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5.

5.1

.
5.2

.
5.3

.
5.4


.
5.5

,
,
,
,
.

..
,
.. ,

(

, ,
). ,
,

. ,


.

5.1

.


.
.


.

.

(, y, z)
.

V
,
,
V z,

5.1-

(. .5.1).


1 2 .
, 1 2 , V
y, ..:

=
= 0.
x y

, ,

E
H

(.. E = const, H = const).


,
. ,
, . ,
. 5.1,
(z = const).

5.

,
,
.
,



.
(. .5.2).,
V, 5.2-

a, b

R , V
( )
,
.

5.2 .


.

.

, , ,
( I = 0, = 0) (
= 0).
:

rot
= jD
+ J = ja + = j a + = j a j = j~
a ,
j

(5.1)

5.3- a


= a ja -

.
~
a (. .5.3)
-
, ,
:
,
,a
tg =
=
.
(5.2)
a a

,
. ,
,
I, , ,

,
, .
,
, (
).
1- 2- :

rotH
= j ~
aE

rotE = j H
a = a j
: ~

1- .
rot :

.
rotrot
= j ~
arot = 2~
a a

rotrot = graddiv 2 , A - ,
:

.
rotrot
= graddiv
2
= 2

, 4- div = div = 0
a
, :

(5.3)
2 + 2~
a a
= 0.
~
~
k 2 = 2~
, k
a a

,
.
2-

:

5.

~
(5.4)
2 + k 2 = 0.
(5.3) (5.4)
.
,
( )
. ,
(5.3) (5.4)
:
(
)

.

.

x = y = 0 , (5.4), 2 ,
:
2
x ~2

+ k x = 0
2
z
2

y ~2
(5.5)
2 + k y = 0

2 z ~2
2 + k z = 0
z
, , "" ,
, .
3-

: divD = = 0 ( ,
).
div:
y
x
z
= 0,
= 0,
= 0.
(5.6)
x
y
z
(5.5) ,
z = 0, ,
:
2 y ~2
2 x ~2
+ k x = 0,
+ k y = 0.
2
2
z
z

, :

e jkz + D
ejkz ,
e jkz +
ejkz ,
(5.7)
y = C
x =
,D
,B
,C
,
:

ej t.
,
2- :

rot

.
rot = ja
j a

=
= 0, :
rot ,
x y

1 y
1 ~ j~
~ j~
kz

=
=

j
k
C
e
+
j
kDe kz

ja z
ja

1 x
1 ~ j~
~ j~
kz

=
j
k

j
ke kz

(5.8)
y

ja z
ja

z =0

:
~
~
~
~
1 j~
kz
jkz
e jkz + D
ejkz ) = ~

x = k (C

C
e
+
D
e

a
Zc

~
1 j~
y=~
ejkz ,

e kz

Zc
a
a
~
Zc = ~a =
=
, , 4,
~
a
~
a a
k
() .
.
(. . 5.7 5.8)
:
:

~
~

jkz
jkz

e
+

e
x
,

~
~
1

j
k
z
j
k
z

y = ~ e
e

Zc

~
~

jkz
e jkz + D

=
C
e
y

~
1 j~
ejkz
x=~

Ce kz + D

Zc

(5.9)


.

:

5.
1)

2)

: ,

E
, H
y, ,

E y, H
.

: -jkz, ,
z

jkz,

,
(
z).

5.3

.
.


(,
).
(5.9) ,

z:
~
~

jkz
e jkz

=
C
y
x

~
j~

k
z
y=
x = C e jkz

Zc
Zc
,
,C
:

ej t.
, ,
, (, const),
~
0, : k = k = a a .

:

jkz jkz

= x + y = x0
e
+ y0Ce = x0ej a ejte jkz + y0Cej c ejtejkz

= Hy + H
x0ej(t kz+ a ) y0Cej(t kz+ c )
x=
Zc


: x0, y0 , ,
.
:

= Re[E ] = x0 cos(t kz + a) + y0C cos(t kz + c )

(5.10)
1
[ x0 cos( t kz + a ) y0C cos( t kz + c ) ]
= Re[H
]=
Zc
(5.10)

E ,
, .. z.
E (5.10)

. ,

.
z ( z = 0),

:
(5.10)

= x0 cos( t + a ) + y0C cos( t + c ) = x0 cos( t) + y0C cos( t + )


: = a c -
.
:
1) = 0 1800, :

= x0 cost + y0C cost = m cost

(5.10)

: m = 2 + C 2
, m 0

2 + C 2 , E
(..5.4). ,

.


