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Philip Ktler

Northvestern University

Marketing Essentials

. .

. .


1991

65.9 (7)

73

: .. , ..

0607000000-355

65.9(7)


"

"" "

1984 by Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632 ISBN-0-13-557232-0


, ,
, 1990

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1. :

1

Peter F. Drucker. Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices. N. Y., Harper &


Row, 1973, p. 6465.
2

: ,

.
,
,
.
.
3

.: lvin J. Lanast. A New Approach to Consumer Theory. Journal of


Political Economy, 14, 1966, p. 132157.
4

. : Wroe Alderson. Factors Governing the Development of Marketing


Channels. Marketing Channels for Manufactured Products. Ed. Richard M. Clewett.
Homewood, . Richard D. Irwin, 1957, p. 211214.
5 CM.

Texas Instruments Shows U.S. Business How to Survive in the 1980s. Business
Week, September 18, 1978, p. 66 ff; The Longterm Damage from TI's Bombshell.
Business Week, June 15, 1981, p. 36.
6 CM.

So We Made a Better Mousetra, President's Forum, Fall 1982, p. 2627.

.: Theodore Levitt. Marketing Myopia. Harvard Business Review, July


August 1960, p. 4556.
8

.: Irving J. Rein. Rudy's Red Wagon: Communication Strategies in Contemporary


Society. Glen view, III., Scott, Foresman, 1972.
9 CM.:

Joseph McGinness. The Selling of the President. N. Y., Trident Press, 1969.

10

.: Theodore Levitt. Marketing Myopia. Harvard Business Review, July


August 1960, p. 4556.
11

.: Carlton P. McNamara. The Present Status of the Marketing Concept.


Journal of Marketing, January 1972, p. 5057.

12

.: Peter M. Banting and Randolph E. Ross. The Marketing Masquerade.


Quarterly (Canada), Spring 1974, p. 1927. . : Philip tler. From Sales
Obsession to Marketing Effectiveness. Harvard Business Review, NovemberDedember
1977, p. 6775.
13 .:

Laurence P. Feldman. Societal Adaptation: A New Challenge for Marketing.


Journal of Marketing, July 1971, p. 5460, : Martin L. Bell and C. William Emery.
The Faltering Marketing Concept. Journal of Marketing, October 1971, p. 3742.
14

- .
.: Leslie M. Dawson. The Human Concept: New Philosophy for Business. Business
Horizons, December 1969, p. 2938; James T. Rothe and Lissa Benson. Intelligent
Consumption: An Attractive Alternative to Marketing Concept. MSU Business Topics,
Winter 1974, p. 2934; George Fisk. Criteria for a Theory of Responsible Consumption.
Journal of Marketing, April 1973, p. 2431.
15

.: Richard D. Farmer. Would You Want Your Daughter to Marry a Marketing


Man? Journal of Marketing, January 1967, p. 1.
16 .:

Sterling Hayden. Wanderer, N. Y., Knopf 1963.

17

William J. Stanton. Fundamentals of Marketing, 5-th ed. N. Y., McGrawHill, 1978, p. 7.


18 Sir

Winston Churchill.

19 .:

Ralph Z. Sorenson II. US Marketers Can Learn From European Innovators.


Harvard Business Review, September-October 1972, p. 8999.
20

.: Thomas V. Greer. Marketing in the Soviet Union. N. Y., Holt, Rinehart &
Winston, 1973.
21

.: Donald L. Pike. The Future of Higher Education: Will Private Institutions


Disappear in the U.S.? Futurist, December 1977, p. 374.

2.
1

,
Turmoil among the Brewers: Miller's Fast Growth Upsets the Beer
Industry. Can It Topple the US Leader? Business Week, November 8, 1976, p. 5867.
2

.: . Igor Ansoff. Strategies for Diversification. Harvard Business Review,


September-October 1957, p. 113124.

: Glen L. Urban and John R. Hauser. Design and


Marketing of New Products. Englewood Cliffs, N, J., Prentice-Hall, 1980, p. 187, 221.
4

:
. Jerome McCarthy. Basic Marketing: A Managerial Approach. Homewood, ; Richard
D. Irwin, 1960.
5

. : General Foods Corporation: Post Division.


Organization Strategy: A Marketing Approach. Ed. E. Raymond Corey and Steven H. Star.
Boston, Division of Research, Graduate School of Business Administration. Harvard
University, 1971, p. 201230.
6

.: David J. Luck. Interfaces of a Product Manager. Journal of Marketing,


October 1969, p. 3236.
7

.: . Charles Ames. Dilemma of Product/Market Management. Harvard


Business Review, March-April 1971, p. 6674.

.

1

Key Role of Research in Agree's Success is Tol.


Marketing News, January 12, 1979.
2

Marketing Information Systems: An Introductory


Overview. Readings in Marketing Information Systems. Ed. Samuel V. Smith, Richard
H. Brien and James E. Stafford. Boston, Houghton Mifllin, 1969, p. 7.
3

.:. Dick Warren Twedt, ed. 1978 Survey of Marketing Research, Chicago,
American Marketing Association, 1978.
4

. : Paul E. Green and Donald S. Tull Research for Marketing Decisions,


4th ed. Englewood Cliffs, N. J., Prentice-Hall, 1978.
5

.: Andris A. Zoltners and P. Sinha. Integer Programming Models for Sales


Resource Allocation. Management Science, March 1980, p. 242260.
6

.: . E. Hlavac, Jr., and J. D. C. Little. A Geographic Model of an Automobile


Market, Working Paper 18666. Cambridge, Massachusettes Institute of Technology,
Alfred P. Sloan School of Management, 1966.
7

.: John D. C. Little and Leonard M. Lodish. A Media Planning Calculus.


Operations Research, JanuaryFebruary 1969, p. 135.

