (t ))
. , , ,
.
,
.
,

f ( x)

x 3 ( x2 5)2 4 ( x 3)3
x3(2 5 x 7)

2
2
3
3
4
5
u

(
x

5)
,
v

(
x

3)
;
w x 7 ,
R( x, u, v, w) .

2
3
3
f ( x) (sin x 2 cos x) (cos x 3 sin x 5) sin x
cos x : f ( x) R(sin x; cos x) .

R(sin x; cos x) dx . ,

t tg ( x 2) , ,
t . , : (7.28);

(7.29) : 24,
2
sin x 2t 2
cos x 1 t 2
1 t ;
1 t ;
x 2arctg t .

dx 2dt2
1 t ,

sin x ,

R(sin x; cos x) dx R

(6.40)

cos x

dx t ,

2t ; 1 t 2 2dt R (t )dt
1 t2 1 t2 1 t2 1
,

R1 (t ) t .

a sin x dx
b cos x c

(6.41)

dx
9

8
cos
x sin x .
34.
t tg ( x 2) , (16.40),
I

2dt
2 2 dt

2
2
(t 1) 9 8(1 t ) (1 t ) 2t (1 t )
t 2t 17
tg ( x 2) 1
dt
2
1 arctg t 1 C 1 arctg
C
2
4
2
4
(t 1) 16 2
.
t tg ( x 2)
R(sin x; cos x) dx


, .

. , :
R(sin x; cos x )
sin x ,
1)

..

R( sin x; cos x) R(sin x; cos x) , t cos x ;


R(sin x; cos x)
cos x ,
2)

R(sin x; cos x) R(sin x; cos x) , t sin x ;


R(sin x; cos x )
cos x ,
sin x
3)

R( sin x; cos x) R(sin x; cos x) , t tg x .

..
..

R(sin x; cos x ) R1 ( tg x ) .
t tg x , x arctg t ; dx dt (1 t ) .
t tg x
2

dx
x b sin x cos x c cos2 x .
(6.42)
dx
I
1 cos2 x .
35.
t tg x
dx
dx
I

2
2
2
2
dt dx cos2 x
sin x 2 cos x
(tg x 2) cos x

a sin

tg x
2dt : 17 1 arctg t C 1 arctg
C
2
2
2
2
t 2
.

I sinm x cosn x dx


.
:
1) n 2k 1 N , t sin x , cos xdx dt ,

I sin m x cos2k x
cos xdx sin m x(1 sin 2 x)k cos xdx t m (1
t 2 )k dt

.
36.

I t (1 t ) dt (t
12

I sin x cos5 xdx

2 2

12

2t

5 2

t )dt 2t 3 2 3 4t 7 2 7 2t11 2 11
9 2

C sin x 2 sin x 3 4 sin 3 x 7 2 sin 5 x 11 C

2) m 2k 1 N , t cos x , sin xdx dt ,


2k 1
n
2k
n
2 k n
sin x cos xdx sin x cos x sin xdx (1 t ) t dt
.

.
3) m n 0 , m n ,

tg

ctg xdx
n

xdx

( m 0 )
( n 0 ).
t tg x . , : (6.16),
m
t m dt
dt dx2 (1 tg 2 x)dx
dx dt 2
tg
xdx

2
t 1 .

cos x
1 t
t ctg x . , : (6.17),

dt dx2 (1 ctg 2 x)dx


sin x

n
t n dt
dx dt 2
ctg
xdx

t 2 1 .
1 t

, (: 1.4),
.
5
37. I tg xdx .

5
I 2t dt t 3 t 2 t dt | :1;19| t 4 4 t 2 2 ln | t 2 1| 2 C
t 1
t 1

4
2
tg x 4 tg x 2 ln | tg 2 x 1| 2 C .
4) m n 2k ,
I tgm x dx2k
I ctg n x dx2k
cos x
sin x .
dx dt
2
t

tg
x

, cos x

m
m
2 k 1
1
dx
I tg x
t (1 t ) dt
cos2k 2 x cos2 x
.
t

ctg
x

,

I t n (1 t 2 )k 1dt

m 0 n 0

cosdx x , sindx x .
2k

I dx4
sin x .
38.

2k

I t 0 (1 t 2 )dt t t 3 3 C ctg x ctg3x 3 C

5) m (2k 1)
t tg ( x 2) , (16.40),

n 0 ,

2 2k
dx 1 (1 t ) dt
sin 2k 1 x 22k t 2k 1
.

