7 Голоса «за»0 Голоса «против»

Просмотров: 1.9K148 стр.Petroleum engineering books

Dec 14, 2012

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT или читайте онлайн в Scribd

Petroleum engineering books

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Просмотров: 1.9K

Petroleum engineering books

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Fault Lines
- Dragon Teeth: A Novel
- The Rise and Fall of the Dinosaurs: A New History of a Lost World
- Life As We Knew It
- Remarkable Creatures
- Arctic Drift
- Arctic Drift
- Zero Hour
- The Map That Changed the World: William Smith and the Birth of Modern Geology
- The Map That Changed the World: William Smith and the Birth of Modern Geology
- Pile Design and Construction Rules of Thumb
- Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded: August 27, 1883
- Krakatoa
- Pacific: Silicon Chips and Surfboards, Coral Reefs and Atom Bombs, Brutal Dictators, Fading Empires, and the Coming Collision of the World's Superpowers
- Geography For Dummies
- Inside the Earth
- Aftershock
- Geotechnical Engineering Calculations and Rules of Thumb
- Rogue Wave
- Bones of the Earth

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 148

Contents

(1) Porosity Geological factors affecting porosity Experimental porosity measurements Preparation of samples for measuring porosity Glass pycnometer Rusel volumeter Ruska porosimeter (2) Fluid saturation fluid saturation measurements Distillation method( A S T M )

Oil Reservoir Engineering (1)

Centrifugal method Factors affecting fluid saturation The uses of core determined fluid saturation (3) Permeability Limitations of Darcy's law applications Dimensions of permeability Reservoir flow system applications Conversion units of Darcy's law Permeability of combined layers Linear beds in serried Linear beds in parallel Radial beds in series permeability of channels and fractures Laboratory measurements of permeability Perm-plug method Hole-core measurements Factors affecting permeability measurements Effective and relative permeability Characteristics of two-phase relative permeability curves Three phase relative permeability Factors affecting relative permeability Relative permeability ratio Measurements of relative permeability data Uses of effective and relative permeability data (4) Capillary forces Surface and capillary pressures Adhesion tension Rise of fluids in capillaries Calculations of capillary pressure

Oil Reservoir Engineering (2)

Capillary pressure in unconsolidated sands Capillary pressure curves Drainage and imbibition capillary pressure curves Laboratory determination of capillary pressure curve Jamin effect Calculation of wettability Relationship between gravity and capillary forces Converting laboratory capillary pressure data Extending the range of laboratory Pc - Sw data Calculation of effective and absolute permeability from capillary pressure data Calculation of relative permeability from capillary pressure data (5) Petrophysics Properties of clean rocks Relation between porosity, permeability, tortuosity and mean capillary radius Specific surface Kozeny equation Flow of electric current through clean rocks Formation resistivity factor Lithologic factor affecting formation factor Resistivity of rocks partially saturated with water Saturation exponents Tortuosity determination Effective tortuosity Hydraulic formation factor and index

Oil Reservoir Engineering (3)

The effective hydraulic index Relative permeability to the wetting-phase Imbibition direction Drainage direction Relative permeability to the non wetting-phase Imbibition phase Drainage direction

(4)

Oil Reservoirs (Definitions)

formations. The ensemble of wells draining a common oil accumulation or source or surface area defined by the well distribution termed an "Oil an "Oil Reservoir" by variety of the subsurface location of the reservoir pressure the reservoir temperature and reservoir pressure. Field" or "Oil Pool". The part of the rock that is oil productive is termed rock; its entrained fluids are subject to elevated temperature and Reservoir rocks are mostly sedimentary in origin. They are either Oil is produced from wells drilled into underground porous rock

mechanical or chemical deposition of solidmaterials or simply the remains of animals or plant life.

ranges of physical properties which are of paramount interest to the reservoir engineer. The three engineering characteristics of the reservoir rock are porosity, oil, gas and water saturation and permeability, Specific, effective and relative. Considered on handspecimen scale reservoir rocks have defined

(5)

Porosity ( %)

of this material that isn't occupied by the solid framework of the material. space that is available for occupancy by either liquids or gases. effective. Porosity of a material is defined as that fraction of the bulk volume In oil reservoirs, the porosity represents the percentage of the total

Absolute porosity

regardless of the interconnection of the pore voids. A rock may have considerable absolute porosity and yet have no conductivity to fluid for lack of pore interconnection. The percentage of total void space with respect to the bulk volume

Effective porosity

bulk volume. It is an indication of conductivity to fluid but not necessarily a measure of it. The percentage of interconnected void space with respect to the

geological processes. Geological conditions are responsible for both primary and secondary porosity.

(6)

Primary porosity

fragments and grains after their accumulation as sediments. Primary porosity results from voids which are left between mineral

Secondary porosity

fracturing, and fissuring which occur after lithification of sediments. Secondary porosity results from geological agents such as leaching, Effective porosity is a function of a great many lithological factors.

Some of the most important of this are heterogeneity of grin size, and clay hydration status.

a packing of 30 to 40% porosity. In poorly sorted sediments, the smaller grains fit into the space between the larger ones, and porosity is considerable decreased. Wellsorted, moderately rounded sand grains settle in water giving

2 Compaction

pressure of the overlying sediments. Sandstones, whoever, exhibit very fraction of there original sedimentation volume. It's a geological factor which reduces porosity due to overburden

(7)

3 Cementation

and which affects the size, shape and continuity of pore channels. It's the agent which has the greatest effect on the original porosity

4 Clay content

same time as sand grains and generally it adheres to them so that after deposition considerable porosity still exists and the overall porosity of sandstone may not be lowered greatly by a small amount of clay. Clay may often act as cementing material. Clay is deposits of the

of interest. With increasing overburden pressure, quartz grains in sandstone show a progressive change from random packing to closer occurs. packing. Some crushing and plastic deformation of the sand grain Their effect on porosity at great depth under overburden pressure is

6 Mode of packing

sands by consideration of packing of spheres of uniform size. This, too, One may get qualitative picture of the geometrical structure of

is of infinite variety. However, it will suffice to note here two basic and extremely types, namely: the cubic and rhombohedra packing. Unit cells of such packing are shown in fig (1).

(8)

Figure 1

Bulk

Solid

volume = (2r ) = 8r 3

3

4 volum = r 3 3

B.V . = 8r 3 sin 60

S .V . =

4 3 r 3

In general we can write:

= 1

(1 cos ) 1 + 2 cos

(9)

Of particular interest is the fact that the radii cancel and the porosity

7 Rock compressibility:

Assume that:

p

vp dp

1 dvB . v B dp

v s dp

v B = v p + vs dvB dvp dv s = + dp dp dp v B c B = c p v p c s v s cB = cs vp vs + cp vB vB

c B = c s (1 ) + c p = cB cs c p cs

to two classes, namely, those designed to measure effective porosity and those which measure absolute porosity.

Oil Reservoir Engineering

(10)

are obtained from the center of the core .their surfaces are cleaned to remove traces of drilling mud. The samples are extracted in a soxhlit using oil solvents such as benzene, toluene alight hydrocarbon fraction. They are selected to be preferably10 to 20 cm in bulk volume and

3

During the extraction, the sample should be kept in a paper thimble, grains.

covered with plug of cotton in order to avoid erosion of loosely cemented After extraction, the samples are dried in an over a 100 to 105 c

and cooled in a desiccators. This operation removes the solvent and moisture from the samples.

(grain volume methods) may be used. In these methods: the bulk For approximate work, some methods of obtaining effective porosity

volume is determined either by the displacement of a liquid which does not penetrate the sample or by saturating the sample and volumetrically may be measured by the volumetric displacement of a gas or a liquid, liquid necessary to saturate the sample. displacing a suitable liquid with the saturated sample. The grain volume while the pore volume may be measured by determining the amount of An alternate method of obtaining the grain volume is to divide the

dry weight of the sample by the average grain density of 2.65 (the average density of most reservoir rock minerals).

(11)

Example: A coated sample has the following data: Weight of dry sample in air (Wa) = 20 gms. Weight of coated sample (with paraffin of density 0.9 gm/cc) = 20.9 gms. Weight of coated sample immersed in water = 10 gms. Calculate the bulk volume of the sample. Solution: Wt. of paraffin = 20.9 20 = 0.9 gm. Volume of paraffin = 0.9/0.9 = 1 cm3. Volume of water displaced = (20.9 10)/ew = 10.9 cm3. So: B.V. = volume of water displaced volume of paraffin = 10.9 1 = 9.9 cm3. Example: If the sample of Ex.1 has been saturated (100%) by water and; its weight in air become 21.5 gms. When it has been immersed in water, it weights 11.6 gms; calculate B.V. Solution: Wt. of displaced water = 21.5 11.6 = 9.9 gms. B.V. = volume of water displaced = 9.9 / 1 = 9.9 cm3.

(12)

and with a sample hole through the cap is filled with mercury, the cap is A glass pycnometer with a cap which rests on a ground taper joint

pressed into its seat and the excess mercury which overflows through a

hole in the cap is collected and removed. The pycnometer is opened and the sample is placed in the surface of the mercury and submerged by a set of pointed rods which project from the lower side of the cap, fig (2).

Figure 2

amount of mercury equivalent to the bulk volume of the sample to overflow. The rods which submerge the sample should be adjusted so that the sample does not touch the sides of the pycnometer; this avoids trapping air bubbles. Either the volume of mercury which overflows or the loss of weight

The cap is again pressed into its seat, which causes a certain

of the mercury in the pycnometer may be measured and the core bulk volume calculated.

(13)

Example: For a core weights in air 20 gms; given: Weight of pycnometer filled with Hg = 350 gms. Wt. of pycnometer filled with Hg and sample = 235.9 gms. Of the mercury density is 13.546 gms/cc. Calculate B.V. Solution: Weight of pycnometer + weight of Hg + weight of sample = 350+20 = 370 gms. Weight of Hg displaced = 370 235.9 = 134.1 gms. So: B.V. of sample = 134.1 / 13.546 = 9.9 cm3.

Russel volumeter

Figure 3

Oil Reservoir Engineering (14)

the trapping of air bubbles at the surface of the sample, Russle is placed in a sample bottle after a zero reading is established with fluid in the volumeter. The resulting increase in volume is the bulk volume. Only saturated or coated samples may be used in the device. This

device has the advantage of applicability to loosely cemented sample with irregular surfaces. Since the liquid used is transparent, trapped air bubbles may be seen and steps taken to remove them.