.: Glen L. Urban and John R. Hauser. Design and Marketing of New Products.
Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1980.
9

: Thomas . Kinnear and James R. Taylor. Marketing


Research: An Applied Approach. N. Y., McGraw-Hill, 1979, p. 128131, 138171.
10

. .: Seymour Banks. Experimentation in


Marketing. N. Y., McGraw-Hill, 1965.
11


: Roger D. Blackwell, James S. Hensel, Michael B. Philips and Brian Sternthal.
Laboratory Equipment for Marketing Research. Dubuque, Iowa, Kendall/Hunt", 1970, p. 7
8.
12

.: bb J. a1de., Focus Groups and the Nature of Qualitative Marketing


Research. Journal of Marketing Research, August, 1977, p. 353 364.
13


: Harry T. Chandis. The Birth of USAir. Marketing
Communications, January 1980, p. 3032; Grant F. Winthrop. Agony Airlines Becomes a
High Flyer. Fortune, June 30, 1980, p. 104108.

4.
1

. : John Gruen. Dancevision. Dance Magazine, December 1982, p. 91;


Tom Nicholson. Cable TV's First Casualty. Newsweek, September 27, 1982, p. 65;
Sifting Through the Fallout of CBS Cable. Broadcasting, September 27, 1982, p. 28
30; Harry F. Waters. Culture Shock on Cable. Time, October 6, 1981.
2

, ,
19821983 ., .
3

.: Ellen Graham. Advertisers Take Aim at a Neglected Market: The Working


Woman. Wall Street Journal, July 5, 1977, p. 1.
4

CMA
100 . 50
. (
50 . ).
5 .:

Rachel Carson. Silent Spring Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1962.

6 First

Annual Report of the Council on Environmental Quality. Washington, D. C.,

Government Printing Office, 1970, p. 158.


7 The

Coming Boom in Solar Energy. Business Week, October 9, 1978, p. 88104.

8 .:

Karl E. Henion II. Ecological Marketing. Columbus, Ohio, Grid, 1976.

9 .:

Alvin Toffler. Future Shock. N. Y., Bantam. 1970, p. 2530.

10

: Dennis Gabor
Innovations: Scientific, Technological and Social. London, Oxford University Press,
1970. . : Charles Panat. Breakthroughs. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1980
Technologies for the 80s. Business Week, July 6, 1981, p. 48 ff.
11

.: Dennis D. Fisher. Realemon Sales Tactics Hit. Chicago Sun-Times, July 4,

1974.
12

Leo Greenland. Advertisers Must Stop Conning Customers. Harvard Business


Review, July-August 1974, p. 18.
13

.: Edward Meadows. Bold Departures in Antitrust. Fortune, October 5, 1981,


p. 180188.
14

Bill Abrams. Middle Generation Growing More Concerned with Selves Wall
Street Journal, January 21, 1982, p. 25.

5.

1 :

The $100 Million Object


Lesson. Fortune, January 1971; The End of Corfam. Wall Street Journal, March 17,
1971, p. 1.
2 .:

Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1980.

.: Kevin A. Wall. New Market: Among Blacks, the Haves Are Now Overtaking the
Have-Nots. Advertising Age, February 11, 1974, p. 3536; Mary Jane Schlinger and
Joseph T. Plummer. Advertising in Black and White. Journal of Marketing Research,
May 1972, p. 149153; Raymond A. Bauer and Scott M. Cunningham. The Negro Market.
Journal of Advertising Research, April 1970, p. 312.
4

Melvin Helitzer and Carl Heyel. The Youth Market. N.Y., Media Books, 1970, p.
58; George W. Schiele. How to Reach the Young Consumer. Harvard Business Review,
March-April 1974, p. 7786.

5 .:

The Graying of America. Newsweek, February 28, 1977, p. 5065.

.: Rena Bartos. What Every Marketer Should Know about Women. Harvard
Business Review, May-June 1978, p. 7385.
7

.: A. H. Kizilbash and E. T. Garman. Grocery Retailing in Spanish


Neighborhoods. Journal of Retailing, Winter 197576, p. 1522 ff.
8

.: Leon G. Schiffman and Leslie Lazar Kanuk. Consumer Behavior. Englewood


Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1978, p. 343356.
9

.: Harry L. Davis. Decision Making within the Household. Journal of


Consumer Research, March 1976, p. 241260; Harry L. Davis and Benny P. Rigaux.
Perception of Marital Roles in Decision Processes. Journal of Consumer Research, June
1974, p. 5160; Harry L. Davis. Dimensions of Marital Roles in Consumer DecisionMaking. Journal of Marketing Research, May 1970, p. 168177.
10

.: Flaunting Wealth: It's Back in Style. U.S. News & World Report, September
21, 1981, p. 6164.
11 CM.:Gail

Sheehy. Passages: Predictable Crises in Adult Life. N. Y., Dutton, 1974;


Roger Gould. Transformations. N.Y., Simon & Schuster, 1978.
12

.: Raymond L. Horton. Some Relationships Between Personality and Consumer


Decision-Making. Journal of Marketing Research, May, 1979, p. 244245.
13

: Edward L. Grubb
and Harrison L. Grathwohl. Consumer Self-Concept, Symbolism, and Market Behavior: A
Theoretical Approach. Journal of Marketing, October 1967, p. 2227; Ira J. Dolich.
Congruence Relationships Between Self-images and Product Brands. Journal of
Marketing Research, February 1969, p. 4047; E. Laird Landon, Jr. The Differential Role of
Self-Concept and Ideal Self-Concept in Consumer Purchase Behavior. Journal of
Consumer Research, September 1974, p. 4451.
14

.: Abraham H. Maslow. Motivation and Personality. N.Y., Harper & Row,


1954, p. 80106.
15

Bernard Berelson and Gary A. Steiner. Human Behavior: An Inventory of Scientific


Findings. N. Y., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1964, p. 88.
16

,
.
17

.: David Krech, Richard S. Crutchfield and Egerton L. Ballachey. Individual in


Society. N.Y., McGraw-Hill, 1962, ch. 2.

