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4.

4.1

.
4.2

.
.

4.3
,

.
4.4

4.


, ..
,

,
.

.

..


, ,
,
.. 1895.

4.1 .



.

: ,

, j. E
H , (3.2).

:

, E H .

.

.

rot
= jD
+ J J

rot = jB

divD = (
,

divB = 0
1-
:


rot
= jaE + E J = j( a + )E J .
j
:


(4.1)
rot
= j ~
a J ,

~
= a j
: a = a +
-
j

.
, , 0
~
a a .
,


, :

4.

B
= aH
= rotA .

(4.2)

=
rot
.
(4.3)
a
(4.2) 2- :

rotE = j rotA = rot( jA ) ,


:

(4.4)
rot( j
) = 0.
, rot grad
= 0).
( ) ( rotgrad
,

(4.5)
grad
= E jA .
:

(4.6)
E = grad
jA .
(4.3)
:

(4.7)
D
= a(grad
+ jA ) .
, ,

( E, D, H B ), :
, .
, ,
. (4.3) (4.6) .

1
rot rot
= j ~
a (grad
j
) J
a
,

rotrot
= j ~
a agrad
+ 2~
a a
aJ .

2
rotrot = graddiv
, :
X - ,
:

graddiv

2
2~
a a
+ j ~
a agrad
= aJ .
:

2
2~
a a
+ grad(div
+ j ~
a a ) = aJ .


- ,
, :


div
= j ~
a a .
(4.8) .
(4.8) :

2
+ k2
= aJ ,
: k2 = 2~
,

(4.8)

(4.9)

a a

+
+
.
2 y2 z2
, 3-
(4.7),
divgrad
= 2 , : ,
:
(4.10)
2 + k2 = / .
,

2-
.
, (4.8),
(4.2, 4.3, 4.6 4.7)
.

(4.9) (4.10)
:
a e jkr
=
(4.11)
J r dV ,
4 V
V
=

1
e jkr

r dV ,
4 a V

(4.12)

: V ,
4.1-
;

r

(. .4.1).

4.2 .




.

4.


. :
()
I
Im = const, l
.
I :
I = Re[ I ] = Re[I mejt ] .
, I,
(. - 1.21, .1.9)

I = Q = (Qmejt ) = jQmejt ,
t
t
: Im = jQm, ..
.
, ,

.
,

4.2-
-


(.
.4.2). - l

. ,
, ,
,
(. .4.3),
..
.
+q
q
.

.



E, H

J . 4.3-


, (4.11):


e jkr
a jkr
=

= a J
dV =
e
I mejtd =

4 r
4 V
r

0

= a I me jkrejt
4 r

(4.13)


(. .4.4). (4.3)
:

=
rot
a
rot
.

(4.13) , A
r ( ), :

4.4-
r = 0


(4.14)
= 0

= I m (1+ jkr) sinej(t kr)

4r2

. rot
-

1-
X :
( ,

ro
o
o
,
r
r 2 sin r sin
0):

rotX =

rot
= ja ,
Xr
rX r sinX

=
rot

:
.

ja
: ro , o , o
rot :
.

I m
(1+ jkr) cos ej(tkr)
r =
3
j2ar

I m
(1+ jkr k 2r 2) sin ej(tkr)
(4.15)
=
3
j
4

= 0

(4.14) (4.15) ,

4.

r.
.
:
, r
, .. r << .
:
f
k = a a = 2f 0 0 = 2
= 2 / ,
c
1
: c =
;
0 0
,
( ),
r << :
k r << 1 0, k 2r2 0
jkr
1
e
(4.11) (4.15)

= I m sinejt

4r2

I m
cosejt
(4.16)
E r = j
3
2

I m
sinejt
= j
3
4ar

, (..
)

= I m sin cost = H m cost


= Re
4r 2

I m
cos sint = E rmsint
(4.17)
r = Re[ r ] =
3
2

I
m
sin sint = E m sint
= Re[ ] =
3
4ar

(4.17)

:
1. r
, 1/r3,
1/r2.

[ ]

sin(t) = cos(t - /2),


900.
3. (..
, S
). (4.17) ,
:
r =

= r
.

:
r ] = m sint m cost = m m 1 sin2t
Re[
2
] = rmsint m cost = rm m 1 sin2t
Re[
2
,
sin(2t) , ..
. ,

. ,
( 2)
,
.
2.

