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1.
...................................................................................
........
1.1.
........................
1.2.
................................................................
2.
.............
2.1.

..............................................................
2.2.

.......................................................
2.3.

...................................
2.4.

...............................
2.5.

.......................................
2.6.

-
......................
2.7.

....................
2.8.

.................................
3.
............................................................................
........
3.1.
............
3.2.

..............................................
3.3.

.........................................
3.4.

..........................................
3.5.

...................................................
4. .
.............
4.1.
..................................................................
4.2.
...............................

4
4
7
14
14
25
28
30
34
47
48
52
55
55
57
62
70
75
77
77
83
90
95
99

4.3.
.............
4.4.
...........................................................
5.
..............................................................

1.
1.1.
, ,
, .. , ,
, ,

.
,
.
- ,

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, ,

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,

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, , ,
, , .
( ).
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,

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(
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,
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,
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( ). ,
( ),
( ).
, ,
.

. , ,
, .
- .

,
, .
.
, -,
,
- . ,
,
.

()

,
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,
,
.
. 1657 .
.

,
-
.

XVIII XIX
, .

,
1765 . .. ,
, 1784 . .
.
,
.

30- ( ..

1823
.).

, ,
. ..
(1866) ..
(1876) (1877). ..
.. (.. )
,

,
.
.. ,

(1909).
XX . ,
,
.
,
:
;
; ; ;
. 1932 .
. ,
.

.

, .


.
, :
; ;
..

()

(
).
,
.
?
-,

( ).
-,
,
( ), ,
- .
-,
- .
,
.
,


,
.


, .


. ,

, , ,
,
.

1.2.



.
). , .
,

.1.1, :
- ;
- ();
- , ;
Y - ;
G - ;
F - .

F
G

.1.1


.
.
.
,
, .
,
.
,
G, F.
,
, - .

G Y
. G
, .
(
,
) Y ,
,
F.
.

. ,
.
G
. G
0 ,
,
G .

0 ,
,
.

,
.
, .

, .
.

.

.
( ,
)
,
.
.1.2.
=onst
+
+
U
R1

U
I

.1.2
,
,
,
I
U.

U,
R, ,
U R1.

, .. I.

U = E I r ,

- ... ,
r - .
0 -
I max , U
( , U=const)

U = I max r .

,
r R ,

, U
, ..
.
, ..
, R3
R2 R3 U , ,
.1.3.
, .1.3 .

+
R1

= const

()
+

(+)

R2

()
(+)

R3

U oc

.1.3

-
, U = const 0; U = U U oc 0; R = const;

I = const; U = const.

, -
, ,
I . ?
U ,

.
, U oc , U ( U
), I , ,
U .
, - ,
-
. ,
,
.
(
)
.

: ,
(
.1.3 ).
R I U ,
. U oc , U = U + U oc ,
U , I , ,
U . ,
U U ,

U ..
(
, - ).
-

.
). .
,
. ,
.
:

,
.
,
.
,
.
). .
,
( )
.
.
,
.
). .
,
. -
.

.

.
.
). .

.

-
( - ),
- (
- ),
-
( - , ,
).
). ,
.

. -

.
,
.

, .
.
, G=const,
G=var.
).

().

- .
,
(
).
.

(
!), .

,
(
).

.
- (
,
, ..),
,
, , .
.1.4.
G

X
1

7
8
.1.4
: 1- ,
G; 2 - ( ,
, ,
); 3 -
; 4 - ; 5 -
; 6 - ; 7 -
( ); 8 -
.

2.

2.1.

: .
:
, ,
.
,
, .2.1.

f(t)
g(t)

(t)

y(t)

x(t)

.2.1

.
x(t),
y(t) f(t).
:

x(t) = (y,y,y,...;f ,f ,f ,...;x,x,...).

y(t) (t).
:

y(t) = F (, , ,...; y y,...);


(t) = g(t) x(t).

.
y(t) (t),
:

x(t) = (g, g, g,...; f , f , f ,...; x, x,...).

.


.

.
,
.
:
n

n1

d x (t) +
d x (t) +...+ d x (t) +
an
a
a1 dt
a0 x (t) =
n

1
n
n1
dt
dt
(2.1)
m
m1
d x (t) +
d x (t) +...+ d x (t) +
bm
bm1
b1 dt
b0 x (t).
m
m1
dt
dt
(2.1) x (t) x (t)
X () X () ,
, :

pt
X () = x (t) e dt,

pt

X () = x (t) e dt,
0

(2.2)
, ,
x (t) x (t) ,
,
X () X () :
n

n1

an p X (p) + an1 p X (p)+...+ a1 p X (p) + a0 X (p) =


m
m1
(2.3)
= bm p X (p) + bm1p X (p)+...+ b1 p X (p) + b0 X (p).



.
X() (t) ,
(t) X() .
(t)
X() ( )

L

L { x(t)} = X (p).
X() (t)

( )

L 1
1
L { X (p)} = x(t).




dn d tn , dn1 d tn1..., d dt
n
n1
p , p ,..., p

(t) - X() .

, ,
: , ,
..


,
.

(2.2) :

dx
= y(t)
dt


dx
pt
Y (p) = L = y(t) e dt = e ptdx.
dt 0
0

pt

Y (p) = x(t) e

+ pe pt x(t)d(t) =
0

p x(t) e ptdt x(0).


0

x(0) = 0 (2.2) :

dx
Y (p) = L = pX (p).
dt


.

2
d x = d dx ,
d t2 dt dt

d2 x
2
L 2 = p X (p) ..
dt

(2.1). ,


.


.
X() (t) ,
, ,

.
,
.
(2.3) X (p) X (p) , :
n1

(an p + an1 p

+...+ a1 p + a0) X (p) =

m1

= (bm p + bm1 p

+...+ b1 p + b0) X (p).


:
m

m1

X (p) = bm p + bm1 p +...+ b1 p + b0 = W(p).


X (p) an pn + an1 pn1+...+ a1 p + a0

(2.4)

(
)

( ).

W(p)
:

W(p) =
n1

A (p) = an p + an1 p

B(p)
,
A (p)

+...+ a1 p + a0 - n,

m1

B(p) = bm p + bm1 p

+...+ b1 p + b0 - m.

, :

X (p) = X (p)W(p).



,
.

, .
2.1.
.2.2,
u, -
i.
R
L
u
i
.2.2
:

u(t) = L

di(t)
+ Ri(t).
dt

U (p) = L pI (p) + RI (p) = I (p)(L p + 1).

W(p) =

1R
I (p)
1
k
=
=
=
,
U (p) L p + R L
Tp + 1
p+1
R

k = 1 R - ,
T = L R - .
,
,
, .