6) n (2k 1) m 0 ,

cosdx

2k 1

x.

5) x t 2 .

dx dt , cos x cos ( t 2) sin t .

7) m n ( m n
), , : (7.9); (7.18); (7.19).
39.

I sin x cos x
sin xdx
1 4 sin 2 2x sin
2 xdx
2

I sin 4 x cos 2 xdx


2

1 16 (1 cos 4 x)(1 cos 2 x)dx 1 16 (1 cos 2 x cos 4 x

cos 4 x cos 2 x) dx (16.7); : (7.31) 1 16 dx 1 16 cos 2 xdx

1 16 cos 4 x dx 1 32 (cos 2 x cos 6 x) dx | : 1; (16.9); : 6|

x 16 sin 2 x 32 sin 4 x 64 sin 2 x 64 sin 6 x 192 C


x 16 sin 2 x 64 sin 4 x 64 sin 6 x 192 C .

,
.

I R x; ax b
cx d

p1

k
; ...; ax b
dx
cx d

.
, a, b, c, d ; p1, p2, ..., pk .
n () , .. pi qi n , i 1, k ,
ax b n
qi . , cx d t .

ax b t n
cx d

n
nt n 1(ad bc)
b

d
t
dx

dt
x n
n
2
(
ct

a
)

ct a
,

b d t n ; t q1; ...; t qk dt R (t )dt


1 ,
ct n a
R1 (t ) t .
3
4
I x 1 6 x 1 dx
( x 1)(1 x 1) .
40.
I R

p1 1 3 ,

p2 1 4 p2 1 6 12.

x 1 t 12 ,

x t12 1 ,

dx 12t 11dt .

(t 4 t 3) t11
t 1 dt
12
2 dt (: 1.4 ) 12 t 1 2
t (1 t )
t 1
12 tdt ddt tdt
2dt | :1;19;17 | 12 t 2 2 t ln | t 2 1| 2
2
t 1 t 1
6
arctg t C 6 x 1 1212 x 1 6ln | 6 x 1 1| 12arctg 12 x 1 C .
I 12

m
n p
x
(
a

bx
) dx , m, n, p
.
, a, b , .

(a bxn ) p dx

.
(6.43)
.., (16.43)
:
k
1) p , x t , k
m n ;

m 1
n
s
2) n , a bx t , s

p ;

a bx n t s
m 1 p
xn
3) n
,
, s

p .
(16.43) .

dx x 4 (1 x 2 )1 2 dx
x 1 x2
41.
.

m 4; n 2; p 1 2 . (m 1) n p 2 Z ,
I

3),

1 x2 t 2
dx 2 tdt 2
x 21
x2 21
2
(t 1) t 1 . ,

x
t 1
t 1 ,

2 3
(t 2 1)2 t 2 1tdt
2
3
1
1

x
1 x2
I

(
t

1)
dt

t
3

3
x2
x2
t (t 2 1) t 2 1
C .
I R x, ax 2 bx c dx


.
.
.

t x b (2a) , : 1)
2
2
2
2
2
2
R t; m t dt R t; m t dt R t; t m dt
; 2)

; 3)

(t m ) ,
.
,

R(sin u,

cos u) du

1) t m sin u (t m cos u) , dt m cos u du ,

R
2)

m2 t 2 m2 m2 sin 2 u | : (6.10) | m cos u .

t; m2 t 2 dt R m sin u; m cos u m cos udu

t m tg u

(t m ctg u) ,

(6.44)

dt

m du cos2 u m sec2 u du ,
m2 t 2 m2 m2tg 2u : (6.16) m cos u m sec u .

t; m2 t 2 dt R m tg u; m sec u m sec 2 udu

. (6.45)

3) t m sec u (t m cosec u) , dt m tg u sec u du ,


t 2 m2 m2 sec2 u m2 | : (6.16) | m tg u .

t; t 2 m2 dt R m sec u; m tg u m tg u sec u du

R(sin u,

cos u) du


.
42.

.(6.46)

, ,

dx
(1 x2 )3 2 .

2) x tg t (t arctg x) . dx sec t dt ,
2

(1 x )

2 32

dx dt cos t dt
sec t , (1 x2 )3 2 sec t
. ,
3

tg t
C x 2 C
2
1 tg t
1 x
,

I cos tdt sin t C


tg (arctg x ) x .