,
.
.4.5
.

4.5 - , "" ""


. , ( z)
"" , "
" .

.


.

, r >> , , kr >> 1. ,
:

4.

(1+ jkr) jkr

2 2
2 2
(1+ jkr k r ) k r
(4.14) (4.15)
:

= j I mk sinej(t kr)

4r

I mk2

sinej(t kr)
(4.18)
= j
4

r
a


)
r << ,(

= I mk sin cos(t kr) = m cos(t kr)


= Re
4r

(4.19)

2
I

k
= Re[ ] = m
sin cos(t kr) = m cos(t kr)


4ar
(4.19)

:
1.
1/r;
2. :
r
0 0
k

(tkr) = (t r ) = (t r
) = (t r
) = (t ) ,
(4.20)

c
: =
- .

3. :
r =
.

[ ]

r ] = m cos(t kr)H m cos(t


Re [
kr) = EmH m cos2(t kr).
,

.
,

4.6-


E, H, .

4.


.
-
(t kr) = (t r/). , t,
r. , ,
- : = mcos() .
, (4.19) ,
,

. E H
r (..
)
(. .4.6).

4.3 ,

,
.

.


:
- ;
- .
, ,
,
.


(.. )
(.. r = const):
E (, ) H m(, )
F(, ) = m
=
,
E mmax
H mmax
: mmax, mmax m(, ) m(,),
.
(4.19) , , m(,),
:
I mk2
o
E mmax = E m( = 90 ) =
.
4ar

4.

,
:
E (,)
F(,) = m
= sin ,
(4.21)
mmax
.
(=900); .

(. .4.7).

,
l
I .
(.. )
(3.9),
..3.2:

1 1
4.7-
= Re
= Re mH m .

2
2

(4.18)

:

2
1 I 2cm2k3

1 I mk
j / 2 I cmk
j / 2
2
= Re
sine

sine
sin
.
=
2
2
2 4
r
4

r
2
16

r
a

Hm
(4.22)

, ,
S. ,

.
,
S,
:

P = dS .
S

S , 4.8-
, dS

2
d d dS = r sin d d (.. 4.8)
, :

P = r sin d d = r2 sin d d =
S

00

I 2m2k3r2 2 3
I 2m2k3 4
=
d sin d = 16 3
32 2ar2 0 0
a

(4.23)

4/ 3

,
.
(4.23)
1
, : P = I 2R .
2
(4.23) :
1
P = I 2mR ,
2
2 2
k
4
- .
: R =
8a 3

, , (4.24),
.
2
R , k = a a =
:

a a 1

1
k
1
R = (k)2
= (k)2
= (k)2 a =
6
a 6
a
6

a
(4.25)
Zc
1 2 2
2 2
( ) Zc =
( ) Zc
6
3
a
Zc =
:

[]

a
() .
.
, Z , ,
.
=

4.4 .



.

4.


(. . 4.1):


rot
= j ~
a + J

rot = j

divD =
=0
div

0 , ,
:


rot
= j a + J

rot = j a

div = / a

div
=0


,
J . ,

.
. , ,
:


rot
= ja + J


J
rot = j a

div = /

div
= /

, ,
, :
(4.26)
H E, a a, , J J ,
,
. ,
, .
.

.

l

I (. .4.9)

(4.26),
4.9-

, (4.16) (4.18).
:
:

I m
jt

sin

e
=

4r2

I m

sin ej(t kr)


= j

I m
4r

jt
cos

e
r = j

2
2r3

= j I m sin ej(t kr)



4r
I

m
=j

sin

4ar3
(4.16) (4.18) ,

, .


(,) m(,)
F (,) = m
=
= sin ,
E mmax
mmax
.

(4.24):
1
P = I mR ,
(4.27)
2
: R :
2

2
2 1
,
R = Zc =
3
3 Zc
: Z =

1
( Z =
Zc

a
).
a

(4.28)

4.

,

(.. ).


(. .4.10). ,

, E H
- 4.10-

(.

.4.11).
,
.
,
L << .

:
l () ;
Im 4.11-
.

.
( )
(. . 4.2):
I m = jQm
,
(4.29)
I m = jQm = j
: = Qml
.
(4.29), ,
:
I m = jQm = j ,
: = Qm l
. , ,
:
= aI mS ,

: Im ,
, S , .
:
I m = jaI mS ,
:
I m

= jI m = I me

= aS