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Oil Reservoir Engineering

(1) Porosity Geological factors affecting porosity Experimental porosity measurements Preparation of samples for measuring porosity Glass pycnometer Rusel volumeter Ruska porosimeter (2) Fluid saturation fluid saturation measurements Distillation method( A S T M )
Oil Reservoir Engineering (1)

Centrifugal method Factors affecting fluid saturation The uses of core determined fluid saturation (3) Permeability Limitations of Darcy's law applications Dimensions of permeability Reservoir flow system applications Conversion units of Darcy's law Permeability of combined layers Linear beds in serried Linear beds in parallel Radial beds in series permeability of channels and fractures Laboratory measurements of permeability Perm-plug method Hole-core measurements Factors affecting permeability measurements Effective and relative permeability Characteristics of two-phase relative permeability curves Three phase relative permeability Factors affecting relative permeability Relative permeability ratio Measurements of relative permeability data Uses of effective and relative permeability data (4) Capillary forces Surface and capillary pressures Adhesion tension Rise of fluids in capillaries Calculations of capillary pressure
Oil Reservoir Engineering (2)

Capillary pressure in unconsolidated sands Capillary pressure curves Drainage and imbibition capillary pressure curves Laboratory determination of capillary pressure curve Jamin effect Calculation of wettability Relationship between gravity and capillary forces Converting laboratory capillary pressure data Extending the range of laboratory Pc - Sw data Calculation of effective and absolute permeability from capillary pressure data Calculation of relative permeability from capillary pressure data (5) Petrophysics Properties of clean rocks Relation between porosity, permeability, tortuosity and mean capillary radius Specific surface Kozeny equation Flow of electric current through clean rocks Formation resistivity factor Lithologic factor affecting formation factor Resistivity of rocks partially saturated with water Saturation exponents Tortuosity determination Effective tortuosity Hydraulic formation factor and index
Oil Reservoir Engineering (3)

The effective hydraulic index Relative permeability to the wetting-phase Imbibition direction Drainage direction Relative permeability to the non wetting-phase Imbibition phase Drainage direction

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Oil Reservoir Engineering

Oil Reservoirs (Definitions)
formations. The ensemble of wells draining a common oil accumulation or source or surface area defined by the well distribution termed an "Oil an "Oil Reservoir" by variety of the subsurface location of the reservoir pressure the reservoir temperature and reservoir pressure. Field" or "Oil Pool". The part of the rock that is oil productive is termed rock; its entrained fluids are subject to elevated temperature and Reservoir rocks are mostly sedimentary in origin. They are either Oil is produced from wells drilled into underground porous rock

mechanical or chemical deposition of solidmaterials or simply the remains of animals or plant life.

Physical properties of reservoir rocks

ranges of physical properties which are of paramount interest to the reservoir engineer. The three engineering characteristics of the reservoir rock are porosity, oil, gas and water saturation and permeability, Specific, effective and relative. Considered on handspecimen scale reservoir rocks have defined

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Porosity ( %)
of this material that isn't occupied by the solid framework of the material. space that is available for occupancy by either liquids or gases. effective. Porosity of a material is defined as that fraction of the bulk volume In oil reservoirs, the porosity represents the percentage of the total

One may distinguish two types of porosity, namely: absolute and

Absolute porosity
regardless of the interconnection of the pore voids. A rock may have considerable absolute porosity and yet have no conductivity to fluid for lack of pore interconnection. The percentage of total void space with respect to the bulk volume

Effective porosity
bulk volume. It is an indication of conductivity to fluid but not necessarily a measure of it. The percentage of interconnected void space with respect to the

geological processes. Geological conditions are responsible for both primary and secondary porosity.

Porosity in sediments both treated and descried by natural

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Primary porosity
fragments and grains after their accumulation as sediments. Primary porosity results from voids which are left between mineral

Secondary porosity
fracturing, and fissuring which occur after lithification of sediments. Secondary porosity results from geological agents such as leaching, Effective porosity is a function of a great many lithological factors.

Some of the most important of this are heterogeneity of grin size, and clay hydration status.

packing, clay content, cementation, weathering and leaching, clay types

Geological factors affecting porosity 1 Degree of sorting

a packing of 30 to 40% porosity. In poorly sorted sediments, the smaller grains fit into the space between the larger ones, and porosity is considerable decreased. Wellsorted, moderately rounded sand grains settle in water giving

2 Compaction
pressure of the overlying sediments. Sandstones, whoever, exhibit very fraction of there original sedimentation volume. It's a geological factor which reduces porosity due to overburden

little compressibility 3x106 whereas shales may be reduced to a small

Oil Reservoir Engineering


3 Cementation
and which affects the size, shape and continuity of pore channels. It's the agent which has the greatest effect on the original porosity

4 Clay content
same time as sand grains and generally it adheres to them so that after deposition considerable porosity still exists and the overall porosity of sandstone may not be lowered greatly by a small amount of clay. Clay may often act as cementing material. Clay is deposits of the

5 Granulation and crushing of sand grains

of interest. With increasing overburden pressure, quartz grains in sandstone show a progressive change from random packing to closer occurs. packing. Some crushing and plastic deformation of the sand grain Their effect on porosity at great depth under overburden pressure is

6 Mode of packing
sands by consideration of packing of spheres of uniform size. This, too, One may get qualitative picture of the geometrical structure of

is of infinite variety. However, it will suffice to note here two basic and extremely types, namely: the cubic and rhombohedra packing. Unit cells of such packing are shown in fig (1).

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Figure 1

denoted the radius of sphere, thus for cubic packing:


volume = (2r ) = 8r 3

4 volum = r 3 3

3 3 4 p.v B.v S .v 8r 3 r porosity = = = = 47.6% B.v B.v 8r 3

For rhombohedra system:

B.V . = 8r 3 sin 60

S .V . =

4 3 r 3

8r 3 sin 60 4 r 3 3 = = 39.5% 3 8r sin 60

In general we can write:

= 1

(1 cos ) 1 + 2 cos

Oil Reservoir Engineering


of packing of uniform spheres is a function of packing only.

Of particular interest is the fact that the radii cancel and the porosity

7 Rock compressibility:
Assume that:

(c ) = 1 . dvp Pore volume compressibility


vp dp

Bulk volume compressibility (c B ) =

1 dvB . v B dp

(c s ) = 1 . dvs Solid volume compressibility

v s dp
v B = v p + vs dvB dvp dv s = + dp dp dp v B c B = c p v p c s v s cB = cs vp vs + cp vB vB

c B = c s (1 ) + c p = cB cs c p cs

Experimental porosity measurements

to two classes, namely, those designed to measure effective porosity and those which measure absolute porosity.
Oil Reservoir Engineering

Experimental porosity determination procedures may be divided in


Preparation of samples for measuring it is porosities:

are obtained from the center of the core .their surfaces are cleaned to remove traces of drilling mud. The samples are extracted in a soxhlit using oil solvents such as benzene, toluene alight hydrocarbon fraction. They are selected to be preferably10 to 20 cm in bulk volume and

During the extraction, the sample should be kept in a paper thimble, grains.

covered with plug of cotton in order to avoid erosion of loosely cemented After extraction, the samples are dried in an over a 100 to 105 c

and cooled in a desiccators. This operation removes the solvent and moisture from the samples.

Effective porosity measurements:

(grain volume methods) may be used. In these methods: the bulk For approximate work, some methods of obtaining effective porosity

volume is determined either by the displacement of a liquid which does not penetrate the sample or by saturating the sample and volumetrically may be measured by the volumetric displacement of a gas or a liquid, liquid necessary to saturate the sample. displacing a suitable liquid with the saturated sample. The grain volume while the pore volume may be measured by determining the amount of An alternate method of obtaining the grain volume is to divide the

dry weight of the sample by the average grain density of 2.65 (the average density of most reservoir rock minerals).

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Example: A coated sample has the following data: Weight of dry sample in air (Wa) = 20 gms. Weight of coated sample (with paraffin of density 0.9 gm/cc) = 20.9 gms. Weight of coated sample immersed in water = 10 gms. Calculate the bulk volume of the sample. Solution: Wt. of paraffin = 20.9 20 = 0.9 gm. Volume of paraffin = 0.9/0.9 = 1 cm3. Volume of water displaced = (20.9 10)/ew = 10.9 cm3. So: B.V. = volume of water displaced volume of paraffin = 10.9 1 = 9.9 cm3. Example: If the sample of Ex.1 has been saturated (100%) by water and; its weight in air become 21.5 gms. When it has been immersed in water, it weights 11.6 gms; calculate B.V. Solution: Wt. of displaced water = 21.5 11.6 = 9.9 gms. B.V. = volume of water displaced = 9.9 / 1 = 9.9 cm3.

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Laboratory measurements for porosity measurements: Glass pycnometer:

and with a sample hole through the cap is filled with mercury, the cap is A glass pycnometer with a cap which rests on a ground taper joint

pressed into its seat and the excess mercury which overflows through a

hole in the cap is collected and removed. The pycnometer is opened and the sample is placed in the surface of the mercury and submerged by a set of pointed rods which project from the lower side of the cap, fig (2).

Figure 2

amount of mercury equivalent to the bulk volume of the sample to overflow. The rods which submerge the sample should be adjusted so that the sample does not touch the sides of the pycnometer; this avoids trapping air bubbles. Either the volume of mercury which overflows or the loss of weight

The cap is again pressed into its seat, which causes a certain

of the mercury in the pycnometer may be measured and the core bulk volume calculated.

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Example: For a core weights in air 20 gms; given: Weight of pycnometer filled with Hg = 350 gms. Wt. of pycnometer filled with Hg and sample = 235.9 gms. Of the mercury density is 13.546 gms/cc. Calculate B.V. Solution: Weight of pycnometer + weight of Hg + weight of sample = 350+20 = 370 gms. Weight of Hg displaced = 370 235.9 = 134.1 gms. So: B.V. of sample = 134.1 / 13.546 = 9.9 cm3.

Russel volumeter

Figure 3

not be applied to loosely cemented samples which have a tendency to

Oil Reservoir Engineering (14)

As the determination of the bulk volume by glass pycnometer can

disintegrate when immersed in mercury, and a serious source of error of

the trapping of air bubbles at the surface of the sample, Russle is placed in a sample bottle after a zero reading is established with fluid in the volumeter. The resulting increase in volume is the bulk volume. Only saturated or coated samples may be used in the device. This

volumeter provides for direct reading of bulk volume. A saturated sample

device has the advantage of applicability to loosely cemented sample with irregular surfaces. Since the liquid used is transparent, trapped air bubbles may be seen and steps taken to remove them.

Ruska porosimeter
A schematic diagram is given in Fig (4)

Figure 4

mercury reaches a given reference on the manometer. Let the reading be Rb in the absence of a core sample in the cup. When the core floats gives a reading Rc to reach the same reference mark. The porosity of the sample is then calculated by: on the mercury within the cup, the displacement of the micrometer piston

A micrometer piston is used to pressure the sample cup, so that the

Oil Reservoir Engineering


= 1001

Rc Rb

volume, grain volume, and porosity including the cope porosimeter, the mercury pump porosimeter, WashburnBunting porosimeter, Stevens porosimeter, etc.

a number of other devices has been designed for measuring pore

unconnected as well as interconnected pores are accounted for. The procedure required that the sample be crushed. The method is as follows:

In the determination of absolute porosity, it is required that all

the drilling mud, measure the bulk volume by any one of the procedure described above, crush the sample to its grains, wash the grains with suitable solvent to remove oil mud and water, and determine the volume of the grains. It is of course necessary to dry the rock grains before their in a pycnometer containing a suitable liquid as kerosene. volume is determined. The volume of the dry grains may be determined

Break of the well core, clean the surface of the sample to remove

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Fluid saturation
are universally found to have entrained in their pores varying amounts of frequently free gas pressured in addition to the oil.

Cores or underground rock samples, which brought to the surface,

liquid. In a typical oil field, water called interstitial or connatewater and The water saturation S is defined by the equation:

Sw =

pore volume filled by water total pore volume


So =

pore volume filled by oil total pore volume

plus the volume filled by oil must equal the total pore volume; thus: S +S =1 present. The free gas saturation is defined by:
o w

If oil and water are the only fluids present, the volume filled by water

In many pools, in addition to oil and connate water, free gas is also

Sw =

pore volume filled by total pore volume


And then: S +S +S =1 Three factors should be remembered concerning fluid saturation:

g o w

Oil Reservoir Engineering


tending to be higher at the lower part due to gravity.

