Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 195

. .

2007

, .
, .
,
, .


,
.
,
. , ,
.
, . . n- (
n = 2 , 3 , . . . ). , . , .
, ,
.
, , . (
), .
. ,

,
. ,
, Rn ,
.
.
. . . .
. . . . LATEX 2 .

: , . . . . ,
. . .

20. ,


, .

20.1

.
Rb
f : f (x) dx 2 (T ) a

T, . 1:

2 (T ) =

Zb

f (x) dx .




T R3 (. 2).


Y 6

y = f (x)

...........................
.........
...
.......
............................
....
...

b X

. 1.

z = f (x , y) > 0 , (x , y) D R2

20.

T := (x , y , z) R3 (x , y) D ; 0 6 z 6 f (x , y) . (20.1)

3 (T ) (20.1). ,
, . . : ? , .
3 , , :
a) 3 (A) > 0 ();
b) A B = 3 (A) 6 3 (B) ();
c) 3 (A B) = 3 (A) + 3 (B) 3 (A B) ();
d)
.
Z
6
z.........=
f (x, y)
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

,
.
.
.
..................
.....
...........
.....
........
....
.......
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

(20.1)
.
.
.
.... ....
...
...
...
... ..............................
..........
..
,


................
.
.......
....... ....
........
..

-

O
D

D = D 1 D2 . . . D N

,


. {D1 , . . . , DN } D,
D ( )
.
X

. 2.

(k , k ) Dk , k = 1, . . . , N ,

Tk := (x , y , z) R3 (x , y) Dk , 0 6 z 6 f (x , y)

Dk f (k , k ). -

20.1.

3 (T )

N
X

k=1

f (r , k ) 2 (Dk ) .

(20.2)


(20.2) , .
, (20.2) f D. ,

3 (T ) := lim

N
X

k=1

f (l , k ) 2 (Dk ) =:

ZZ

f (x , y) dx dy

, . ( ).
.....................
.
Z 6 ................ .........................
.
...
..
...
.
, . . ...
...
..
...
..
..
..
.
..
.....
..
........
T
.. .......
.......
.
.
3
.
.
.
.
.
.
... .
.. ...........
T R (. 3).
..
............... ....................... ....
...
..........
.
.
...
...
...
...
....
...
.....
...
........
.
.
.
.
.
................... .................
.....
M (T ),
Y
,
X
. . : T

R+ . ,
. 3. R3
,
. . = (x, y, z) const,
3 (T ).
, T
T = T1 T2 . . . TN , .
, . . T .
(k , k , k ) Tk , T

20.


N
X

k=1

(20.3)

(k , k , k ) 3 (Tk ) ,

.
(20.3) 0:
M (T ) := lim

N
X

k=1

(k , k , k ) 3 (Tk ) =:

ZZZ

f (x, y, z) dx dy dz .

, , .

20.2

20.2.1

,

n-

20.1. n- Rn ,
:= [a1 , b1 ] [a2 , b2 ] . . . [an , bn ] ,

(20.4)

< ak 6 bk < + k = 1, 2, . . . , n.
n-

n () := (b1 a1 ) (b2 a2 ) . . . (bn an ) .

(20.5)

n () > 0, ,
n () = 0 .

20.2.

. 4 , .

n=1

n=2

n=3

. 4.

n-
(20.4) f : R,
k = 1, . . . , n
ak = xk0 < xk1 < . . . < xknk = bk
[ak , bk ].
( ):
U = [x1 , x1+1 ] [x2 , x2+1 ] . . . [xn , xn+1 ] .

(20.6)

(20.5):
(U ) = n (U ) = (x1+1 x1 ) (x2+1 x2 ) . . . (xn+1 xn ) .
N (20.6).
, , . (20.6)
T := {U1 , U2 , . . . , UN }

(20.7)

.
= (T ) = max {diam Uk }
k

(20.8)

T.

(T ) =

N
X

k=1

(Uk ) .