18


.
: John A. Howard and Jagdish N. Sheth. The Theory of Buyer Behavior. New York,
John Wiley, 1969; Francesco M. Nicosia. Consumer Decision Processes. Englewood
Cliffs, N.J.; Prentice-Hall, 1966; James F. Engel, Roger D. Blackwell and David T. Kollat.
Consumer Behavior, 3d ed. N.Y., Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1978.
19

.: Chte L. Narayana and Ron J. Markin. Consumer Behavior and Product


Performance: An Alemrnative Conceptualization. Journal of Marketing, October 1975, p.
16.
, J. A.
Howard and J. N. Sheth The Theory of Buyer Behavior.
,
.
20

.: James H. Myers and Mark L. AIpert. Semantic Confusion in Attitude Research:


Salience vs. Importance vs. Determinance. Advances in Consumer Research.
Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Conference of the Association of Consumer Research,
October, 1976, p. 106110.
21

.: Paul E. Green and Yoram Wind. Multiattribute Decisions in Marketing: A


Measurement Approach. Hinsdale, ., Dryden Press, 1973, ch. 2.
22

.: Jagdish N. Sheth. An Investigation of Relationships among Evaluative Beliefs,


Affect, Behavioral Intention and Behavior. Consumer Behavior: Theory and
Application, ed. John U. Farley, John A. Howard and L. Winston Ring. Boston, Allyn &
Bacon", 1974, p. 89114.
23

.: Martin Fishbein. Attitudes and Prediction of Behavior. Readings in


Attitude Theory and Measurement, ed. Martin Fishbein. N. Y., John Wiley, 1967, p. 477
492.
24

.: John E. Swan and Linda Jones Combs. Product Performance and Consumer
Satisfaction: A New Concept. Journal of Marketing Research, April 1976, p. 2533.
25 .:

Everett M. Rogers. Diffusion of Innovation". N. Y., Free Press, 1962.

26 .:

James Coleman, Elihu Katz and Herbert Menzel. The Diffusion of an Innovation
Among Physicians. Sociometry, December 1957, p. 253270.
27

.: J. Bohlen and G. Beal. How Farm People Accept New Ideas. Special Report
No.15. Ames: Iowa State College Agricultural Extension Service, November 1955.
28

.: Elihu Katz and Paul F. Lazarsfeld. Personal Influence. N. Y., Free Press,
1955, p. 234.

6.

1

: The College Caterers are Dropping Out. Business


Week, April 23, 1979, p. 3637.
2

Frederick E. Webster, Jr. and Yoram Wind. Organizational Buying Behavior.


Englewood Cliffs, N.J:, Prentice-Hall, 1972, p. 2.
3

Patrick J. Robinson, Charles W. Paris and Yoram Wind. Industrial Buying and
Creative Marketing. Boston, Allyn & Bacon", 1967.
4 Webster
5 Ibid.,

and Wind. Op. cit., p. 6.

p. 7880.

.: Murray Harding. Who Really Makes the Purchasing Decision? Industrial


Marketing, September 1966, p. 76.
: Ernest Dichter. Industrial Buying is Based on Same Only Human Emotional
Factors that Motivate Consumer Market's Housewife. Industrial Marketing, February
1973, p. 1416.
7 Webster

and Wind. Op. cit, p. 3337.

8 Robinson,
9 Albert

Faris and Wind. Op. cit., p. 14.

W. Frey. Marketing Handbook, 2d ed. N.V., Ronald Pres, 1965, p. 21.

10

.: Leonard Groeneveld. The Implications of Blanket Contracting for Industrial


Purchasing and Marketing. Journal of Purchasing, November 1972, p. 5158; H. Lee
Mathews, David T. Wilson and Klaus Backhaus. Selling to the Computer Assisted Buyer.
Industrial Marketing Management, 6, 1977, p. 307315.
11

.: Stanley E. Cohen. Looking in the U.S. Government Market. Industrial


Marketing, September 1964, p. 129138.
12 .

Out of the Maze. Sales and Marketing Management, April 9, 1979.

7. ,
.

: Coke's Big Marketing Blitz. Business Week, May


30, 1983, p. 5864.
2 CM.

R.J. Reynolds Stops a Slide in Market Share. Business Week, January 26,
1976, p. 92.
3 CM. Can

the Baby Toy Market be Segmented 12 Ways? Business Week, February

14, 1977, p. 62.


4

.: Joseph T. Plummer. Life Style Patterns: New Constraint for Mass


Communications Research. Journal of Broadcasting, Winter 1971/72, p. 7989.
5

: Franklin B. Evans. Psychological and Objective Factors in the


Prediction of Brand Choke; Ford Versus Chevrolet. Journal of Business, October 1959, p.
340369.
6

Ralph Westfall. Psychological Factors in Predicting Product Choice. Journal of


Marketing, April 1962, p. 3440.
7

.: Shirley Young. The Dynamics of Measuring Unchange. Attitude Research


in Transition. Ed. Russell I. Haley. Chicago, American Marketing Association, 1972, p. 61
82.
8

.: Russell L. Ackoff and James R. Emshoff. Advertising Research at AnheuserBusch. Inc. (1968-1974). Sloan Management Review, Spring 1975, p. 115.
9

.: Daniel Yankelovich. New Criteria for Market Segmentation. Harvard


Business Review, March-April 1964, p. 85.
10

Frank M. Bass, Douglas J. Tigert and Ronald T. Lonsdale. Market Segmentation:


Group versus Individual Behavior. Journal of Marketing Research, August 1968, p. 276.
11

: George H. Brown. Brand Loyalty


Fact or Fiction Advertising Age, June 1952 January 1953.
12

: Ronald
Frank, William Massy, and Yoram Wind. Market Segmentation, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,
Prentice-Hall, 1972.
13

.: Wendell R. Smith. Product Differentiation and Market Segmentation as


Alternative Marketing Strategies. Journal of Marketing, July 1966, p. 38; Alan A.
Roberts. Applying the Strategy of Market Segmentation. Business Horizons, Fall 1961,
p. 6572.
14

Natalie McKelvy. Shoes Make Edison Brothers a Big Name. Chicago Tribune,
February 23, 1979, Sec. 5, p. 9.

15

R. William Kotrba. The Strategy Selection Chart. Journal of Marketing, July


1966, p. 22 25.
16

,

.