Ruska porosimeter

A schematic diagram is given in Fig (4)

Figure 4

mercury reaches a given reference on the manometer. Let the reading be Rb in the absence of a core sample in the cup. When the core floats gives a reading Rc to reach the same reference mark. The porosity of the sample is then calculated by: on the mercury within the cup, the displacement of the micrometer piston

(15)

= 1001

Rc Rb

volume, grain volume, and porosity including the cope porosimeter, the mercury pump porosimeter, WashburnBunting porosimeter, Stevens porosimeter, etc.

unconnected as well as interconnected pores are accounted for. The procedure required that the sample be crushed. The method is as follows:

the drilling mud, measure the bulk volume by any one of the procedure described above, crush the sample to its grains, wash the grains with suitable solvent to remove oil mud and water, and determine the volume of the grains. It is of course necessary to dry the rock grains before their in a pycnometer containing a suitable liquid as kerosene. volume is determined. The volume of the dry grains may be determined

Break of the well core, clean the surface of the sample to remove

(16)

Fluid saturation

are universally found to have entrained in their pores varying amounts of frequently free gas pressured in addition to the oil.

w

liquid. In a typical oil field, water called interstitial or connatewater and The water saturation S is defined by the equation:

Sw =

Similarly;

So =

plus the volume filled by oil must equal the total pore volume; thus: S +S =1 present. The free gas saturation is defined by:

o w

If oil and water are the only fluids present, the volume filled by water

In many pools, in addition to oil and connate water, free gas is also

Sw =

gas

g o w

(17)

The saturation will vary from place to place; the water saturation Water tending to be higher in the less porous section. The saturation will vary with cumulative with drawal.

Figure 5

consist in analyzing reservoir core simples for water and oil, the fluids is equal to unity. Methods for the determination of reservoir fluid saturation in place

saturation in gas being obtained by difference since the sum of the three

Take a sample ranging in volume from 50 to 60 cc from the central part of the larger core. Place the core in an extraction thimble and weighed. Put the thimble in the flask containing a liquid solvent such as toluene or a gasoline fraction boiling at about 150 C.

(18)

A reflux condenser is fitted to the flask to return the condensate to a calibrated glass trap. Fig (6) The liquid hydrocarbon is boiled and the water present in the sample vaporized, carried into the flask condenser, and caught in the trap. When the volume in the trap remains constant under continued extraction, the volume of the water transferred to a soxhlet for the final extraction.

Figure 6

The thimble and the sample are then dried and weighted. The total fluid saturation is obtained by weight difference and includes both oil and water. By weight difference again, the weight of oil is obtained, and, by use of an appropriate oil density, its volume is calculated.

(19)

The saturations on a percentage of porevolume base are readily calculated for both water and oil

Centrifugal method

A solvent is injected into the centrifuge just of center.

Figure 7

forced to pass through the core sample. The solvent removes the water and oil from the core. The outlet fluid is trapped and the quantity of water in the core is measured.

forces which can be applied; at the same time that the water content is measurements.

face causes mud and mud filtrate to invade to formation immediately In the case of rotary drilling, the differential pressure across the well

(20)

adjacent to the well surface, this flushing the formation with mud and this

filtrate displacing some of the oil and perhaps some of the original contents to fluid saturation.

Pressure gradient

the expansion of the entrapped water, oil and gas. Thus the contents of the formation. Pressure gradient between the surface and the formation permits

the core at the surface have been changed from those which existed in

to: The saturation values obtained directly from rock samples are used Determine the original oilgas contact, original oil water contact and weather sand is productive of oil or gas. Establish a correlation of the water content of cores and permeability from which it can be determined whether a formation will be productive of hydrocarbon.

made on core samples at the surface may not give a direct indication of useful and necessary information.

the saturation within the reservoir, they are of value and do yield very

(21)

Permeability

of the capacity of the medium to transmit fluids. The measurement of material. Permeability is a property of the porous medium and is a measure permeability is a measure of the fluid conductivity of the particular By analogy with electrical conductors, the permeability represents

the reciprocal of the resistance which the porous medium offers to fluid flow. If the reservoir rock system is considered to be a bundle of circular

tubes such that the flow could be represented by a summation of the flow from all the tubes as described by poiseuille's equation:

n r 4 p Q= 8 l

Where:

: Flow rate, cm3/sec. : Radius of tubes, cm. : Pressure lose over length, dyne/cm2. : Fluid viscosity, cp.

r

p

p is measured, cm.

: Number of tubes.

(22)

Figure 8

porous rock, it is an impossible task to use poiseuille's flow equation for porous medium. In 1856, as a result of experimental studies on the flow of water

through unconsolidated sand filter bed, Darcy formulated a law which bears his name; this law describes, with some limitation, the movement of fluid in porous medium.

porous medium is proportional to the pressure gradient and inversely proportional to the fluid viscosity;

=

Or

Q p A dl

P l

(23)

atmosphere per cm, taken in the same direction as and Q . The proportionality constant (K) is permeability of the rock

The negative sign indicates that if the flow is taken as positive in the

1. Darcy's law applies only in the region of laminar flow, for in gradient increase at a greater rate than does the flow rate. turbulent flow, which occurs at higher velocities, the pressure

2. It does not apply to flow within individual pore channels, but to compared with the size of the pore channels.

3. Because actual velocity is in general not measurable, apparent velocity from the basis of Darcy's law. Actual velocity can be related to apparent velocity as following:

.tca .tca .ppa .ppa

q=A

.V

=A

.V

Vapp = Vact

(24)

Figure 9

This means that the actual velocity of a fluid will be the apparent velocity divided by the porosity where the fluid completely saturates the rock 4. The fluid flow region is steadystate ,isothermal 5. Fluids used are non compressible fluids. 6. Use non reactive fluids. the unit of permeability is the darcy .where 1 dareg = 1000 md = 1.0133 x 106 dyne/ cm2.atm.

Dimension of permeability

units of the other terms in Darcy's law as: The dimension of permeability can be established by substituting

v=

l t

= ML1 T 1

P = F = MLT 2 / A = L2 , L = L

KAP L

Q = AV =

Oil Reservoir Engineering (25)

Several simple flow systems are frequently encountered in the measurement and application of permeability.

Figure 10

Linear flow

Figure 11

area that the ends of the system are parallel planes and that the pressure at either end of the system is constant over the end surface. steadystate flow of constant rate g;

q=

KAdp dL

(26)

q = o L dl = q[ L] = q =

KA

p1

p 2 dp

KA

[ p 2 p1]

KA[ p1 p 2] L

m m

If a compressible fluid is flowing, the quantity of q varies with the p.q=p q = constant

where :

pm =

m

p1 + p 2 2

q o L dL =

KA

p1

p 2 dp

[ qm pm / p]o L dL = [ KA / ] p1 p 2 dp o L dL = KA p2 pdp p1 qm pm

2

KA p 2 2 p1 L = [ ] qm pm 2

= KA 2 ( p1 p 2 )( p + p 2 ) . . qm p1 + p 2 2

(27)

1

qm =

KA( p1 p 2) L

can be calculated by the same equation provided the rate is measured of the mean pressure of the system

Thus it is evident for the linear system that gas flow and liquid flow

Radial flow

cylindrical drainage system. When dray's law in differential from is of flow is A redial flow system, analogous to flow in to a well bore from a

Figure 12

Oil Reservoir Engineering (28)

q = qm pm / p

qm p m / p qm pm r rw ve

re rw

qm =

3Spherical flow

m m

dr + 2kh pe = dp pw r

dr 2Kh pe = pdp pw r

2Kh( pe pw ) en re / rw

Figure 12

(29)

wells and where the formation was penetrated for only a short distance comparable to the total pay thickness.

A = 4 r 2

1 = 2 r 2 2

k 2 r 2 p q= dr rw re dr 2 k pe = dp pw 2 r q

1 1 2 k = [ pe pw ] q rw re

q=

2 K ( pe pw ) 1r 1r e w

Q rw << re

1 rw >> 1 re

q =

2 k ( pe pw )rw

qm =

2 k ( pe pw )rw

(30)

Qincomp = K A P k A P , Qincomp = L L , A : cm 2 K : darey Qincom = 1.127 , A : t2 , K A P L

: Q : bb1 / day

p : psia

, : cp , K : Darcy

Qincomp = 6.323

Where;

K A P L

K : Darcy

2-Radial flow

Where;

Qincomp = 7.08

K h( Pe Pw ) Ln re r w

P : psia,

: cp,

K : Darcy

(31)

Qincomp = 39.76

K h( Pe Pw ) Ln re r w

Where;

P : psia,

: cp,

K : Darcy

Qincomp =

2 K h( Pe Pw ) Ln re r w

Where;

r : cm.

P : atm, : cp,

K : Darcy

and

continuous value of permeability between the inflow and outflow face. It variations of permeability. The foregoing flow equations were all derived on the basis of one

is seldom that rocks are so uniform most porous rocks will have space If the rock system is comprised of different layer of fixed

permeability, the average permeability of the flow system can be determined by one of the several averaging procedures:

(32)

computed as follows: Consider the case of the average permeability K , can be

va

Figure 13

Qt = Q1 = Q2 = Q3 pt = p1 + p2 + p3 L = L1 + L2 + L3

Qt =

K av . A.Pt , L Q1 = K1 Ap1 L1

Q2 =

K 2 A p 2 L2

and

Q3 =

K 3 Ap3 L3

Qt L Q1 L1 Q2 L2 Q3 L3 = + + K av A K1 A K2 A K3 A L L1 L 2 L3 = + + Kav K 1 K 2 K 3

Kav =

L n Li / Ki

i =1

(33)

As the permeability is a property of the rock and note of the fluids For example , the average permeability of 10 md , 50 md and 1000

md beds , which are 6 ft , 18 ft and 40 ft respectively in length but of equal cross section when placed in series is:

Kav =

Li 6 + 18 + 40 = = 64md . 6 18 40 Li / Ki + + 10 50 1000

Figure 14

Consider fig (15).

and

The total flow rate is the sum of the individual flow rates,

3

q =q +q +q

2 1 t

(34)

k av . At p K1 A1p K 2 A2 P K 3 A3 p = + + L L L L

k av. At = K1 A1 + K 2 A2 + K 3 A3 K av = K i Ai / At

their thicknesses. if all beds are of the same width , their areas are proportional to

k av = K i Ai / hi

md and 1000 md and 6ft , 18 ft and 36 ft respectively in thickness but of equal with , when placed in parallel is

K av =

K I hi 10 6 + 18 50 + 36 1000 = = 616md . hi 6 + 18 + 36

Constants: p , r and variable, q and h composed of strata which many vary widely in permeability and thickness, Many producing formations are

Figure 15

Oil Reservoir Engineering

(35)

q t = q1 + q 2 + q 3

7.08 K av ht ( Pe Pw ) 7.08 K1 = re Ln rw h2 ( Pe Pw ) re rw ++ h1 ( Pe Pw ) r Ln e rw h3 ( Pe Pw ) re rw

7.08 K 2

7.08 K 3

Ln

Ln

K av ht = K1 h + K 2 h2 + K 3 h3 K av = K i hi hi

bed width.