:
() , 0,
= 0;
()
,
5.4
= 0, 0.

2) = 900 , :

5.

o
= x0 cost + y0C cos

t
+
90

= m( cost + sint)
sint

(5.10)

: m = 2 + C2 , (cos t + sin t)
.

, E
,
(..5.5).
.

E 5.5 -
-:



( ), = 900
(
), = 900 = 2700
3) , 00, 900, 1800 2700, :

= x0 cost + y0C cos( t + ) = m( cost + cos( t + ) )

(5.10)

.
,

E

(..5.6).

.
0 1800,
5.6 -

.
0
0
180 360 ,
.
: ,

.

, ,
z. z

(5.10 ,,)



t, ..5.7.
,
xy :
-
-
5.7 -

()
()
.
5.4.

.


( , ),
.
(5.9)
:
e jkz = ej( t kz)
x =
~

~
1 j~
1
y=~

e kz = ~ ej( t kz)
Zc
Zc


.
:

k= ~
a a = a j a = a a = k ;
= 0;

a
~
Zc = ~a =
= Zc ,
k
k

5.

,
.
:

x ( z, t) = Re[E x ] = cos( t kz)


(5.11)

y ] = 1 cos( t kz)
y ( z, t) = Re[H

Zc
(5.11), .5.7

.5.7
(5.11)

:
5.7 -
1.
.
2.
:
= Z
,
.


() :
a
a
0

x / y = Zc =
=
=
= 120
k
0

a a
0
= 120 = Z0 -
0
. , Z
.

(z,t) =
cos(t kz). ,

. (t kz) ,
t z.
:

z,
,
:
= 2/
t,
z, :
= 2/
,
((t kz) = const), ,
.
z = const.

V . V ,
(t kz) = const
, :
dz
k = 0
dt
:
dz

1
c
V =
= =
=
=
(5.12)
dt k a a
0 0

1
: =
= 3 . 108 /
0 0
.
(5.12)
.

5.5


.


,
. :
1.
() .

(. . 1.2).

. , ,
.

5.

,

.
:
~
a = a j a = 0 j
2. .

( e ) .
,
, ,
.
/.

: ,

.
:

~
a = a j a j
(5.13)

(5.13)
,
:
a = /
:

~
= a (1 jtg )
a = a j j = a1 j
(5.14)

+ ,a
=
tg - (. 5.2)

a
a

= tg -
.
a
. (5.14) ,
:
1) ( ,
)
2) ( e ,
).
a
~
k :

~
k= ~
a a = a (1 jtg ) a = ~
a e j a = ~
a a e j / 2 =
(5.15)
~ j / 2
= ke
= j
~
: k - , - .

, .
(5.15):
a (1 jtg ) a = j
:
2( a a j a atg ) = 2 j2 2.
:
2 a a = 2 2
2 a atg = 2
:

= a a 1+ 1+ tg2

(5.16)
a a
2
=
1+ 1+ tg

2

,
. (5.9)
:
~
e jkz = ejte j( j ) z = e zej( t z)
=
~ j / 2
~
ke
j~

k
jt j( j )
y = ~ e kz =
e e
=
e ze j( t z) =
a
a
Z
1
= ~ e ze j( t z / 2)
Zc
:
x ( z, t) = Re[ x ] = e z cos( t z)

[ ]

y = e z cos( t z / 2)
y ( z, t) = Re
~
Zc

(5.17)

(5.17) (5.11)
. :
1) y , /2;

5.

- z
,
.
3)

(
)

.
,
:
= 2/,
:

1
V = =

a a
.
2
1+ 1+ tg

2
, ,
+
tg =
, V
a
.
,

.
5.8 -
.5.8

.
.
l
:
m( z + ) e ( z+ )
=
= e .

z
m( z)
e
() 20lg :
( z + )
L = 20lg m
= 20lge = 20lge = 8,69.
[/]
m( z)
2)

:
) . << 1 (..1.1) ,
, : tg = tg << 1. tg,
:
a a

a a tg

,
k , -
.
) . >> 1 (.1.1) tg >> 0,
(5.16) :

= a a tg
2

, , tg =
,
a
,
. , ,
, ( ) ,
. , (. . 2.3)
.