The saturation will vary from place to place; the water saturation Water tending to be higher in the less porous section. The saturation will vary with cumulative with drawal.

Figure 5

Fluid saturation measurements

consist in analyzing reservoir core simples for water and oil, the fluids is equal to unity. Methods for the determination of reservoir fluid saturation in place

saturation in gas being obtained by difference since the sum of the three

Distillation method (ASTM):

Take a sample ranging in volume from 50 to 60 cc from the central part of the larger core. Place the core in an extraction thimble and weighed. Put the thimble in the flask containing a liquid solvent such as toluene or a gasoline fraction boiling at about 150 C.

Oil Reservoir Engineering


A reflux condenser is fitted to the flask to return the condensate to a calibrated glass trap. Fig (6) The liquid hydrocarbon is boiled and the water present in the sample vaporized, carried into the flask condenser, and caught in the trap. When the volume in the trap remains constant under continued extraction, the volume of the water transferred to a soxhlet for the final extraction.

collected is read and the sample containing the sample is then

Figure 6

The thimble and the sample are then dried and weighted. The total fluid saturation is obtained by weight difference and includes both oil and water. By weight difference again, the weight of oil is obtained, and, by use of an appropriate oil density, its volume is calculated.

Oil Reservoir Engineering


The saturations on a percentage of porevolume base are readily calculated for both water and oil

Centrifugal method
A solvent is injected into the centrifuge just of center.

Figure 7

forced to pass through the core sample. The solvent removes the water and oil from the core. The outlet fluid is trapped and the quantity of water in the core is measured.

Owing to centrifugal force, it is thrown to the outer radii, being

forces which can be applied; at the same time that the water content is measurements.

This method provides a very rapid method because of the high

determined, the core is cleaned in preparation for the other

Factors affecting fluid saturation Mud filtration

face causes mud and mud filtrate to invade to formation immediately In the case of rotary drilling, the differential pressure across the well

Oil Reservoir Engineering


adjacent to the well surface, this flushing the formation with mud and this

filtrate displacing some of the oil and perhaps some of the original contents to fluid saturation.

interstitial water. The displacement process changes the original fluid

Pressure gradient
the expansion of the entrapped water, oil and gas. Thus the contents of the formation. Pressure gradient between the surface and the formation permits

the core at the surface have been changed from those which existed in

Uses of core determined fluid saturations

to: The saturation values obtained directly from rock samples are used Determine the original oilgas contact, original oil water contact and weather sand is productive of oil or gas. Establish a correlation of the water content of cores and permeability from which it can be determined whether a formation will be productive of hydrocarbon.

made on core samples at the surface may not give a direct indication of useful and necessary information.

In summary, it is seen that although fluidsaturation determinations

the saturation within the reservoir, they are of value and do yield very

Oil Reservoir Engineering


of the capacity of the medium to transmit fluids. The measurement of material. Permeability is a property of the porous medium and is a measure permeability is a measure of the fluid conductivity of the particular By analogy with electrical conductors, the permeability represents

the reciprocal of the resistance which the porous medium offers to fluid flow. If the reservoir rock system is considered to be a bundle of circular

tubes such that the flow could be represented by a summation of the flow from all the tubes as described by poiseuille's equation:

n r 4 p Q= 8 l

: Flow rate, cm3/sec. : Radius of tubes, cm. : Pressure lose over length, dyne/cm2. : Fluid viscosity, cp.


: Length over which

p is measured, cm.

: Number of tubes.

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Figure 8

porous rock, it is an impossible task to use poiseuille's flow equation for porous medium. In 1856, as a result of experimental studies on the flow of water

As there are numerous tubes and radii involved in each segment of

through unconsolidated sand filter bed, Darcy formulated a law which bears his name; this law describes, with some limitation, the movement of fluid in porous medium.

porous medium is proportional to the pressure gradient and inversely proportional to the fluid viscosity;

Darcy's equation states that the velocity of homogeneous fluid in a


Q p A dl

P l

acrosssection area of the rock, cm2.

is the apparent velocity in cm/sec. and A is the apparent or total

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In other words, A includes the area of the rock material as well as

dP is in the area of the pore channels. The pressure gradient dl

atmosphere per cm, taken in the same direction as and Q . The proportionality constant (K) is permeability of the rock

expressed in Darcy units.

positive direction, then the pressure decrease in that direction, so that

The negative sign indicates that if the flow is taken as positive in the

dP the slope is negative. dl

Limitation of Darcy's law applications

1. Darcy's law applies only in the region of laminar flow, for in gradient increase at a greater rate than does the flow rate. turbulent flow, which occurs at higher velocities, the pressure

2. It does not apply to flow within individual pore channels, but to compared with the size of the pore channels.

portions of a rock whose dimensions are reasonably large

3. Because actual velocity is in general not measurable, apparent velocity from the basis of Darcy's law. Actual velocity can be related to apparent velocity as following:
.tca .tca .ppa .ppa





Vapp = Vact

Aact l P.V . = Vact = Vact . Aapp l B.V .

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Figure 9

This means that the actual velocity of a fluid will be the apparent velocity divided by the porosity where the fluid completely saturates the rock 4. The fluid flow region is steadystate ,isothermal 5. Fluids used are non compressible fluids. 6. Use non reactive fluids. the unit of permeability is the darcy .where 1 dareg = 1000 md = 1.0133 x 106 dyne/ cm2.atm.

Dimension of permeability
units of the other terms in Darcy's law as: The dimension of permeability can be established by substituting


l t

= ML1 T 1

P = F = MLT 2 / A = L2 , L = L

Q = AV =

LT 1= = K .ML1T 2 / ML1T 1.L K = L2

Oil Reservoir Engineering (25)

Reservoir flow system applications:

Several simple flow systems are frequently encountered in the measurement and application of permeability.

Figure 10

Linear flow

Figure 11

area that the ends of the system are parallel planes and that the pressure at either end of the system is constant over the end surface. steadystate flow of constant rate g;

It is assumed that flow occurs through a constant crosssectional

If the block is 100% saturated with an incompressible fluid and

Darcy's low for a " dl " segment of this system:


KAdp dL

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q = o L dl = q[ L] = q =



p 2 dp


[ p 2 p1]

KA[ p1 p 2] L

pressure. The usually assumed valuation is that

m m

If a compressible fluid is flowing, the quantity of q varies with the p.q=p q = constant

where :

pm =

p1 + p 2 2

And Q is the flow rate at pm the integral is therefore;

q o L dL =



p 2 dp

[ qm pm / p]o L dL = [ KA / ] p1 p 2 dp o L dL = KA p2 pdp p1 qm pm

KA p 2 2 p1 L = [ ] qm pm 2
= KA 2 ( p1 p 2 )( p + p 2 ) . . qm p1 + p 2 2

Oil Reservoir Engineering

Integrating between the limits "0" and "L" and p and p


qm =

KA( p1 p 2) L

can be calculated by the same equation provided the rate is measured of the mean pressure of the system

Thus it is evident for the linear system that gas flow and liquid flow

Radial flow
cylindrical drainage system. When dray's law in differential from is of flow is A redial flow system, analogous to flow in to a well bore from a

applied to a (dr) cylinder of the system, the resultant integrated equation

Figure 12

K (2rh )p dr dr 2Kh pe q rw re = dp pw r 2Kh( p e p w ) q = ln(re / rw) Q=

Oil Reservoir Engineering (28)

in case of compressible flow: q p = q.p= constant

q = qm pm / p
qm p m / p qm pm r rw ve
re rw

2Kh( p 2 e p 2 w ) qm = 2 lv(re / rw)

qm =

3Spherical flow

formation was of a thickness approximately half the distance between

Oil Reservoir Engineering

m m

dr + 2kh pe = dp pw r

dr 2Kh pe = pdp pw r

2Kh( pe pw ) en re / rw

Figure 12

such a system might be closely approached where is producing


wells and where the formation was penetrated for only a short distance comparable to the total pay thickness.

A = 4 r 2

1 = 2 r 2 2

k 2 r 2 p q= dr rw re dr 2 k pe = dp pw 2 r q

1 1 2 k = [ pe pw ] q rw re


2 K ( pe pw ) 1r 1r e w

Q rw << re
1 rw >> 1 re

q =

2 k ( pe pw )rw

For compressible fluids, the same equation can be used as:

qm =

2 k ( pe pw )rw

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Conversion units of dray's 1-linear flow

Qincomp = K A P k A P , Qincomp = L L , A : cm 2 K : darey Qincom = 1.127 , A : t2 , K A P L

where : Q : cm3 / sec k A P L

, p = atm, : cp, L : cm , Qincom = 1.127 when

: Q : bb1 / day

p : psia

, : cp , K : Darcy

Qincomp = 6.323


Q : ft 3 / day , A : ft 2 , P : psia, : cp, L : ft. and

K : Darcy

2-Radial flow


Qincomp = 7.08

K h( Pe Pw ) Ln re r w

Q : bbl / day , h : ft , r : ft. and

P : psia,

: cp,

K : Darcy

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Qincomp = 39.76

K h( Pe Pw ) Ln re r w


Q : ft 3 / day , h : ft , r : ft. and

P : psia,

: cp,

K : Darcy

Qincomp =

2 K h( Pe Pw ) Ln re r w


Q : cm3 / sec, h : cm,

r : cm.

P : atm, : cp,

K : Darcy


Permeability of combination layers

continuous value of permeability between the inflow and outflow face. It variations of permeability. The foregoing flow equations were all derived on the basis of one

is seldom that rocks are so uniform most porous rocks will have space If the rock system is comprised of different layer of fixed

permeability, the average permeability of the flow system can be determined by one of the several averaging procedures:

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Linear beds in series

computed as follows: Consider the case of the average permeability K , can be

Figure 13

Qt = Q1 = Q2 = Q3 pt = p1 + p2 + p3 L = L1 + L2 + L3
Qt =
K av . A.Pt , L Q1 = K1 Ap1 L1

Q2 =

K 2 A p 2 L2


Q3 =

K 3 Ap3 L3

Solving for pressure and substituting for p ;

Qt L Q1 L1 Q2 L2 Q3 L3 = + + K av A K1 A K2 A K3 A L L1 L 2 L3 = + + Kav K 1 K 2 K 3

Kav =

L n Li / Ki

i =1

Oil Reservoir Engineering

flowing through permeability must be equally applicable to gases.

As the permeability is a property of the rock and note of the fluids For example , the average permeability of 10 md , 50 md and 1000

md beds , which are 6 ft , 18 ft and 40 ft respectively in length but of equal cross section when placed in series is:

Kav =

Li 6 + 18 + 40 = = 64md . 6 18 40 Li / Ki + + 10 50 1000

1-Linear beds in parallel

Figure 14

cons tan ts : p , var iable : k , A and q

Consider fig (15).


The total flow rate is the sum of the individual flow rates,

q =q +q +q
2 1 t

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k av . At p K1 A1p K 2 A2 P K 3 A3 p = + + L L L L

k av. At = K1 A1 + K 2 A2 + K 3 A3 K av = K i Ai / At
their thicknesses. if all beds are of the same width , their areas are proportional to

k av = K i Ai / hi
md and 1000 md and 6ft , 18 ft and 36 ft respectively in thickness but of equal with , when placed in parallel is
K av =

for example the average permeability of three beds of 10 md , 50

K I hi 10 6 + 18 50 + 36 1000 = = 616md . hi 6 + 18 + 36

2 Radial beds in parallel

Constants: p , r and variable, q and h composed of strata which many vary widely in permeability and thickness, Many producing formations are

Figure 15

common well bore under the same draw

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If these are producing fluid to a


down and from the same drainage radius, then;

q t = q1 + q 2 + q 3
7.08 K av ht ( Pe Pw ) 7.08 K1 = re Ln rw h2 ( Pe Pw ) re rw ++ h1 ( Pe Pw ) r Ln e rw h3 ( Pe Pw ) re rw

7.08 K 2

7.08 K 3



K av ht = K1 h + K 2 h2 + K 3 h3 K av = K i hi hi

bed width.