This is the same as for the parallel flow in linear beds with the same

Example: Calculate the average permeability permeability data given below: Depth, ft 5012 13 5013 16 5016 17 5017 19 K, md 500 460 5 235 of the depth

(36)

K av = = K i hi hi

360 210 3

Figure 16

Constants Variables

: :

q, and P, K and

h r

(37)

Pe Pwf = (P + P + P ) 1 1 1 = ( P Pwf ) + ( P2 P ) + ( Pe P2 ) 1 1

qt = 2 K av h ( Pe Pw ) r Ln e rw

q1 = 2 K av

q2 = 2 K av

h ( P Pw ) 1 r Ln 1 rw

h ( P2 Pw ) r Ln 2 rw

q3 = 2 K av

q 2

q + 2

h ( P3 Pw ) r Ln 3 rw

re r q Ln 1 rw rw = K av h 2 K1 h Ln

r r2 q Ln e r1 r2 + K2 h 2 K2 h Ln

(38)

Ln

re rw

Ln =

r1 rw

Ln +

r2 r1

Ln +

re r2

K av

K1

K2

K3

re rw Kav = r r r Ln 1 Ln 2 Ln e rw r1 r2 + + K1 K2 K3 Ln

Example: What is the average permeability of four beds in series having equal formation thickness under the following conditions? 1. For a linear flow. 2. For a radial flow system if the radius of the penetrating well bore is 6 in, and the radius of effective drainage is 2000 ft. Bed L, ft K, md Solution: Assume bed (1) adjacent to the well bore; a) Linear flow: 1 250 25 2 250 50 3 500 100 4 1000 200

(39)

K av =

L L i Li

250 + 250 + 500 + 1000 250 250 500 1000 + + + 25 50 100 200 2000 = = 80md 25

b) Radial flow:

rw [(ln ri / ri 1) / Ki ] ln(2000 / .05) = = 30.4md ln(250 / .05) ln (500 / 250) ln(1000 / 500) ln (2000 / 1000) + + + 25 50 100 200 Kav = ln re

Example: A well of 6 bore is drilled in to a pay of 500 md on a spacing of 40 Ares (re = 750 ft). Assume that the mud penetrated for a distance of one foot in to the pay and that experiment indicates that the pay will be reduced in permeability to a value of 10 % of its original. It is desired to know to what average permeability the well system is reduced by the mud penetration. Solution: The reduced permeability =0.1x500=50md

(40)

Kav =

Example: A well of 40 acres spacing with a 6 ft bore produce 50 bb1/day of fluid from a pay of 50 md permeability before acidizing and 90 bb1/day after acidizing. If the acid had been injected to penetrated 15 ft into the formation, from these data can you calculate the permeability increase which would have had to occur in the acidized section to produce the observed increase in the production rate. Solution:

90 ) = 90md acid 50 750 Ln 0.25 90 = 15.25 750 ( ) ( ) 0.25 + Ln 15.25 Ln K1 50

K av after

= 50(

K 1 = 373md

(41)

solution channels and fractures do not change the effective permeability fracture or channel to the total conductivity of the system, it is necessary to express their conductivity in term of the darey. In some sands and carbonates the formation frequently contains

Channels

tubes, Considering Poiseulle's equation for fluid conductivity in capillary

Q=

P 8 L

r4

A= r2

r 2 P Q = A 8 L

From Darcy's law, it is also known that;

Q = A K

P L

r2 K= 8

Oil Reservoir Engineering (42)

Where If

and

is in cm, then

If

is in inches; then

Example:

Consider a cube of reservoir rock one foot on the side and having a matrix permeability of 10 md. If a liquid of one cp. viscosity flows linearly through the rock, under a pressure gradient one psi per ft, the rate of flow will be:

Solution::

If a circular opening 0.01 ft diameter traverses the same rock , then the total flow rate can be considered to be the above value (Q1) value plus the rate of flow through the circular opening (Q2)

Q2 = 1.127[80 10 (.005) ]

6 2

(0.005)2 1

bb1 / day

(43)

For flow through slots or fine clearances and unit width (w) , by analogy to channels relationships , K=w2/12 If the width is in cm and K in darcys, the permeability of fractures is given by K = 84.4 x 105 w2 If w is in inches and K in dareys, K = 54.4 x 106 w2

Example: A core of very low permeability (0.01 md). It contains fracture of (0.005") wide and 1 ft in lateral extent per square foot if the core. Assume that the fracture is in the direction in which flow is desired. Calculate the average permeability of the core: Solution:

Qaw =

KiAi Ai

2

(44)

samples extracted from the formation or by in place testing. Two methods will be presented here are used to evaluate the permeability of cores. The permeability of a porous medium can be determines from

Figure 17

The tested samples are usually cut with a diamond drill from the

Perm plugs are approximately 2 cm in diameter and 2 to 3 cm long. The residual oil or fluids are thus: remove and the core sample becomes air. The perm plug is then inserted in a core holder of the permeability device. Samples are dried after extraction process "as described before".

100 % saturated with air. The perm plug is then inserted saturated with

samples are sealed, and a fluid pressure differential can be. Applied

Fig18 samples are mounted in such a way that the sides of the

(45)

across their full length, and the rate of flow of fluid "air" through the plug is observed. Obtaining data "for conditions of viscous flow" at several flow rates

Q/ A =

[( p1 p 2) / L]

passing through the origin. Turbulence is indicated by curvature of the plotted points.

for viscous flow condition : the data should plot a straight line

The slope of the straight line portion is equal to (k/) from which the In case of using liquids in stead of air. Data are taken only at one

Figure 18

(46)

Figure 19

method preparation. The core is then mounted in a special holding device such as shown in fig: 20 the measurements are the same as for permplugs but the calculation are slightly different. Measurements of permeability on long cores generally yield better indication of the fractures as limestone.

permeability than do the small cores especially for rocks which contain

using gases as the flowing fluids from that obtained when using no reactive liquids. Klinkenberg has reported variations in permeability as determined

(47)

gas will depend upon the individual gas and the mean pressure of flow.

The permeability of a rock for any liquid will be the same but for a The measured permeability of a porous medium to gas is greater

than that to a liquid for the liquid has a zero velocity as the wall past which it flows but that the gas has a finite velocity at the wall. Fig (21)

Figure 20

of the mean pressure and the type of rock. The phenomena of gas the mean free path . the kinetic energy.

This is said due to the gas slippage. The gas slippage is a function

slippage occurs when the diameter of the capillary openings approach The mean free path of a gas is a function of the molecular size and

permeability is determined.

The Klinkenberge effect is a function of the gas for which the The amount of slippage causes a change in permeability that can

K g = K l (1 +

Where;

4C ) r

Kg

: Gas permeability

(48)

Kl

: Liquid permeability

: Constant nearly equal One.

K g = K l (1 +

Where;

b ) Pm

Pm

observed,

Kg

was

Pm

1 b , r

Figure 21

(49)

Fig (22) is apart of the equation at various mean pressures using Note that for each gas a straight line is obtained for the observed

The data obtained with lowest molecular, (H2), weight gas yield the All the lines when extrapolated to infinite mean pressure,

According to Fig (22); The slope of the straight line, m, is equal The constant obtain

Kl b

depends on the mean free path of the gas and measurements, requires

approximately 12 flow test under viscous flow conditions from which the permeability to liquid can be graphically determined.

2-Clay content

matrix. These minerals or are as part of the rock matrix. These minerals Many clays act as cementing minerals or are as part of the rock

are usually very complex in molecular structure and posses the ability to

attract and hold +ve ions such as hydrogen , sodium or calcium. These

(50)

minerals also have the property of hydration, i.e., holding water within their molecular structure. This is normally called "clay swelling" Reservoir waters generally contain ions such as sodium and

calcium or magnesium which can be transferred to the clay. The greater vice verse. If the reservoir water is replaced by fresh water, the clay

the amount of ions in solution the move will be absorbed by the clay and must given up some of its +ve ions to the water until a new equilibrium is

established. The result of this ion exchange and the change of ion consequently reducing the pore volume available for flow.

Figure 22

thus permeability determination with fresh water on a core containing clays will be less than that in the natural state.

Fig (32) shows such a decrease in flow rate with fresh water flow

3-Reactive liquids

due to precipitation or corrosion. Reactive liquids after the internal geometry of the porous. Medium,

(51)

4-Overburden pressure

are removed. The rock matrix is permitted to expand in all direction partially changing the shapes of the fluid flow paths inside the core. mush as 60 % reduction in the permeability of various formations. Compaction of the core due to overburden pressure may cause as When the core is removed from the formation, the confining forces

5-Grain size

of the grain diameter , hence the finer sand the smaller the permeability. It was found that the rate of fluid flow is proportion al to the square

6-Mode of packing:

be introduced as: The effect of packing as a factor which influence permeability can K = 10.2 d2 / c Where mode of packing d: diameter of spheres, cm C: packing constant depending on porosity . table:1 c Hexagonal 26 52.5

(52)

predicated upon the condition that the porous media was entirely saturated with the flowing fluid such a circumstance does not often exist It was note that Darcy's low for flow in porous media. was

in nature , particular in petroleum reservoir. Gas or oil is usually fauna coexistent with water and frequently gas, oil and water may occupy together the pores of reservoir. Ability of aporous medium to conduct a fluid when the saturation of

that fluid in the material is less than 100 %of the pore sbace is known as

the "effective permeability of the porous medium to that fluid. The fluid under consideration. For example Effective permeability to oil ,

Ko =

Qo o L Ap

Kg =

Qg g L Ap

Kw =

Qw w L Ap

the porous medium in question contained more fluid (x). it has been found experimentally that at a given value of fluid saturation , the value effective permeability depends only upon a change in saturation. of the effective permeability to that fluid is constant. Thus , a change in

(53)

the permeability at 100 % saturation. No two porous bodies will necessarily have the same variation of effective permeability with saturation.