8. :
, , ,
1

. Marketing Definitions: A Glossary of Marketing Terms, complied by the


Committee on Definitions of the American Marketing Association. Chicago, American
Marketing Association, 1960.
2

. 6.

.: rr W. Boyd, Jr. and Sidney J.Levy. New Dimensions in Consumer


Analysis. Harvard Business Review, November-December 1963, p. 12940.
4 Theodore
5

Levitt. The Marketing Mode. N. V., McGraw-Hill, 1969, p. 2.

Marketing Definitions ... Op. cit.

Marketing Definitions ... Op. cit.


.: Richard H. Holton. The Distinction between
Convenience Goods, Shopping Goods and Specialty Goods. Journal of Marketing, July
1958, p. 5356; Gordon E. Miracle. Product Characteristics and Marketing Strategy.
Journal of Marketing, January 1965, p. 1824.
7

Marketing Definitions... Op. cit.

.: Paul. It Isn't Chicken Feed to Put Your Brand on 78 Million Birds. Wall
Street Journal, May 13, 1974, p. 1.
9 Research

Suggests Consumers Will Increasingly Seek Quality. Walt Street


Journal, October 15, 1981, p. 1.
10

.: Theodore R. Gamble.,,Brand Extension. Plotting Marketing Strategy, ed.


Lee Adler. N. Y., "Simon & Schuster, 1967, p. 170171.
: Name Game. Time, August 31, 1981, p. 4142.
11 .:

143164.

Robert W. Young. Multibrand Entries". Adler. Plotting Marketing Strategy, p.

12 CM.

General Foods Post Division (B). Case M-102, Havard Business School,

1964.
13 Product

Tryouts: Sales Tests in Selected Cities Help Trim Risks of National


Marketing. Wall Street Journal, August 10, 1962, p. 1.
14

Peter G. Banting. Customer Service in Industrial Marketing: A Comparative Study.


European Journal of Marketing 10, 3, 1976, p. 140.
15

.: Ralph S. Alexander and Thomas L. Berg. Dynamic Management in Marketing.


Homewood, 111., Richard D. Irwin, 1965, p. 419428.
16

.: Benson P. Shapiro. Industrial Product Policy: Managing the Existing Product


Line. Cambridge, Mass., Marketing Science Institute, 1977, p. 910.
17

Marketing Definitions...Op. cit.

9. :

1

. ,
: & G's Aren't Chips Of the Old Spud, Bit They Are Selling. Wall
Street Journal, March 28, 1974 In Spite of Huge Losses, Procter & Gamble Tries Once
More to Revive Pringle's Chips. Wall Street Journal. October 7, 1981.
2

David S. Hopkins and Earl L. Bailey. New Product Pressures. Conference Board
Record, June 1971, p. 1624. ,
3

.: Edward M. Tauber. Forecasting Sales Prior to Test Market. Journal of


Marketing, January 1977, p. 8084, Robert Blattberg and John Golanty. Tracker:
An Early Test Market Forecasting and Diagnostic Model for New Product Planning.
Journal of Marketing Research, May 1978, p. 192202.
4

.: Roger A. Kerin, Michael O. Harvey and James T. Rothe. Cannibalism and New
Product Development. Business Horizons, October 1978, p. 2531.
5

Philip Kotler and Gerald Zaltman. Targeting Prospects for a New Product.
Journal of Advertising Research, February 1976, p. 720.
6

William E. Cox, Jr. Product Life Cycles as Marketing Models. Journal of


Business, October 1967, p. 375384.
7 Robert

D. Buzzell. Competitive Behavior and the Product Life Cycle in New Ideas for

Successful Marketing, ed. John S. Wright and Jac L. Goldstucker. Chicago, American
Marketing Association, 1966, p. 51.
8 Ibid.,

p. 51.

9 Ibid.,

p. 52.

10

. .:
Philip Kotler. Phasing out Weak Products. Harvard Business Review, March - April
1965, p. 10718, Paul W. Hamelman and Edward M. Mazze. Improving Product
Abandonment Decisions. Journal of Marketing, April 1972, p. 2026.
11


: Theodore Levitt. Exploit the Product Life Cycle. Harvard
Business Review, November-December 1965, p. 8194; Nariman K. Dhalla and Sonia
Yuspeh. "Forget the Produkt Life Cycle Concept. Harvard Business Review, January February 1976, p. 102112. . , ,
, Journal of Marketing
1981 .

10. :

1

Philip Kotler. Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,


Prentice-Hall, 1982, p. 303304.
2

David J. Schwartz. Marketing Today: a Basic Approach, 3d ed. N.Y., Harcourt


Brace Jovanovich, 1981, p. 271.
3 Departmental

Merchandising and Operating Results of 1965. N.Y., National Retail


Merchants Association, 1965.
4

Lee E. Preston. Profits, Competition and Rules of Thumb in Retail Food Pricing.
Berkeley University of California Institute of Business and Economic Research, 1963, p. 31.
5 Ibid.,

p. 2940.

.: Daniel A. Nimer. Pricing the Profitable Sales Has a Lot to Do With Perception.
Scales Management, May 19, 1975, p. 1314.
7

. : Edward R. Hawkins. Price Policies and


Theory. Journal of Marketing, January 1954, p. 233240.

11. :

1

.: Joel Dean. Hall", Managerial Economics. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., PrenticeHall, 1951, p. 420 ff.
2

.: George Sligler. The Theory of Price, rev. ed. N.Y., Macmillan, 1952, p. 215

ff.
3 .:
4 CM.

Flexible Pricing. Business Week, December 12, 1977, p. 7888.

Pricing Strategy in an Inflation Economy. Business Week, April 6, 1974, p. 43

49.
5

Norman H. Fuss, Jr. How to Raise Prices Judiciously to Meet Today's


Conditions. Harvard Business Review, May-June 1975, p. 10 f.
6

: Kent . onroe. Buyers Subjective Perceptions


of Price. Journal of Marketing Research, February 1973, p. 7080.
7 Alfred

R. Oxenfeldt. Pricing for Marketing Executives. San-Francisco, Wadsworth,

1961, p. 28.