10

20.


k = (k1 , k2 . . . , kn ) Uk , k = 1, . . . , N ,
() . (T, ) .
20.2.
(f ; T, ) :=

N
X

k=1

f ( k ) (Uk )

(20.9)

n-
f : R , T . f , 1
(20.9) (T ) 0.
n- f .
:
Z
Z
ZZ
Z
f = f (x) dx =
f (x1 , . . . , xn ) dx1 . . . dxn :=

:=

lim (f ; T, ) ,

(T )0

(20.10)

x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) Rn ,
dx = dx1 . . . dxn n- .
( ) (. .
). ( )
(. . , ). ,
.
, f
f . ,
.
1

11

20.2.

20.2.2

f : R , ,
T = {U1 , U2 , . . . , UN } .
mj := inf f (x) ,
Uj

Mj := sup f (x) ,

(20.11)

Uj

2 .
20.3.
s(f, T ) :=

N
X
j=1

mj (Uj )

S(f, T ) :=

N
X
j=1

Mj (Uj ) (20.12)


f , T .
f : R , (20.11)
Uj . , (20.10).
. .
1 . (f ; T, ) :
s(f, T ) 6 (f ; T, ) 6 S(f, T ) .
,
s(f, T ) = inf (f ; T, ) ;

S(f, T ) = sup (f ; T, ) .

2 . , .
J
,
[ak , bk ] .
2

(18421917) .

12

20.

T 0 =
Uj j
,

T 00 = Ukj k, j .
00
0

S : T T . ,
Uj = Ukj j.
k

S(f, T ) =

X
j

S(F, T 00 ) =

Mj (Uj ) ;

XX
j

Mkj (Ukj ) ,

Mkj := sup f (x) 6 sup f (x) = Mj .


Ukj

Uj

,
XX
X
S(f, T 00 ) =
Mkj (Ukj ) 6
Mj (Uj ) = S(f, T 0 ) .
j

,
s(f, T 00 ) =

XX
j

mkj (Ukj ) >

X
j

mj (Uj ) = s(f, T 0 ) . I

3 .
s(f, T 0 ) 6 S(f, T 00 ) .

(20.13)

J
, T , T T 0 T T 00 .

s(f, T 0 ) 6 s(f, T ) 6 S(f, T ) 6 S(f, T 00 ) ,
. I
4 . f : R ,
I := sup s(f, T )
T

I := inf S(f, T ) ,
T

(20.14)

I 6 I .
J , (20.13) ,
,
. (20.14) I

13

20.2.

20.4. (20.14)
f .
:
Z
Z
I =
I = f ;
f.

20.1 ( ).
n-
f : R :
lim [S(f, T ) s(f, T )] = 0 .

(T )0

(20.15)

J , . ,
Z
lim (f ; T, ) = f = I R .
(T )0

-:
R+ R+ (T, ) : (T ) 6 = I 6 (f ; T, ) 6 I+ .
inf sup
1 ,
I 6 S(f, T ) 6 I + ,
I + > s(f, T ) > I .
,
: 0 6 S(f, T ) s(f, T ) 6 2, . .
(20.15).
, (20.15).
s(f, T ) 6 I 6 I 6 S(f, T ) ,

0 6 I I 6 S(f, T ) s(f, T ) 0

(T ) 0 .

14

20.

, I = I , . . . I,
:
s(f, T ) 6 I 6 S(f, T ) .
,
S(f, T ) > (F ; T, ) > s(f, T ) .
,
|(f ; T, ) I| 6 S(f, T ) s(f, T ) .
(T ) 0,

f =I. I

. , (20.15) :
lim

(T )0

N
X
j=1

(20.16)

(f, Uj ) (Uj ) = 0 ,

(f, Uj ) f Uj T .

. f : R
, .
J , :

.
R R U T : diam U 6 = (f, U ) 6
()
T , (T ) 6 .
S(f, T ) s(f, T ) =
=

N
X

k=1

N
X

k=1

Mk (Uk )

(Mk mk )(Uk ) =

N
X

mk (Uk ) =

k=1

N
X

(f ; Uk )(Uk ) 6

k=1
N

X
(Uk ) = .
()
k=1

, (20.15). I

15

20.2.