Relative permeability

permeability to a given fluid at a definite saturation to the permeability at 100 % saturation. The terminology most widely used is simply (Kg/ K), Relative permeability is defined as the ratio of the effective

(Ko /K) and (Kw /K), meaning the relative permeability to gas, oil and same fashion as dose the effective permeability. The relative

water respectively. Since K is constant for a given porous medium, the permeability to a fluid will vary from a value of zero at some low saturation of that fluid.

Figure 23

a) Rapid

permeability (Krw) as

fall

to

in

saturation

phase first

(54)

decreases from 100 %. b) Its approach to zero value at saturation greater than zero %. c) Relative permeability to the no wetting phase (krnw) apparently dose not rice. Above zero until the wetting phase saturation has fallen to

approximately (1 Snwc) where Snwc is the critical non-wetting saturation or equilibrium saturation. saturation decreases. 1. Rapid rise of the permeability (Krnw) as the wetting phase 2. Virtual attainment of 100 %permeability to non-wetting phase before all the wetting phase is completely removed.

Interpretation

larger flow paths are occupied first by the non-wetting fluid.

wr

Figure 24

(55)

pore size saturated with wetting phase be comes successively smaller. Fig (25)

2. Blocking off of central regions of pores by non-wetting phase This behavior will continue with decreasing (S ) until (S ),

ew w

wr

where a minute film which would wet the surface of the grains.

This film would decrease the diameter of the larger tube, thus the film itself would contribute no flow capacity. Fig (26)

reducing the flow capacity for the non-wetting phase, and yet

Figure 25

capacity

3. This point represents the equilibrium saturation which is the value at which the non-wetting phase becomes mobile. 4. At any saturation value above this saturation wetting-phase saturation falls into the pendular saturation state, so that it Krnw. losses its own mobility and this confirmed by the rapid rise in

(56)

phase less than 100 % indicates that a portion of the available pore space even though interconnected contributes little to the fluid conductive capacity of the porous medium.

in rock simultaneously as oil, water and gas. There are many instances when not two fluids but three fluids exist

Figure 26

conditions of rock the coordinates of any point with the triangle represent the different saturations in all three phases. For example;

Point So Sw Sg

1 20 20 60

2 20 40 40

3 40 40 20

4 60 20 20

5 40 60 0

(57)

triangle is due to water is considered as wetting phase with respect to each of oil and gas phases.

Figure 27

Figure 28

(58)

axis of the triangle. This symmetry is distorted toward the high percentage of gas saturation which indicates a lowering of mobility of oil by the presence of gas.

Figure 29

Figure 30

the hatched area two phase flow indicates that in most cases two which

(59)

Figure 31

permeability

The

affected by the change in fluid distribution brought characteristics. about by different wetting Curve (1) indicates

values

relative

are

system.

that the system is water wet system while, curve (2) indicates oil wet

Figure 32

(60)

phase (oil), to lose its mobility at higher value of structure than does the drainage process. The drainage method causes the wetting Phase (water) to lose it'

w

Figure 33

(61)

Figure 34

permit flow of one fluid as related to its ability to permit flow of another fluid under the same circumstances.

Kg

The two most useful permeability ratios are ( permeability to gas with respect to that to oil and (

Ko

Kw

). The relative

permeability to water with respect to that to oil, it is understand that both quantities in the ratio are determined simultaneously on a given system. infinity. The relative permeability ratio may vary in magnitude from zero to

K o ), the relative

(62)

Consider a system flowing gas and oil. At high oil saturation, the flow of gas is zero,

Kg

Kg

and hence,

Ko

is zero.

Figure 35

Kg

increase but

Ko

decrease

Kg

and therefore sufficiently low,

Ko

Ko

Kg

approach zero and the value of

Ko

approach

Kg

infinity. Fig (35) is a typical plot of

Ko

Kg

give linearity,

Ko

(63)

usage to express the central straight line portion of the relationship in the analytical form:

log(

Kg Ko

Kg Ko

) = log a b S o

= a e bS o

Where;

and

are constants characteristic only of a given reservoir given set of fluids. Slope of the linear plot is denoted b .

material and

agreement between theoretical relationship which may be deduced from it and actual observed data.

can be obtained: There are essentially for means by which relative permeability data

(1) Laboratory method. (2) Capillary pressure method. (3) Field data. (4) Petrochemical data.

1-Laboratory method:

(64)

Figure 36

A small core is

pressurized

rubber

systems, at a predetermined flow ratio and are flowed through the core until the produced ratio is equal to the injected ratio. The saturation of the various fluids is determined in one of different Once the saturation has been measured, the relative permeability of

the two phase at this saturation conditions can calculated by means of the injection ratio. The injection ratio is varied and the process continually repeated

2-Field determination

ratio can be defined by the following equation: Due to Darcy's equation for gas and oil, the relative permeability

Qg Qo

A( =

Kg Ko

g g

)( )(

Pg L Po L

A(

(65)

Figure 37

If the

Qo and Qg

Pg

and

Rp =

Or;

total gas prod free gas gas in sol = + oil prod oil produced oil produced

Rp =

Qg Qo

+ rs

K g o o Rp = + rs Ko g g Kg Ko =

g g ( R p rs ) o o

normally the most accurate values obtainable. The saturation at which calculated from field production data as follow:

(66)

So =

Np o )( )(1 S wi ) N Boi

So = (1

Example:

6

Np N

0.0041 0.0150 0.0240 0.0399 0.0517 0.0632 0.0752 0.0847 0.0965 0.1083 0.1202 0.1318 0.1420 0.1453

3000 2900 2800 2700 2600 2500 2400 2300 2200 2100 2000 1900 1800 1700 psi

850 1.443 840 752 920 1.432 875 725 990 1.420 910 695 1020 1.403 970 657 1000 1.393 1010 632 1180 1.382 1062 608 1420 1.371 1122 580 1510 1.364 1162 565 1666 1.354 1230 540 1920 1.340 1330 509 2220 1.326 1453 476 2480 1.313 1590 446 2710 1.301 1758 416 2800 1.298 1795 410 SCF/STR bbl/STB bbl/SCF SCF/STB

30.4 32.1 34.0 36.8 38.4 40.5 42.4 43.6 45.5 48.0 50.8 53.8 57.4 58.2

Kg

and K o

= a e bS o .

Solution:

Oil Reservoir Engineering (67)

Kg

g g = ( R p rs ) K o o o

Kg

And,

So = (1

Np o )( )(1 S wi ) N Boi

Kg Ko

P

3000 2900 2800 2700 2600 2500 2400 2300 2200 2100

So

0.710 0.696 0.684 0.664 0.652 0.638 0.625 0.615 0.609 0.589

Kg Ko

0.00187 0.00321 0.00556 0.00682 0.00694 0.01085 0.01620 0.01848 0.0224 0.0292

(68)

Figure 38

Kg

, K = 0.1 o

Kg

, K = 0.01 o

Kg Ko

= a e bS o

0.1 = a e 0.516b

(69)

And,

0.01 = a e 0.648b

So,

ln10 = 0.132b

b = 2.3 ln( Kg Ko

0.132

= 17.42

) = ln a b So

a = 803

of reservoir engineering. Just a few of its uses are mentioned engineering. Just a few of its uses are mentioned here. Relative permeability data are essential to all flow work in the field

From the relative permeability curves, it should have become apparent that the point of 100% water flow is not necessarily the point of 100% water saturation. It is recognized that there are two water levels. Free water level: zero capillary pressure level. Initial WOC: the level below which fluid production is 100% water, from relative permeability data the engineer can determine what the fluid saturation must be at the point of zero oil permeability. When the fluid saturation determined from well test data and relative

Oil Reservoir Engineering (70)

permeability curves are used, the capillary pressure can be determined and the height above the free water level can be calculated. Other uses of relative permeability data 1- Determination of residual fluid saturation. 2- Fractional flow and frontal advance calculation to determine the fluid distribution. 3- Making future prediction for all types of oil reservoir where two phase flow is involved. 4- Emulation of drillsteam and production tests.

(71)

Capillary forces

Surface and capillary pressure

in petroleum reservoirs). A water molecule which is within the body of the water will uniformly attached in all directions, by an attractive force, zero Consider two immiscible fluids (water and oil, fluid commonly found

by other molecules and thus the resultant force on the molecule will be

Figure 39

A water molecule at the interface has force acting upon it from the

oil lying immediately above the interface and water molecules lying rise to interfacial tension.

below the interface. The resulting forces are unbalanced and give

Figure 40

required to move a water molecule from within the body in the liquid

(72)

through the interface; this work is referred to as the free surface energy of the liquid.

Surface tension

of length and for a distance of one com in order to produce the new until area of the surface, or it is the force per unit length required to create a unit new surface. The force in dynes acting in the surface perpendicular to a line cm

phase and a gaseous phase while the interfacial tensing is created at the interface between two liquids.

Figure 41

int erfacial tension

of free volume to take the minimum possible form as, for example, a sphere in the case of a free drop liquid.

liquid faces The forces that are active at the interface between two immiscible

Oil Reservoir Engineering (73)

Figure 42

so = ws + wo cos

wo cos = so ws = At + (ve) At = wo cos

this case) wets the solid surface. equal affinity for the surface. A positive adhesion tension indicates that the dense phase (water in An adhesion tension of zero indicates that both phases have an

Figure 43

At = wo cos

wo cos 90 = 0

phase to adhere to the solid and to spread over the surface of the solid. Thus the adhesion tension determines the ability of the wetting

(74)

Figure 44

f 90 ,

contact angle of the system that affected by the mineralogy of surface (rock) and the kind of the two immiscible fluids.

Figure 45

tension) between the liquid and tube that tends to pull liquid upward. This total upward force is balanced by the weight of the liquid column

The rise in height, Fig (46) is due to the attractive force (adhesion

Upward force

Downward force

At and 2 r ,

Equating this two balanced forces:

r2 h g

(75)

2 cos = r g h 2 cos = g h = P r

(1)

in the tube that the pressure in the liquid phase beneath the interface (A) is less than above the interface. This difference in pressure existing across the interface is referred

It is noticed from the shape of the interface between the two phases

Pc = Pnw Pw = g h =

2 cos r

(2)

Figure 46

Fig (47) shows the condition of two liquid phases compared with

(76)

Figure 47

At the point B' within the capillary the tube pressure is the same as At the point A' just under the meniscus with in the capillary, the

pressure is equal to that at B' within the capillary minus the head of water. The pressure at A' is therefore;

PA' = PB ' w g h

pressure is the same as that at B.