12. :

1

: Russell Leavitt. Billions in Blossoms. Fortune,


May 18, 1981, p. 6875.
2

: Edmund D. McGarry. Some


Functions of Marketing Reconsidered. Theory in Marketing, ed. Reavis Cox and Wroe
Alderson. Homewood, 111., Richard D. Irwin", 1950, p. 269273, Louis P.
Bucklin. A Theory of Distribution Channel Structure. Berkeley, Institute of Business and
Economic Research, University of California, 1966, p. 1011.
3 Ronald

Abler, John S. Adams and Peter Gould. Spatial Organization: the Geographer's
View of the World. Englewood Cliffs, N. J., Prentice-Hall", 1971, p. 531532.
4

William G. Zikmund and William J. Stanton. Recycling Solid Wastes: a Channels


of Distribution Problem. Journal of Marketing, July 1971, p. 34.
5

Bert C. McCammon, Jr. Perspectives for Distribution Programming Vertical

Marketing Systems, ed. Louis P. Bucklin. Clenview, . Scott Foresman", 1970, p. 3251.
6 Ibid.,

p. 45.

.: Robert E. Weigand. Fit Products and Channels to Your Markets. Harvard


Business Review, January-February 1977, p. 95105.
8


: Frederick E. Webster, Jr. The Role of Industrial Distributor. Journal of
Marketing, July 1976, p. 1016.
9

.: Bert Rosenbloom. Marketing Channels: a Management View. Hinsdale, III,


Dryden Press, 1978, p. 192203.
10 .:

McCammon. Perspectives for Distribution Programming, p. 43.

11

.: . J. LaLonde and P. H. Zinszer. Customer Service: Meaning and


Measurement. Chicago, National Council of Physical Distribution Management, 1976.
12

.: Jurgen F. Ringer and Charles D. Howell. The Industrial Engineer and


Marketing Industrial Engineering Handbook(2d ed.), ed. Harold Bright Maynard. N.Y.,
McGraw-Hill", 1963, p. 10, 102103.

13. :
.
1

Liz Roman Gallese. The Cheese at Spag's Is Next to the Rugs Over by the Golf
Balls Wall Street Journal, January 28, 1983, p. 1; The Discount Twist in Suburban
Shopping Malls. Business Week, July 7, 1980, p. 9496; Walte Quade. The Man
Who Makes Millions on Mistakes. Fortune, September 6, 1982, p. 106116; John
Merwin. Lemons to Lemonade. Forbes, August 30, 1982, p. 6061.
2 Statistical
3 Standard
4 John

348.

and Poor's Industry Surveys. Retailing, June 1983.

Dennis McDonald. The Game of Business, N. Y., Doubleday, 1975, p. 102.

5 Phyllis
6

Abstract of U.S., 19821983.

Berman. Too Big for Miracles. Forbes, June 15, 1977, p. 26.

Ernest Samhaber. Merchants Make History. N. Y., Harper & Row, 1964, p. 345

: Walter J. Salmon, Robert D.


Buzzell, Stanton G. Cort, and Michael R. Pearce. The Super Store Strategic Implications
for the Seventies. Cambridge, Mass., Marketing Science Institute, 1972, p. 83.
8 . Supermarkets
9 Standard

Eye The Sunbelt. Business Week, September 27, 1976, p. 61,

and Poor's Industry Surveys. Retailing, June 1983.

10 Salmonetal.

The Super Store, p. 4.

11

: Ronald R. Gist.
Retailing Concepts and Decisions. N.Y., John Wiley, 1968, p. 4546.
12 Standard

and Poor's Industry Surveys. Retailing, June 1983.

13 .:

Jonathan N. Goodrich and Jo Ann Hoffman. Warehouse Retailing: The Trend of


the Future. Business Horizons, April 1979, p. 4550.
14 Catalog

Showroom Hot Retailer. Chicago Tribune, December 6, 1978, Sec. 4, p.


Standard and Poor's Industry Surveys. Retailing, June 1983.
15

Leo Bogart. The Future in Retailing. Harvard Business Review, NovemberDecember 1973, p. 26.
16

Belden Menkus. Remote Retailing a Reality by 1985? Chain Store Age


Executive, September 1975, p. 42.
17 Millions

by Mail. Forbes, March 15, 1976, p. 82.

18


: Bob Stone. Successful Direct Marketing Methods, 2nd, rev. ed. Chicago, Grain
Books", 1979.
19 .:

G. R. Schreiber. A Concise History of Vending In the U.S.A. Chicago, Vend,

1961, p. 9.
20

.: How the 'New Sell' is Raking in Billions. U. S. News & World Report, May
8, 1978, p. 7475.
21

.: Ronald R. Gist. Marketing and Society: Text and Cases, 2nd ed. Hinsdale, .,
Dryden Press, 1974, p. 334.
22

.: Rollie Tillman. Rise of the Conglomerchant. Harvard Review, NovemberDecember 1971, p. 4451.

23

.: Phyllis Berman. Melville, Corp.: Discounting with a Diflerence. Forbes,


April 16, 1979, p. 9394.
24

, , :
Roger A. Dickinson. Retail Management: a Channels Approach. Belmont, Calif.
Wadsworth, 1974, p. 9.
25 David

Elsner. Shopping Center Boom Appears to Be Fading Due to Oberbuilding.


Wall Street Journal, September 7, 1976, p. 1.
26 Menkus.

Remote Retailing, p. 42.

27

. : Philip Kotler. Atmospherics as a marketing


Tool. Journal of Retailing, Winter 1973/74, p. 4864.
28

Harold Haydon. Galleries: a Little Push Is Better That Too Much or No Promotion at
All. Chicago Sun-Times, October 30, 1970, p. 55.
29

.: David A. Revzan. Wholesaling in Marketing Organization. N. Y., John


Wiley, 1961, p. 1011.
30 .

Statistical Abstract of U.S, 19821983.