2.2.
.2.3,
u1, - u2 .
R

u1

C
i

u2

.2.3
,
( ,
,
)
, .

u1(t) = i(t)R + uC (t),

u2(t) = uC (t),

d uC (t)

i(t) = C
.
dt

( )
()
()

() ():

d uC (t)

+ uC (t),
dt

u2(t) = uC (t).

u1(t) = R
:

U1(p) = (R p+ 1) U C (p),

U 2(p) = U C (p).

W(p) =

1
1
U 2(p) =
U C (p)
=
=
,
U1(p) (R p+ 1) U C (p) RCp + 1 Tp + 1

T = RC - .

2.3.
.2.4,
u1, u2 , ,
2.2.

iC

i1

R1

u1

u2

R2

i2
.2.4

,

:

u1(t) = u (t) + i2(t) R 2;


uC (t) = i1(t) R1;

d uC (t)
(
t)
=
(
t)
+
(
t)
=
(
t)
+
C
;
i2
i1
iC
i1
dt

u2(t) = i2(t) R 2.
() :

uC (t) ;
R1
uC (t) + C d uC (t) .
(
t
)
=
i2
dt
R1
i1(t) i2(t)

(a)
()
()
()

()

i1(t) =

():

()

R 2 (t) + C d uC (t) ;
uC
R2
dt
R1

d uC (t)
R
2

u2(t) =
uC (t) + R 2 C dt .

R1
u1(t) = uC (t) +

U1(p) = 1+

R 2 + Cp
R2
U C (p);

R1

R2

(
p
)
=
+
Cp

U2
R 2 U C (p).
R1

R 2 + Cp
R2
U
R
2(p)
1
W(p) =
=
=
(
p
)
R
U1
1+ 2 + R 2 Cp
R1
R 2 ( 1+ Cp)
R1
k(p + 1)
R
1
=
=
,
Tp
+
1

+
R 1 R 2 1+ R 1R 2 Cp
R1 R1 + R 2
R 2 - ,
R1 + R 2
R 1R 2 C , = C - .
T=
R1
R1 + R 2

k =

2.4.
.2.5,
u1, - u2 , ,
2.2.
R1
L
i1

u1

u2

R2

iC

i2

.2.5

:

d i1(t)

u1(t) = i1(t) R 1 + L dt + uC (t);

uC (t) = i2(t) R 2;

d uC (t)

i1(t) = i2(t) + C dt ;

u2(t) = uC (t).

,
.

U1(P) = I1(p) R 1 + Lp I1(p) + U C (p);

U C (p) = I 2(p) R 2;

I1(p) = I 2(p) + Cp U C (p);

(
p
)
=
(
p
).
U2
UC

(
)))
(

()

I 2(p) =

U C (p) .
R2

I 2(p) ():
U C (p) + Cp (p) = R 2 Cp + 1 (p).
I1(p) =
UC
UC
R2
R2

U1(p) = (R 1 + L p)

()

R 2 Cp + 1 (p) +
UC
U C (p);
R2

1
U 2(p) =
R2
=
=
2
Cp
+
1
(
p
)
R
U1
(R 1 + L p) 2
+ 1 R 1 + R 2 + R 1R 2 Cp + R 2 L C p
R2
R2
1
k
=
=
,

2
2
L
C
C
+
R1 R 2 R 2
2 R R
p + 1 2 p + 1 T p + T1p + 1
R1 + R 2
R1 + R 2
R 2 - ,
k =
R1 + R 2
R 1R 2 C - .
R 2L C ,
=
T=
T1
R1 + R 2
R1 + R 2
W(p) =

2.5.
.2.6, ,
.
C
R2
R1

I oc (p)
u1

U x (p)

Zoc(p)
DA

I1(p)

Z1(p)

I (p)

DA

u2 U x (p)

.2.6

.
, ..
.

, .2.6, ,
.


k
r , , k r .

e+ e =

U (p) U (p) 0.

, ()
0
,

U (p) I1(p) Z1(p).


, r ,

I (p) 0 ,

I1(p) I oc (p).

U (p) I oc (p) Zoc (p) I1(p) Zoc (p).


(. .2.6, ):

W(p)
(2.5)

U (p) Zoc (p) .


U (p)
Z (p)

.
.2.6,
ZC (p)
.
:

i (t) = C

d uC (t)
.
dt

I (p) = Cp U C (p).

U (p) = (p) = 1 .
ZC
Cp
I C (p)
( ZL (p) = L p).
Z (p) , .2.6,
:

1
R
Cp 2
R2 ;
=
Zoc (p) = 1
1+ R 2 Cp
+ R2
Cp
W(p) =
k = R 2

Z1(p) = R 1;

k
R2
=
,
(
Cp
+
1
)
Tp
+
1
R1 R 2

R 1 - ,

T = R 2 C - .

2.2.
(
) ()
x (t) = A sin t ,

x (t) = A sin(t + ) c ,

. , 1,

= A e jt
X

= A e j(t +) .
X


, ,
,

.

:

A e j(t +)
X
=
= W ( j).
j t
X
A e

(2.6)

W( j )

, - ,

j:
W( j ) = W(p) p= j .

(2.7)
W( j )
:
(2.8)
W( j ) = P( ) + jQ( ) = A ( ) ej ( ) ,

P( ) = Re[ W( j)] Q() = Im[ W( j )] -

,
A ( ) = A A ( ) -
.
i
,
.2.7.

+j

Q( i)

A ( i)
( i)
P( i)

+1

.2.7

,
.

-
().
, (2.8),
,
- .
P( ) , Q( ) -
.
( )

.

()

.

,
.2.7.

A ( ) = W( j ) =

2
2
P () + Q ().

Q( )
.
P( )
P( ) = A ()cos( ).
Q( ) = A ( ) sin ( ).
( ) = arctg

,
.

-

.
,
:
2

A
P
A
lg = lg = 2lg .
A
P
A


()
(

10

1 ),
1=0,1 .
:

10 2lg = 20lgA ( ) = 20W( j ) = G ( ).

G ( ) = 20lgA ( ),

-
().
, 10
20 , 100 - 40 ,
1000 - 60 ..
,
, ..

1 = 20lg( );
lg( ) = 1 20;

1
2
3
4
5
6

= 101 20 = 2010 = 1122


, .

1,122.
(1,122)2=1,259;
(1,122)3=1,412;
1,585;
1,778;
1,995 2.

() ,

( :
lg ),
().

. .

,
lg10 lg = lg10 = 1.
,
( ).
= 0, lg0= .

.

. ( ) = 1,
(
,
).

- ( ) () .

,
W( j )

(2.8).

W( j ) , (2.7)
( j )
, (2.4) -
,
- (
).

2.3.



.


,

,
,

.

,
,

,
.


.

0 t < 0,
1(t) =
1 t 0.

t = 0,
(t) =
0 t 0,

(t)dt = 1.