(3)

Now, at the point A, just above the meniscus within the capillary, the This statement can be made because the density can be neglected.

(77)

therefore;

(4)

= PA PA'

Where;

As mentioned before; (5)

PA = PB ' = PB = Patm Pc = w g h

(6)

head of oil, because the oil density isn't negligible compared to water density. In this case the pressure at A is now equal to that at B minus the

(78)

PA = PB o g h

Substituting equation (7) into equation (5);

(7)

Pc = ( PB o g h) PB ' + w g h = ( w o ) g h

(8)

It was noted in equation (1) that the quantity ( h ) could be therefore, the capillary pressure can be expressed as: expressed by the surface tension ( ) and the contact angle ( );

Pc =

2 cos = g h r

(9)

It noticed from equation (9) that the capillary pressure is a function of the adhesion tension (

At = cos

becomes

simple or ideal porous structure is required as a starting point to explain their capillary behavior. The ideal pore configuration usually chosen is that made up of spherically uniform particles of definite size, i.e., unconsolidated sand. Reservoir rocks are varying in complexity of pore structure, and a

(79)

Figure 48

wetting fluid at the point of contact. A contact angle of zero will be assumed in order to have the condition of a continuous film of the wetting phase a round the sand grain. In this system, the capillary pressure is given by;

Pc = {

Where;

1 1 + } R1 R2

(10)

R1

and

R2

is

R1

and

saturation of that fluid within the porous body if the number of such contacts are considered. It is practically impossible to measure the

(80)

values of radius (

R1

and

R2

Rm ); where;

(11)

1 1 1 = + Rm R1 R2

on a porous medium.

R1

and

R2 both

magnitude of the capillary pressure would in turn have to increase in size. It is therefore possible to express the capillary pressure as a function of rock saturation when two immiscible fluids are used within the capillary pressure.

porous medium. In other words, smaller water saturation gives a greater Equation (8) and Equation (10) together demand that: at a given

height within a reservoir, the amount of water that is held by capillary pressures will increase as the permeability decreases. Also the capillary pressure increase with height in the reservoir.

body and the capillary pressure at that point is known as the capillary The relationship between water saturation at any point in a porous

pressure. Since the capillary pressure must vary with height above the free water level in a porous section, the capillary pressure curve expresses also the relationship of water saturation to height above the

Oil Reservoir Engineering (81)

free water level. Fig (50) shows a typical curve, any point in this curve represents an equilibrium condition. water. First, it is assumed that the reservoir rock was originally filled with

Figure 49

the reservoir. The capillary pressure can be measured by finding out reach certain saturation in that fluid (wettingphase fluid). If the largest

how much pressure must be applied on oil (non wetting fluid) in order to capillary opening be considered as circular of radius r , the pressure needed for forcing the oil will be

P =

2 cos r

enter the core because any capillary of small radius will require a higher

(82)

pressure application. This minimum pressure is called the "displacement pressure" of the core. As the driving pressure upon the non-wetting fluid is increased,

wetting fluid. Should the capillaries of the specimen be highly uniform in wetting fluid and the plot of pressure applied vs. fluid saturation would be very flat nearly until the irreducible saturation (S ) is reached. This is illustrated incurve "1" fig (51).

iw

Figure 50

size, the capillary pressure curve would be very step such as curve (3) heterogeneity.

curve (2) is the capillary pressure for capillary size distribution of medium It may be summarized that the capillary pressure of a reservoir rock

(83)

which in turn is a measure of rock texture. Fine textured rocks made up of small cemented grains, closely packed exhibit a higher capillary large grains, poorly cemented and loosely packed. pressure at a given saturation then coarse textured rocks made up of There is no sharp line between oil and water level, Fig (51). The

w

depth internal within which the saturation (S ) changes from 100% to the wateroil contact con not be said to exist at a definite depth, but rather within a range of depth. In general, less permeable sands are expected to have a greater irreducible saturation (S ) is known as the "transition zone", thus, the

iw

Figure 51

and "threshold pressure", the former refers to the entrance pressure of wetting fluid.

the non-wetting fluid into the porous medium fully saturated with the

(84)

saturated with non-wetting fluid, the point below fluid the displacement

saturation to this phase, the threshold pressure is now zero. Fig (53).

Figure 52

equilibrium

the core was saturated with water air), be forced into the core. In this To obtain the drainage curve,

and then let a non-wetting fluid (oil or desaturation direction, the water is smaller capillaries. Fig (54)

Figure 53

of displacement of oil or air by water. The oil saturation is reduced until it reaches to the ultimate oil saturation "residual oil saturation".

saturation values, "in the imbibition direction", which is also the direction

(85)

value would be obtained if the porous system was being desaturated (drainage), then was being resaturated (imbibition) with wetting fluid. We can summarize factors affecting capillary pressure curve as:

The pore size distribution. The saturation history "drainage or imbibition direction". Rock homogeneity or heterogeneity. Rock permeability. The kind of fluid and solids that are involved.

taken into consideration before the actual application of the data. Thus in order to use capillary pressure data, these factors must be

pressure curve is shown in Fig (16). Many versions of the apparatus are used but the basic principles are the same. A typical apparatus which is used for the determination of capillary

(86)

through it, but will not permit air to flow through it under the pressure necessary. This means that the diaphragm must have very small pores and must be water wet. measured:

w

1-S in the core at any time. 2-P at the same time By definition, Pc is difference in pressure between the gas (air) and

c

water phases in the core. The water saturation (Sw) can be determined either by wetting the core from time to time or by measuring the volume of water that has been removed from the core from time to time.

Procedure

The porous diaphragm must first be completely saturated with water. On the diaphragm is placed a thin layer of finely powder, the

purpose of which is to ensure good contact between the diaphragm and the core. This layer is completely saturated with water.

The core itself is also completely saturated with water and placed on the layer of powder. The apparatus is then closed so that an air pressure can be applied. This pressure is set at some definite and contact value (Pair).

(87)

Because the diaphragm has been chosen with such a fine pore structure that air can not penetrate it, there will be no air water which itself can path through the diaphragm. However air will displace water from the core through the diaphragm for a while but eventually all flow will stop and the system will be static. flow except into the core. Air flow into the core will displace

When the system has reached this point of no flow, the pressure in both the water and air phases within the core is known.

A. Pair = the applied pressure. B. Pw = Patm (the pressure below the diaphragm) the head, P from the bottom of the diaphragm to the center of the core.

Pc = Papplied ( Patm

At this point, the core can be removed from the holder and the wide determined, weight of the core minus the dry weight gives the weight of water present and consequently the saturation.

The core is replaced in the holder and the process is repeated, determine a new capillary pressure and a new saturation. capillary pressure curve is obtained and plotted.

hcore

g w)

(88)

Example:

A dry core weights 8.59 gms and then 100% saturated with water it weights 9.74 gms. It is placed in a closed container diaphragm. A constant pressure is applied and when equilibrium is attended the core reweighed for various applied pressures, the following data were obtained: Pressure 10 20 30 40 50 60 80 100 150 200 300 400 mmHg a. Plot Pc versus Sw. b. Find Pd and S wi .

Solution:

Weight 9.74 9.74 9.68 9.57 9.41 9.29 9.50 8.96 8.88 8.85 8.82 8.82 gms

(89)

Figure 54

P.V . = =

wt . of

of

dry

sample

fluid

And,

volume of P.V .

fluid

Pc = Papplied Pc

Pc

10 20 30 40 50

Oil Reservoir Engineering

Sw

100 100 94.7 85.2 71.3

(90)

Pd = 20 mmHg

S wi = 20%

an interface within a capillary system. The idea of the capillary pressure is that a pressure existing across

Figure 55

condition may be such that the resistance to flow is markedly increase, "Jamin effect".

or may become great enough to prohibit flow. This effect is named Consider at first a straight pore cylindrical capillary. The capillary

(91)

Pc =

2 cos r

pressure necessary to keep the interface from moving to the right at point B within the capillary, Fig(57)

Figure 56

J effect = PB PA =

2 cos r

from to A B

Figure 57

interface is the same but opposite in the direction to the other, there is between the point A and B is zero as seen by;

There are now two interface, the pressure drop across each

J = PB PA = (

2 cos 2 cos )A ( )B = 0 r r

Now if either term of this equation were modified, the net pressure

(92)

The difference may not be zero due to a change in any one of the three terms ,

This condition gives the Jamin condition, i.e. the resistance to flow.

cos

or r .

The difference in pressure between point A and B is:

PB PA = 2 cos (

rB pp rA PA f PB

1 1 ) rA rB

position shown. If flow were to the right, a bubble of oil in the water stream could block such a channel until the pressure drop between point A and B was sufficiently great to push the bubble through the smallest construction.

Consider Fig (61). The resultant pressure between point A and B:

Figure

58

PB PA =

2 (cos A cos B ) r

(93)

As A f B

cos A p cos B PA f PB

Figure 59

Figure 60

PB PA =

2 ( A cos A B cos B ) r

If B cos B f A cos A

PA f PB

flow to the right. A positive pressure drop from A to B would be necessary to initial The overall Jamin effect is of course increased in direction

(94)

Calculation of wettability

There are some means expressing the degree of wettability:

1-contact angle

dense phase. A contact angle of zero would indicate complete wetting by the An angle of 90o indicated that either phase wets the solid. An angle of 180 o complete wetting by the less dense phase.

Figure 61

the droplet.

r=

h b

Sessile drop ratio of one indicates complete non-wetting the solid A ratio of zero indicates complete wetting the solid surface by the

(95)

Wettability number (W.N.) = Where;

o.a PT w.o PT

w. o

o.a

PTw.o PTo . a

A wettability number of one would indicate a complete wetting by A wettability number of zero would indicate complete wetting by oil.

Gravity force: the force tends to expel water from the rock. pores and it is opposite by the capillary force. It is also the force that causes oil to force water out of the rock The water saturation at any point in the reservoir is the result of a

(96)

increases, the gravity forces in the reservoir increases and water saturation tends to be lower. pressure in the laboratory. Gravity pressure The gravity pressure in the reservoir is analogous to the capillary

gravity pressure

g h

The reservoir point that can generally be determined from electric The laboratory capillary pressure test starts out with 100% water However, the starting laboratory point corresponds to the reservoir

free water level not the original water oil contact (OWC). This is directly calculate the depth of the free water level in the reservoir. original water oil contact.

used in laboratory to convert laboratory data to field data, when need to Fig (63) shows the distinction between the free water level and the

(97)

Figure 62

convert to the reservoir condition. To use laboratory data of capillary pressure it is necessary to

( Pc )lab = ( Pc ) Re s =

If

L = R = 180o

Pc R = Pc L

Example:

R L

Calculate the reservoir capillary pressure from the following laboratory data:

Oil Reservoir Engineering (98)

Pc L = 18 psi ,

S w = 35% ,

( o.w ) R = 24dyne / cm ,

( a.w ) L = 72dyne / cm ,

w = 68lb / ft 3 and

Solution:

o = 53ib / ft 3 .