20.2.3

1 . f (x) c Rn ,
Z
c = c () ,

() .
J
(f ; T, ) =

N
X
j=1

c (Uj ) = c ()

, . I
2 .
f1 f2 ,
Z
Z
Z
(c1 f1 + c2 f2 ) = c1 f1 + c2 f2 .
(20.17)

J
:
(c1 f1 + c2 f2 ; T, ) =

N
X
j=1

= c1

N
X
j=1

(c1 f1 (j ) + c2 f2 (j )) (Uj ) =

f1 (j )(Uj ) + c2

N
X

f2 (j )(Uj ) =

j=1

= c1 (f1 ; T, ) + c2 (f2 ; T, ) .

(T ) 0,
(20.17). I
3 . f ,
.
J .
, f : R , T = {U1 , U2 , . . . , UN }

16

20.

.
(f ; T, ) +
T ( ). ,
lim (f ; T, ) . I
(T )0
R
R
4 (). f 6 g, f 6 g.

J (Uj ) > 0, (f ; T, ) 6 (g; T, ).


, . I
5 ( ). f : R
Z Z

f 6 |f | .
(20.18)

m () 6

f 6 M () ,

(20.19)

m = inf f (x) ,

M = sup f (x) .

J (20.18) ,
4 |f | 6 f 6 |f |.
(20.19) , 4

m 6 f (x) 6 M . I
6 . f : R g : R
, f g : R
.
J (20.16), (f g, U ) f g
U .
Mf := sup |f (x)| R+ ,

Mg := sup |g(x)| R+ .

17

20.3.

,
(f g, U ) =

sup
x0 , x00 U

sup
x0 , x00 U

[f (x0 )g(x0 ) f (x00 )g(x00 )] =

{f (x0 )[g(x0 ) g(x00 )] g(x00 )[f (x0 ) f (x00 )]} 6


6 Mf (g, U ) + Mg (f, U ) .

T = {U1 , U2 , . . . , UN } ,
06

N
X

k=1

(f g, Uk ) (Uk ) 6

6 Mf

N
X

k=1

(g, Uk )(Uk ) + Mg

N
X

k=1

(f, Uk )(Uk ) 0

(T ) 0 f g . I

20.3



20.3.1

Rn

20.5. E Rn
n- , R+
E
n- , .

.
1. (a)
.
(b)
.
(c) .
(d) n- n- .

18

20.

. 1) Qn Rn .
2) f : R ,
(n 1)- Rn1 .

f = (x, y) Rn x ; y = f (x)

n- .
J
R+ R+ x0 , x00 : |x0 x00 | 6 = |f (x0 )f (x00 )| 6 .

I , .
f .
x I , n- e

o ) , f (x ) + ].
n I := I [f (x
e

I f .

X

n (Ie ) 6

2n1 (I ) = 2 n1 () .

, . I
. n- , ( ) 20.5.

20.6. E Rn
n- ,
R+
E
n- I , .

. 1. E Rn
, .
J :
E
. I
2. , E Rn ,
. , , : , Qn Rn , , .

19

20.3.

, ( ,
Qn ).

20.7. ,
,
, .
20.3.2

20.8.
f : A R, A Rn
x A
(f ; x) := lim (f ; K (x)) ,
+0

K (x)
x.
. (f ; K (x)) , (f ; x) . (f ; x) = 0 ,
f x.

2 ( ). K
Rn , f : K R

x K : (f ; x) 6 0 ,

R+ R+ x K : (f ; K (x)) 6 0 + .
. 0 = 0 , 0 > 0
, . .

20

20.

20.2 ( ). :
(a) f : R ;
(b) f : R
.
J (a)(b)
.
M := sup |f (x)| R+ .

, f
, -
: E := x (f ; x) > 0
.
E=

k=1

Ek ,

Ek := x (f ; x) > 1k ,

1(b) , k0 N, , Ek0
.
P = {I1 , . . . , IN } .
P : P = A t B,

1
, B := P A .
A := I P I Ek0 6= , (f, I ) >
2k0

, A
Ek0 . , x Ek0 , I P ,
x. , I A. x
I , . . x I ,
(f, I ) > (f, x) >

1
1
>
,
k0
2k0

. . I A. x Ek0 I , f
12k0 . A.