(t)
-.

.

h(t) .


.

(t)
( ).

, ,


.
W(p)

x (t) = 1(t)
x (t) = h(t) .

x (p) = L { x (t)} = L { 1(t)} = p ,


L { h(t)} = h(p) = x (p).

W(p) =

x (p) = ph(p) = pL { h(t)} .


x (p)

(2.9)

,
.
x (t) = (t)
(t)
:

x (p) = L { x (t)} = L { (t)} = 1,


x (p) = L { (t)} = (p).

W(p) =

x (p) = (p) = L { (t)} .


x (p)

(2.10)


, (2.9) (2.10):

pL { h(t)} = L { (t)} .

,

.

(t) = h(t).

2.4.

.

,

( ).
:
; ,
; ; ().

,
.
.

.

. , ,
, .
(
), .

,
.

-
, - .

.
n
W i (p) W (p)
:
n

W (p) = W i (p).
i =1

n

W i (p) :
n

W (p) = Wi (p).
i =1



W (p)
, .2.8.

x1

W(p)

W (p)

.2.8
,
x1 = x x ,
, ,
x1 = x + x .

X (p) = X 1(p) W1(p) = [ X (p) X (p)] W(p) =


[ X (p) X (p) Woc (p)] W(p).


.
.
, .2.9,
W2(p) .

W1(p)

W 2(p)

W1(p)

.2.9

W 2(p)

1 W2(p)

,

1 W2(p) , .2.9, .

.
, .2.10, 1
W 2(p) .

x1

W1(p)

W 3(p)

x2

x
W 2(p)

W1(p)

W 2(p)

W 3(p)

x2

1+

W1(p)
W2(p)

)
.2.10
X (p) X 2(p) .
W1(p)

X (p) =

X 2(p) .
W2(p)

X 1(p) =

X 2(p)
W1(p).
(
p
)
W2

W2(p)

W1(p)

X (p) = X 2(p) +

W1(p)
X 2(p)
W
.
1(p) = X 2(p)1+
(
p
)
(
p
)
W2
W2

W(p) = 1+

W1(p) , . 2.10, .
W2(p)

.2.11,

.

1
1+ W1(p) W (p)

x
x

W1(p)

xoc

x
xoc

Woc(p)
)

W1(p)

.2.11

Woc(p)
)

X (p) = X (p) X oc (p),

X oc (p) = X (p) W1(p) Woc (p),


X (p) = X (p) X (p) W1(p) Woc (p),
X (p) = X

1
.
1+ W1(p) Woc (p)

2.5.
-
,
.

(
)
( ),
(
).
,
.
.
,
(, ,
, ..)
,
.
,
.
:
, .

:
,
,

, , ,

.
, ,
.
,
.
.
() .
:

x (t) = k x (t),

W(p) = k.

k
. , k
,
.
:

W( j) = A () = P() = k,
() = 0,
Q() = 0,
G () = 20lgk,
h(t) = k 1(t),
(t) = (t) .

,
.

.2.6, , Z1() = R 1 Z () =
.
() .
:

x (t) = k x (t)dt

R ,

d x (t)
= k x (t),
dt
k
W(p) = .
p

,

.
:

k
P() = 0,
,

k
k
Q() = ,
A () = ,

G () = 20lgk 20lg,
() = ,
2
h(t) = kt,
(t) = k.
W( j) = j


.2.12.

= 1
( lg = 0); G () = 20lgk
20 /,
20 . ( - = 1
G (1) = 20lgk 20lg1; , ..
G ( 2) = 20lg k 20lg101 =

2 = 101,

= 20lg k 20lg1 20. [ G ( 2) G (1)]

20 ).
,

,
.
,
- .
.2.6, ,
Z1(p) = R1, , ..

Zoc (p) =

Coc p

, (2.5)

W(p) =
k = 1 T = 1 (R1 Coc).
+j

R1 Coc p

1
k
= ,
Tp
p

()

+1

0
G()
20/

20lgk
0

lg
lgk

()

(t)

h(t)

t
.2.12



, .

.
() .
:

x (t) = k

d x (t)
,
dt

W(p) = k p.


.

, k .

.
:

W( j ) = jk, P( ) = 0,
Q( ) = k, A ( ) = k,

( ) = , G ( ) = 20lgk + 20lg,
2
h(t) = (t).

,


.
,
, , , .

.

,

.
,
, - .

,
.

.2.13.
=1
( lg=0); G () = 20lgk
20 /,
20 .

G()
+20/
20lgk
0

()

lg

.2.13
( ) .

d x (t)
+ x (t) = k x (t).
dt

, :

Tp X (p) + X (p) = k X (p).


:

W(p) =
W( j ) =

X (p) = k ;
X (p) Tp + 1

k
k(1 jT )
k(1 jT )
=
=
;
jT + 1 (1+ jT )(1 jT ) ( T ) 2 + 1
k
P( ) = Re[ W( j)] =
;
2
( T) + 1

Q( ) = Im[ W( j )] =
A ( ) =

;
2
( T ) + 1

kT

;
2
T

+
1
( )

( ) = arctg

Q( )
= arctgT ;
P()

( T ) 2 + 1.

G ( ) = 20lgA ( ) = 20lgk 20lg

.2.14.
,
.
. ,
,
0 .
G()

20/

20lgk

lg

lg

()

.2.14

k
T

lg

1
T

( T ) 2 << 1,

( T ) 2 + 1 1, G () 20lgk.

,
20 lgk.
, 0.
,

( T ) 2 >> 1;

( T ) 2 + 1 T ;

G ( ) = 20lgk 20lgT .

,
20 /. ,
, ..
10 ,

G ( ) = 20lgk 20lgT 10 = 20lgk 20lgT 20lg10.


, G( ) 20 lg10, .. 20

. ,

. ,

1
. .
T

( G )

( G ) ,
.
, G
G = 1 :
2
G ( C) G ( C) = 20lgk 20lgk + 20lg ( T T ) + 1 = 20lg 2 = 3 .

.
:

. =
= .
2

4
k

2
k
( ,
2
0

j0) .
, ,
x = 1(t)

h(t) = k(1 e

t
T ),

(t) =

dh(t) k t
= e T.
dt
T

.2.15.
h(t)

.2.15

. ,

,

,
.
k
.
,
, , , ,
.

.2.2; .2.3; .2.6,
.
2.6.

= 100. k=10.
.

lg = lg = lg100 = 2 20 /

G ( ) = 20lgk = 20lg10 = 20.


lg c = 1, = 10
= 1 = 01
, .
() .