( Pc ) R = ( Pc ) L

R 24 = 18 = 6 psi L 72

To convert the capillary pressure saturation data to height saturation it is only necessary to rearrange the equation:

Pc = g h 144( Pc ) R = ( w o ) g h h =

Where; h : ft,

Example:

144( Pc ) R 144( Pc ) R = ( w o ) g g

w , o : lb / ft 3 ,

Pc : psi

Calculate the height of the saturation plane for the last example.

Solution:

h =

(99)

the free water level.

Example:

Calculate the water saturation profile (depth versus Sw), for the following laboratory capillary pressure data, considering that the initial WOC is located at depth of 3788 ft. Sw 100 100 85 72 58 52 45 39 35 32 30 30 % Also given; Pc 0 1.9 2.02 2.34 2.74 3.25 3.60 4.57 5.44 7.20 10.00 10.00 Psi

w = 63.8lb / ft 3 o = 54.7lb / ft 3

a.w = 70dyne / cm

Oil Reservoir Engineering (100)

w.o = 28dyne / cm

cos = 1

Solution:

( Pc ) R = ( Pc ) L

w.o w. a

28 = 0.4( Pc ) L 70

(1)

( Pc ) R = ( Pc ) L

Qh =

(2)

Q h = 15.82( Pc ) R = 6.328( Pc ) L

As the initial OWC that is correspond to the displacement pressure is at depth of 3788 ft, thus the free water level is at a depth of: 6.328 x 1.9=12 ft below the depth of the 1.WOC. The depth of the free water level = 12 + 3788 = 3800 ft. In genera, the relation between the deoth of the free water level at any height value is; D = F.D.L h (3) Using equation (1) and equation (2) and equation (3), we can calculate the (D vs. Sw profile) as follows:

Sw

100 (F.W.L.) 100 (1.WOC) 85

( Pc ) R

0 0.76 0.81

h

0 12 12.8

D

3800 3788 3787

(101)

72 58 52 45 39 35 32 30 30 %

0.94 1.10 1.30 1.44 1.83 2.18 2.88 4.00 4.00 Psi

homogeneous and that the capillary pressure test on a single core simple was sufficient for estimating the entire water saturation profile. Most of reservoirs are stratified and several simples must be

selected for capillary pressure test, so the actual stratification can be taken into account.

Example:

Calculate the water saturation profile at a well drilled into a reservoir has he following capillary pressure data for this cores of different perm abilities;

Sw

( Pc )core:1

1000 md

( Pc )core:2

100 md

( Pc )core:3

10 md

(102)

100 80 60 40 20 %

Also given the following data; Sub sea depth 3743 3744 3745 3746 3747 3748 ft

Solution:

After deciding the suitable capillarysaturation curve: Calculate ( Pc ) R for each foot of depth as the previous example.

( Pc ) R =

Calculate ( Pc ) L .

( Pc ) L =

(103)

Or;

( Pc ) L =

Read 3) Depth 3743 3744 3745 3746 3747 3748 ft

for each ( Pc ) L from curves Pc S w for each core (1,2and H 57 56 55 54 53 52

Sw

( Pc ) L

8.99 8.83 8.68 8.52 8.36 8.20 psi

Sw

30 20 54 55 20 13 %

a great influence on the water saturation than does its structural location. three cores could be used to evaluate It is noticed that the permeability at a point n the reservoir often has

The permeability values in the above example were chosen so that the

Sw

In many cases, the permeability of portions of the formation may not be closed to that of the core simples tested. On this case additional

Pc

(104)

Sw

proceeding example.

Example:

For the above example, estimate a capillary pressure curve for 40 md core.

Solution:

Plot Pc vs. K for the three cores on loglog paper for each saturation level given straight lines. For any K as 40 md, draw a horizontal line and record Pc vs. S w that gives the new curve, Fig (64)

Figure 63

Pc

1.7 2.5 4

Sw

100 80 60

(105)

50 40 30

Calculation of effective and absolute permeabilities from capillary pressure data: Purcell and Burdines method:

from capillary pressure data obtained by the mercury injection. Method, utilized the concept of pore size distribution as follow: The minimum capillary pressure required for displacing of a wetting Purcell and Burdines have reported on computation of permeability

fluid or injecting a non-wetting fluid into a capillary tube of radius r is given by:

Pc =

2 cos r

2 cos pc

(1)

r =

poiseuille equation:

r 4 p Q= 8L

Since the volume of the capillary is :

(106)

Vi = r 2 L

vi r 2 P Q = 8 L2

From equation (1) and equation (2);

(2)

( cos )2 vi p Q =

2 L2 ( pc ) 2

different radii.

(3)

Qt

( cos )2 p n =

2 L2

vi ( pc )2

(4)

Qt =

K A P L

(5)

( cos ) 2 n vi K = 2 A L i =1 ( Pc ) 2

As the volume (

(6)

vi

vi = Si vT ,

(107)

Also;

vT A L

vi = Si vT = S i A L

( cos ) 2 n S i K = 2 2 i =1 P i c

(7)

K = 10.24( cos ) 2

Where;

dS nw 2 S =0 Pc

100

(8)

S nw ).

: : : : :

Pc

Oil Reservoir Engineering

Purcell assumed that the contact angle for mercury was ( = 140o)

(108)

K = 14260

dS c2 S =0 P

Pc

from (

Pc S ) curve at

0.216

for sedimentary rocks. the integral is the area under the curve

The value of

{(

1 ) vs. S w } 2 Pc .

for displacement of the wetting phase, Generalizing equation (8) and considering capillary pressure data

K w = 10.24( cos ) 2

Where;

Sw

dS 2 Pc

(9)

Kw

saturation value (

Sw

).

(109)

following relationship;

K rw

dS Pc 2 Kw 0 = = 100 K dS Pc 2 0

Sw

(10)

porous medium.

calculated in a similar fashion as equation (9) by assuming that the nonwetting phase is contained in tubes or pores, free of the wetting phases;

K nw

) can be

100

S =Sw

dS 2 Pc

(11)

by;

K nwt

) is given

100

K nwt

K = nw = K

dS Pc

2

S =Sw 100

dS P

0

(12)

The following example illustrate how to use the above relationship to calculate

K ab

and

Kr

from

Pc

data

(110)

Example:

For mercury injection method given the following capillary pressure saturation data; SHg, % 0 Patm 1.6 10 2.8 20 3.1 30 3.5 40 4.2 50 5.5 60 12.2 70 20 80 30

If = 0.216 ,

= 140o

Calculate;

and

= 480dyne / cm , = 23%

K and ( K rw vs. S w ).

Solution:

S Hg

Pc

1 2 Pc

0.391 0.128 0.104 0.082 0.067 0.029 0.007 0.003 0.001

dS Pc 2

dS 0 Pc 2 K rw = 100 dS 0 Pc 2

Sw

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

1 2.595 1.160 0.930 0.745 0.480 0.180 0.05 0.020 0.578 0.392 0.239 0.118 0.0405 0.0113 0.0032 0

= 6.16

Oil Reservoir Engineering (111)

K = 10.24( cos )

2

100

dS 2 Pc

Where;

K

S

: : : :

100

Pc

Or;

K = 4.75 10 6 ( cos ) 2

Where;

dS 2 Pc

K

S

: : : : :

Pc

Figure 64

(112)

Petrophysics

textural rock properties, in other words, it is the structure interpretation of physical rock properties. Although, the reservoir engineer is mostly interested in porosity, Petrophysics is the study of the relationship that exist between and

permeability and fluid saturation of reservoir rocks, there are certain physical properties such as the formation resistively factor (F), the resistively index (I), and the hydraul formation factor (Fh) which provide derivation may be made leading to the possible determination of relative permeability from electric logs. This chapter shows how the properties of log interpretation are interrelated. clean rocks mostly common used in fluidflow mechanics and electric

Poiseuille (1846) derived an equation which relates the rate of flow of an incompressible fluid of known viscosity through a horizontal straight differential ( P ) as follows; capillary of length (L) and radius (r) under the influence of a pressure

r 4 P Q= 8 L

Where;

(1)

(113)

: : :

P ( P P2 ) : 1

Figure 65

If we considered a linear porous medium of physical length (L) and cross sectional area (A) as made up of a bundle of capillary of average radius (r') and of average length (L'=Lt). Where; (t) is a tortuosity coefficient. Poiseuille's law is written as;

n r 4 P Q= 8 t L

(2)

Figure 66

The tortuosity coefficient (t) is a dimensionless number up by a bundle of straight pore capillaries. It is also a measure of the tortuous path length which a practical fluid must travel,

(114)

expressed in terms of the shortest distance between two points in that path, i.e. t=L'/L Comparing Poiseuille's law with Darcy's law expressed in the same system of units;

1.013 A K P n r 4 P 8 Q= 10 = Q = L 8 t L

n r 4 K 108 8 At

Where; : : : Dyne/cm2. Number of capillary tubes. Darcy.

(-3)

P

n

2) Porosity

Volume porosity ( given by; expressed as the pore-space volume per bulk volume. It is

v )

n r 2 L t n r 2 = = t v = V A L A Vp

(-4)

(A) of the rock.

(115)

rocks, correlations among porosity, permeability, Surface area, pore size and other variables have been made.

(-5)

Equation (-3) can be written as;

n r 2 r 2 K= 108 A 8t

By combining this equation with equation (-4);

1 r 2 K = 2 108 8 t

By solving for the mean pore radius (r');

2 r'= 8 K t

10 4

(-6)

Specific surface

The specific surface of a porous material is the total area exposed with in the pores pace per unit volume. Unit volume may be the solid volume in which case the specific space, in which case the specific surface is represented by (Sp). For a packing of capillary tube;

(116)

S=

SP =

I .S . A. n( 2 r ) L t 2 = = P.V . n( r 2 ) L t r

(-7)

Ss = S

B

I .S . A. S .V . = I .S . A . P .V .