21

20.3.

0 , 00 I ,
B : 0 = 00 , A
:

f ( 0 ) f ( 00 ) > 1 .
3k0

S(f, P ) s(f, P ) > |(f ; P, ) (f ; P, )| =

X
X

0
00
f ( ) f ( ) (I ) >

(I ) > c > 0 ,
=
3k0

I A

I A

A Ek0 ,
. ,
( 20.1),
f : R .
(b)(a) R+ ,

E := x (f, x) > .
E E, E . , .
{I1 , . . . , Ik }, ,
E
C1 :=

k
S

k
[

=1

I0

k
X

(I ) < .

=1

I , C2 C3 -

=1

, I 3
2 3 . ,
E C1 , d := dist {Fr C2 ; Fr C3 }
.
,
, C3 , 3n .
3
,
() , .

22

20.

, , d, C3 , C2 , . . K := C20 .
E K, , x K : (f, x) < . 2 :
R+ x1 , x2 K : |x1 x2 | 6 = |f (x1 ) f (x2 )| < 2 .

P 0 := I0 ,

P 00 := I00



min [d, ],

,
P := I := I0 I00 , .

P
n (I ),
0 , 00 , . , n (I0 ) =

X h

|(f ; P 0 , 0 ) (f ; P, )| =
f ( 0 ) f ( ) n (I ) 6
,

X
X

6
f ( 0 ) f ( ) n (I )+
f ( 0 ) f ( ) n (I ) .
1
2
P
1 ,
I , I I P 0 P

C3 . P
2 .
|f (x)| 6 M , 1 6 2M 3n . ,
0
0
0
0 , P
I K (P ) < , |f ( )f ( )| < 2
, , 2 6 2 n (P ). ,
|(f ; P 0 , 0 ) (f ; P, )| 6 2 [3n M + n ()] .

(P 0 , 0 ) (P 00 , 00 ),
|(f ; P 00 , 00 ) (f ; P, )| 6 2 [3n M + n ()] .
,
|(f ; P 0 , 0 ) (f ; P 00 , 00 )| 6 4 [3n M + n ()] .
,
S(f, P ) s(f, P ) 6 4 [3n M + n ()] ,
. . . I

20.4.

20.4

23


Rn

20.4.1


, Rn , ,
.
20.9. E Rn , , Fr E
.
E Rn :
Fr E :=
(

:=

U E 6= ,
x R U 3 x :
U Rn E 6= .
n

, Fr E = Fr (Rn E),
, .
1. E , E1 , E2 Rn :
(a) Fr E ;
(b) Fr (E1 E2 ) Fr (E1 ) Fr (E2 );
(c) Fr (E1 E2 ) Fr (E1 ) Fr (E2 );
(d) Fr (E1 E2 ) Fr (E1 ) Fr (E2 ).
2. . .
. 1. (a) 1 ,
. 1
. 2 1. 2 , , Rn ,
, , .
2. 2,
, , , , , (b) (c) 1.

24

20.

3. ,
Rn . ,
, (. . , ).

20.10.
E Rn XE : Rn R,

(
1, x E ,
XE (x) =
0, x
/ E.
3. XE Fr E E.
J Rn :

Rn = E 0 t Fr E t Rn E .
E 0 , E 0 E,
x E 0 : XE (x) 1 ,
, XE E 0 .
Rn E , Rn E Rn E,
x Rn E : XE (x) 0 ,
, XE Rn E.
x Fr E, U
x Fr E : (XE , U ) 1, , XE x . I
20.4.2


E Rn

f : E R , E Rn . , Rn ( E).
, f XE f ,
XE E.

20.4.