14. :

1

,
: Marketing Definitions: a Glossary of Marketing Terms. Chicago,
American Marketing Association, 1960.
, , ,
,
, .

, .
3

.: Michael L. Ray and William L. Wilkie. Fear: the Potential of an Appeal


Neglected by Marketing. Journal of Marketing, January 1970, p. 5556; Brian Sternthal
and C. Samuel Craig. Feal Appeals Revisited and Revised. Journal of Consumer
Research, December 1974, p. 2234.

Brian Sternthal and C. Samuel Craig. Humor in Advertising. Journal of


Marketing, October 1973, p. 1218.
5

Carl I. Hovland and Wallace Mandell. An Experimental Comparison. Journal of


Abnormal and Social Psychology, July 1952, p. 581588.
6

.: . I. Hovland, A. A. Lumsdaine and F. D. Sheffield. Experiments on Mass


Communication, vol. 3. Princeton, N.J., Prinston University Press, 1948, chap. 8.
7 .:

James F. Engel, Roger D. Blackwell and David T. Kollat.


Consumer Behavior, 3d ed. Hinsdale, ., Dryden Press, 1978, p. 346348.
8

.: Thomas S. Robertson. Innovative Behavior and Communication. N. Y., Holt,


Rinehart & Winston, 1971, chap. 9.
9 CM,:

Philip Kotler. Atmospherics as a Marketing Tool . Journal of Retailing,


Winter 1973/74, p. 48 64.
10

P.P. Lazarfeld, B. Berelson and H. Gaudet. The People's Choice, 2d ed. N. Y.,
Columbia University Press, 1948, p. 151.
11

Herbert C. Kelman and Carl I. Hovland. Reinstatement of the Communication in


Delayed Measurement of Opinion Change. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology,
48, 1953, p. 327 335. . Fortune, December 1956, p. 123.
13

Albert Wesley Frey. How Many Dollars for Advertising. N.Y., Ronald Press,
1955, p. 65.
14 Ibid.,

p. 49.

15

.: G. Maxwell Ule. A Media Plan for Sputnik Cigarettes. How to Plan


Media Strategy. American Association of Advertising Agencies, 1957 Regional Convention,
p. 4152.
16

.: Sidney J. Levy. Promotional Behavior. Glenview, ., Scott, Foresman,


1971, chap. 4.
17 Ibid.
18 Sales

and Marketing Management, February 23, 1981, p, 34.

19 How

Advertising Works in Today's Marketplace. The Morrill Study. N.Y.,


McGraw-Hill", 1971, p. 4.
20 What

IBM Found about Ways to Influence Selling. Business Week, December 5,

1959, p. 69 70. . : Harold . Cash and William J. Crissy. Comparison of


Advertising and Selling ,,The Psychology of Selling, vol. 12. Flushing, N.Y., Personal
Development Associates, 1965.

15. :
,
1

Bob Spitz. Caution: Men at Work on Men at Work. Esquire, July 1983, p. 105
109; Kurt Loder. Men at Work: Out to Lunch. Rotting Stone, June 23, 1983, p. 16 19,
87, 88.
2



16 10 1981 . 1982
1983 .
3

.: Russell H. Colley. Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising


Results. N. Y., Association of National Advertisers, 1961.
4

.: William L. Wilke and Paul W. Farris. Comparison Advertising: Problem and


Potential. Journal of Marketing, October 1975, p. 7 15.
5

.: Russell L. Ackoff and James R. Emshoff. Advertising Research at AnheuserBusch; Inc. (1963 1968). Sloan Management Review, Winter 1975, p. 115.
6

John C. Maloney. Marketing Decisions and Attitude Research. Effective


Marketing Coordination, ed. George L. Baker, Jr. Chicago, American Marketing Association,
1961, p. 595 618.
7

Dik Warren Twedt. How to Plan New Products, Improve Old Ones, and Create Better
Advertising. Journal of Marketing, January 1969, p. 53 57.
8

.: William A. Mindak and H. Malcolm bee. Marketing's Application to Fund


Raising. Journal of Marketing, July 1971, p. 13 18.
9 .:

L. Greenland. Is This the Era of Positioning? Advertising Age, May 29, 1972.

10

Philip H. Dougherty. Bad Pulses the Market. New York Times, February 18,
1975, p. 40.
11

.: David B.Montgomery and Alvin J. Silk. Estimating Dynamic Effects of Market


Communications Expenditures. Management Science, June 1972, p. 485 501.

12

. Rober D. Buzzell. E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co.: Measurement of Effects of


Advertising R. D. Buzell. Mathematical Models and Marketing Management. Boston,
Division of Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University, 1964,
p. 157 179.
13

.: Roger A. Strang. Sales Promotion Fast Growth, Faulty Management.


Harvard Business Review, July-August 1976, p. 115 124.
14 Ibid.,

p. 116 119.

15

.: Roger A. Strang, Robert M. Prentice and Alden G. Clayton. The Relationship


between Advertising and Promotion in Brand Strategy. Cambridge, Mass., Marketing
Science Institute, 1975, chap. 5.
16 Strang. Sales Promotion,

p. 124.

17

: John
F. Luick and William Lee Siegler. Sales Promotion and Modern Merchandising. N.Y.,
McGraw-Hill, 1968.
18

: Carl-Magnus Seipel. Premiums


Forgotten by Theory. Journal of Marketing, April 1971, p. 26 34.
19

.: Fred. C. Allvine. The Future for Trading Stamps and Games. Journal of
Marketing, January 1969, p. 45 52.
20

. Our L'eggs Fit Your Legs. Business Week, March 27, 1972.

21

.: Walter A. Gaw. Specialty Advertising. Chicago, Specialty Advertising


Association, 1970.
22

.: Suzette Cavanaugh. Setting Objectives and Evaluating the Effectiveness Of


Trade Show Exhibits. Journal of Marketing, October 1976, p. 100 105.
23

Rusell D. Bowman. Merchandising and Promotion Grow Big in Marketing World.


Advertising Age, December 1974, p. 21.
24 .:

Strang. Sales Promotion, p. 120.