I R
1.

x, ax bx c dx

Pn ( x)
dx
ax2 bx c ;

2.
3.

I Pn ( x) ax 2 bx c dx

dx
( x ) ax 2 bx c ,
k

Pn (x ) , k N .
, 2- 3- 1- .
,

Pn ( x)(ax 2 bx c)
P1( x)
dx

dx

2
2
ax

bx

c
ax

bx

c
2.
P1(t ) - .
I

3- 1- x 1 t
, x (1 t ) t , dx dt t . ,
2

I
3.

P2 (t )dt
t k dt

a1t 2 bt1 c1
a(1 t )2 1 t
t2

c
t
t2
,

a1, b1, c1 , ,
P2 (t ) .
1-

Pn ( x)
dx
dx Qn1( x) ax 2 bx c
2
2
ax bx c
ax bx c , (6.47)
Qn 1 ( x ) (n 1) - ,
I

.

( ..),

ax2 bx c ,
x , Qn1( x) .
2
I 2x 1 dx
x x2 .
43.
(6.47),

(6.47) :

x2 1 dx ( Ax B) x 2 x 2
x2 x 2

dx
x x2 .
2
, x x 2 ,
x , A, B, :
I

x2 1 A x2 x 2 ( Ax B) 2x 1

2
2
2
x x2
2 x x2 x x2;
x2 1 A( x 2 x 2) ( Ax B)( x 1 2) ;

2A
1,
(

3
2)
A

0,

2 A (1 2) B 1

A 1 2;

B 3 4;

3 8 .

dx
I 1 2 x 3 4 x 2 x 2 3
2x 3 x2 x 2
2
8 ( x 1 2) 7 4
4

3ln | x 1 2 x2 x 2 | 8 C .
R( x; Pn ( x))dx,


n 2 ,
. , n 3 n 4 , ,
n 4 , .

R ( x;

Pn ( x) ) dx

.
6.5.
,
, .
44.
, ,

MC (Q) 0,003Q 2 0,2Q, 5000 ..


(1801 1862) .

MC (Q)
:

C (Q) MC (Q)dQ 0,001Q3 0,1


Q 2 5000.

AC (Q ) :

AC (Q) C (Q) Q 0,001Q2 0,1Q 5000 Q .


45.
, Q:

MR(Q) 250 0,3Q Q 2 40.

MR(Q) C=0 (
) :

R(Q) MR(Q)dQ C 250 0,15Q 2 Q3 120.

AR(Q ) ,
, ..
AR(Q) R (Q ) Q 250Q 0,15Q Q 2 120.

, ,
.

.
.
( , , ..) ,
, .
(, )
,
C. C
( - , ,
t 0 ).
46. ( ..),
t 0 , 10 . ..
g (t ) 0,6 t, t .
g(t),
( . ..) , ..
4

K (t) g (t )d t 0,6t1 4d t 0,6 4t 5 4 5 C 0,49 4 t 5 1 0.

,
.

7.
7.1. , ,
. . -.

,
,

,

(. .).

.7.1.

,
,
,
,
, ,
, ,
.
(

).
.

; ,

. ,

,
,

--

(. .),
.

.7.2.


(7.1)

:
(7.2)

(7.2.) ,

(7.3)

, 7

. ,

. ,

(7.2.) (7.3.) ,

, , 0,
(3.2) (3.3) , (3.2) . "

"
.

--

,
, . ,
, -, ,

, ,
,
.

-- . ,

;
.
,
,
; .

. ,

, ,

, . ,
, ,
:

, ,

, ,

,
.
,
,

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.
, ,
, ,

.

.
7.1

, ,

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),

-- ,

,
-- .


, ,

, ,

, ,


, ,
:

, ,
,

, :

, (

):

,
,
,
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. (

,
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, ),
:


,
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--
,

:
7.1

:
7.2

,
:

.

, ; .
, ,

, (
),

(, , )
( ) ,
(, ,

, . , (, )
( ) ;
, ()
.
, :
7.3

,

, , ,

. ,

,


.