2 Ss = S P = 1 r (1 )

(-9)

1 .5 A ) SB ( BV = S .V = (1 ) = 1 .5 A SS B.V S .V

S B = S S (1 )

For a packing of spheres (-10)

n (4 r 2 ) L t 3 SS = = n (4 r 3 )L t r 3

And;

(-11)

n (4 r 2 ) L t 3 1 SP = = = r n (4 r 3 )L t 3 1

(-12)

(117)

Kozeny equation

A useful expression can be derived by combining equation (-6) with equation (-7);

2 r = 8 K t

2 r

10 4

And

SP =

Equating values of 7);

2 8K t 2 r= = 104 SP

K =

Or;

2 t SP

2 2

108

darcy

(-8)

K=

3

2 t S S (1 )

2 2 2

108

darcy

(-9)

the above derivations assume that the capillaries of mean radius ( r ) have no roughness, and have constant cross section. It is

2

assumed that the roughness factor is included in the tortuosity coefficient. The coefficient ( 2t ) in equation (-8) and equation (-

(118)

9) is called the (Kozeny constant) for consolidated rocks for capillary tubes.

the capillaries is unknown. Therefore the following simple derivation will be used. Using Poiseuille's law, the internal velocity inside a circular pipe is In the case of a packing of spheres, the mean hydraulic radius of

given by;

r 2 P vi = 8 L

(-10)

r 2 P vi = ts L

Where;

(-11)

ts

(t s 2.5)

viupp =

K P 108 L

(-12)

(119)

viupp

viact

Vapp = Vact

VDarcy = V pois .

K P r 2 P 8 10 = ts L t L K =

As;

r2

ts t

108

t s 2 .5

K =

r2

2.5 t

108

(-13)

as the ratio of the pore volume per unit bulk volume, divided by the wetted surface per unit bulk volume;

(120)

PV r = BV

I .S . A. BV

PV 1 = I .S . A. S P

r=

1 SP

K =

Or;

2.5 t S P

2

108

(-14)

K =

3

2.5 t S S (1 ) 2

2

108

(-15)

The value (2.5 t) is called the Kozeny constant for unconsolidated Equating Kozeny constant for consolidated and unconsolidated

2.5t = 2t 2

t = 1.25

determinations for unconsolidated sands. (-16)

(121)

introduced which had been determined experimentally. The values of these coefficients are given as:

ts

) must be

Introducing the shape factor (

ts

1.00 1.02 1.07 1.17 1.27

ts

K=

2 .5 t s t S P

2

108

darcy

(-17)

K=

3

2.5 t s t S S (1 ) 2

2

108

darcy

(-18)

the pore volume and the soil volume, obtained by the relation (

Where

SP

and

SS

SP =

1 r ), previously defined.

(122)

of minerals, for the most part, non conductive of electricity. Sedimentary The solid framework of the sedimentary reservoir rocks is made up

rocks are conductive of electricity only if their interconnected pore space contain electrically conductive fluids, namely formation water, connate water, interstitial water, ground water and the like. salty water and resistivity R ohm-meters.

w

Consider the box like container, Fig (68) is completely filled with

Figure 67

be A meters2.

Let the length of the box be L meters, and its cross sectional area

R = Rw

L A

(1)

E = I R = I Rw

Oil Reservoir Engineering

L A

(123)

I = A

1 E Rw L

(2)

q = A K

P L

(3)

saturated to 100% with salt water of the same resistivity as before, Fig resistivity formation factor "F" which is always larger than one.

Now consider that the box is completely filled with clean sand and

(69). The resistance of the box will be increased by a factor called the

Figure 68

A new and smaller current (I') will now flow such that;

E = I 'Ro

As

L A Ro f Rw

, where

(4)

I 'p I

volume of the box that is completely filled with the porous medium and fully saturated with a conductive fluid of a resistivity Comparing equation (2) and equation (4);

, then

Ro

Rw

(124)

E = I 'Ro

L L = I Rw A A Ro

) is proportional to the resistivity of

Rw

resistivity factor.

F =

Ro Rw

(5)

This relation is an important in log-interpretation because of by has when fully saturated with formation water. Such a condition precludes any possibility of oil production. The formation factor is a dimensionless quantity by which the knowing;

Rw

Ro

which it

resistivity of the formation water is to be multiplied in order to obtain the resistivity of the rock when 100% saturated in formation water.

Rock porosity is the mean factor that controls the passage of current, i.e. the value of the formation factor. The salty waters that rock contains in its pores. Rock cementation and grin size distribution control the size of the interconnected pore of their tortuosity.

(125)

Various formulas have been proposed to relate the formation factor ( F ) to the lithological factors of porosity ( ( m ). Archie proposed the following formula;

F=

(6)

The constant ( a ) is determined empirically. Satisfactory results are usually obtained with;

F=

0.81

F = 2

F=

0.62

2.15

(7)

The Humble formula and the Archie formula for several vales of

present, with in a porous medium together with a certain amount of salty When oil and gas, which are non conductors of electricity, are

(126)

there is a less available volume for the flow of electric current this space

RT )

Ro

). Since

Sw

RT )

depends

not only on the value of ( S w ) but also on its distribution within the pore The fluid distribution within the porous medium depends on; The wetting properties of the rock. The direction in which it was established (drainage or imbibition). Porosity type. Fig (69) shows how the ratio

RT Ro

Figure 69

(127)

(n). (n)

and 1.8 for the second. These slopes are called Saturation exponents Curve (3) is for oil-wet sand in which case the value of (n) is

Curve (1) and (2) are for sands, the slope of which is 2 for the first

The general formula which relates connate water saturation ( the following forms; and the true resistivity (

Sw

RT )

Sw = n

Ro FRw n =n = Rw m / RL Rt Rt

(8)

( n ) is the saturation exponent, the value of which is most generally ( n ) can be measured in laboratory by measuring the electric

Tortuosity determination

determined is made by computation from the value of formation factor F and porosity The simplest method by which tortuosity of rock capillaries can be

.

may be represented by

(128)

cross sectional area (A), a theoretical expression for the formation factor (F), can be derived as follow:

R = Ro

L A

(9)

= Rw

L t n ( r 2 )

(10)

L t2 R = Rw A

From equation (9) and equation (11);

L L t2 Ro = Rw A A

Ro = Rw

Ro

t2

=F

(12)

Rw

t2

t 2 = F

Formula (12) provides a ready laboratory means of determining (t) since both (

(129)

Effective tortuosity

is not expected to take place effectively through the full volume of water. In a completely water saturated rock, the passage of electric current

This analogous to fluid flow in porous media at 100% saturation where all the fluid is not moveable. The non movable water is the irreducible water saturation, (

capillaries through which there is neither pressure differential nor potential drop, looks like non conductive mineral framework. Thus, tortuosity of irreducible water saturation can be written as:

t 2 = F (1 S wi )

The concept of effective tortuosity ( when partial water saturation (

(13)

te

S wi

wetting phase is non conductive of electricity. An effective tortuosity can then be written as;

2

te = Fe ( S w S wi )

Where;

Fe

The ratio

F Fe

is written as:

(130)

Ro F Rw Ro 1 = = = Fe Rt Rt I R w

When

Sw

),

F Ro t = = Fe Rt te

S w S wi 1 S wi

(14)

2 r = 8 K t

(1 S wi )

10 4

(15)

Figure 70

By analogy with the formation resistivity factor, the hydraulic formation factor (

Fh

Fh =

(131)

K ( R 2 ) P

10 8

R P

8 L

(16)

Fh =

Where;

8K 10 8 2 R

R 2 (1 S wi ) = n( r 2 ) L t

R 2 (1 S wi ) r = n t

2

(17)

But;

8K t 2 r = 10 8 (1 S wi )

2

(15)

R 2 (1 S wi )

2 10 8 = 8 K t nt (1 S wi )

2 (1 S wi ) 2

n t

2 (1 S wi ) 2 Fh =

Where;

Oil Reservoir Engineering

= 8 K

] 10 R

2

= Fh

(18)

n t3

(132)

C:

Sw

), an effective

Fhe

Fhe w =

Where;

2 ( S w S wi ) 2

ne w (te w )3

(19)

ne w

: :

te w

Fhe nw =

Where;

2 (1 S w ) 2

nn w (tn w ) 3

(20)

nn w

phase.

tn w

is their tortuosity.

equation (19). is the ratio of (

Fhe )

to (

Fh )

(133)

Fhe n t I eh = = Fn new te w

S w S wi 1 S wi

(21)

By definition this ratio, by analogy, is also the relative permeability to the wetting phase (

K rw

3

).

2

n t K rw = new tew

S w S wi 1 S wi

(22)

K rnw

n t = nnw tew

1 Sw 1 S wi

(23)

The ratio (

S w S wi 1 S is wi

S wf

have;

n K rw = ne w

And

t te w

(S wf )2

(24)

(134)

K rnw

n t (1 S wf )2 = nnw tew

(25)

the saturation changes are by imbibition or by drainage. They are not useful without elimination of the number of capillaries involved ( n , order to obtain practical relative permeability formulas. and

The formulas (24) and (25) are fully general and are valid whether

new

nnw

tew

and

tnw

) from them in

When the wetting phase is increased from the irreducible saturation (

S wi

n = new

nnw

(26)

K rw = (

t tew

)3 Swf

(27)

equation (24);

(135)

K rw(imbibition)

1 Ro 3 2 = ( ) S wf 2 Rt

(28)

*Drainage direction

injection of a non-wetting phase starting with too per cent wetting-phase fluid, then the next largest, and so on When The wetting-phase saturation is decreased because of the

saturation, the largest capillaries are originally occupied by non wetting At any intermediate saturation, the distribution of fluids may be

visualized as being in two bundles of capillaries, one occupied by non wetting and the other by wetting fluid. Hence we have the relation.

n = new

nnw new

(24)

K rw( drainage) = (

n t 3 2 )( ) S wf new tew

K rw( drainage)

1 n Ro 3 2 = ( )( ) S wf 2 new Rt

(30)

K rw( drainage)

K rw(imbibition)

(136)

n new

K rnw

).

simultaneously in all the capillaries because the small capillaries are all ready saturated at the start of imbibition with the wetting-phase, i.e. (

In

the

imbibition

direction,

the

wetting-phase

fluid

occurs

S wi

). Because of the large degree of interconnection between the of all size, the wetting-phase saturation increases

capillaries

simultaneously in all of them and the non wetting-phase becomes constricted in all the pores simultaneously, given rise to coaxial flow of both phases within a certain range of saturation changes. The non wetting-phase saturation distribution is considered to be a succession of inflations and constriction connected along the capillaries axis.