25

20.11. f E Rn
Z
Z
f (x)dx := XE (x)f (x)dx ,
(20.20)
E

, E.
,
(20.20), , f
E ,
.
4. 1 2 , E,
Z
Z
XE (x)f (x)dx
XE (x)f (x)dx
(20.21)
1

,
.
J := 1 2 E. XE f Fr E f , ,
, . , , (20.21) ,
,
Z
XE (x)f (x)dx .

, , 1 , 2 .
1 2 ,
.

, 1 , 2 , XE (x)f (x) 0
x
/ E. . I

26

20.

20.3 ( ).
f : E R E Rn . :
(a) f E;
(b) f ,
.
J
Z
Z
f (x)dx := XE (x)f (x)dx , E ,
E


XE f . XE f f .
XE f f XE , Fr E.
,
E . , (b)
f : E R (b)
XE f : R. I
20.4.3

Rn

20.12. E Rn
,
Z
(E) = n (E) :=

1 dx .

(
n- ) E.
5. Rn
, .
J E Rn ,
.
Z
Z
(E) = 1 dx = XE (x)dx .
(20.22)
E

20.4.

27

, , Fr E E
, . . E .
, E , , .
(20.22) , , (E) . I
. 1. (n- )
E (E). , , , n (E).
2. 4 n = 1, n = 2 n = 3
, . 12 , R2 , , R3 , , .
3. ,
, .

20.4.4

n-

, ,
.
20.4 (). f, g : E
R , ,
Z
Z
Z
[f (x) + g(x)]dx = f (x)dx + g(x)dx . (20.23)
E

J E , Rn .
, :
Z
Z
[f (x) + g(x)]dx = XE (x)[f (x) + g(x)]dx =
E

4 (18381922) .

28

20.

XE (x)f (x)dx +

XE (x)g(x)dx =

f (x)dx +

g(x)dx . I

20.5 (). f E1 E2 Rn ,
E1 , E2 , E1 E2 ,
Z

f (x)dx =

E1 E2

f (x)dx+

E1

f (x)dx

E2

f (x)dx . (20.24)

E1 E2

J (20.24) 20.3 ( ). , ,
XE1 E2 (x) = XE1 (x) + XE2 (x) XE1 E2 (x)
f (x), E1
E2 , , (20.24). I
20.6 (). E := E1 E2 ,

Z
Z
Z
(20.25)
f (x)dx = f (x)dx + f (x)dx .
E1 E2

E1

E2

J , E1 E2 .
E , R+
{U1 , U2 , . . . , UN },
X

(Uk ) 6 .

Uk E6=

M := sup |f (x)|, -

29

f (x)dx:

XE ( k )f ( k )(Uk ) 6

k=1

Uk E6=

XE ( k )|f ( k )|(Uk ) 6

6M

Uk E6=

(Uk ) 6 M .

, (20.24) ,
(20.25). I
20.7 ().
f, g : E R f 6 g,
Z
Z
f 6 g.
E

J
E,
XE f 6 XE g . I

. , , ,
, . . E Rn 5 , , f : E R
E, E, ,
Z
f (x)dx = f () n (E) .
E

20.1. f : X R, XR Rn n-
. , f (x) dx = 0.
X

20.2. f : X R, X Rn , ,
X0 X n- . ,
5

30

20.

f XX , 0

Z
Z
f (x) dx = f (x) dx .
X

XX 0

20.3. , f : X R, X R2 , :
1) X = [0, 1] [0, 1] ,

1
1
(1)n
6 x < , n N ,
n+1
n
f (x, y) =
1 x = 0 ;
2)

X = {|x| + |y| 6 1} ,

n
n1
n

6 |x| + |y| <


,

(1)
n
n+1
f (x, y) =
n N ,

0 |x| + |y| = 1 ;
2

3) X = x + y 2 6 1 ,

p
1
1
1
< x2 + y 2 6 , n N ,
n+1
n
f (x, y) = n
0 x2 + y 2 = 0 ;

4) X = [1, 1] [1, 1] ,
(
x [0, 1] ,
5) X =
y [0, 1 x]

(1)n+1
f (x, y) =
1 x2 + y 2

f (x, y) = sign(xy) ;

,
1
1
< x + y 6 n1 , n N ,
2n
2
= 1;

6) X = x2 + y 2 6 1 ,

1
1
1
n < x + y 6 n1 , n N ,
f (x, y) = 2n1
2
2
1 x2 + y 2 = 1 ;
7) X = [0, 1] [0, 1] ,

1
m1
m1

n1 + n2 , x = n1 , y = n2
f (x, y) =
,

0 ;

31

8) X = [0, 1] [0, 1] ,

1
m1
m1

n1 n2 , x = n1 , y = n2
f (x, y) =
,

0 .