.
:

W(p) = k( p + 1) ;
P( ) = Re[ W( j )] = k;

W( j ) = k( j +1) ;
Q( ) = Im[ W( j )] = k;

A ( ) = W( j ) = k ( ) + 1;
( ) = arctgQ( ) P( ) = arctg;
2

G ( ) = 20lgA ( ) = 20lgk + 20lg

( ) 2 + 1.

-
k .
,
,
.

,
, .

,
20 /.

= 1 .

. 2.16
G()

()

+20
/

20
lgk

0
. 2.16
.

2
dx(t) +
2 d x(t)
+
T
T
x(t) = k x (t).
1
dt
d t2
:
2

(T 2 p + T1p + 1) X (p) = k X (p).

W(p) =

T p

.
+ T1p + 1

W(p) =
=

T p

,
+ 2Tp + 1

T1 .

2T

, ,
. ,
.

(0<<1),

(=0)

( 1).
.
:

W( j ) =

k(1 T 2 2 j2T )
2

2 2

+ j2T + 1 (1 T ) + (2T )
k(1 T 2 2)
P( ) =
;
(1 T 2 2)2 + (2T )2
Q() =

k 2T

(1 T )
2

A ( ) = W( j ) =

2 2

+ (2T)

(1 T
2T

k
2

2 2

) + (2T )

arctg

1 T 2 2

( ) =

arctg 2T

1 T 2 2

1
,
T
1
> ;
T

G ( ) = 20lgA ( ) = 20lgk 20lg (1 T 2 2)2 + (2T )2 .

,
. T<<1
, 1, .
G()
G() 20lgk.
(T2 2) >> 1; ( T 2 2) 2 >> (2T ) 2
(T) 4 ,
. G()
:
G() 20lgk20lg(T)2=20lgk40lgT.

40 /.

G()

= , .2.17.

20lgk

40 /

lg
lg 1/T

()

.2.17

G G .
- .

,
= :

G ( c) = G ( c) G a ( c) =

= 20 lg k 20 lg (1 T

= 20lg1

2 2

2
) + (2T c)
2 2
c

T + 2T
2
T T

0, 5

20 lg k =

05
,

= 20lg2 = 20lg

1
.
2

,
> 07
, . 04
,
- < 07
( ) ,

.

, .2.18.

h(t)

.2.18


(. .2.5
2.4).
- ,
.
(. .2.5),
( R=0).
,
:

h(t) = k1 cos .

T

, .. ,
.
1
:

W(p) =

k
,
2 2
(
p
+
1
)(
p
+
1
)
T3
T p + T1p + 1 T 2
=

T1 T1 4T .
=
T 23,
2


,
.
2.7.
,
(. .2.5) .
2.4
:

R2
W(p) =

R 1 + R 2

R 2 L C 2 + R 1R 2 C p + 1 T 2 p2 + 2Tp + 1
p
+
R1 R 2
R1 + R 2

R 1R 2 C = 2T;
R1 + R 2
R 1R 2C =
R 1R 2C
R C R 2 .
=
= 1
2T (R 1 + R 2)
2 L R 1 + R 2
R 2L C
2(R 1 + R 2)
R1 + R 2

, <1, ..

C R2
R 1 L + < 2.
R 1 R 2

, ..

R1

C R2

2,
L R 1 + R 2

.
,

. ,

, .
.
,
, ,
.
:

x (t) = x (t ),

- .
, :

A ( ) = 1,

() = .

W( j ) = e j = cos() j sin().

W(p) = e p .


, ..
.
.
,
,
.

2.6. - -
.

W(p) =

B(p)
A (p)

B(p) = 0, .. ,
, - (p) = 0,
.. ,
.
-,

.
-,

.
,
, -.
-

W(p) =

k
.
Tp 1

,
W0(p) = k0 ( T 0 p + 1)

W0c (p) = k0c.


k0

W0(p)
T0p + 1 =
k0
=
=
1 W0(p) W0c (p)
p
+
1

kk
T0
k0 k0c
1 0 0c
T0p + 1
k
k0
=
=
,
Tp
+
1

T
( 1 k0 k0c) 1 0 p + 1

k0 k0c
k0 ;
T0 .
T=
k =
1 k0 k0c
1 k0 k0c
k0 k0c > 1 k ,
W(p) =

,
,
- .
p1 = 1 T .
:

A ( ) =
( ) = arctg

k
2

,
+1

T
= (180o arctgT ) = arctgT 180o.
1

W(p) =

k
,
Tp + 1

1
T

p1 = ,

( ) = arctgT .

, , .
. ,


.
.
-

. ,
.

2.7.


,

, ,
.
(.. )
:
n

W(p) = W i (p);
W i (p)

W( j ) = W i ( j),

i =1

i =1

W i ( j) - -

.

:
n

A ( ) = A i ( );
i =1
n

( ) = i ();
i =1
n

G () = G i ( ) .
i =1


:
.

,
.
2.8.

W(p) =

30(p + 1)

, p + 01
, p + 1)
p (10p + 1)(001

,
n ,
, .
( =

1
,


Tp ):

1 =

1
= 01
,;
10

1
=
2 1 = 1;

= 10,
3 = 01
,

1- ,
2 - ,
3 - .

n=1. , ,

,
.
20lgk: 20lg30=29.

.2.19,

1,2,3,
4

, ,
. ,
, ,
< c .

20/
1

40

40 /

20
20
4

20 /

lg
1

40

2
60 /

.2.19
,
5, .
,
, .

(
)
= 1, G ( ) = 20lgk
n 20/, n
.
,
, .
< 0,4,
.
2.9.

.2.20

.
G

20 /
15 /

60

40 /

40

20

20
/
0,4

2,5
0
lg

20

0,6

1,25

.2.20

40 /

( )

.
(.
):
G ( ) = 20lgk 20lg .
k ,
.

60 = 20lgk 20lg(01
, ),
60 = 20lgk + 20,
20lgk = 40,
k = 100.


20 /.
. ,

.
,
,
.
:

W(p) =

lg
lg
lg
lg

1
1

100(1p + 1)(2 p + 1)

2
1

p(T

p + 2 T1p + 1)(T 2 p + 1)

= 04
,;

,;
c = 04

, c;
1 = 25

= 125
, ;

,;
c = 178

, c;
2 = 0056

= 06
,;

c = 4;

, c;
T1 = 025

= 25
,;

,;
c = 3162

,
c.
T 2 = 00032

T1
1

T2

15 = 20lg

1
;
2

lg2 =

W(p) =

15
;
20

= 009
, .

100(25
, p + 1)(0056
, p + 1)
2

p(00625
,
, p + 1)(00032
,
p + 1)
p + 0045

2.8.