very narrow and eventually break down, leaving an insular non wetting bubble in each pore. When all the filaments are broken in their large residual saturation to the non wetting-phase may be present. It will saturation saturation. be represented by (

Snwt

(137)

n = new

(31)

same axis as that of the capillaries them selves, is equal to the tortuosity at 100% saturation;

t = tew

Therefore;

(32)

K rnw(imbibition) = (1 S wf ) 2

The expression ( ), the term (

(33)

1 S wf

Snwt

S wf

S wf =

S w S wi 1 S wi S nwt

K rnw

) should have the form;

2

(34)

K rnw( imbibition)

S w S wi 1 = 1 S wi S nwt

(35)

(138)

occurs gradually from large capillaries toward smaller ones. At any one largest capillaries and the wetting phase in the smaller capillaries. Let In the drainage direction, the desaturation in the wetting-Phase

S w Snw

,

wetting and irreducible wetting-phase on a pore-volume basis. The volume of the pores having a surface reciprocal of

and

S wi

Sw

Snw

and

S wi

are the

S w Snw

,

and

S wi

1 1 1 = + S wi S w S nw

But according to equation (-7);

(35)

2 = rwi S wi

and

2 = rw Sw

and

2 = rnw S nw

(36)

rwi = rw + rnw

According to equation (15);

(37)

(139)

8K t 2 rwi = 104 (1 S wi )

Combining relations (38);

2

(38)

(38)

(38)

rw tew K rw = S wf rwi t

(39)

And;

(39)

rnw t = nw rwi t

K rnw

(1 S wf )

tew K rw t K rnw + nw =1 S wf (1 S wf ) t t

1 t 1 1 t = (1 S wf ) 2 1 ew (K rw ) 2 S wf 2 t t nw

(K rnw )

(140)

1 t 3 2 1 1 t t 2 = (1 S wf ) 2 1 ew (S wf ) S wf 2 t t t ew nw

(K rnw )

t (K rnw ) = t nw

t 12 1 (1 S wf ) 1 ew S wf 2 t

(K rnw )

t = t nw

14 1 Ro (1 S wf ) 1 S wf 4 Rt

large extent the value of the tortuosity at full saturation, it is reasonable to postulate that;

t tnw

(41)

parallel. When adding, in parallel, circuits of low conductance (small capillaries) to highly conductive circuits (large capillaries), the former change the over-all conductance relatively little. phase in the drainage direction is;

Hence, the formula for the relative permeability to the non wetting

(141)

K rnw( drainage)

1 R 1 4( o ) 4 = (1 S wf )1 S wf Rt

(43)

direction of saturation changes, equation (34) for the non wetting-phase in the imbibition direction and equation (43) for the non wetting phase in the drainage direction. More general formulas for relative permeability in clean water-wet

rock can be written after substitution of Archie's relationship (8) using the value of the saturation exponent (n) = 2

Sw =

Ro Rt

3 1 2

K rw = S w S wf

(Drainage or imbibition)

1 4

(44) (45)

Sw 2 )2

2

K rnw( imbibition)

S w S wi = 1 1 S wi S nwt

(46)

Example:

Sw

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

(142)

Ro

Rt

0.75

If S wi = 20% and S nwt = 10%, Calculate the wetting and non wetting-phase relative permeabilities in each of drainage and imbibition direction.

Solution:

1 Ro 3 2 K rw = ( ) S wf 2 , Rt

and

K rnw

Sw

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

S w S wi = 1 1 S S wi nwt

Ro

Rt

S wf

0.000 0.125 0.250 0.375 0.500 0.625 0.750 0.875

Ro R t

S wf

K rw = S wf

Ro 3 2 ( ) Rt

(143)

And;

Sw

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

S wf

0.0000 0.1428 0.2857 0.4286 0.5714 0.7143 0.8571 1.0000

1 S wf

1.0000 0.8572 0.7143 0.5714 0.4286 0.2857 0.1428 0.000

K rw (1 S wf ) 2

1.0000 0.7348 0.5102 0.3265 0.1837 0.0816 0.0204 0.0000

2) Drainage direction

K rw = K rw(imbibition) K rnw

1 4 1 S 14 Ro = (1 S wf ) wf R t

1

S w 1 S wf

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1.000 0.875 0.750 0.625 0.500 0.375 0.250

(S )

wf

Ro R t

K rnw

1 4 1 S 14 Ro = (1 S wf ) wf R t

(144)

90

0.125

Example:

0.966

0.949

0.001

For the last example calculate K rw and K rnw for imbibition and drainage direction using the following equations;

Solution:

Sw 2 )2

Sw

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Sw

S wf

0.000 0.009 0.032 0.076 0.153 0.271 0.443 0.682 1

S wf

0.000 0.143 0.285 0.428 0.571 0.714 0.857 1.000

K rw(imb) = (1 S wf ) 2

1.000 0.735 0.510 0.326 0.184 0.082 0.020 0.000

(145)

S w =90% for imbibition process represents the final (Maximum) water saturation value, water there is a trapped non wetting-phase saturation S nwt = 0.10 . (2) Drainage direction

Sw

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

(S )

wf

Sw

(1 S

1 wf

Sw

K rnw

1.000 0. 397 0.229 0.124 0.061 0.024 0.007 0.002 0

Fig (71) shows the above K rw and the K rnw obtained for the example.

(146)

Figure 71

(147)

Referenes

1. Amyx J.D., Bass D.M., Whiting R.L.: "Petroleum reservoir engineering Physical properties". McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, 1960. 2. Pirson S.J.: "Oil Reservoir engineering". McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, 1958. 3. Craft B.C., Hawkins M.F.: "Applied petroleum reservoir engineering". PrenticeHall Inc. New Jersey, 1959. 4. Dake L.P.: "Fundamentals of reservoir engineering". Elsevier Scientific publishing company, New York, 1978.

(148)

- Reservoir Petrophysics Class NotesЗагружено:ginozky
- Basic Properties of Reservoir RockЗагружено:Ali Al-Ali
- HW5SolutionЗагружено:Mohammad Iqbal Mahamad Amir
- Calculation of Bg Gas Formation Volume FЗагружено:Mohammad Iqbal Mahamad Amir
- (Reservoir Engineering Course)Загружено:ginozky
- Module 8 Relative PermeabilityЗагружено:saladinayubi1234
- Petroleum Production EngineeringЗагружено:hawar abdul-khaliq
- Petroleum Production System 2nd Ed.pdfЗагружено:Mohammed Ibrahim
- HW3SolutionЗагружено:Mohammad Iqbal Mahamad Amir
- Reservoir EngineeringЗагружено:alang_business
- Fluid Properties_ Comprehensive Formation Volume Factor ModuleЗагружено:Ibrahim_Kocabas
- PE04025_QAЗагружено:Sona Sith
- Craft - Applied Petroleum Reservoir EngineeringЗагружено:quoctram120
- Reservoir Engineering NotesЗагружено:imogen2007
- HW4Загружено:Mohammad Iqbal Mahamad Amir
- Fundamentals of Basic Reservoir Engineering 2010Загружено:jollyrex
- Reservoir Petrophysics ExamЗагружено:husnainzaidi
- Economides Petroleum Productions System IIЗагружено:samirquiroga
- Reservoir EngineeringЗагружено:Phong Nguyen
- HW2SolutionЗагружено:Mohammad Iqbal Mahamad Amir
- Honarpour - Relative Permeability of Petroleum ReservoirЗагружено:mbalai68
- Petroleum Reservoir EngineeringЗагружено:tassili17
- Zolotukhin Reservoir Engineering 002Загружено:Anttonio Gómez
- Reservoir Engineering_Frank ColeЗагружено:jdmacbook
- Reservoir Fluids Properties BookЗагружено:kexadex2
- 26 Properties of Reservoir RockЗагружено:Wahyudi Mufti
- 28848005 Reservoir and Production FundamentalsЗагружено:quoctram120
- petroleum production systems.pdfЗагружено:Banchao Alex Shu
- Reservoir RockPropertiesЗагружено:Bond Diejomaoh
- Basic Concepts in Reservoir EngineeringЗагружено:Diego A. Navia

- Aea 2008plastic Nets in Agriculture a GeneralЗагружено:Alvaro Proaño
- Ali 1991, The flow behavior of deformed prefabricated vertical drainsЗагружено:Huy Hiep Nguyen
- SPE 89874Загружено:mhdstat
- 10_10. Seepage and ConsolidationЗагружено:saxlamag
- USGS Travis Peak FormationЗагружено:RanchRoad
- Petrophysics Vol. 60 No. 3 June 2019Загружено:phantom88
- SPE-262-PAЗагружено:Jessica King
- Determination of the Permeability of Granular SoilЗагружено:Kaluki Judy Rosebell
- UTP EOR Course Jan 2015 - Water FloodingЗагружено:whateveroil
- IPR MethodsЗагружено:ndlr81
- net pay.pdfЗагружено:احمدعطيه
- Pervious Concrete - FHWAЗагружено:Ade Irawati
- Reservoir Engineering StrategyЗагружено:Ashirbad Choudhury
- Soil mechanics by Jumikis.pdfЗагружено:roberto
- fossils.pdfЗагружено:debashis22m
- PAPER TASK 2.pdfЗагружено:Jheeslyn Tiranda
- PETE311_06A_Class01_(Maggard)Загружено:naefmubarak
- 70B.docxЗагружено:Jamie Schultz
- PETSOC 09-07-18.PDF Gas Condensate Reservoir PerformanceЗагружено:swaala4real
- Pressure Transient TestingЗагружено:Juli Santacruz
- Inflow Performance Relationship 01Загружено:Christian Karekonde Opuba
- SCA2008-39-Comparison of High_Low Salinity Water_Oil Relative PermeabilityЗагружено:tsanshine
- SPE 79861 Depleted Drilling - Van OortЗагружено:PT
- Spe 163880Загружено:Carlos Ulises Leonidas
- Topic 4 petrophysics - part 2.pdfЗагружено:Aneesch Preetha
- INTEGRATION OF CORE, LOG AND TEST DATA TO IMPROVE THE CHARACTERISATION OF A THINLY BEDDED RESERVOIRЗагружено:ari_si
- Drainage DesignЗагружено:rameshbabu_1979
- Aguilera 2013Загружено:SyafiqZainnur
- Rock & Fluid LabЗагружено:sifat
- APOGCE 2ND STAGE.xlsxЗагружено:Prap

## Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.

Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.

Отменить можно в любой момент.