This is the same as for the parallel flow in linear beds with the same

Example: Calculate the average permeability permeability data given below: Depth, ft 5012 13 5013 16 5016 17 5017 19 K, md 500 460 5 235 of the depth

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5019 23 5023 24 5024 29 Solution:

K av = = K i hi hi

360 210 3

(500)(1) + (460)(3) + (5)(1) + (235)(2) + (360)(4) + (210)(1) + (3)(5) 11 = 327 md

3-Radial beds in series

Figure 16

Constants Variables

: :

q, and P, K and

h r

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Consider Fig (17)

Pe Pwf = (P + P + P ) 1 1 1 = ( P Pwf ) + ( P2 P ) + ( Pe P2 ) 1 1
qt = 2 K av h ( Pe Pw ) r Ln e rw

q1 = 2 K av

q2 = 2 K av

h ( P Pw ) 1 r Ln 1 rw
h ( P2 Pw ) r Ln 2 rw

q3 = 2 K av

q 2
q + 2

h ( P3 Pw ) r Ln 3 rw

re r q Ln 1 rw rw = K av h 2 K1 h Ln
r r2 q Ln e r1 r2 + K2 h 2 K2 h Ln

Oil Reservoir Engineering



re rw

Ln =

r1 rw

Ln +

r2 r1

Ln +

re r2

K av




re rw Kav = r r r Ln 1 Ln 2 Ln e rw r1 r2 + + K1 K2 K3 Ln
Example: What is the average permeability of four beds in series having equal formation thickness under the following conditions? 1. For a linear flow. 2. For a radial flow system if the radius of the penetrating well bore is 6 in, and the radius of effective drainage is 2000 ft. Bed L, ft K, md Solution: Assume bed (1) adjacent to the well bore; a) Linear flow: 1 250 25 2 250 50 3 500 100 4 1000 200

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K av =

L L i Li

250 + 250 + 500 + 1000 250 250 500 1000 + + + 25 50 100 200 2000 = = 80md 25

b) Radial flow:
rw [(ln ri / ri 1) / Ki ] ln(2000 / .05) = = 30.4md ln(250 / .05) ln (500 / 250) ln(1000 / 500) ln (2000 / 1000) + + + 25 50 100 200 Kav = ln re

Example: A well of 6 bore is drilled in to a pay of 500 md on a spacing of 40 Ares (re = 750 ft). Assume that the mud penetrated for a distance of one foot in to the pay and that experiment indicates that the pay will be reduced in permeability to a value of 10 % of its original. It is desired to know to what average permeability the well system is reduced by the mud penetration. Solution: The reduced permeability =0.1x500=50md

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Kav =

ln(750 / 0.25) = 478md ln 1.25 / 0.25 ln 750 / 1.25 + 50 500

Example: A well of 40 acres spacing with a 6 ft bore produce 50 bb1/day of fluid from a pay of 50 md permeability before acidizing and 90 bb1/day after acidizing. If the acid had been injected to penetrated 15 ft into the formation, from these data can you calculate the permeability increase which would have had to occur in the acidized section to produce the observed increase in the production rate. Solution:

K after acid q after acidizind 90 = av = = 1.8 q before acidizind K av before acid 50

90 ) = 90md acid 50 750 Ln 0.25 90 = 15.25 750 ( ) ( ) 0.25 + Ln 15.25 Ln K1 50

K av after

= 50(

K 1 = 373md

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Permeability of channels and fractures

solution channels and fractures do not change the effective permeability fracture or channel to the total conductivity of the system, it is necessary to express their conductivity in term of the darey. In some sands and carbonates the formation frequently contains

of the flow network. In order to determine the contribution made by

tubes, Considering Poiseulle's equation for fluid conductivity in capillary


P 8 L


The total area available for flow is;

A= r2

So that the equation reduces to

r 2 P Q = A 8 L
From Darcy's law, it is also known that;

Q = A K


Equating Darcy's and Poiseuille's equations for fluid flow in a tube,

r2 K= 8
Oil Reservoir Engineering (42)

Where If


are in consistent units.

is in cm, then

in Darcy is given by:

r2 K= = 12.5 106 r 2 8(9.869) 10 9


is in inches; then

in Darcy is given by:

K = 12.5 106 (2.54) 2 r 2 = 80 106 r 2


Consider a cube of reservoir rock one foot on the side and having a matrix permeability of 10 md. If a liquid of one cp. viscosity flows linearly through the rock, under a pressure gradient one psi per ft, the rate of flow will be:

Q = 1.127(0.01) 1 1 = 0.01127bbl / day

If a circular opening 0.01 ft diameter traverses the same rock , then the total flow rate can be considered to be the above value (Q1) value plus the rate of flow through the circular opening (Q2)
Q2 = 1.127[80 10 (.005) ]
6 2

(0.005)2 1

144 Qt = 0.01127 + 0.00122 = 0.012491

= 0.00122 1 bb1 / day

bb1 / day

Therefore the combined rate is 0.012491 or an increase of about 11 %. Fractures

Oil Reservoir Engineering


For flow through slots or fine clearances and unit width (w) , by analogy to channels relationships , K=w2/12 If the width is in cm and K in darcys, the permeability of fractures is given by K = 84.4 x 105 w2 If w is in inches and K in dareys, K = 54.4 x 106 w2
Example: A core of very low permeability (0.01 md). It contains fracture of (0.005") wide and 1 ft in lateral extent per square foot if the core. Assume that the fracture is in the direction in which flow is desired. Calculate the average permeability of the core: Solution:

Qaw =

KiAi Ai

0.00001[144 12 0.005] + 54.4 10 6 (0.005) 12 0.005 = = 562md 144

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Laboratory measurements of permeability

samples extracted from the formation or by in place testing. Two methods will be presented here are used to evaluate the permeability of cores. The permeability of a porous medium can be determines from

perm plug method

Figure 17

well cores in a direction parallel to the bedding plane of the formations.

The tested samples are usually cut with a diamond drill from the

Perm plugs are approximately 2 cm in diameter and 2 to 3 cm long. The residual oil or fluids are thus: remove and the core sample becomes air. The perm plug is then inserted in a core holder of the permeability device. Samples are dried after extraction process "as described before".

100 % saturated with air. The perm plug is then inserted saturated with

samples are sealed, and a fluid pressure differential can be. Applied

Fig18 samples are mounted in such a way that the sides of the

Oil Reservoir Engineering


across their full length, and the rate of flow of fluid "air" through the plug is observed. Obtaining data "for conditions of viscous flow" at several flow rates

and plotting results as shown in fig (19) from eq:

Q/ A =

[( p1 p 2) / L]

passing through the origin. Turbulence is indicated by curvature of the plotted points.

for viscous flow condition : the data should plot a straight line

absolute permeability (k) can be computed. flow rate .

The slope of the straight line portion is equal to (k/) from which the In case of using liquids in stead of air. Data are taken only at one

which can be accurately measured.

To assure condition of viscous flow, it is the lowest possible rate

Figure 18

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Whole core measurement

Figure 19

method preparation. The core is then mounted in a special holding device such as shown in fig: 20 the measurements are the same as for permplugs but the calculation are slightly different. Measurements of permeability on long cores generally yield better indication of the fractures as limestone.

The core must be prepared in the same manner as perplug

permeability than do the small cores especially for rocks which contain

Factors affecting permeability measurements 1-Klinkenberg effect "Gas slipping"

using gases as the flowing fluids from that obtained when using no reactive liquids. Klinkenberg has reported variations in permeability as determined

Oil Reservoir Engineering


gas will depend upon the individual gas and the mean pressure of flow.

The permeability of a rock for any liquid will be the same but for a The measured permeability of a porous medium to gas is greater

than that to a liquid for the liquid has a zero velocity as the wall past which it flows but that the gas has a finite velocity at the wall. Fig (21)

Figure 20

of the mean pressure and the type of rock. The phenomena of gas the mean free path . the kinetic energy.

This is said due to the gas slippage. The gas slippage is a function

slippage occurs when the diameter of the capillary openings approach The mean free path of a gas is a function of the molecular size and

permeability is determined.

The Klinkenberge effect is a function of the gas for which the The amount of slippage causes a change in permeability that can

be represented by the following equation:

K g = K l (1 +

4C ) r


: Gas permeability

Oil Reservoir Engineering



: Liquid permeability

r : Mean radius of capillary tubes. C

: Constant nearly equal One.

The last equation can else be written in the following formula:

K g = K l (1 +

b ) Pm


: Mean flowing pressure of the gas at which




1 b , r

: Constant for a given gas and rock,

Figure 21

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Carbon dioxide.

Fig (22) is apart of the equation at various mean pressures using Note that for each gas a straight line is obtained for the observed

permeability as a function of the reciprocal of the mean pressure of the test.

straight line with greater slope, indicative of a greater slippage effect.

The data obtained with lowest molecular, (H2), weight gas yield the All the lines when extrapolated to infinite mean pressure,

1 =0 P ), intercept the permeability axis at a common point. ( m

According to Fig (22); The slope of the straight line, m, is equal The constant obtain

Kl b

the size of the openings in the porous medium. To accurate permeability

depends on the mean free path of the gas and measurements, requires

approximately 12 flow test under viscous flow conditions from which the permeability to liquid can be graphically determined.

2-Clay content
matrix. These minerals or are as part of the rock matrix. These minerals Many clays act as cementing minerals or are as part of the rock

are usually very complex in molecular structure and posses the ability to

attract and hold +ve ions such as hydrogen , sodium or calcium. These

Oil Reservoir Engineering


minerals also have the property of hydration, i.e., holding water within their molecular structure. This is normally called "clay swelling" Reservoir waters generally contain ions such as sodium and

calcium or magnesium which can be transferred to the clay. The greater vice verse. If the reservoir water is replaced by fresh water, the clay

the amount of ions in solution the move will be absorbed by the clay and must given up some of its +ve ions to the water until a new equilibrium is

established. The result of this ion exchange and the change of ion consequently reducing the pore volume available for flow.

concentration in the flowing liquid is an increase in clay volume and

Figure 22

thus permeability determination with fresh water on a core containing clays will be less than that in the natural state.

Fig (32) shows such a decrease in flow rate with fresh water flow

3-Reactive liquids
due to precipitation or corrosion. Reactive liquids after the internal geometry of the porous. Medium,

Oil Reservoir Engineering


4-Overburden pressure
are removed. The rock matrix is permitted to expand in all direction partially changing the shapes of the fluid flow paths inside the core. mush as 60 % reduction in the permeability of various formations. Compaction of the core due to overburden pressure may cause as When the core is removed from the formation, the confining forces

5-Grain size
of the grain diameter , hence the finer sand the smaller the permeability. It was found that the rate of fluid flow is proportion al to the square

6-Mode of packing:
be introduced as: The effect of packing as a factor which influence permeability can K = 10.2 d2 / c Where mode of packing d: diameter of spheres, cm C: packing constant depending on porosity . table:1 c Hexagonal 26 52.5

30 52.5 40 20.3 cubic 45 23.7

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Effective and relative permeability

predicated upon the condition that the porous media was entirely saturated with the flowing fluid such a circumstance does not often exist It was note that Darcy's low for flow in porous media. was

in nature , particular in petroleum reservoir. Gas or oil is usually fauna coexistent with water and frequently gas, oil and water may occupy together the pores of reservoir. Ability of aporous medium to conduct a fluid when the saturation of

that fluid in the material is less than 100 %of the pore sbace is known as

the "effective permeability of the porous medium to that fluid. The fluid under consideration. For example Effective permeability to oil ,
Ko =

effective permeability is written by using a subscript to designate the

Qo o L Ap

Effective permeability to gas , And

Kg =

Qg g L Ap

Effective permeability to water ,

Kw =

Qw w L Ap

L being constant) , the value of Qx would increase as the pore space of

Of course , it would be expected that for a given system (A , p , ,

the porous medium in question contained more fluid (x). it has been found experimentally that at a given value of fluid saturation , the value effective permeability depends only upon a change in saturation. of the effective permeability to that fluid is constant. Thus , a change in

Oil Reservoir Engineering


the permeability at 100 % saturation. No two porous bodies will necessarily have the same variation of effective permeability with saturation.