, .
,

.2.4

.
R 1 = R 2 = 1
, =1 .
:

R 2 = 05
,;
= R 1C = 103 c;
R1 + R 2
6
R
6
1R 2
10
T=
C=
= 05
, 103 c.
310
2 10
R1 + R 2
k=

20lgk = 20lg05
, = 6;

lg C = 3;

C1 = = 10 ;
1

C2 = T = 2 10 ;

lg C = 33
,.
2

,
.2.21.

G ( )

0
3,0

3,3

lg

+20/

4
.2.21

- .2.22.

.2.22
:

d uc (t)
u (t) = uc (t) + i(t)R = uc (t) + RC dt ;

d uc (t)

u (t) = i(t)R = RC dt .

U (p) = U c (p) + RC U c (p) = (1+ RCp) U c (p);

U (t) = RCpU c (p).

(p)
RCp
k
W(p) = U
=
=
,
U (p) RCp + 1 Tp + 1

k = T = RC.
,


.
R=1 ,
=1 .
:
k = T = RC = 103 c.
:
3

20lgk = 60;

c = 1 T = 10 ;

lg c = 3.

= 1;
G ( = 1) = 20lgk = 60
20 / .
20/, ..
. .2.23.

G ( )

0
20

lg

+20/

40
60
.2.23


(
).

3.
3.1.

, :
1)
;
2)

.
.

.

.
:

x(t) = x (t) + x (t),

x (t)

- ,
.

;
x (t) - ,
.

.

n1

d x (t) +
d x (t) +...+ d x (t) +
an
an1
a1 dt
a0 x (t) = 0
d tn
d tn1

t
x (t) = A i ePi ,

Ai-

i =1

,
;
i - .

n
n1
an p + an1p +...+ a1p + a0 = 0.

.
:

i,i +1 = i j i ,

i .
, i < 0, . ,
i > 0 .

, ,

.

,
.

, .3.1,

Pn1

P2
P1

Pn

P3
.3.1

.

, :
1) 1 = 0;

12, = j;
3) 1 = .
2)


, .
.

.
,
, .
,
.
.

.

3.2.

, .
(
, ..
):
n1

A (p) = an p + an1p

+...+ a1p + a0.

an > 0 ( an ,
, ),
() :

an1 an3 an5


an an2 an4
0 an1 an 3
n = ... ... ...
0
0

...
...

...
...

... ...
... ...
... ...

0
0
0

... ... ...


... a1 0
... a2 0


(.. n ,
n - ), -
(.. n ).
, n .

.. ( - n).


.
: ,

(
).


n1 .
(n=3):
3

A (p) = a3 p + a2 p + a1p + a0;


a2 a0 0
= a3 a1 0 ;
0 a2 a0

n1 =

a2 a0 =
a1a2 a0a3.
a3 a1

(3.1)
(n=4):
4

A (p) = a4 p + a3 p + a2 p + a1p + a0;


a3 a1 0 0
a a a 0;
= 4 2 0
0 a3 a1 0
0 a4 a2 a0

(3.2)

a3 a1 0
2
2
n1 = a4 a2 a0; = a3a1a2 a3a0 a1 a4 =
0 a3 a1
2
= a1(a2a3 a1a4) a0a3.

. .3.2.

Wp (p)
W (p)
.3.2

W (p) :

W p (p) =

p (p)
;
(
p
)
p

W (p) =

(p) .
(p)

W p (p)


W p (p) W (p)
W p.. (p) ,
:

W p.. (p) =

Bp (p) Boc (p)


.
(
p
)
(
p
)
A p A oc

p (p)
p (p)
Bp (p) A oc (p)
(
p
)
=
=
.
W
p (p) Boc (p) p (p) A oc (p) + p (p) Boc (p)
1+
p (p) A oc (p)

() = A p (p) A oc (p) + p (p) Boc (p).

(3.3)
,
.
,
.3.3,
, .

k1

k2

T1p + 1

T2p + 1
k3

T3p + 1
.3.3

(3.3):

A (p) = (T1p + 1)(T 2 p + 1)(T 3 p + 1) + k1k2 k3.

3
2
(p) = a3 p + a2 p + a1p + a0,

a3 = T1T 2 T 3,
a2 = T1T 2 + T 2 T 3 + T 3 T1,
a1 = T1+ T 2 + T 3, a0 = k1k2 k3 + 1= k + 1.

T1T 2 T 3 > 0,
T1T 2 + T 2 T 3 + T 3 T1 > 0,
T1+ T 2 + T 3 > 0, k + 1> 0.
n1 = 2 = a1a2 a0a3 = (T1T 2 + T 2 T 3 + T 3 T1)(T1+ T 2 + T 3)
T1T 2 T 3(k + 1) > 0.

(3.4)

. ,

.

.
, T1T 2 T 3 :

1
1
1
k < (T1 + T 2 + T 3) +
+ 1.
T1 T 2 T 3

,

k .
k,
, ( ).
:

1
1
1
=
(
+
+
)
+
+

1.
k T1 T 2 T 3
T1 T 2 T 3

(3.5)


, .

, (3.5)

T1

k =

T3

T 2 + 1 T 3 + T 3 + 1 1
T 3 T1 T 2

, k =8.
k .
, k .

.

,


.
, .
-

.

, (
).

:

n1 = 0,

an = 0,

a0 = 0.


,
, -
.
, (. .3.3),

k 1.
:

1
1
1
k = (T1 + T 2 + T 3) +
+ 1;
T1 T 2 T 3
k + 1= 0; T1 = 0.

.3.4.
.

k 1,
. ,


,
.
.

.3.4

3.1.
,
.3.5,
.

168
,

001
, p+1
p

003
, p + 03
, p+1
0,5
.3.5

W(p) =

84
, (001
, p + 1)
2

p(003
, p + 03
, p + 1)

(3.3)

, p + 03
, p + 1) + k(001
, p + 1) =
A (p) = p(003
3
2
3
2
= 003
, p + 03
, p + (1+ 001
, k)p + k = a3 p + a2 p + a1p + a0,
, ; a2 = 03
,;
, k;
a3 = 003
a1 = 1+ 001
a0 = k.

,
(3.1):

, ( + 001
, k ) 003
, k = 0.
a1a2 a0a3 = 031
,.
k = 111

k=8,4 ,
, .

k .

3.3.
.
j.

A ( j) = X ( ) + jY ( ),

X( ) - , (),

;
Y ( ) - , ()
.
(j) ,
.3.6.
jY

a0

.3.6
.
() Y()
. =0 (j)=0, ..
. (j)
.
: ,
(j),
, ,
n , n - .
(. .3.6)
.
,

(j).
:
. ,
()=0 ,
(j) ,

Y().

. (j)
, Y().
, , ,
(j) , () Y(),
.
,
, () Y() , =0,
Y()=0, ()>0.
,

()=0 p1 = j 0,

( j ) = 0,

X( 0) = 0,

Y ( 0) = 0.


