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6.

6.1

.
6.2

6.3



.
6.4

6.

,

, ,

.

. ,
,
;

,
..

,
.

6.1


.
.

y, .6.1, ,

:
1, 1,
z < 0;

2, 2,
z > 0.

, ..
6.1-
, 1 = 2 0.



z = 0
.

(5.9):

j( t k1z)
+ ej( t+ k1z)
x = e
,
z < 0
(6.1)

y = 1 ej( t k1z) ej( t+ k1z)

Zc1
: k1 = a1 a1 ,

a1

a1
:
Zc1 =

'
' j( t k 2z)
+ 'ej( t+ k 2z)
x = e
,
z > 0

1
(
)
(
)
j

k
z
j

t
+
k
z
'
'
'
2
2

H y =
e
e

Zc2
: k2 = a2 a2 ;

Zc2 =

a2
.
a2

(6.2)

6.

(6.2), , ,
z = 0 2 , 2,

, , ,
, .. z = 0.
' = 0 ( ,
).
:
'
' j( t k 2z)
x = e

,
z > 0
(6.3)

'

(
)
j

k
z
'

2
=
e
y Zc
z =
0. ,
(. . 2.2) , ..
1 = 2

1 = 2 ,
z = 0.
:
y=H
y ,
H

E x = E x ,

(ejt e jt ) = Z1

c2

'
,
1+ =

1+=,

'ejt
,

1
1 ' jt
ejt e jt =
e
Zc1
Zc2
,
B Zc1 '
=
,
A Zc2
Zc1
1=T
,
Zc2
1

= - ,

'
= T - .

, :

1+ = T

Z
1 = T c1

Zc2
T, :
Z Zc1
= c2
Zc2 + Zc1
2Zc2
T=
(6.4)
Zc2 + Zc1
:

( 1) m

(1)

jk
z
jk
z
j
2
k
z j( t k1z)
j

t
x = e e 1 + e 1 = 1+ e 1 e

(1) y = 1 ejt e jk1z ejk1z = 1 A 1 ej2k1z ej( t k1z)

Zc1
Z1
c

( 1) m
( 2)
j( t k 2z)
x = e

( 2) y = 1 j( t k 2z)

Zc2
, ,
.
E (1)m = A (1+ ej2k1z ) ,
.6.2.

) (
)

6.2-

,
, ,
Z1

Z2, ,
.
:
1. .

a1 a2
=
, (6.4) ,
a1 a2
= 0, = 1. , ,
.
Z1 = Z2,

6.

2. .
(2 = ), :

a2
~
Zc2 = ~a2 =
0
2
.
a2
a2 j

(6.4) , : = 1, = 0. ,
(.. = 0),
:
(1) x = 1 1ej2k1z ej( t k1z) = e jk1z ejk1z ejt = 2 j sin(k1z)ejt =
= 2 sin(k z)ej( t+ / 2)

( 1) y = 1+ 1ej2k1z ej( t k1z) = 2 cos(k1z)ejt .

(6.5)
Zc1
Zc1
(6.5)
900.
:
sin(t)

= Re (1) x
(1) y = (1)xmcos t + (1) ymcos(t) =

1
= (1) xm (1) ym sin(2t)
2
,
,
. ,
,
.
. , z ,

.
.
, ()
()
z.
. (6.5) :

j t +

2
(1) x = 2 sin(k1z)e
:
m

( 1) x ( z, t) = Re (1) x = 2 sin(k1z) cos t + = m sint


2

:
m = 0
z = 0, /1, 2/1 ..

m = 2

z =
/21, 3/21 ..

m
2A
z
5/2k
2/k
3/2k
/k
/2k
0
1
1
1
1
1

|Em|
.6.3.
,
z
5
/4

3
/4

/2

/4
0
1
1
1
1
1

6.3 -
.


(, ).

6.2


.

.

