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Expert system 1.

1Overview of Expert system


Expert systems are a recent product of artificial intelligence. An expert system is a system that uses human knowledge captured in a computer to solve problems that ordinary required human expertise. Or We can say that An Expert system is basically an AI program which uses knowledge to solve problems which would normally require a human expert. Or An Expert system (ES) is a complex AI program that manipulates encoded knowledge. Know ledge of an expert system is obtained from expert sources and coded in a form suitable for the system to use in its inferences or reasoning process. The expert knowledge must be ontained from specialists or texts, journal, articles and existing database. Once a sufficient body of expert system knowledge has been acquired, it must be encoded in some form, loaded into knowledge base, then tested and refined continually throughout the life of the system. So an Expert system contain knowledge acquire by interviewing human expertise some narrow domain. Expert system cannot operate in situations that call for common sense. Traditional definition of a Program: Program = algorithm + data structure Whereas Expert system = knowledge + Inference engine

1.2 Characteristics of Expert system (comparison between the Expert system and conventional computer system)
1. Expert system use knowledge rather than data to control the solution process. Much of

the knowledge used in heuristic in nature rather than algorithm. 2. The knowledge is encoded and manipulate as an entity separate from the control program such as if not compiled together with the control program itself. In some cases, it is possible to use different knowledge bases with the same control program to produce different types of expert system such system are known as Expert system shells. 3. Expert systems are capable of explaining how a particular conclusion was drawn and why requested information is needed during a conclusion. 4. Expert system use symbolic representation for knowledge (rules, networks or frames) and perform their inference through symbolic computations that closely resemble manipulate of manual language.

1.3 Advantage of Expert system:


Expert systems do not forget, but human expert may forget. An expert system needs the symbolic representation. It reduces the risk of doing business. It provides the permanent documentation of the decision process. 5. An Expert system can review all the transactions but human expert system can only review a sample. 6. Expert system able to deal with uncertainty. 7. Expert systems are not focus on abstract. It delivers the answer to goal oriented of the interview.
1. 2. 3. 4.

1.4 Disadvantage of Expert system (or limitations of Expert system):


1. Expert system has no any common sense. 2. Expert system cannot respond creatively to unusual situation. 3. Expert system must be explicitly updates while any changes in environments. 4. Expert system is currently dependent on symbolic input. 5. Measuring the performance of an expert system is difficult because we do not know how to quantify the use of knowledge. 6. An Expert system has access to highly specific domain knowledge.

1.5 Application of Expert system.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Diagnosis of software development projects. Diagnosis of complex electronic and electrochemical system. Different types of medical diagnosis. Forecasting crop damage. Identification of chemical compound structure.

1.6 Knowledge Acquisition:


Knowledge acquisition is the process of adding new to a existing knowledge base and refining or otherwise improving knowledge that was previously acquired.

1.7 Architecture of Expert system.


USE R User Interface Inference Engine Working Memory Learning module Knowledge Base Knowled ge Engineer Data Acquisition

User Interface provides the means for dialog between the user and system. Explanation facility provides the user with Explanations of how a conclusion was reached or why a piece of knowledge is needed. They also need to be convinced that the solution is appropriate and applicable in their circumstances. Inference Engine accepts user input quarries and response to questions through the user interface and uses this dynamic information together with the static knowledge (the rules and facts) stored in the knowledge base. The inference process is carried out recursively in three stages (I) match (II) select (III) execute. During the match stage, the contents of working memory are compared to facts and rules contained in the knowledge base. Knowledge base contains facts and rules about some specialized knowledge domain. Learning module implies that an organize or machine must be able to adapt to new situations. The job of Knowledge engineer is to extract the knowledge from the expert and other sources like book, journals, article etc.

1.8 Existing Expert system: 1. DENDRAL


(a) First Expert system to be completed was DENDRAL. (b) It was developed at Stanford University in late 1960s. (c) The system was capable of determining the structure of chemical compounds.

(d) Suppose that an organic chemist wants to know the chemical nature of some substance. The first step is to determine the number of atoms of various kinds in one molecule of the stuff. This step determines the chemical formula. Once a samples chemical formula is known, the chemist may use the samples mass spectrogram to work out the way the atoms are arranged in the chemicals structure, thus identifying the isomer of the chemical. (e) DENDRAL has following features: (1) Knowledge representation: Production rules and algorithm for generating graph structure are constructed by META- DENDRAL. META DENDRAL is a program which uses learning techniques to construct rules for an expert system automatically. (2) Reasoning: DENDRAL uses forward chaining. (3) Heuristics: DENDRAL uses generate and test method. (4) Explanation: the user can supply the information and the system can request information as required. (5) Procedure: (a) Spectra data given as input (b) Preliminary analysis determines - Necessary compounds -- spectra data - Forbidden compounds -- spectra data, expert knowledge (c) Generate and test: a) Structure enumerator: can generate all possible compounds - Takes necessary and forbidden lists, and creates a new possible Compound - Output is formula b) Spectra synthesizer: generates spectra data for this compound c) Matcher - matches synthesized spectra with actual one - compound with best fit is the one (6) Working: The spectrogram machine bombard a sample with high energy
electrons, causing the molecule to break up into charged chunks of various sizes. Then, the machine sorts the chunks by passing them through a magnetic field which deflects the high-charge, low-weight ones more than it does the low-charge, high charges ones.