Effective permeability will , of course , vary from zero to the value of

Relative permeability
permeability to a given fluid at a definite saturation to the permeability at 100 % saturation. The terminology most widely used is simply (Kg/ K), Relative permeability is defined as the ratio of the effective

(Ko /K) and (Kw /K), meaning the relative permeability to gas, oil and same fashion as dose the effective permeability. The relative

water respectively. Since K is constant for a given porous medium, the permeability to a fluid will vary from a value of zero at some low saturation of that fluid.

saturation of that fluid (critical saturation), to a value of 1 at 100 %

Characteristics of two phase relative permeability curves:

Figure 23

a) Rapid

permeability (Krw) as


wetting phase wetting the




phase first

Oil Reservoir Engineering


decreases from 100 %. b) Its approach to zero value at saturation greater than zero %. c) Relative permeability to the no wetting phase (krnw) apparently dose not rice. Above zero until the wetting phase saturation has fallen to

approximately (1 Snwc) where Snwc is the critical non-wetting saturation or equilibrium saturation. saturation decreases. 1. Rapid rise of the permeability (Krnw) as the wetting phase 2. Virtual attainment of 100 %permeability to non-wetting phase before all the wetting phase is completely removed.

larger flow paths are occupied first by the non-wetting fluid.

1. The rapid decline in K

indicates that the larger pores or

Figure 24

Oil Reservoir Engineering


pore size saturated with wetting phase be comes successively smaller. Fig (25)

As the saturation of the non-wetting phase increases, the average

2. Blocking off of central regions of pores by non-wetting phase This behavior will continue with decreasing (S ) until (S ),
ew w

will leading to an increase in flow resistance or rapid fall in k .


where a minute film which would wet the surface of the grains.

This film would decrease the diameter of the larger tube, thus the film itself would contribute no flow capacity. Fig (26)

reducing the flow capacity for the non-wetting phase, and yet

Figure 25

of the tubes would be decreased.

To the wetting phase (Krw = 0). Thus the total fluid


3. This point represents the equilibrium saturation which is the value at which the non-wetting phase becomes mobile. 4. At any saturation value above this saturation wetting-phase saturation falls into the pendular saturation state, so that it Krnw. losses its own mobility and this confirmed by the rapid rise in

Oil Reservoir Engineering


5. The attainment of 100 % Krnw at saturation of non-wetting

phase less than 100 % indicates that a portion of the available pore space even though interconnected contributes little to the fluid conductive capacity of the porous medium.

Three phase relative permeability

in rock simultaneously as oil, water and gas. There are many instances when not two fluids but three fluids exist

Figure 26

conditions of rock the coordinates of any point with the triangle represent the different saturations in all three phases. For example;

Fig (27) show the triangular diagram representing the saturation

Point So Sw Sg

1 20 20 60

2 20 40 40

3 40 40 20

4 60 20 20

5 40 60 0

Oil Reservoir Engineering


triangle is due to water is considered as wetting phase with respect to each of oil and gas phases.

The symmetry of water permeability with respect to any axis of the

Figure 27

of gas as anon wetting phase with respect to oil and water.

The symmetry of gas relative permeability is due to similar behavior

Figure 28

Oil Reservoir Engineering


axis of the triangle. This symmetry is distorted toward the high percentage of gas saturation which indicates a lowering of mobility of oil by the presence of gas.

The relative permeability to oil is not symmetrical with respect to any

Figure 29

three phase fluids flow normally occur.

Figure 30

Fig: 31 shown the regions in which singlephase, twophase and

is externally small it is illustrated by region the white area ,

The region of three phase flow

the hatched area two phase flow indicates that in most cases two which

phase regions are illustrated by the shaded area.

phase relative permeability curves are quite satisfactory the single

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Factors effecting relative permeability 1-Rock wettability

Figure 31



affected by the change in fluid distribution brought characteristics. about by different wetting Curve (1) indicates





that the system is water wet system while, curve (2) indicates oil wet

2-Structure history (Drainage or imbibition)

Figure 32

Oil Reservoir Engineering


phase (oil), to lose its mobility at higher value of structure than does the drainage process. The drainage method causes the wetting Phase (water) to lose it'

It is note that the imbibition processes causes the non-wetting

mobility at higher value of (S ) than does the imbibition method.

3-Pore configuration and pore size distribution

Figure 33

Curve 1 Curve 2 Curve 3 Curve 4

: Capillary tubes. : Dolomite. : Unconsolidated Sand. : Consolidated sand.

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Relative permeability ratio

Figure 34

permit flow of one fluid as related to its ability to permit flow of another fluid under the same circumstances.

The relative permeability ratio expresses the ability of a reservoir to

The two most useful permeability ratios are ( permeability to gas with respect to that to oil and (


). The relative

permeability to water with respect to that to oil, it is understand that both quantities in the ratio are determined simultaneously on a given system. infinity. The relative permeability ratio may vary in magnitude from zero to

K o ), the relative

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Consider a system flowing gas and oil. At high oil saturation, the flow of gas is zero,


and hence,


is zero.

Figure 35

As the gas saturation increases,


increase but



and therefore sufficiently low,


increase. When the oil saturation becomes

approach zero and the value of



infinity. Fig (35) is a typical plot of


versus the oil structure. To

give linearity,


liquid saturation on a semilog paper, Fig (36). It has become common

was plotted against oil structure saturation or

Oil Reservoir Engineering


usage to express the central straight line portion of the relationship in the analytical form:

Kg Ko

Kg Ko

) = log a b S o

= a e bS o



are constants characteristic only of a given reservoir given set of fluids. Slope of the linear plot is denoted b .

material and

agreement between theoretical relationship which may be deduced from it and actual observed data.

The use of this analytical expression has been justified in view of

Measurement of relative permeability data

can be obtained: There are essentially for means by which relative permeability data

(1) Laboratory method. (2) Capillary pressure method. (3) Field data. (4) Petrochemical data.

1-Laboratory method:

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Figure 36

choose and prepared for mounted the test. in It is a

A small core is


sleeve. The two fluids


systems, at a predetermined flow ratio and are flowed through the core until the produced ratio is equal to the injected ratio. The saturation of the various fluids is determined in one of different Once the saturation has been measured, the relative permeability of

are introduced simultaneously at the inlet and through different pipe

methods (as measuring the fluid resistively by means of two electrodes).

the two phase at this saturation conditions can calculated by means of the injection ratio. The injection ratio is varied and the process continually repeated

until a complete relativepermeability curve is obtained.

2-Field determination
ratio can be defined by the following equation: Due to Darcy's equation for gas and oil, the relative permeability

Qg Qo

A( =

Kg Ko

g g

)( )(

Pg L Po L


Oil Reservoir Engineering


Figure 37

If the

Qo and Qg

are expressed at reservoir condition and if it is

assumed the pressure drops (



Po ) are the same,

Qg K g o o free gas = = Qo K o g g oil produced

Rp =

total gas prod free gas gas in sol = + oil prod oil produced oil produced

Rp =

Qg Qo

+ rs

K g o o Rp = + rs Ko g g Kg Ko =

g g ( R p rs ) o o

normally the most accurate values obtainable. The saturation at which calculated from field production data as follow:

The normal procedure is to use field average GORs which are

this particular value of relative permeability ratio applies must be

Oil Reservoir Engineering


So =

oil volume ( N Np ) o = N Bo i pore volume (1 S w i )

Np o )( )(1 S wi ) N Boi

So = (1


Given the following data: Pressure Rp o g x10


Np N
0.0041 0.0150 0.0240 0.0399 0.0517 0.0632 0.0752 0.0847 0.0965 0.1083 0.1202 0.1318 0.1420 0.1453

3000 2900 2800 2700 2600 2500 2400 2300 2200 2100 2000 1900 1800 1700 psi

850 1.443 840 752 920 1.432 875 725 990 1.420 910 695 1020 1.403 970 657 1000 1.393 1010 632 1180 1.382 1062 608 1420 1.371 1122 580 1510 1.364 1162 565 1666 1.354 1230 540 1920 1.340 1330 509 2220 1.326 1453 476 2480 1.313 1590 446 2710 1.301 1758 416 2800 1.298 1795 410 SCF/STR bbl/STB bbl/SCF SCF/STB

30.4 32.1 34.0 36.8 38.4 40.5 42.4 43.6 45.5 48.0 50.8 53.8 57.4 58.2

Calculate constants a and b in the equation if S wi = 28.5%

and K o

= a e bS o .

Oil Reservoir Engineering (67)

For each pressure step calculate So and K using equations; o


g g = ( R p rs ) K o o o

So = (1

Np o )( )(1 S wi ) N Boi

Example of calculations at P=2500 psi

Kg Ko

1 0.001062 (1180 608) = 0.01085 40.5 1.382

1.382 So = (1 0.0632)( )(1 0.285) = 0.638 1.443

3000 2900 2800 2700 2600 2500 2400 2300 2200 2100

0.710 0.696 0.684 0.664 0.652 0.638 0.625 0.615 0.609 0.589

Kg Ko
0.00187 0.00321 0.00556 0.00682 0.00694 0.01085 0.01620 0.01848 0.0224 0.0292

Oil Reservoir Engineering


2000 1900 1800 1700

0.575 0.563 0.550 0.540

0.0377 0.0456 0.0540 0.0567

Figure 38

Determination of constants a and b ; At So = 0.516 At So = 0.648

, K = 0.1 o

, K = 0.01 o

Kg Ko

= a e bS o

0.1 = a e 0.516b

Oil Reservoir Engineering



0.01 = a e 0.648b

ln10 = 0.132b

b = 2.3 ln( Kg Ko


= 17.42

) = ln a b So

ln(0.1) = ln a 8.988 ln(a ) = 8.988 + (2.3) = 6.688

a = 803

Uses of effective and relative permeability data

of reservoir engineering. Just a few of its uses are mentioned engineering. Just a few of its uses are mentioned here. Relative permeability data are essential to all flow work in the field

Determination of free water level:

From the relative permeability curves, it should have become apparent that the point of 100% water flow is not necessarily the point of 100% water saturation. It is recognized that there are two water levels. Free water level: zero capillary pressure level. Initial WOC: the level below which fluid production is 100% water, from relative permeability data the engineer can determine what the fluid saturation must be at the point of zero oil permeability. When the fluid saturation determined from well test data and relative
Oil Reservoir Engineering (70)

permeability curves are used, the capillary pressure can be determined and the height above the free water level can be calculated. Other uses of relative permeability data 1- Determination of residual fluid saturation. 2- Fractional flow and frontal advance calculation to determine the fluid distribution. 3- Making future prediction for all types of oil reservoir where two phase flow is involved. 4- Emulation of drillsteam and production tests.

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Capillary forces
Surface and capillary pressure
in petroleum reservoirs). A water molecule which is within the body of the water will uniformly attached in all directions, by an attractive force, zero Consider two immiscible fluids (water and oil, fluid commonly found

by other molecules and thus the resultant force on the molecule will be

Figure 39

A water molecule at the interface has force acting upon it from the

oil lying immediately above the interface and water molecules lying rise to interfacial tension.

below the interface. The resulting forces are unbalanced and give

Figure 40

liquid and minimize the surface area. A certain amount of work is

This attractive force tends to attract the surface molecules in to the

required to move a water molecule from within the body in the liquid

Oil Reservoir Engineering


through the interface; this work is referred to as the free surface energy of the liquid.

Surface tension
of length and for a distance of one com in order to produce the new until area of the surface, or it is the force per unit length required to create a unit new surface. The force in dynes acting in the surface perpendicular to a line cm

phase and a gaseous phase while the interfacial tensing is created at the interface between two liquids.

Surface tension is the force acting on the surface between a liquid

vapour or air liquid surface tension

Figure 41

liquid liquid or solid

int erfacial tension

of free volume to take the minimum possible form as, for example, a sphere in the case of a free drop liquid.

One of the simplest example of the surface tension is the tendency

Capillary pressure force

liquid faces The forces that are active at the interface between two immiscible

Adhesion tension, At:

Oil Reservoir Engineering (73)

Figure 42

so = ws + wo cos
wo cos = so ws = At + (ve) At = wo cos
this case) wets the solid surface. equal affinity for the surface. A positive adhesion tension indicates that the dense phase (water in An adhesion tension of zero indicates that both phases have an

Figure 43

At = wo cos

wo cos 90 = 0
phase to adhere to the solid and to spread over the surface of the solid. Thus the adhesion tension determines the ability of the wetting

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Figure 44

cause the dense fluid to spread over the surface.