:
) ,
z.
z`,
z
(..6.4).
,


x` y` z` :
E ` = -jkz`
y` = Ae-jkz`
H
z`
, 6.4-

y, z. ,

, z`
1, 2, 3, .6.4, :
z` = x cos 1 + y cos 2 + z cos 3 .

6.


:
(6.6)
E x = Ae jk(x cos1+ y cos 2 + z cos 3)
)
:

1 : E
, ..
() .

2 : E
, ..
() .
.
1

.

(.6.5).

6.5-


x`, y`, z`:
E o = A e jk1z

'

A jk1z'
e
Zc1
, y, z.
, y, z z`
Ho =

1 = 900 => cos( 1) = 0

2 = 900 1 => cos(90 1) = sin 1


3 = 1 => cos 1
, (6.6) :
o
jk1( y sin1+ z cos1)
= e
(6.7)

o = e jk1( ysin1+ z cos1)

Zc1
z = 0
.
:
:
:
E o = A e jk1z
Ho =

''

e jk1z

E + = A e jk 2z
''

H+ =

'''

e jk 2z

'''

Zc1
Zc2
, y, z:
1 = 900 => os( 1) = 0
1 = 900 => cos( 1) = 0
2 = 90 - 2 => sin 2
2 = 90 - 3 => sin 3
3 = 180 - 2 => - cos 2
3 = 3 => cos 3
:
= jk1( ysin 2 z cos 2 )
+ = e jk 2( ysin3 + z cos 3 )
=

jk1( ysin 2 z cos 2 )

(6.7)

+ =

e jk 2( ysin3 + z cos 3 )

(6.7)

Zc1
Zc2
z = 0,
,
:
1 = 2;
1 = 2 z =0.
, .6.5 (6.7) :
A e jk1y sin1 + A e jk1y sin2 = A e jk2y sin3
1
1
A cos1e jk1ysin1 +
A cos 2e jk1ysin 2 =
Zc1
Zc1
(6.8)
1
jk 2y sin 3
=
A cos3e
Zc1
(6.8)
(.. y),
, :
k1sin 1 = k1sin 2 = k2sin 3
:

6.

1 2
2. :
sin3 k1 a1 a1 n1
=
=
=
= n12
sin1 k2 a2 a2 n2
1.

n2 = a2 a2 : n1 = a1 a1 ,

; n12
. ( 6.8)
:

+ =
1
1
1

A cos1 +
cos1 =
A os3
Zc1
Zc1
Zc2
, ,
|| = A A T|| = A A . :

1+ || = T||

Z
1 || cos1 = T|| c1 cos3

Zc2
R || T|| :

Zc2 cos1 Zc1cos3

|| = Z cos + Z cos
c2
1
c1
3
(6.9)

2Zc2 cos1
T|| =

Zc2 cos1 + Zc1cos3


(6.9)
.
2 . (.6.6).

6.5-

,
:
1.
,

`, y`, z`, ``, y``, z`` ```, y```, z```.
2. , y, z,
1, 2, 3.
3.
z = 0:
1 = 2;
1 = 2.
.6.6 :

jk1y sin1
+ cos 2e jk1ysin 2 = cos3e jk 2ysin 3
cos1e
1
1
1

e jk1ysin1
e jk1ysin 2 =
e jk 2ysin3
Zc1
Zc1
Zc2

y, :
k1sin 1 = k1sin 2, k1sin 1 = k2sin 3,
.. , :

cos1 + cos 2 = cos3


1
1
1


=

Zc1
Zc1
Zc2
4.

= /
= /. :

(1+ ) cos1 = T cos3

Z
(1 ) = T c1

Zc2
:
Zc2 cos3 Zc1 cos1

Zc2 cos3 + Zc1cos1

2Zc2 cos1
T =

Zc2 cos3 + Zc1 cos1

(6.10)

6.

6.3


.

.