.
.

( - 0 .
= 0 -
).

. ,

,

. , .3.7,
, .3.7, .
jY

jY

.3.7

k (.
.3.3).
,
(3.4)
j:

3
2
( j) = j T1T 2 T 3 (T1T 2 + T 2 T 3 + T 3 T1) +
+ j(T1 + T 2 + T 3) + k + 1= X ( ) + jY ( ),
X ( ) = k + 1 (T1T 2 + T 2 T 3 + T 3 T1) 2,
Y ( ) = (T1 + T 2 + T 3) T1T 2 T 3 3.



0. k = k :

X () = k + 1 (T1 T2 + T2 T3 + T3 T1) 2 = 0,
Y () = (T1 + T2 + T3) T1 T2 T3 3 = 0.

,
:

T1 + T2 + T3 .
T1 T2 T3

k + 1= (T1 T2 + T2 T3 + T3 T1)

T1 + T2 + T3 ,
T1 T2 T3

1
1
1
+
+ 1.
T1 T 2 T 3

k = (T1 + T 2 + T 3)

, , ,
.

.
,
, :

X (, , ) = 0
.
Y (, , ) = 0

,
,
X(, , ) Y (, , ) .

.
,
.
,
, ,
0 .
.
D - .

:

N(p) + S(p) + F (p) = 0,

N(p), S(p), F (p) - .


p = j :

N( j) = N1() + j N2();
S( j) = S1() + j S2();
F ( j) = F1() + j F 2().

N1() + S1() + F1() = 0,

N2() + S2() + F 2() = 0.

F1()
F 2()

S1()
S2() ;

= 1=

N1() S1()
N2() S2()

N1()
N ()
= 2= 2

N1()
N2()

F1()
F 2()
.
(

)
S1
S2()

(3.6)

(3.7)

(3.7) D (, ). D -
,
, - .

,
.
.
3.2.
3.1
.

j:
2

, + 03
, j + 1) + k(001
, j + 1) =
A ( j) = j(003
= k 03
, 2 + j(1+ 001
, k 003
, 2) = X () + jY ().


, k , ..
3.1.
:

X ( 0) = Re[ A ( j)] = k 03
, 20 = 0,

Y ( 0) = Im[ A ( j)] = 0(1+ 001


, k 003
, 20) = 0.
0 = 0 ,

..

0.

2
0=

, 20 =
k = 03

1+ 001
, k
003
,

1+ 001
, k
003
,

03
, = 111
,.

, 3.1.
3.3.

:
5

A (p) = 3104 p + 5103 p + 01


, p + 05
, p + 09
, p + 1.

,
.

A ( j ) = j3 104 5 + 5 1034 j01


, 3 05
, 2 + j09
, + 1;
X () = Re[ A( j)] = 1 0,5 2 + 5 103 4 ;

Y () = Im[ A ( j)] = 0,9 0,13 + 3 10 4 5 .

,
0 +, X() = 0:
, ; 2 = 99
, Y () = 0: 3 = 0;
1 = 141

, ; 5 = 18.
4 = 32


( ):
1) 3 = 0; Y = 0; X = 1;
2)
3)
4)

, ;
1 = 141
,;
4 = 32
,;
2 = 99
5 = 18;

X = 0;

Y = 09
, 141
, 01
, 141
,
141
, ;
, + 00003
, = 099
2

Y = 0;

X = 1 05
, 32
,
32
,;
, + 0005
, = 36

X = 0;

Y = 09
, 99
, 01
, 99
,
99
, ;
, + 00003
, = 5959

Y = 0; X = 1 05
5)
, 182 + 0005
,
184 = 364.

.3.8. .
Y

1
5

.3.8
3.4.
, .3.3,

D.
3 k3 .
:

,;
1 = 01

2 = 1;

k1 = 2;

k2 = 5.

(p) = (T1p + 1)(T2 p + 1)(T3 p + 1) + k1 k2 k3 = T1 T2 T3 p +


2
+(T1 T2 + T2 T3 + T3 T1) p + (T1 + T2 + T3)p + k1 k2 k3 + 1.

(p) = T 3 N(p) + k3S(p) + F (p).

3
2
A (p) = T 3 T1T 2 p + (T1 + T 2) p + p + k3(k1k2) +

[ T T p + (T + T )p + 1].

p = j :

3
2
A ( j) = T 3 j T1T 2 (T1 + T 2) + j + k3(k1k2) +

+ T1T 2 2 + j(T1 + T 2) + 1.

Re[ A ( j)] = T 3 X 1( ) + k3 X 2 ( ) + X 3 ( ),
Im[ A ( j )] = T 3 Y 1() + k3 Y 2( ) + Y 3 ().

Re[ A ( j )] = T 3 (T1 + T 2) 2 + k3 (k1k2) + ( T1T 22 + 1) = 0


.
3
Im[ A ( j )] = T 3 (T1T 2 ) + k3 0 + (T1 + T 2) = 0

, 1
2:

X 1() X 2() = (
2
T
1 T 2 1) k1 k2;
Y 1() Y 2()
X 3() X 2() = ( + )
=
1 ()
T1 T 2 k1k2;
(

)
Y3
Y2
X 1() X 3() = (
5
3
2
2
2 = ()
T
1 T 2) + (T1+ T ) + .
Y1
Y 3()
3 k3 :
1
T1 + T 2 ;
T3 = =
2
T1T 2 1
(T1 + T 2) 2 + 2
1

4
2
T1T 2 + 1+
.
k3 = =
2

1
k1k2

T1T 2
=

, :

T3 =

11

,
10

001
, 4 + 101
, 2 + 1
.
k3 =
2

10

( 3 = 0)

k1 k 2 k 3 + 1 = 0,
k 3 = 0,1

.3.9.

0
-1,1

1
2
3
-1,2 -1,83 -11

4
5
7
10
15
20
1,83 0,73 0,28 0,12 0,05 0,02
1
8

k3

-0,1 -0,22 -0,86 -10,9 3,29 2,17 1,91 2,24 3,42 5,14

k3
3
2

=10
=7

=5

=4

1
0

3
=2

=1

.3.9

3.4.
.
, ,
,
- ()
(1, j0).
W ( j )
(1, j0) ,

W ( j) =

Bp ( j) Boc ( j)
= 1.
(
j

)
(
j

)
Ap
A oc

A ( j) = Bp ( j) Boc ( j) + A p ( j) A oc ( j) = 0,


.
,

(1, j0),
.

.3.10 . 1
, 2 -
.
,
,

, ,
, , .
.
, ,
.

jQ

0
1

.3.10

,
. ,
.

(1, j0) , ,
( ) = 1, .
=1 G=20lgA=0.
,
, ,
, - .
.3.11 ,
.
G

lg

.3.11
,
.
e p (
)
W0(p) .