If the contact angle

f 90 ,

an outside energy will be required to

contact angle of the system that affected by the mineralogy of surface (rock) and the kind of the two immiscible fluids.

Adhesion tension or the degree of spreading depends upon the

Rise of fluids in capillaries

Figure 45

tension) between the liquid and tube that tends to pull liquid upward. This total upward force is balanced by the weight of the liquid column

The rise in height, Fig (46) is due to the attractive force (adhesion

Upward force

Downward force

At and 2 r ,
Equating this two balanced forces:

r2 h g

Oil Reservoir Engineering


2 cos = r g h 2 cos = g h = P r

in the tube that the pressure in the liquid phase beneath the interface (A) is less than above the interface. This difference in pressure existing across the interface is referred

It is noticed from the shape of the interface between the two phases

to as capillary pressure of the system.

Pc = Pnw Pw = g h =

2 cos r


Figure 46

case of liquid and gaseous phase.

Fig (47) shows the condition of two liquid phases compared with

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Calculation of capillary pressure, Pc 1-For liquidair system

Figure 47

that. At the point B outside the capillary, which pressure is atmospheric.

At the point B' within the capillary the tube pressure is the same as At the point A' just under the meniscus with in the capillary, the

pressure is equal to that at B' within the capillary minus the head of water. The pressure at A' is therefore;

PA' = PB ' w g h
pressure is the same as that at B.


Now, at the point A, just above the meniscus within the capillary, the This statement can be made because the density can be neglected.

Oil Reservoir Engineering



The pressure across the meniscus (or the phase boundary) is

Pair Pwater = Pnw Pw = Pc


= PA PA'

Pw and Pnw are

the wetting phase pressure (water) and the non

wettingface pressure (air), and

is the water density.

Substituting equation (3) in equation (4);

Pc = PA PA' = PA ( PB ' w g h) = PA PB ' + w g h

As mentioned before; (5)

PA = PB ' = PB = Patm Pc = w g h

For two immiscible liquids (oil and water)

head of oil, because the oil density isn't negligible compared to water density. In this case the pressure at A is now equal to that at B minus the

Oil Reservoir Engineering


PA = PB o g h
Substituting equation (7) into equation (5);


Pc = ( PB o g h) PB ' + w g h = ( w o ) g h

It was noted in equation (1) that the quantity ( h ) could be therefore, the capillary pressure can be expressed as: expressed by the surface tension ( ) and the contact angle ( );

Pc =

2 cos = g h r


It noticed from equation (9) that the capillary pressure is a function of the adhesion tension (

At = cos

the radius of the capillary tube.

), and inverse proportional to

capillary pressure will be zero, or substantially so, because infinitely large.

Thus, across a fluid boundary which is within a larger vessel, the


Capillary pressure in unconsolidated sands

simple or ideal porous structure is required as a starting point to explain their capillary behavior. The ideal pore configuration usually chosen is that made up of spherically uniform particles of definite size, i.e., unconsolidated sand. Reservoir rocks are varying in complexity of pore structure, and a

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Figure 48

wetting fluid at the point of contact. A contact angle of zero will be assumed in order to have the condition of a continuous film of the wetting phase a round the sand grain. In this system, the capillary pressure is given by;

Consider to spherical grains in contact as shown in Fig (10) with a

Pc = {

1 1 + } R1 R2





are the radii of the curvature of the interface and


the interfacial tension between the two fluids. The values of



saturation of that fluid within the porous body if the number of such contacts are considered. It is practically impossible to measure the

R2 expresses the amount of fluid that is contained at the contact, or the

Oil Reservoir Engineering


values of radius (




so they are generally referred to by the mean

Rm ); where;

1 1 1 = + Rm R1 R2
on a porous medium.

The mean radius is empirically determined from other measurement

decreased (i.e. the quantity of the wettingface decreases); the

Referring to equation (10), it is seen that if



R2 both

magnitude of the capillary pressure would in turn have to increase in size. It is therefore possible to express the capillary pressure as a function of rock saturation when two immiscible fluids are used within the capillary pressure.

porous medium. In other words, smaller water saturation gives a greater Equation (8) and Equation (10) together demand that: at a given

height within a reservoir, the amount of water that is held by capillary pressures will increase as the permeability decreases. Also the capillary pressure increase with height in the reservoir.

Capillary pressure curves

body and the capillary pressure at that point is known as the capillary The relationship between water saturation at any point in a porous

pressure. Since the capillary pressure must vary with height above the free water level in a porous section, the capillary pressure curve expresses also the relationship of water saturation to height above the
Oil Reservoir Engineering (81)

free water level. Fig (50) shows a typical curve, any point in this curve represents an equilibrium condition. water. First, it is assumed that the reservoir rock was originally filled with

Figure 49

the reservoir. The capillary pressure can be measured by finding out reach certain saturation in that fluid (wettingphase fluid). If the largest

Second, this water was displayed by the oil which accumulates in

how much pressure must be applied on oil (non wetting fluid) in order to capillary opening be considered as circular of radius r , the pressure needed for forcing the oil will be

P =

2 cos r

enter the core because any capillary of small radius will require a higher

It is the minimum pressure at which the non-wetting fluid starts to

Oil Reservoir Engineering


pressure application. This minimum pressure is called the "displacement pressure" of the core. As the driving pressure upon the non-wetting fluid is increased,

capillaries of smaller and smaller radii are penetrated by the non

wetting fluid. Should the capillaries of the specimen be highly uniform in wetting fluid and the plot of pressure applied vs. fluid saturation would be very flat nearly until the irreducible saturation (S ) is reached. This is illustrated incurve "1" fig (51).

size , no excess pressure would be required to saturate them in non-

Figure 50

size, the capillary pressure curve would be very step such as curve (3) heterogeneity.

On the contrary, should the capillaries be of very heterogeneous

curve (2) is the capillary pressure for capillary size distribution of medium It may be summarized that the capillary pressure of a reservoir rock

as a function of fluid saturation is a measure of capillary size distribution,

Oil Reservoir Engineering


which in turn is a measure of rock texture. Fine textured rocks made up of small cemented grains, closely packed exhibit a higher capillary large grains, poorly cemented and loosely packed. pressure at a given saturation then coarse textured rocks made up of There is no sharp line between oil and water level, Fig (51). The

depth internal within which the saturation (S ) changes from 100% to the wateroil contact con not be said to exist at a definite depth, but rather within a range of depth. In general, less permeable sands are expected to have a greater irreducible saturation (S ) is known as the "transition zone", thus, the

transition zone, Fig (52).

Figure 51

and "threshold pressure", the former refers to the entrance pressure of wetting fluid.

A distinction must be made between the displacement pressures

the non-wetting fluid into the porous medium fully saturated with the

Oil Reservoir Engineering


saturated with non-wetting fluid, the point below fluid the displacement

However, if the medium is partially

entrance pressure is reduced to a pressure. If the saturation in the nonwetting is the

saturation to this phase, the threshold pressure is now zero. Fig (53).
Figure 52


Drainage and imbibition capillary pressure curves

the core was saturated with water air), be forced into the core. In this To obtain the drainage curve,

and then let a non-wetting fluid (oil or desaturation direction, the water is smaller capillaries. Fig (54)
Figure 53

displaced from the larger toward the

saturation changes are toward larger

By contrast, when the water

of displacement of oil or air by water. The oil saturation is reduced until it reaches to the ultimate oil saturation "residual oil saturation".

saturation values, "in the imbibition direction", which is also the direction

Oil Reservoir Engineering


value would be obtained if the porous system was being desaturated (drainage), then was being resaturated (imbibition) with wetting fluid. We can summarize factors affecting capillary pressure curve as:

A higher value of water saturation for a given capillary pressure

The pore size distribution. The saturation history "drainage or imbibition direction". Rock homogeneity or heterogeneity. Rock permeability. The kind of fluid and solids that are involved.
taken into consideration before the actual application of the data. Thus in order to use capillary pressure data, these factors must be

Laboratory determination of capillary pressure curve

pressure curve is shown in Fig (16). Many versions of the apparatus are used but the basic principles are the same. A typical apparatus which is used for the determination of capillary

Oil Reservoir Engineering


through it, but will not permit air to flow through it under the pressure necessary. This means that the diaphragm must have very small pores and must be water wet. measured:

The porous diaphragm is chosen so that it will permit water to flow

To determine the capillary pressure curve to quantities must be

1-S in the core at any time. 2-P at the same time By definition, Pc is difference in pressure between the gas (air) and

water phases in the core. The water saturation (Sw) can be determined either by wetting the core from time to time or by measuring the volume of water that has been removed from the core from time to time.

The porous diaphragm must first be completely saturated with water. On the diaphragm is placed a thin layer of finely powder, the

purpose of which is to ensure good contact between the diaphragm and the core. This layer is completely saturated with water.

The core itself is also completely saturated with water and placed on the layer of powder. The apparatus is then closed so that an air pressure can be applied. This pressure is set at some definite and contact value (Pair).

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Because the diaphragm has been chosen with such a fine pore structure that air can not penetrate it, there will be no air water which itself can path through the diaphragm. However air will displace water from the core through the diaphragm for a while but eventually all flow will stop and the system will be static. flow except into the core. Air flow into the core will displace

When the system has reached this point of no flow, the pressure in both the water and air phases within the core is known.

A. Pair = the applied pressure. B. Pw = Patm (the pressure below the diaphragm) the head, P from the bottom of the diaphragm to the center of the core.

Pc = Papplied ( Patm

At this point, the core can be removed from the holder and the wide determined, weight of the core minus the dry weight gives the weight of water present and consequently the saturation.

The core is replaced in the holder and the process is repeated, determine a new capillary pressure and a new saturation. capillary pressure curve is obtained and plotted.

a new air pressure higher than the first beginning used to

By making a succession of such determinations, the entire

Oil Reservoir Engineering


g w)



A dry core weights 8.59 gms and then 100% saturated with water it weights 9.74 gms. It is placed in a closed container diaphragm. A constant pressure is applied and when equilibrium is attended the core reweighed for various applied pressures, the following data were obtained: Pressure 10 20 30 40 50 60 80 100 150 200 300 400 mmHg a. Plot Pc versus Sw. b. Find Pd and S wi .

Weight 9.74 9.74 9.68 9.57 9.41 9.29 9.50 8.96 8.88 8.85 8.82 8.82 gms

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Figure 54

P.V . = =

wt . of

100% sat . sample wt





9.74 8.59 = 1.15cm 2 1 Sw =


volume of P.V .


Pc = Papplied Pc
10 20 30 40 50
Oil Reservoir Engineering

100 100 94.7 85.2 71.3

60 80 100 150 200 300 400 From Fig

60.8 40.0 32.2 25.2 22.6 20.0 20.0

Pd = 20 mmHg

S wi = 20%

The Jamin effect

an interface within a capillary system. The idea of the capillary pressure is that a pressure existing across

Figure 55

condition may be such that the resistance to flow is markedly increase, "Jamin effect".

When more than one interface is present in a given channel

or may become great enough to prohibit flow. This effect is named Consider at first a straight pore cylindrical capillary. The capillary

pressure which is equavelent to the displacement is given by:

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Pc =

2 cos r

pressure necessary to keep the interface from moving to the right at point B within the capillary, Fig(57)

This the pressure difference between point A and B, it is also the

Figure 56

J effect = PB PA =

2 cos r

from to A B

which it is immiscible, Fig (20).

Consider a discrete global of one fluid within another fluid with

Figure 57

interface is the same but opposite in the direction to the other, there is between the point A and B is zero as seen by;

There are now two interface, the pressure drop across each

no net pressure necessary to prevent motion, the total pressure drop

J = PB PA = (

2 cos 2 cos )A ( )B = 0 r r

drop between point A and B would not be zero.

Now if either term of this equation were modified, the net pressure

Oil Reservoir Engineering


The difference may not be zero due to a change in any one of the three terms ,

This condition gives the Jamin condition, i.e. the resistance to flow.


or r .

Variation in " r ":

The difference in pressure between point A and B is:

PB PA = 2 cos (
rB pp rA PA f PB

1 1 ) rA rB

position shown. If flow were to the right, a bubble of oil in the water stream could block such a channel until the pressure drop between point A and B was sufficiently great to push the bubble through the smallest construction.