20.4.

f : [0, 1] [0, 1] R ,
:
(
1 , x, y Q ,
1)
f (x, y) =
0 ;
(
1 , x Q ,
2)
f (x, y) =
0 ;
(
1 , x
/ Q,
3)
f (x, y) =
0 ;

p2
p1

1 , x = q , y = q
4)
f (x, y) =
;

0 ;
1
p1
p2

q1 q2 , x = q1 , y = q2
5)
f (x, y) =
;

0 ;
(
1 x Q ,
6)
f (x, y) =
2y x
/ Q.
20.5. f , g : X R , p , q > 1,
1
1
+ = 1. :
p
q
R
1R
1R
|f (x)g(x)|dx 6
|f (x)|p dx +
|f (x)|q dx ;
1)
pX
qX
X

1p
1q
R
R
R
|f (x)g(x)|dx 6
|f (x)|p dx
2)

|g(x)|q dx
.
X

20.6. f , g : X R , p R+ .
,

32

20.

1)

1p

|f (x) + g(x)|p dx

|f (x)| dx

2)

1p

|f (x) + g(x)|p dx

>

>

1p

|f (x)| dx
p

|g(x)| dx

1p

1p

1p

|g(x)| dx
p

p > 1 p < 1.
20.7. , f : [0, 1] [0, 1] R ,
ZZ
lim
f (xn , y n ) dxdy .
n

[0,1][0,1]

20.8. , f : [0, 1]n R ,



ZZ
Z
lim
f (x1 x2 . . . xn ) dx1 dx2 . . . dxn .
n

[0,1]n

20.9. , f : [0, 1] [0, 1] R , , F : [0, 1] R,

ZZ
F (t) :=
f (x, y) dxdy ,
[0,t][0,t]

, .
20.10.
ZZ
min {x, y} dxdy
[0,1][0,1]

ZZ

[0,1][0,1]

max {x, y} dxdy .

20.11.
f (x, y) :=
,

1, x Q,
2y , y
/ Q.
RR
f (x, y) dxdy -

[0,1][0,1]

,
Z1
0

dx

Z1
0

f (x, y) dy = 1 .

21.

, ,
.

21.1



21.1.1


, ,
. ,
.
21.1 (1 ). m Rm , n Rn
m n ,
f : m n R . , ,
gx : n R
gx (y) := f (x, y) ,

L(x) :=

U(x) :=

n
1

gx =

gx =

f (x, y)dy ,

(21.1)

f (x, y)dy .

(21.2)

. (18791943) , 1907 . .

21.1.

L U m ,
Z
Z
Z
Z
f=
L=
dx f (x, y) dy ,
m n

f=

U=

m n

35

(21.3)

Z
dx f (x, y) dy .

(21.4)

. , (21.3) (21.4), .
x gx : y 7 f (x, y) y, (21.3)
(21.4) .
, .

J T m n PX PY m n .
T
Xi Yj PX PY .
m+n (X Y ) = m (X) n (Y ) ,

k k- .
,
X
s(f ; T ) =
inf f (x, y) m+n (Xi Yj ) =
i,j

X
i

xXi
y Yj

X
inf f (x, y) n (Yj ) m (Xi ) 6
inf

xXi

X
i

y Yj

inf

xXi

X
i

f (x, y) dy m (Xi ) 6

Z
sup f (x, y) dy m (Xi ) 6

xXi

36

21.