25

.: George Black. Planned Industrial Publicity. Chicago, Putman Publishing,


1952, p. 3.
26

.: Arthur M. Merims. Marketing's Stepchild: Products Publicity. Harvard


Business Review, November-December 1972.

16. :

1

Michael Waldholz. How a 'Detail Man' Promotes New Drugs to Tennessee Doctors.
Wall Street Journal, November 8, 1982.
2

Robert N. McMurry. The Mystique of Super-Salesmanship. Harvard Business


Review, March-April 1961, p. 114.
3

.: William R. Dixon. Redetermining the Size of the Sales Force: a Case Study.
Changing Perspectives in Marketing Management, ed. Marting R. Warshaw. Ann Arbor,
University of Michigan, 1962, p. 58.
4

Roger M. Pegram. Selling and Servicing the national Account. N. Y., Conference
Board, 1972,
5

William H. Kaven. Managing the Major Sale. N. Y., American Management


Association, 1971; Benson P. Shapiro and Ronald S. Posner. Making the Major Sale.
Harvard Business Review, March-April 1976, p. 6878.
6

.: Walter J. Talley. How to Design Sales Territories. Journal of Marketing,


January 1961, p. 713.
7 .:

Marketing News, February 5, 1982, p. 1.

- ,
Business Week, February 1, 1964, . 52.
9 McMurry.
10 Ibid.,

Mystique of Super Salesmanship, p. 117.

p. 118.

11

David Mayer and Herbert M. Greenberg. What Makes a Good Salesman.


Harvard Business Review, July-August 1964, p. 119 125.
12 Double-Digit

Hikes in 1974 Sales Training Costs. Sales and Marketing Management, January 6, 1975, p. 54.
13

: W. J. .
Crissy, William H. Cunningham and Isabella . . Cunningham. Selling: the Personal Force
m Marketing. N. Y., John Wiley, 1977, p. 1929.
14

Mark Hanan. Join the Systems Sell and You Can't Be Beat. Safe and Marketing
Management, August 21, 1972, p. 44. . : Mark Hanan, James Cribbin and Herman
Heiser. Consultative Selling. N. Y., American Management Association, 1976.

17. , ,
1

Melville . Branch. The Corporate Planning Process. N. Y., American Management


Association, 1962, p. 48 49.
2

.: Peter Drucker. Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices. N. Y., Harper


& Row, 1973, chap. 7.
3

Theodore Levitt. Marketing Myopia. Harvard Business Review, July-August


1960, p. 45 56,
4

Charles H.
Granger. The Hierarchy of Objectives. Harvard Business Review, May-June 1964, 63
74.
5

H. Igor Ansoff. Strategies for Diversification. Harvard Business Review, September-October 1957, p. 113 124.
6


: Doyle L. Weiss.
Determinants of Market Share. Journal of Marketing Research, August 1968, p. 290
295; Donald E. Sexton, Jr. Estimating Marketing Policy Effects on Sales of a Frequently
Purchased Product. Journal of Marketing Research, August 1970, p. 338347; JeanJacques Lambin. A Computer On-Line Marketing Mix Model. Journal of Marketing
Research, May 1972, p. 119 126.
7

.: Russell Ackoff and James R. Emshoff. Advertising Research at AnheuserBusch. Sloan Management Review, Winter 1975, p. 1 15.
8

.: Philip Kotler. A Guide to Gathering Expert Estimates. Business Horizons,


October 1970, p. 7987.
9

.: Philip Kotler. Marketing Decision Making. N.Y., Holt, Rinehart & Winston,

1971.
10

.: James M. Hulbert and Norman E.Toy. A Strategic


Network for Marketing Control. Journal of Marketing, April 1977, p. 12 20.
11


Arthur J. Daltas. Protecting Service Markets with Consumer
Feedback. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, May 1977, p. 73
77.
12

. : Donald R.Longman and Michael Schiff. Practical

Distribution Cost Analysis. Homewood, . Richard D. Irwin, 1955.


13

. : Philip Kotler, William Gregor and William


Rodgers. The Marketing Audit Comes of Age. Sloan Management Review, Winter 1977,
p. 2543.
: Philip Kotler. From Sales Obsesion to Marketing Effectiveness. Harvard
Business Review, November-December 1977, p. 6775.

18.
1

Brazil: Campbell Soup Fails


to Make It to the Table. Business Week, October 12, 1981; Brazil: Gerber Abandons a
BabyFood Market. Business Week, February 8, 1982.
2

.: The Reluctant Exporter. Business Week, April 10, 1978, p. 5466.

3 Bureau

of Economic Analysis, U. S. Department of Commerce.

.: Warren J. Keegan. Multinational Product Planning: New Myths and Old


Realities Multinational Product Management. Cambridge, Mass., Marketing Science
Institute, 1976, p. 18.
5

:
F.T. nr. Rating Investment Risks Abroad. Business Horizons, April 1979, p. 18 23.
6

: David A. Ricks,
Marilyn Y.. Fu and Jeffery S. Arpan. International Business Blunders. Columbus, Ohio,
Grid, 1974.
7

I gal Ayal and Jehiel Zif. Market Expansion Strategies in Multinational Marketing.
Journal of Marketing, Spring 1979, p. 84 94.
8

James K. Sweeney. A Small Company Enters the European Market. Harvard


Business Review, September-October 1970, p. 127 128.
9

.: David S.R. Leighton. Deciding When to Enter International Markets


Handbook of Modern Marketing, ed. Victor P. uell. N.Y., McGraw-Hill. 1970, p. 23
28.
10

: Gordon E
. Miracle and Gerald S Albaum. International Marketing Management. Homewood, .,
Richard D. Irwin, 1970, chaps. 1416.
11

Warren J. Keegan. Multinational Product Planning: Strategic Alternatives.

Journal of Marketing, January 1969, p. 5862.


12

Luis T. We11s, Jr. A Product Life Cycle for International Trade? Journal of
Marketing, July 1968, p. 16.
13 .:

Miracle and Albaum. International Marketing Management, p. 317319.