A positive pressure is required at point A to retain the bubble in

Variation in contact angle

Consider Fig (61). The resultant pressure between point A and B:




2 (cos A cos B ) r

Oil Reservoir Engineering

As A f B

cos A p cos B PA f PB

Figure 59

the right in the figure shown.

A pressure drop between A and B is necessary to initial flow toward

Variation of interfacial tension

Figure 60

water. The net effect between A and P is then:

If a bubble of gas is bounded on one side by oil and on the other by


2 ( A cos A B cos B ) r

If B cos B f A cos A

flow to the right. A positive pressure drop from A to B would be necessary to initial The overall Jamin effect is of course increased in direction

proportional to the total number of bubbles that exit in a given channel.

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Calculation of wettability
There are some means expressing the degree of wettability:

1-contact angle
dense phase. A contact angle of zero would indicate complete wetting by the An angle of 90o indicated that either phase wets the solid. An angle of 180 o complete wetting by the less dense phase.

2-the sessile drop ratio

Figure 61

the droplet.

It is the ratio of the height of droplet in the surface to the breads of


h b

surface by the dense phase. dense fluid.

Sessile drop ratio of one indicates complete non-wetting the solid A ratio of zero indicates complete wetting the solid surface by the

Oil Reservoir Engineering


3-the wettability number

Wettability number (W.N.) = Where;

o.a PT w.o PT

w. o


initially saturated with water.

PTw.o PTo . a

= the threshold pressure of core for oil to enter when core

saturated with oil. water.

= threshold pressure of core for air to enter when core initially

A wettability number of one would indicate a complete wetting by A wettability number of zero would indicate complete wetting by oil.

Relationship between gravity and capillary forces

Gravity force: the force tends to expel water from the rock. pores and it is opposite by the capillary force. It is also the force that causes oil to force water out of the rock The water saturation at any point in the reservoir is the result of a

balance between the capillary and gravity force.

Oil Reservoir Engineering


increases, the gravity forces in the reservoir increases and water saturation tends to be lower. pressure in the laboratory. Gravity pressure The gravity pressure in the reservoir is analogous to the capillary

As the vertical distance above the free water level (Pc = 0)

gravity pressure

g h

logs is the depth of the free water level.

The reservoir point that can generally be determined from electric The laboratory capillary pressure test starts out with 100% water However, the starting laboratory point corresponds to the reservoir

saturation in the core and zero capillary.

free water level not the original water oil contact (OWC). This is directly calculate the depth of the free water level in the reservoir. original water oil contact.

used in laboratory to convert laboratory data to field data, when need to Fig (63) shows the distinction between the free water level and the

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Figure 62

Converting laboratory capillary pressure data

convert to the reservoir condition. To use laboratory data of capillary pressure it is necessary to

( Pc )lab = ( Pc ) Re s =

2 w.a cos L 2 L cos L = r r 2 o.w cos R 2 R cos R = r r

L = R = 180o

Pc R = Pc L


Calculate the reservoir capillary pressure from the following laboratory data:
Oil Reservoir Engineering (98)

Pc L = 18 psi ,

S w = 35% ,

( o.w ) R = 24dyne / cm ,

( a.w ) L = 72dyne / cm ,

w = 68lb / ft 3 and

o = 53ib / ft 3 .

( Pc ) R = ( Pc ) L

R 24 = 18 = 6 psi L 72

To convert the capillary pressure saturation data to height saturation it is only necessary to rearrange the equation:

Pc = g h 144( Pc ) R = ( w o ) g h h =
Where; h : ft,

144( Pc ) R 144( Pc ) R = ( w o ) g g

w , o : lb / ft 3 ,

Pc : psi

Calculate the height of the saturation plane for the last example.


h =

144( Pc ) R 144 6 = = 58 ft. ( w o ) (68 53)

Oil Reservoir Engineering


The water saturation (Sw = 35%) exists at a height of 58 ft above

the free water level.

Calculate the water saturation profile (depth versus Sw), for the following laboratory capillary pressure data, considering that the initial WOC is located at depth of 3788 ft. Sw 100 100 85 72 58 52 45 39 35 32 30 30 % Also given; Pc 0 1.9 2.02 2.34 2.74 3.25 3.60 4.57 5.44 7.20 10.00 10.00 Psi

w = 63.8lb / ft 3 o = 54.7lb / ft 3
a.w = 70dyne / cm
Oil Reservoir Engineering (100)

w.o = 28dyne / cm
cos = 1

( Pc ) R = ( Pc ) L

w.o w. a
28 = 0.4( Pc ) L 70

( Pc ) R = ( Pc ) L

Qh =

144 ( Pc ) R 144 = ( Pc ) R w o 63.8 54.7


Q h = 15.82( Pc ) R = 6.328( Pc ) L

As the initial OWC that is correspond to the displacement pressure is at depth of 3788 ft, thus the free water level is at a depth of: 6.328 x 1.9=12 ft below the depth of the 1.WOC. The depth of the free water level = 12 + 3788 = 3800 ft. In genera, the relation between the deoth of the free water level at any height value is; D = F.D.L h (3) Using equation (1) and equation (2) and equation (3), we can calculate the (D vs. Sw profile) as follows:

100 (F.W.L.) 100 (1.WOC) 85

( Pc ) R
0 0.76 0.81

0 12 12.8

3800 3788 3787

Oil Reservoir Engineering


72 58 52 45 39 35 32 30 30 %

0.94 1.10 1.30 1.44 1.83 2.18 2.88 4.00 4.00 Psi

14.9 17.4 20.6 22.8 29 34.5 45.6 63.6 94.9 ft

3785 3783 3779 3777 3771 3765 3754 3737 3705 ft

homogeneous and that the capillary pressure test on a single core simple was sufficient for estimating the entire water saturation profile. Most of reservoirs are stratified and several simples must be

In the above example it was assumed that the reservoir was

selected for capillary pressure test, so the actual stratification can be taken into account.


Calculate the water saturation profile at a well drilled into a reservoir has he following capillary pressure data for this cores of different perm abilities;


( Pc )core:1

1000 md

( Pc )core:2

100 md

( Pc )core:3

10 md

Oil Reservoir Engineering


100 80 60 40 20 %

0.2 0.45 1.0 2.5 6 Psi

1.8 2.0 3.2 3.7 psi

3.0 4.9 7.5 13 psi

Also given the following data; Sub sea depth 3743 3744 3745 3746 3747 3748 ft

K 93 970 12 8 1020 108 md

Suitable Pc S w core Core : 2 Core : 1 Core : 3 Core : 3 Core : 1 Core : 2

After deciding the suitable capillarysaturation curve: Calculate ( Pc ) R for each foot of depth as the previous example.

( Pc ) R =

h 3800 D = 15.82 15.82

Calculate ( Pc ) L .

( Pc ) L =

( Pc ) R 3800 D 3800 D = = 0.4 0.4(15.82) 6.33


Oil Reservoir Engineering


( Pc ) L =
Read 3) Depth 3743 3744 3745 3746 3747 3748 ft

h 3800 D = 6.328 6.328

for each ( Pc ) L from curves Pc S w for each core (1,2and H 57 56 55 54 53 52


( Pc ) L
8.99 8.83 8.68 8.52 8.36 8.20 psi

Curve Core : 2 Core : 1 Core : 3 Core : 3 Core : 2 Core : 2

30 20 54 55 20 13 %

Extending the range of laboratory Pc S w data

a great influence on the water saturation than does its structural location. three cores could be used to evaluate It is noticed that the permeability at a point n the reservoir often has

The permeability values in the above example were chosen so that the


for each foot of the sand.

In many cases, the permeability of portions of the formation may not be closed to that of the core simples tested. On this case additional


Oil Reservoir Engineering



proceeding example.

curves can be determined by plotting the laboratory data as in the


For the above example, estimate a capillary pressure curve for 40 md core.

Plot Pc vs. K for the three cores on loglog paper for each saturation level given straight lines. For any K as 40 md, draw a horizontal line and record Pc vs. S w that gives the new curve, Fig (64)

Figure 63

1.7 2.5 4

100 80 60

Oil Reservoir Engineering


6.2 8.4 11.5

50 40 30

Calculation of effective and absolute permeabilities from capillary pressure data: Purcell and Burdines method:
from capillary pressure data obtained by the mercury injection. Method, utilized the concept of pore size distribution as follow: The minimum capillary pressure required for displacing of a wetting Purcell and Burdines have reported on computation of permeability

fluid or injecting a non-wetting fluid into a capillary tube of radius r is given by:

Pc =

2 cos r
2 cos pc

r =

poiseuille equation:

The flow rate through a single tube of radius (r) is given by

r 4 p Q= 8L
Since the volume of the capillary is :

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Vi = r 2 L
vi r 2 P Q = 8 L2
From equation (1) and equation (2);


( cos )2 vi p Q =
2 L2 ( pc ) 2
different radii.


For a porous medium of (n) capillary tubes of equal length L and


( cos )2 p n =
2 L2

vi ( pc )2


Due Darcy's law;

Qt =



From equation (4) and equation (5);

( cos ) 2 n vi K = 2 A L i =1 ( Pc ) 2
As the volume (



of each capillary can expressed as a function of of the system.

Si ) of the total void volume vT

vi = Si vT ,

Oil Reservoir Engineering



vT A L

vi = Si vT = S i A L

( cos ) 2 n S i K = 2 2 i =1 P i c


generalizing equation (7) as;

Purcell introduced a lithology factor ( ) and a conversion factor,

K = 10.24( cos ) 2

dS nw 2 S =0 Pc


Fractional total pore space occupied by liquid injected

or forced out of sample (

S nw ).

: : : : :

md. Fraction. psi. Dyne/cm. Contact angle.


and that the interfacial tension of Hg = 480 dyne/cm.

Oil Reservoir Engineering

Purcell assumed that the contact angle for mercury was ( = 140o)


K = 14260

dS c2 S =0 P

The integral is found by reading values of various saturations, calculating value of


from (

Pc S ) curve at

as a function of corresponding saturation.

1 ) 2 Pc and plotting these values

An average value of the lithology factor can be taken as


for sedimentary rocks. the integral is the area under the curve

The value of


1 ) vs. S w } 2 Pc .

Calculation of relative permeability from capillary data

for displacement of the wetting phase, Generalizing equation (8) and considering capillary pressure data

K w = 10.24( cos ) 2


dS 2 Pc



: the effective permeability to the wetting phase at any

saturation value (



Oil Reservoir Engineering


following relationship;

The related permeability to the wetting phase is given by the

K rw

dS Pc 2 Kw 0 = = 100 K dS Pc 2 0



porous medium.

Where the lithology factor ( ) is assumed to be constant for the

calculated in a similar fashion as equation (9) by assuming that the nonwetting phase is contained in tubes or pores, free of the wetting phases;

The effective permeability to the non-wetting phase (

K nw

) can be

K nwt = 10.24( cos ) 2


S =Sw

dS 2 Pc



The relative permeability to the non-wetting phase (

K nwt

) is given


K nwt

K = nw = K

dS Pc

S =Sw 100

dS P


The following example illustrate how to use the above relationship to calculate

K ab






Oil Reservoir Engineering



For mercury injection method given the following capillary pressure saturation data; SHg, % 0 Patm 1.6 10 2.8 20 3.1 30 3.5 40 4.2 50 5.5 60 12.2 70 20 80 30

If = 0.216 ,

= 140o


= 480dyne / cm , = 23%

K and ( K rw vs. S w ).

S Hg


1 2 Pc
0.391 0.128 0.104 0.082 0.067 0.029 0.007 0.003 0.001

dS Pc 2

dS 0 Pc 2 K rw = 100 dS 0 Pc 2

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

1.6 2.8 3.1 3.5 4.2 5.5 12.2 20 30

1 2.595 1.160 0.930 0.745 0.480 0.180 0.05 0.020 0.578 0.392 0.239 0.118 0.0405 0.0113 0.0032 0

= 6.16
Oil Reservoir Engineering (111)

K = 10.24( cos )


dS 2 Pc



: : : :

md. Fraction. Fraction. psi.