,
( = 0). ,
, :
1. , .: 22 > 11;
2. , .: 11 > 22.
. ,
= 1,
22 > 11 :
010 > 010

2 > 1.
: 2
1
.
R
, ..
.
(..6.9 6.10) :
:
:
|| = 0 , : Z2cos 1 = Z1cos 3,
= 0, : Z1cos 1 = Z2cos 3,
Zc2 cos3
Zc1 os3
=
=
:
:
Zc1 cos1
Zc2 cos1
:

cos3 = 1 1 sin2 1 .
2
:

1 1 sin2 1
1 1 sin2 1
2
2
1
2
(6.11)
(6.11)
=
=
2
cos1
1
cos1

(6.11)
: 1
|| = 0 .

= 0 , , (6.11
), 1 :

2
tg21 = 2 ,
: 1 = arctg
(6.12)
1
1
, (6.12) .

.
, ..
(1 > 2).
:
1
sin 3 =
sin1
2

sin1 = 2 1 , sin 3 = 1 3 = 900. ..


, ,
.
, 1 = arcsin 2 1 ,
. 1

.

.
:
1 = 0 + = e jk1( ysin1+ z cos1) + e jk1( ysin 2 z cos 2 )

.. , : = , :
1 = 2, :

(
jk z cos
z cos
) jk ysin
= (
e
+
ejk

1 = e jk1( ysin1+ z cos1) + e jk1( ysin1 z cos1) =


1

=
(6.13)

= 2 cos( k1zcos1) e jk1ysin1



( 1) m

,
( y)
:
= k1 sin 1

6.

(.. z)
:
= k1 cos 1
,

,
-
, -
( z)
-

,
.5.1,

-
.
-


6.6-
t (. .6.6).

:
2 = + = e jk2( y sin3+ z cos3)
2- : sin 3 =

1
sin1 (.. sin2 + cos2 = 1),
2

:
cos 3 = 1 sin2 3 = 1

1 2
sin 1
2

sin1 2 1 , :
os 3 = j .
:
2 = e jk 2( ysin3 zj ) = e k 2z e jk 2ysin3

(6.14)
( 2) m

,
(.. y)
:

= k 2 sin 3 = k2 1 sin1
2
m(2)
( z).

, ,
z, (..6.6).
.
6.4
.

.
.


,
, .
1 0, 2 , :
a1
a1
a2
Zc1 =
=
Zc2 =
0
1
2
.
a1 ;
a1 j
a2 j

, ,
1:
|| = 1
= 1

T
=
0
||
T = 0

, .
,
.
:
1 = 0 + = e jk1( ysin1+ z cos1) e jk1( y sin1 z cos1) =

jk1z cos1
1z cos1 jk1y sin1 =
=
e

ejk

(6.15)

= 2j sin( k1zcos1) e jk1ysin1

( 1) m

,

:
= k1 sin 1

:
= k1 os 1
, ,
, .

6.

.6.6. ,
, .

.
:
2 = + = e jk2( ysin3+ zcos3) .
:

a1
sin 3 = ~a1 sin1 =
sin1 0
2
a2
a2 j

3.
:
cos 3 = 1 sin2 3 1.
k2 :

k2 = ~
a2 a2 = a2 j 2 a2 j a2 2 = j a2 2 =

= (1 j)

a2 2
1
= (1 j)

2
1/

2

a2 2

.

:
2 =

j( 1 j) z

1
1
z j z
e e

(6.16)

m( 2)

, 1


(.. z).
,
2 :
2 = Re[ 2 ] =

1
z

e cos

1
z

, - ,
(,

13,5%
).

:
2
2

=
=
=
[]
(6.17)
a
a2f
f
: ,
.6.1; f .
6.1

64,2

66

82,6
(6.17) ,
( 3 5 ) .

,
.
.
,
.
.
-
-

-
(.. 6.7).
, -
,


)
)
,
, - 6.7-
() ()

(..

6.7). ,
,
:

J = E .

E (6.16). j t,
, :

6.
1
z
J (z, t) = A e cos(t

1
z).

, J (0,0) = J 0 = A
,
:
1
z
J (z, t) = J 0e cos(t

1 .
z)

,
.

. ,
,

2 3 .
, ,
, (,
50
).