14

.: William D. Hartley. How to Do It: Cumbersome Japanese Distribution System


Stumps U.S. Concerns. Wall Street Journal, March 2, 1972, p. 1, 8.
15

WadiNambiaratchi. Channels of Distribution in Developing Economies. Business Quarterly,


Winter 1965, p. 7482.
16

. : Arieh Goldman. Outreach of Consumers and


the Modernization of Urban Food Retailing in Developing Countries. Journal of
Marketing, October 1974, p. 816.
17 Yoram

Wind, Susan P. Douglas, Howard V. Perlmutter. Guidelines for Developing


International Marketing Strategies. Journal of Marketing, April 1973, p. 1423.

19.

1 Services

Grow While the Quality Shrinks. Business Week, October 15, 1971, p. 50.

,
, : G. M. Hostage. Quality Control in a Service
Business. Harvard Business Review, July-August 1975, p. 98106.
3

.: W. Earl Sasser Match Supply and Demand in Service Industries. Harvard


Business Review, November-December 1976, p. 133140.
4

.: Dan R. E. Thomas. Strategy is Different in Service Businesses. Harvard


Business Review, July-August 1978, p. 161.
5

.: Daniel T. Carroll. Ten Commandments for Bank Marketing. Bankers


Magazine, Autumn 1970, p. 7480; G. Lynn Shostack. Banks Sell Services Not
Things. Bankers Magazine, Winter 1977, p. 4045.
6 Public
7

Relations News, October 27, 1947.

. : Philip Kotler and William Mindak.

Marketing and Public Relations. Journal of Marketing, October 1978, p. 1320.


8

.: Philip Kotler and Richard A. Connor, Jr. Marketing Professional Services.


Journal of Marketing, January 1977, p. 7176.
9

Carol Oppenheim. Bucky Dent: the Selling of a Sudden Superstar. Chicago


Tribune, December 16, 1978, sec. 2, p. 1.
10 In

the Groove at Mercury Records. Chicago Daily News, October 16, 1976.

11

John E. Cooney. Eddie Fisher Discovers That Regaining Fame Is a Daunting Goal?
Wall Street Journal, February 20, 1978, p. 1.
12

Theodore White. The Making of the President 1960, N.Y., Atheneum, 1961,
Joe McGinness. The Selling of the President 1968. N.Y., Trident Press, 1969.
13

.: E. Glick. The New Methodology. Washington D.C., American Institute for


Political Communication, 1967, p. 1; Philip Kotler and Neil tler. Business Marketing for
Political Candidates. Campaigns and Elections, Summer 1981, p. 2433.
14 -


: Betsy D. Gelb and Ben M. Enis. Marketing a City of the Future. Marketing is
Everybody's Business. Santa Monica Calif., Goodyear, 1977.
15 .:

Scott Cutlip and Allen H. Center. Effective Public Relations. 3d ed. Englewood
Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1964, p. 10.
16

.: Philip Kotler and Gerald Zaltman. Social Marketing: An Approach to Planned


Social Change. Journal of Marketing, July 1971, p. 312.
17

.: Eduardo Roberto. Strategic Decision Marking in a Social Program: The Case


of Family Planning Diffusion. Lexington, Mass., Lexington Books, 1975.
18 .:

Karl E. Henion II. Ecological Marketing. Columbus, Ohio, Grid, 1976.

20.
1

: Peter . Hutchinson, Don E. Parkinson and Charles B.


Weinberg. Water Conservation in Palo Alto. Christopher H. Lovelock and Charles B.
Weinberg, eds. Cases in Public and Nonprofit Marketing. Palo Alto, Calif., Scientific
Press, 1971, p. 183196.
2

Paul W. Stewart and J. Frederick Dewhurst with Louis Field. Does Distribution Cost

Too Much? N.Y., Twentieth Century Fund, 1939.


3 Jessica

Mitford. The American Way of Death. N.Y., Simon & Scruistcr, 1963.

4 Rattles,

Pings, Dents, Leaks, Creaks And Costs. Newsweek, November 25,

1968, p. 92.
5 Ibid.
6 The

Breakfast of Fatties? Chicago Today, July 24, 1970.

Gerald . 1lman. Planned Obsolescence as Marketing and Economic Policy .


Advancing Marketing Efficiency, ed. L. H. Stockman. Chicago, American Marketing
Association, 1958, p. 2739.
8 David

Caplovitz. The Poor Pay More. N.Y., Free Press, 1963.

9 ,

.
, 1, 1968, . 11, 15.
10

11

. : Alan R. Andreasen. The Disadvantaged


Customer. N. Y., Free Press, 1975.
12

John Kenneth Galbraith. The Affluent Society. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1958,

p. 255.
13

, .

14

Mark Hanan. Corporate Growth through Venture Management. Harvard


Business Review. January - February, 1969, p. 44.
15 FTC

v. Procter & Gamble, 386 U.S. 568 (1967).

16

.: Morris Adelman. The A & P Case: A Study in Applied Economic Theory.


Quarterly Journal of Economics, May 1949, p. 238.
17

. : Philip Kotler. What Consumerism Means for


Marketers. Harvard Business Review, May-June 1972, p. 4857, Paul
N. Bloom and Stephen A. Greyser. The Maturing of Consumerism. Harvard Business
Review, November-December 1981, p. 130139.
18 Rachel

Carson. Silent Spring. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1962.

19

Paul R. Ehrlich and Ann H. Ehilich. Population, Resources, Environment: Issues in


Human Ecology. San Francisco, W. H. Freeman, 1970.
20

Donnella H. Meadows, Dennis L. Meadows, Jorgen Randers, and William H. Behrens


I. The Limits to Growth. N.Y., Universe Books, 1972.
21

. ,
: Flavored Algae from the Sea? Chicago Sun-Times, February 3, 1965, p. 54.
22

Earl L. Bailey. Formulating the Company's Marketing Policies: a Survey. N. Y.,


Conference Board, Experiences in Marketing Management, 1968, 19, p. 3.

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