, .
,
, .
,

-- :


, ,
, :

(. .):

,
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.3.3.
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( ), , , .
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,
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, (, , ).
.
7.4
.
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, ,

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,
,

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,

(, ,

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,

:
7.5

. ,

,
. , ,


.
, (
), ,
, ,
,

, ,


, .
,

, ,
,

, ,

. ,
,

, ,

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, .
3.1 ,
( ),
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,

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, 0,

, ,
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.
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.
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.
--
.
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,
:

--

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--

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, .
,

--

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, :

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,

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,
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,

,

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,
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7.6

.

, ,

,
.

--
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,
0,

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7.2 , :

,

, ...,

,
.

.
3.7

.
,

, .

( 7.2),

. , , ,

; ,
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, ,
,
7.3 7.4. ,
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,
.
3.8

, ,

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.
7.1

-- .
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:
3.9

, 7.3


,
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(7.4),

, ,

.
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7.10

, .

,
(7.5)

.
.

,
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, :


.
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7.1.

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( 7.8). ,
,
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.

,
1.
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,

7.2. .
.
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,
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.
7.14

--

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7.4 , ,
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:
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)!

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7.3

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7.15

3.5 ,

7.15.
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--

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7.6 ,
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7.4

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7.5

. :

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).
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).

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.

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,

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,
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, .

7.3. . .
.
.
: 1) ; 2)
.
f(x) a +

, ;
, - .

f(x) [a,b] a <= x <


< x < b, ,

(
).
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[a,b],

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; ,
.

: 1.
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2.

;
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b :

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c.

: 3.
.

4.

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c > a,

(-: a < c < b

,
b ,
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).
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G(b) , ..
:

5.
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.

6.

.
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, .

, p > 1, ,

7.
.
(p = 7 > 1 ), ;

8.

(p = 2/3 <

1), ;

9.
. -
x , - ,
-.
ln x -
x,
,
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10.
.
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);
.


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;
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,
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[a, b]

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x0, x > x0
.

: a1 = min{a, x0};

, ,

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:
f(x) -

,
; f(x)
, .
:

11.
.

12.
.
.

13.
.

14.

, .

.
() ; ,

. :
f(x)

| f(x)|? ,

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Xb = [a, b] ,

,
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b, , ,

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). , ..

.7.1.4.

,
.
:

15.

, ,
, .

16.
,

,
,

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:
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,
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. | f(x)| ,
.

:
.
1. , . :

.

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, .
2. , , ..

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, - ,

,
.
- .


:
:
1. f(x) g(x)

, ..
);
2. g(x) :

, f(x)

(
.


.
:
1. f(x) [a, b],
( b):

2. g(x)

, ,
. f(x) =
cos x, g(x) = 1/x, ,
.
( ).
.
. f(x)
(a, b],

. f(x) [a, b]

. , , ;
, , .

: 17.
18.

- ;

- .
-. f(x) (a, b]
F(x),


, , ,
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: 19.

( ).

20.
( ).
.
.
f(x) [a, b),
,
f(x) [a, b]

. , , ;
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.
f(x) [a, b],
- c :
, , c.
f(x) [a, b]

. ,
, .
.
. , ,
c1, c2, c3 [a, b] (a < c1 <
c2 < c3 < b) b, ,
.

. d1, d2, d3 - ,
a < c1 < d1 < c2 < d2 < c3 < d3 < b.
:

21.

,
, .

-:

- ,

x = -1.

.
,
,

,
. ,
,
. ,
.
. f(x) g(x)

x > a
. :


,
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, p < 1, ,

.
f(x) g(x)


""

:

f(x) -

; f(x) ,
. :

22.
.
, ;

23.
;

24.
.
;

, p = 1,

25.
.

,
.

,
( 12.1.4) , :

, ,

,
).
: :

26.

.

.
, :
1). f(x) (a, b];
2). g(x) (a, b],

, :

1). f(x) (a, b]


;
2). g(x) ,
(a, b], :

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.


. . . , 1976.
. ., . . . -.: , 1962,1975.
. . . - .: , 1969.
. . . - .: , 1963.
. .., .. 3
. - ., 1996.
. ., ..
. - ., 1996.
.., .. : . - .:
, 1997
.. . . - .: . ., 1982. - .
1,2.
.. ( ).- .: . ., 1982.
.. . - : , 1967.
., . . - .: , 1980.
. . . . - . 1-3 - .: , 1986.
. . - .: , 1971.
. ., . . , , .- .: ,
1971.