K = 4.75 10 6 ( cos ) 2

dS 2 Pc


: : : : :

md. Percent. Percent. atm. Dyne/cm.


K = 4.75 106 (480 0.766) 2 0.216 6.16 = 19.65md

Figure 64

Oil Reservoir Engineering


textural rock properties, in other words, it is the structure interpretation of physical rock properties. Although, the reservoir engineer is mostly interested in porosity, Petrophysics is the study of the relationship that exist between and

permeability and fluid saturation of reservoir rocks, there are certain physical properties such as the formation resistively factor (F), the resistively index (I), and the hydraul formation factor (Fh) which provide derivation may be made leading to the possible determination of relative permeability from electric logs. This chapter shows how the properties of log interpretation are interrelated. clean rocks mostly common used in fluidflow mechanics and electric

a link between reservoir engineering and logging and from which

Petrophysics of clean rocks 1) Permeability

Poiseuille (1846) derived an equation which relates the rate of flow of an incompressible fluid of known viscosity through a horizontal straight differential ( P ) as follows; capillary of length (L) and radius (r) under the influence of a pressure

r 4 P Q= 8 L


Oil Reservoir Engineering


: : :

cc/sec. cm. Poise. Dyne/cm2.

P ( P P2 ) : 1

Figure 65

If we considered a linear porous medium of physical length (L) and cross sectional area (A) as made up of a bundle of capillary of average radius (r') and of average length (L'=Lt). Where; (t) is a tortuosity coefficient. Poiseuille's law is written as;

n r 4 P Q= 8 t L


Figure 66

The tortuosity coefficient (t) is a dimensionless number up by a bundle of straight pore capillaries. It is also a measure of the tortuous path length which a practical fluid must travel,

representing the departure of a porous system from being made

Oil Reservoir Engineering


expressed in terms of the shortest distance between two points in that path, i.e. t=L'/L Comparing Poiseuille's law with Darcy's law expressed in the same system of units;

1.013 A K P n r 4 P 8 Q= 10 = Q = L 8 t L

n r 4 K 108 8 At
Where; : : : Dyne/cm2. Number of capillary tubes. Darcy.



2) Porosity
Volume porosity ( given by; expressed as the pore-space volume per bulk volume. It is

v )

of this bundle of capillary tubes is

n r 2 L t n r 2 = = t v = V A L A Vp


Surface porosity ( s ) is the cross sectional area of all porosity

(A) of the rock.

pores that are intersected by a plane surface and

expressed as a fraction of the total cross- sectional area

Oil Reservoir Engineering


n r 2 s = To aid better in the understanding of fluid flow in A

rocks, correlations among porosity, permeability, Surface area, pore size and other variables have been made.


Relation between porosity permeability, toruosity and mean capillary radius

Equation (-3) can be written as;

n r 2 r 2 K= 108 A 8t
By combining this equation with equation (-4);

1 r 2 K = 2 108 8 t
By solving for the mean pore radius (r');
2 r'= 8 K t

10 4


Specific surface
The specific surface of a porous material is the total area exposed with in the pores pace per unit volume. Unit volume may be the solid volume in which case the specific space, in which case the specific surface is represented by (Sp). For a packing of capillary tube;

surface is represented by (Ss). The unit value may also be pore

Oil Reservoir Engineering



int ernal surface area unit volume

SP =

I .S . A. n( 2 r ) L t 2 = = P.V . n( r 2 ) L t r


Ss = S

I .S . A. S .V . = I .S . A . P .V .

1 .5 A P.V . V SB s P.V . BV = = = = Ps . 1.5 A Vs SP 1 BV P.V .

2 Ss = S P = 1 r (1 )

1 .5 A ) SB ( BV = S .V = (1 ) = 1 .5 A SS B.V S .V
S B = S S (1 )
For a packing of spheres (-10)

n (4 r 2 ) L t 3 SS = = n (4 r 3 )L t r 3


n (4 r 2 ) L t 3 1 SP = = = r n (4 r 3 )L t 3 1


Oil Reservoir Engineering


Kozeny equation
A useful expression can be derived by combining equation (-6) with equation (-7);
2 r = 8 K t

2 r

10 4


SP =

(1) For capillary tubes or consolidated sands

Equating values of 7);

r obtained from equation (-6) and equation (-

2 8K t 2 r= = 104 SP

K =

2 t SP
2 2





2 t S S (1 )
2 2 2




the above derivations assume that the capillaries of mean radius ( r ) have no roughness, and have constant cross section. It is

assumed that the roughness factor is included in the tortuosity coefficient. The coefficient ( 2t ) in equation (-8) and equation (-

Oil Reservoir Engineering


9) is called the (Kozeny constant) for consolidated rocks for capillary tubes.

(2) For unconsolidated sands

the capillaries is unknown. Therefore the following simple derivation will be used. Using Poiseuille's law, the internal velocity inside a circular pipe is In the case of a packing of spheres, the mean hydraulic radius of

given by;

r 2 P vi = 8 L


Due to the internal roughness of the pipe, equation (-10) becomes;

r 2 P vi = ts L



is the shape factor, which has an average value of 2.5 .

(t s 2.5)

Applying Darcy's law for the case of a porous medium;

viupp =

K P 108 L


Oil Reservoir Engineering


The apparent velocity ( follow;


) from the bases of Darcy's law can be

related to the actual velocity (


) obtained by Poiseuille's law as

Q = Vapp Aapp = Vact Aact

Vapp = Vact

Aact L t PV = Vact = Vact Aapp L t BV t t

VDarcy = V pois .

K P r 2 P 8 10 = ts L t L K =

ts t


t s 2 .5
K =

2.5 t



as the ratio of the pore volume per unit bulk volume, divided by the wetted surface per unit bulk volume;

As the mean hydraulic radius of a porous medium can be defined

Oil Reservoir Engineering


PV r = BV

I .S . A. BV

PV 1 = I .S . A. S P


1 SP

Therefore, equation (-13) becomes;

K =

2.5 t S P



K =

2.5 t S S (1 ) 2



porous medium. sands;

The value (2.5 t) is called the Kozeny constant for unconsolidated Equating Kozeny constant for consolidated and unconsolidated

2.5t = 2t 2
t = 1.25
determinations for unconsolidated sands. (-16)

This value of tortuosity (t) agrees very closely with experimental

Oil Reservoir Engineering


introduced which had been determined experimentally. The values of these coefficients are given as:

When the grains are non spherical, a shape factor (


) must be

Grain shape Spherical Well-rounded Worn Sharp (sub rounded) Angular

Introducing the shape factor (

1.00 1.02 1.07 1.17 1.27


obtained for unconsolidated granular material.

) into Kozeny's equation we


2 .5 t s t S P





2.5 t s t S S (1 ) 2




the pore volume and the soil volume, obtained by the relation (





are respectively the specific surface based on

SP =

1 r ), previously defined.

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Flow of electric current through clean reservoir rocks

of minerals, for the most part, non conductive of electricity. Sedimentary The solid framework of the sedimentary reservoir rocks is made up

rocks are conductive of electricity only if their interconnected pore space contain electrically conductive fluids, namely formation water, connate water, interstitial water, ground water and the like. salty water and resistivity R ohm-meters.

Consider the box like container, Fig (68) is completely filled with

Figure 67

be A meters2.

Let the length of the box be L meters, and its cross sectional area

The resistance of the base to the flow of current will be in ohms;

R = Rw



current I in amperes will flow, thus, Due to ohm's law;

When a voltage (E), in volts, is applied between the sides A, a

E = I R = I Rw
Oil Reservoir Engineering


I = A

1 E Rw L


horizontal flow of the fluids have a unit viscosity.

This expression, equation (2) is analogous to Darcy's law for the

q = A K



saturated to 100% with salt water of the same resistivity as before, Fig resistivity formation factor "F" which is always larger than one.

Now consider that the box is completely filled with clean sand and

(69). The resistance of the box will be increased by a factor called the

Figure 68

A new and smaller current (I') will now flow such that;

E = I 'Ro

L A Ro f Rw
, where


I 'p I

volume of the box that is completely filled with the porous medium and fully saturated with a conductive fluid of a resistivity Comparing equation (2) and equation (4);

, then


is the resistivity of a unit


Oil Reservoir Engineering


E = I 'Ro

L L = I Rw A A Ro
) is proportional to the resistivity of

It is shown that the resistivity ( the brine (


resistivity factor.

). The constant of proportionality is called formation

F =

Ro Rw


This relation is an important in log-interpretation because of by has when fully saturated with formation water. Such a condition precludes any possibility of oil production. The formation factor is a dimensionless quantity by which the knowing;


and F, it is possible to calculate the resistivity


which it

resistivity of the formation water is to be multiplied in order to obtain the resistivity of the rock when 100% saturated in formation water.

Lithologic factors effecting formation factor

Rock porosity is the mean factor that controls the passage of current, i.e. the value of the formation factor. The salty waters that rock contains in its pores. Rock cementation and grin size distribution control the size of the interconnected pore of their tortuosity.

Oil Reservoir Engineering


Various formulas have been proposed to relate the formation factor ( F ) to the lithological factors of porosity ( ( m ). Archie proposed the following formula;

and cementation factor



The constant ( a ) is determined empirically. Satisfactory results are usually obtained with;



in sands, and in compacted sands.

F = 2

These two formulas differ little from (Humble formula):





( m ) are represented graphically in Fig (3).

The Humble formula and the Archie formula for several vales of

Resistivity of rocks partially saturated with formation waters

present, with in a porous medium together with a certain amount of salty When oil and gas, which are non conductors of electricity, are

Oil Reservoir Engineering


formation water, the resistivity (

there is a less available volume for the flow of electric current this space

RT )

will be larger than (


). Since

available water volume is represented by the water saturation in the pore


Resistivity of a partially saturated porous medium ( space.

RT )


not only on the value of ( S w ) but also on its distribution within the pore The fluid distribution within the porous medium depends on; The wetting properties of the rock. The direction in which it was established (drainage or imbibition). Porosity type. Fig (69) shows how the ratio


varies as a function of saturation.

Figure 69

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(n). (n)

and 1.8 for the second. These slopes are called Saturation exponents Curve (3) is for oil-wet sand in which case the value of (n) is

Curve (1) and (2) are for sands, the slope of which is 2 for the first

available with saturation and the degree of wetting.

The general formula which relates connate water saturation ( the following forms; and the true resistivity (


RT )

is Archie formula which may be written in

Sw = n

Ro FRw n =n = Rw m / RL Rt Rt


assumed to be 2 for water wet reservoir rocks.

( n ) is the saturation exponent, the value of which is most generally ( n ) can be measured in laboratory by measuring the electric

conductivity of the core at different partial fluids saturations.

Tortuosity determination
determined is made by computation from the value of formation factor F and porosity The simplest method by which tortuosity of rock capillaries can be

may be represented by

tortuous capillaries of actual length (Lt) and ending in number (n) in a

For consolidated rocks where the porosity

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cross sectional area (A), a theoretical expression for the formation factor (F), can be derived as follow:

R = Ro



= Rw

L t n ( r 2 )


Using equation (10) and equation (-4);

L t2 R = Rw A
From equation (9) and equation (11);

L L t2 Ro = Rw A A

Ro = Rw





t 2 = F

Formula (12) provides a ready laboratory means of determining (t) since both (

) and (F) are easily measured.

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Effective tortuosity
is not expected to take place effectively through the full volume of water. In a completely water saturated rock, the passage of electric current

This analogous to fluid flow in porous media at 100% saturation where all the fluid is not moveable. The non movable water is the irreducible water saturation, (

capillaries through which there is neither pressure differential nor potential drop, looks like non conductive mineral framework. Thus, tortuosity of irreducible water saturation can be written as:

S wi ). The irreducible water saturation, which occupies

t 2 = F (1 S wi )
The concept of effective tortuosity ( when partial water saturation (



) takes in another aspect

S wi

wetting phase is non conductive of electricity. An effective tortuosity can then be written as;

) prevails, for in this situation the non-

te = Fe ( S w S wi )


Effective formation value

The ratio

F Fe

is written as:

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Ro F Rw Ro 1 = = = Fe Rt Rt I R w

also the following relationship can be written;

is the resistivity index at the partial water saturation (



F Ro t = = Fe Rt te

S w S wi 1 S wi


According to this relation, equation (-6) must be changed to;

2 r = 8 K t

(1 S wi )

10 4


Similar adjustment should be made in Kozeny equation.