it is now possible to get an estimate of the masses of these particles. This is called a mass spectrogram. By knowing the masses, it is possible to guess how the atoms of a single molecule of the unknown substance are put together. The DENDRAL program works out structures from chemical formulas and mass spectrogram using the generate and test method. The generator consists of a structure enumerator and a synthesizer, which produce a synthetic mass spectrogram by simulating the action of a real mass spectrometer on each enumerated structure.The tester compares the real mass spectrogram with those produce by the generator. The possible structure are those whose synthetic spectrograms math the real one adequately.

2. MYCIN
(a) Mycin is an Expter system for diagnosing and recommending treatment of bacterial infection of blood. (b) It was developed in Stanford University in California. (c) A consolation with MYCIN begins with request for routine information such as age, medical history, and so on, progressive to more specific questions as required. (d) MYCIN represented its knowledge as a set of if.THEN rules with certainty factors. (e) MYCIN has following features: (1) Stanford University in mid 70's. (2) Domain: Medical diagnosis for bacterial and meningitis infections. (3) Task: interview physician, make diagnosis and therapy recommendations (4) Input: Answers to queries. (5) Output: Ordered set of diagnoses and therapies. (6) Architecture: rule-based exhaustive backward chaining with uncertainty. (7) Tools: programmed in LISP (shell called EMYCIN -- empty MYCIN). (8) Results: not in general use, but was ground-breaking work in diagnostic consultation systems.
(f) Working MYCINs expertise knowledge lies in the domain of bacterial infections.MYCINs pools of knowledge consist of approximately 500 antecedent- consequently rules which give MYCIN the ability to recognize about 100 causes of bacterial infections. MYCIN helps the physician to prescribe disease- specific drugs. MYCIN informs itself about particular cases by requesting information from the physician about patients symptoms. At each point the question MYCIN asks is determined by MYCINs current hypothesis & the answer to all previous question at the end, it provides.

1.9 Limitations of Expert system:


1. Expert systems are restricted to a very narrow domain of expertise. For example, MYCIN, which was developed for the diagnosis of infectious blood diseases, lacks any real knowledge of human physiology. If a patient has more than one disease, we cannot rely on MYCIN. In fact, therapy prescribed for the blood disease might even be harmful because of the other disease. 2. Expert systems can show the sequence of the rules they applied to reach a solution, but cannot relate accumulated, heuristic knowledge to any deeper understanding of the problem domain. 3. Expert systems have difficulty in recognising domain boundaries. When given a task different from the typical problems, an expert system might attempt to solve it and fail in rather unpredictable ways. 4. Heuristic rules represent knowledge in abstract form and lack even basic understanding of the domain area. It makes the task of identifying incorrect, incomplete or inconsistent knowledge difficult. 5. Expert systems, especially the first generation, have little or no ability to learn from their experience. Expert systems are built individually and cannot be developed fast. Complex systems can take over 30 person-years to build.

2.0 Parameter required in building of any Expert System:


(1) Meta-knowledge: Meta-knowledge is knowledge about knowledge. or we can say that

meta-knowledge is systematic problem and domain independent knowledge which performs or enables operation in another more or less specific domain dependent knowledge in different domain of human activities. Meta knowledge can be considered as a fundamental conceptual instrument in such research and scientific domains as, knowledge engineering, knowledge management and others dealing with study & operations on knowledge that we know. (2) Expertise Transfer: the objective of expertise transfer is to transfer expertise from one expert system to a computer system. these process evolved four activities: (a) Knowledge acquisition( from expert or other sources) (b) Knowledge representation( in the computer) (c) Knowledge inferencing. (d) Knowledge transfer to user. (3) Domain Exploration: in general Domain knowledge in the knowledge which is valid and directly used for preselected domain of human or autonomous computer activity. different specialist and expert use and develop their own domain knowledge. Domain refer to the knowledge that is part of the world the system knows about .this include object description, relationship and other relevant concepts.

2.1 Self Explaining System: the more interesting feature of expert system is their ability to
explain themselves, is known as self explaining system. Most system has the self explaining facility that means why it asked certain question, how it arrived its answers. Most of these answers are provided by explanation module. It provides the used with an explanation of reasoning process when requested. Expert system contains many modules to make it operate (Ex: memory). One of the module is self explaining module. This module is very much required in medical expert systems. The module explains how a conclusion is arrived about a patient and what its basics assumptions for deriving that conclusion.

2.2 Knowledge Organization: The organization of knowledge in memory is key to


efficient processing. Knowledge base may require tens of thousands of facts and rules to perform their intended task. Thus retrieval of facts and rules be done in efficient way so as to same search time.

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