:

W(p) = W0(p) e p ;

W( j) = W0( j) e j ,

j 0( )

W0( j) = A 0() e

W( j) = A 0() ej[ 0( ) ] .

,
. , ..
( ).
.

()
,
.3.12.
jQ

1
W0( j)

= 1
.3.12

W0( j) = 1.

- 1, - 1.

(1, j0)

1 1 = ,

+ 1

,
,
, .

.
(.. k>1),
(
,
..).


:
)

[
[

]
]

Re W .. ( j ) = 1,

Im W .. ( j ) = 0;

(3.8)
)

A() = 1,

() = .

(3.9)

, W .. (p)

k, , , .3.3.

k[ a( ) jb()]

W .. ( j) = a() + jb() = a() + j() a() jb() =


[
][
]
=

ka( )

a () + b ()

kb( )

a () + b ()

( ) b() -
W .. ( j) .

Im W .. ( j) = 0 , b() = 0,

Re W .. ( j ) =

ka( )

k
.
2
a
(

)
a () + 0
=

(3.8)

= 1,
a( )

b() = 0,

a( ) = k,

b() = 0.

(3.10)
, (3.10),
.3.3.

k
=
j T1T 2T 3 3 (T1T 2 + T 2T 3 + T 3T1) 2 + j(T1 + T 2 + T 3) + 1
k
=
,
1 (T1T 2 + T 2T 3 + T 3T1) 2 + j (T1 + T 2 + T 3) T1T 2T 3 3

W ..( j) =

] [

1 (T1 T 2 + T 2 T 3 + T 3 T1) 2 = k ,

(T1 + T 2 + T 3) T1 T 2 T 3 = 0.

2 ( = 0 , ..

0) :
2 T1 + T 2 + T 3
;
=
T1 T 2 T 3

1
1
1
=
(
+
+
)
+
+

1.
k T1 T 2 T 3
T1 T 2 T 3


.
3.5.
3.1 .
k , (3.8).

W .. ( j) =

k(001
, j + 1)

=
(003
, 2 + 03
, j + 1) j
001
, j + 1
k
=
=
03
, + j(003
, 2 1)
, j + 1)(03
, j003
, 2 + j)
k (001
=
=
2
2
2

009
, + (003
, 1)

4 3
, ) + j(1 0027
, 2)
k (3 10 + 029
=
.

009
, 2 + (003
, 2 1)2

1
,

009
, 2 + (003
, 2 1)2

1 0027
, 2
k
Im W .. ( j ) =
= 0.
2
2
2
009
, + (003
, 1)

Re W .. ( j ) = k

3104 2 + 029
,

009
, 2 + (003
, 2 1)2
,
k =
3 104 2 + 029
,

1 0027
, 2 = 0.

2
= 37;
= 0027
,

,.
k = 111

, 3.1 3.2.

3.5.

.
, ..
.


-
G ,
.3.13.

G()

0
lg
G

()

.3.13
,

, .

G
,
. ,

:
G = 20lgk 20lgk.
(3.11)

k
(3.11).

.. ( ) = 1

.. () .

= .. ( ).
(3.12)

, , .
3.13. ,

(
),

.3.14.

,
( ) = 1.
R=1.
.

( 0) , ..

1, j0
( 0 - ,
),
. , G = 20lg1 20lgA ( 0) = 20lgA ( 0).
jQ()
A(0)

P()

.3.14

4. .

4.1.

,
- () .
:
.
.
,

.
: X (p)
F (p) .
.4.1, : 1 -
; 2 -
W F (p) ; 3 -
.

F (p)

X (p)

X (p)

3
.4.1
:

X (p) = X (p)

W p (p)
1+ W(p)

F (p)

W F (p) ,

1+ W(p)

W p (p) - ,

W(p) - .


=0,
, .
:

x = x

W p (0)
1+ W(0)

W F (0) .

1+ W(0)

W(0) W p (0) ,
. ,
(
).
W(0) = k W F (0) = kF ,
,

W(p)
.
:

W F (p)

=0

kp
kF
(4.1)
x = xx 1+ k f 1+ k .
x = (x) -
f. x
:

kF
x = f 1+ k .

x = xx kp f kF ,

(1+k) :

x. = f kF .


,
.4.2.

x
x
x.0

1max

.4.2


:
1) . : x = x

x
.
2

x
;
2) ,
. :

x = x

x
100%;
2x

(4.2)

3)

S=

x.0

S,


, .

k,

(,
). ,
.

.
,
, 1
(. .4.1), ..
.

1
W (p)
p p
WF (p) =
(
p
)
=
(
p
)

F
(
p
)
X
X
1
1
1+ W(p)
1+ W(p)
p
p
W p (p)
WF (p) .
= X (p)
F (p)
1
p + W(p)
1+ W(p)
p
=0,
:

kp
kp
kF
x = xx k f 1+ = xx k .

, S=0.
,
,
,
.

, , , ,

X (p) = X (p)

W p (p)
1+

1
W(p)
p

F (p)

WF (p)
1+

1
W(p)
p

kp
kF
x = xx 1+ f 1+ = 0.
.
,
3 (.. ),
, :

1
1
W
W (p)
p (p)
p
F
F (p)
=
X (p) = X (p) 1
1
1+ W(p)
1+ W(p)
p
p
W p (p)
WF (p) ;
= X (p)
F (p)
p + W(p)
+ W(p)

kp kF
x = xx k f k .
.

:
, , .

.
,

. .

xmax

x , :

xmax x
100%.
x


.

: ( );
( );
( ).
4.1.

(. .1.3)
, /; k = 10
: k = 05
,;
, ; U = 5 ; I = (1...10) .
/; k = 01
r = 01

,
.
,

( ,
).
(. .1.2),
1.2,

U = E I r .

( )
...

, ..
= I k , k - ,

..
, ,
, .. I = U k , k -
.
()
:

U = U k k I r .

()

() ,
.4.3.

I
r
U

.4.3
(. .1.3)

,
U = U U oc = U k U ,
()

k = R 3 (R 2 + R 3)

- .

()
,
.4.4.

I
r

U oc
k
.4.4


. 4.4 :

U = U 1+

k k
r
I
.
1
+
k k k
k k k

()

(), ,
(4.1), .
()
U max U min

( I = 1 ) ( I = 10 ) :

05
, 10

01
,

1
= 166
, ;
U max = 51+ 05
, 10 01
,
1+ 05
, 10 01
,
05
, 10

01
,

10
= 16 .
U min = 51+ 05
, 10 01
,
1+ 05
, 10 01
,

(4.2):

U =

U max + U min

2
U max U min

= 163
, ;

= 06
, ;
2
U 100%
06
, 100%
= U
=
U = U 2
2

163
,
U
U =

,
= U 184%.