Hydraulic formation factor and index

Figure 70

By analogy with the formation resistivity factor, the hydraulic formation factor (


) may be written as;

Fh =

Darcy flow rate R o poiseuille flow rate Rw

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K ( R 2 ) P

10 8


8 L

Fh =

8K 10 8 2 R

is the radius of the tested core.

Considered the movable water volume;

R 2 (1 S wi ) = n( r 2 ) L t
R 2 (1 S wi ) r = n t



8K t 2 r = 10 8 (1 S wi )


R 2 (1 S wi )

2 10 8 = 8 K t nt (1 S wi )

2 (1 S wi ) 2
n t
2 (1 S wi ) 2 Fh =
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= 8 K

] 10 R

= Fh

n t3



is the total number of capillaries occupied by the phase fluid.

At partial saturation in the wetting-phase fluid ( hydraulic formation factor (


), an effective


), may be expressed as;

Fhe w =

2 ( S w S wi ) 2
ne w (te w )3

ne w

: :

is the number of capillaries occupied by the wetting-phase. is their tortuosity.

te w

Similarly for the non wetting-phase;

Fhe nw =

2 (1 S w ) 2
nn w (tn w ) 3

nn w

is the number of capillaries occupied by the non wetting-

tn w

is their tortuosity.

The effective hydraulic index ( I eh ) for the wetting-phase

equation (19). is the ratio of (

Fhe )

to (

Fh )

that are obtained by equation (18) and

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Fhe n t I eh = = Fn new te w

S w S wi 1 S wi


By definition this ratio, by analogy, is also the relative permeability to the wetting phase (

K rw


n t K rw = new tew

S w S wi 1 S wi


is obtained by dividing equation (20) by equation (18);

Similarly, the relative permeability to the non-wetting phase ( K rnw )

K rnw

n t = nnw tew

1 Sw 1 S wi


The ratio (

S w S wi 1 S is wi

called the free wetting-phase saturation

S wf


), and when substituting in equation (23) and equation (23) we

n K rw = ne w

t te w

(S wf )2


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K rnw

n t (1 S wf )2 = nnw tew


the saturation changes are by imbibition or by drainage. They are not useful without elimination of the number of capillaries involved ( n , order to obtain practical relative permeability formulas. and

The formulas (24) and (25) are fully general and are valid whether



) and the tortuosity coefficients ( t ,




) from them in

Relative permeability to the wetting-phase ( K rw ). * Imbibition direction

When the wetting phase is increased from the irreducible saturation (

S wi

saturation. Hence, we have;

), all the capillary acquire simultaneously a movable wetting-phase

n = new



Substituting equation (26) in equation (24);

K rw = (

t tew

)3 Swf


equation (24);

Another formula can be obtained by using equation (14) and

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K rw(imbibition)

1 Ro 3 2 = ( ) S wf 2 Rt


*Drainage direction
injection of a non-wetting phase starting with too per cent wetting-phase fluid, then the next largest, and so on When The wetting-phase saturation is decreased because of the

saturation, the largest capillaries are originally occupied by non wetting At any intermediate saturation, the distribution of fluids may be

visualized as being in two bundles of capillaries, one occupied by non wetting and the other by wetting fluid. Hence we have the relation.

n = new

nnw new

(29) ) from equation (24)

It is no longer possible to eliminate ( n and and after substitution of (

tew ) from equation (14);


K rw( drainage) = (

n t 3 2 )( ) S wf new tew

K rw( drainage)

1 n Ro 3 2 = ( )( ) S wf 2 new Rt


From laboratory investigation, it has been shown that ( and

K rw( drainage)

K rw(imbibition)

such deviation may be considered to be due to errors of measurements.

) show very little deviation from one another and that

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Hence, in the drainage direction

n new

permeability formula (27) or (27) may be used for the wetting-phase.

and a single relative

Relative permeability to the non wetting-phase ( (1) Imbibition direction

K rnw


simultaneously in all the capillaries because the small capillaries are all ready saturated at the start of imbibition with the wetting-phase, i.e. (









S wi

). Because of the large degree of interconnection between the of all size, the wetting-phase saturation increases


simultaneously in all of them and the non wetting-phase becomes constricted in all the pores simultaneously, given rise to coaxial flow of both phases within a certain range of saturation changes. The non wetting-phase saturation distribution is considered to be a succession of inflations and constriction connected along the capillaries axis.

very narrow and eventually break down, leaving an insular non wetting bubble in each pore. When all the filaments are broken in their large residual saturation to the non wetting-phase may be present. It will saturation saturation. be represented by (

As the wetting-phase saturation increases, the constriction become

continuity, permeability to the non wetting-phase ceases, although a


) and is called the trapped non wetting-phase wetting-

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saturation distribution in a porous medium during imbibition;

According to the above physical concept of the non wetting-phase

n = new


same axis as that of the capillaries them selves, is equal to the tortuosity at 100% saturation;

In addition, tortuosity of the non wetting filaments, which have the

t = tew


K rnw(imbibition) = (1 S wf ) 2
The expression ( ), the term (


1 S wf

saturation. saturation Considering the trapped non wetting-phase saturation, (

) represents the free non wetting-phase wetting-


S wf

) may be expressed as;

S wf =

S w S wi 1 S wi S nwt
K rnw
) should have the form;


Hence, the formula for (

K rnw( imbibition)

S w S wi 1 = 1 S wi S nwt


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(2) Drainage direction

occurs gradually from large capillaries toward smaller ones. At any one largest capillaries and the wetting phase in the smaller capillaries. Let In the drainage direction, the desaturation in the wetting-Phase

condition of liquid saturation. The non wetting-phase is found in the

S w Snw

wetting and irreducible wetting-phase on a pore-volume basis. The volume of the pores having a surface reciprocal of


S wi

represent the specific surface of wetting, non




S wi

are the

S w Snw


S wi

the sum of the two preceding volumes;

The total pore space volume not occupied by irreducible water is

1 1 1 = + S wi S w S nw
But according to equation (-7);


2 = rwi S wi


2 = rw Sw


2 = rnw S nw


From equation (35) and equation (36);

rwi = rw + rnw
According to equation (15);


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8K wtew rw = 104 ( S w S wi ) 8K nwtnw 104 rnw = (1 S w )

8K t 2 rwi = 104 (1 S wi )
Combining relations (38);




rw tew K rw = S wf rwi t




rnw t = nw rwi t

K rnw

(1 S wf )

Substituting equation (39) into equation (37);

tew K rw t K rnw + nw =1 S wf (1 S wf ) t t

1 1 1 1 tnw tew 2 (1 S ) 2 = 1 (K rnw ) (K rw ) 2 S wf 2 wf t t

1 t 1 1 t = (1 S wf ) 2 1 ew (K rw ) 2 S wf 2 t t nw

(K rnw )

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Using equation (27);

1 t 3 2 1 1 t t 2 = (1 S wf ) 2 1 ew (S wf ) S wf 2 t t t ew nw

(K rnw )

t (K rnw ) = t nw

t 12 1 (1 S wf ) 1 ew S wf 2 t

Substituting equation (14) in equation (40);

(K rnw )

t = t nw

14 1 Ro (1 S wf ) 1 S wf 4 Rt

large extent the value of the tortuosity at full saturation, it is reasonable to postulate that;

As the tortuosity of the bundle of largest capillary size controls to a

t tnw


parallel. When adding, in parallel, circuits of low conductance (small capillaries) to highly conductive circuits (large capillaries), the former change the over-all conductance relatively little. phase in the drainage direction is;

This because the capillary tubes act as conducting circuits in

Hence, the formula for the relative permeability to the non wetting

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K rnw( drainage)

1 R 1 4( o ) 4 = (1 S wf )1 S wf Rt


relative permeability characteristics from petrophysical consideration,

It appears that there are three equations useful in calculating the

namely equation (28) for the wetting-phase valid regardless of the

direction of saturation changes, equation (34) for the non wetting-phase in the imbibition direction and equation (43) for the non wetting phase in the drainage direction. More general formulas for relative permeability in clean water-wet

rock can be written after substitution of Archie's relationship (8) using the value of the saturation exponent (n) = 2

Sw =

Ro Rt
3 1 2

K rw = S w S wf

(Drainage or imbibition)
1 4

(44) (45)

K rnw( drainage) = (1 S wf )(1 S wf

Sw 2 )2

K rnw( imbibition)

S w S wi = 1 1 S wi S nwt



Given the following data:










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0.165 0.275 0.400 0.535 0.685 0.840

If S wi = 20% and S nwt = 10%, Calculate the wetting and non wetting-phase relative permeabilities in each of drainage and imbibition direction.

1) For imbibition direction According to equation (28) and equation (34);

1 Ro 3 2 K rw = ( ) S wf 2 , Rt


K rnw
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

S w S wi = 1 1 S S wi nwt



S wf
0.000 0.125 0.250 0.375 0.500 0.625 0.750 0.875

Ro R t

S wf

K rw = S wf

Ro 3 2 ( ) Rt

0.000 0.075 0.165 0.275 0.400 0.535 0.685 0.840

0.0000 0.0203 0.0670 0.1440 0.2520 0.3910 0.5670 0.7700

0.000 0.354 0.500 0.612 0.707 0.790 0. 866 0.935

0.0000 0.0072 0.0335 0.0880 0. 1780 0. 3090 0.4910 0.7200

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20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

S wf
0.0000 0.1428 0.2857 0.4286 0.5714 0.7143 0.8571 1.0000

1 S wf
1.0000 0.8572 0.7143 0.5714 0.4286 0.2857 0.1428 0.000

K rw (1 S wf ) 2
1.0000 0.7348 0.5102 0.3265 0.1837 0.0816 0.0204 0.0000

2) Drainage direction

K rw = K rw(imbibition) K rnw
1 4 1 S 14 Ro = (1 S wf ) wf R t

S w 1 S wf
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1.000 0.875 0.750 0.625 0.500 0.375 0.250

(S )

Ro R t

K rnw

1 4 1 S 14 Ro = (1 S wf ) wf R t

0.000 0.595 0.707 0.782 0.840 0.890 0.930

0.000 0.525 0.637 0.724 0.795 0.856 0.910

1.000 0.417 0.226 0.119 0.056 0.021 0.006


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For the last example calculate K rw and K rnw for imbibition and drainage direction using the following equations;

K rw(imb dra ) = S w S wf K rnw( imb) = (1 Sef ) 2

K rnw( drainage) = (1 Sef )(1 S wf


Sw 2 )2

(1) Imbibition direction

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100


S wf

K rw( imb dra )

0.000 0.009 0.032 0.076 0.153 0.271 0.443 0.682 1

S wf
0.000 0.143 0.285 0.428 0.571 0.714 0.857 1.000

K rw(imb) = (1 S wf ) 2
1.000 0.735 0.510 0.326 0.184 0.082 0.020 0.000

0.008 0.027 0.064 0.125 0.216 0.343 0.512 0.729 1

0.000 0. 354 0.500 0.612 0.707 0.791 0.866 0.935 1

S w =100% only for drainage direction where K rw = 1

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S w =90% for imbibition process represents the final (Maximum) water saturation value, water there is a trapped non wetting-phase saturation S nwt = 0.10 . (2) Drainage direction

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

(S )


(1 S

1 wf


K rnw
1.000 0. 397 0.229 0.124 0.061 0.024 0.007 0.002 0

0.000 0.595 0.707 0.782 0.841 0.889 0.931 0.967 1.00

0.447 0.548 0.632 0.707 0.775 0.837 0.894 0.948 1.00

1.000 0.454 0.306 0.199 0.121 0.065 0.028 0.018 0

Fig (71) shows the above K rw and the K rnw obtained for the example.

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Figure 71

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1. Amyx J.D., Bass D.M., Whiting R.L.: "Petroleum reservoir engineering Physical properties". McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, 1960. 2. Pirson S.J.: "Oil Reservoir engineering". McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, 1958. 3. Craft B.C., Hawkins M.F.: "Applied petroleum reservoir engineering". PrenticeHall Inc. New Jersey, 1959. 4. Dake L.P.: "Fundamentals of reservoir engineering". Elsevier Scientific publishing company, New York, 1978.

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