,
( )
1,84%

.

4.2.

, , .

, , ,
,
.
.
: ,
.
,
.


h(t)
() P().


1 1 sin t
1(t) = +
d,
2 0

d
0 .

W( j ) = A () ej ( ) ,
( ) =

xmx. .
xmax.

1(t),

xi (t) = sin t

( )
d ,

()]

xi (t) =

A ( )d
sin[ t + ( )] .

1

2

(0)
.
2

A (0) 1 A ( )
x (t) = 2 + sin[ t + ()] d =
0
A (0) 1 P( )
1 Q( )
=
+
sin(t)d +
cos(t)d.
2
0
0

(4.3)

1(t) t=0, t<0:

x (t) = 0,

sin(t) = sin(t),

cos(t) = cos(t).

(4.3) (t) t
:

0=

A (0) 1 P( )
1 Q( )

sin(t)d +
cos(t)d.
2
0
0

(4.4)

(4.3) (4.4):

x (t) =

2 ( )
sin(t)d,

t>0.

(4.5)

(4.5),
.
.4.5.

()

Pmax ()

(0)

3
2
1
4
0

.4.5


:
1)

;
2) h(t)

h() = limh(t) = limP( ) = P(0);


t

3) 1 (. .4.5),
;
4) , 2,
18%;
5)

(
3)

118
, Pmax () P(0)
100%;
P(0)

6) ( 4)
:

1,18 P max () + 0,277 P min () P(0)

P(0)

100% ,

P min () - ;
7)
t
c (

() 0,05 (0),

< t <

8) = i
, i 2 ;
9) ,
.

(),
.4.6.

A()

A(0)

.4.6

( )
(0)

<1 .
, . -

. =1,3-1,5.

, .

.
.
20 /,

3k

k .4.7 .
,
.4.8, :

2
;
1
2

2 (2 4) cp.

k 4
3
2
1
0
10

20

30

40

.4.7

20 /
lg 1

lg 2
lg

.4.8

1 2
.


.
,
, .
, ,
.
.


,

.

it =

e Ti

i - i-
,

Ti =

- .

, i-
t i 3T i ,

.
i min
= min .

t .

, , ,
(. .3.1).

t
A i e i sin( i t + i)

ximax 2 A i e i(t1+ i)
=
= e i i ,
ximax 1
A i e i t1

t1 - i- ,

i =

- .

,
2

i
i

= e2 i .

i
:
i

, .
,
.

.
max

= arctg

i
i

, .

.

- .
,
,
. .4.9.

x()

x(t)

t
.4.9

x(t) = x() x(t).



(.
.4.9),

I1 = x(t)dt.
0

I1 .
, I1.
,
, (),
. I1

2
I 2 = [ x(t)] dt.
0

, ,
I 2 ( )
.


.

4.3.



.

.
,
. :
.

:
-
(),
-- () - () .
-

W(p) = k k p,


.
,

W(p) =

B(p)
A (p)

W(p),

W(p) W(p) =

B(p)(k k p)
A (p)

D()
:

D() = B(p)(k k p) + (),

n1

() = an p + an1p +...+ a1p + a0.


, ()=k ( -,
, ,

k). ,

. -

..

.

,
( -
).
,
r, :

W(p) =

B(p)
r

p A (p)

D()=()+

p A (p) .

()=k, ,
r>1
, D()
(r-1) ( ).
(r-1) -.
:
r 1
r
) + p A (p).
p
( r 1)

D() = k(k + k p+...+ k


1

, .

W0(p) =

k0 .

T0p + 1

W0(p)W() =

k0(k k p) .
T0 p + 1

h(t) = k h0(t) k h0(t),

h0(t) - .

, , , .
, k k = T 0
:

W0(p)W() =

(1+ p k

k) k k0 =

T0 p +1

k k0.

- ,
:
k k p ,
W() =
T p + 1

<<

k .
k

-
,
.
- .4.10.

G()

+20 /

20lgk

lg

k
k

.4.10

lg

lg

- ,
.
, .
-
,
RC- RL- .
.2.4.
-
.4.11.

R2
R3
R1
U

.4.11

W(p) =

k + k p ;

Tp + 1
T = R 2 C;
k = R 3 R 1;
R 3 C1(R 1 + R 2) .
=
k

R1

- ()

1
k k
W() =
.
. p + 1
=0 -.
:
1
k k 1 p
W() =
= k k .
. p + 1 p . p + 1
, -
-.
- -,
.
- .4.12.
G()
20 /

20lgk

20 /

lg k

lg

lg

. 4.12

-- ()

1
2
k k k p 1
k
k p k p
(p) =
=
.
p
+
1
p
p
+
1

-
, ,
- -
. , -
, -,
.
, ,
, -,
.4.12.
G
20 /
+20 /

.4.12

lg

-
W (p) ,
,
, .

,
, - .

.
G()
, G() .
G() ,

(. .4.7,
.4.8).

W()= W()W(),

W() -
.

W()= W()/ W().

,
:
20lg| W()(j)|=20lg | Wc.(j)|20lg| W.(j)|;

G()=G.() G.().


:
1)
;
2) ,

;
3)
.

4.4.

. (
)
, .

(W

(p) p= 0

0 , -

(W

(p) p= 0

=0.


Woc (p) = koc.

W0(p) =


.4.13.

x1

xoc

Wo(p)

k0 ,

T0p + 1

Wo(p)
.4.13

k0

W(p) =

k=

k0 ,
1 k0 koc

k
T0p + 1 =
k0
=
,
p
+
1

Tp
+
1
kk
k0 koc
1 0 oc T 0
T0p + 1
T0 .
T=
1 k0 koc


.
.4.14
.

k0

T0

h0(t)

h(t)

x = 1(t)
xoc (t)

.4.14
x1(t)
h0(t)
, h(t) - .
x1(t) = 1(t) xoc (t)
.
1,
.

, ,
.


.
,
:
,
, ()
.

W0(p) = k0 p :

W(p) =

k0 p =
k0 = k ,
p k0 koc Tp + 1
1 k0 koc
p

k=

koc

T=

k0 koc

.
(

).

W (p) = koc p,
.

W0(p) =

k0
Q0(p)

k0
Q0 (p)
k0
W(p) =
=
.

(
p
)

p
Q0
k0 koc
1 k0 koc
Q0 (p)

, ,
,
.

(

- ), -
.

5.

..
. - . , 1989. - 304 .
5.2. . .1.
/ .. .;
. .. . - .: , 1986. - 367 .
5.3. .. . .
.1/ . .. . - .: , 1977. - 303 .
5.4. .. . - .:
, 1975. - 416 .
5.5. .. .
. - .: ,
1978. - 512 .
5.1.

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