X
i

X
sup
sup f (x, y) n (Yj ) m (Xi ) 6

xXi

y Yj

X
i,j

sup f (x, y) m+n (Xi Yj ) = S(f ; T ) .

xXi
y Yj

, T

lim [S(f ; T ) s(f ; T )] = 0 ,

(T )0

(21.3) (21.4). I
21.1.2

= [a1 , b1 ] . . . [an , bn ] Rn n- ,
f : R . n
, :
ZZ
Z
f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) dx1 dx2 . . . dxn =

Zb1

a1

dx1

Zb2

a2

dx2 . . .

Zbn

f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) dxn ,

(21.5)

an

(21.5)
, (21.5).
.
21.1. G Rn ( ) x00 ,

G = x = (x0 , x00 ) Rn

x0 G0 Rn1 ; (x0 ) 6 x00 6 (x0 ) , (21.6)


G0 , , :
G0 R .

37

21.1.

21.2. f : G R , G (21.6),
Z

f (x) dx =

dx0

G0

0
(
Zx )

f (x0 , x00 ) dx00 .

(21.7)

(x0 )

J G n-
G := 0 [a , b] Rn ,
G0 0 Rn1 , [a , b] [(x0 ), (x0 )]. G,
XG (x0 , x00 ) = XG0 (x0 ) X[(x0 ),(x0 )] (x00 ) ,

Z
Z
f = f XG =
G

XG0 (x )dx

XG0 (x0 )dx0

f (x0 , x00 )X[(x0 ),(x0 )] (x00 ) dx00 =

Zb

0
(
Zx )

f (x0 , x00 ) dx00 =

(x0 )

dx0

0
(
Zx )

f (x0 , x00 ) dx00 ,

(x0 )

G0

. I
. 1. , R2 (. 5):

G1 = (x, y) R2 a 6 x 6 b ; 1 (x) 6 y 6 2 (x)


(. 6):

G2 = (x, y) R2 c 6 y 6 d ; 1 (y) 6 x 6 2 (y) .

(21.7) :
ZZ
G1

f (x, y) dxdy =

Zb
a

dx

Z2 (x)

1 (x)

f (x, y) dy ,

38

21.
ZZ

f (x, y) dxdy =

dy

G2

Y 6

Zd

Z2 (y)

f (x, y) dx .

1 (y)

)
2 (x
y = .
.......................................................

................
.............
..........
.......

..........
.............
...........
..........
........
.........

G1

.
..
..
...
.
.
.
..
....
.....
...................................................................
.....
.............
.......
............
..................................

y=
1 (x)

. 5. G1 , OY

Y 6

G2

)
(y
2

x=

.
.....
....
....
...
...
...
...
...
....
....
....
....
=

...
...
...
...
...
..
....
..
...
..
.
.
.
....

1 (
y)

. 6. G2 , OX
2. , R3 , , ,
. , G R3 , z, (. 7):

G = (x, y, z) R3 (x, y) G1 ; (x, y) 6 z 6 (x, y) .

G , (21.7) -

39

21.1.
:

ZZZ

f (x, y, z) dxdydz =

ZZ
G1

dxdy

(x,y)
Z

f (x, y, z) dz .

(x,y)

, ,
.

21.3 ( 2 ).
G Rn , [a , b] xn ,
x = (x1 , . . . , xn1 , xn ).

Gc := (x1 , . . . , xn1 ) Rn1 (x1 , . . . , xn1 , c) G


c [a , b].

f (x) dx =

Zb
a

dxn

f (x) dx1 . . . dxn1 .

(21.8)

Gx n

J := 0 [a , b] G, 0 Rn1
(n 1)- .
XG (x1 , . . . , xn1 , c) XGc (x1 , . . . , xn1 ) ,

(15981647) .

40

21.

:
Z
Z
f = XG (x)f (x) dx =
G

Z Z

XG (x1 , . . . , xn1 , xn )f (x1 , . . . , xn ) dx1 . . . dxn =

0 [a,b]

Zb

dxn

XGxn (x1 , . . . , xn1 )f (x1 , . . . , xn ) dx1 . . . dxn1 =

Zb

dxn

.
(21.8)
f (x) 1,

....
....
..
.... ...................................
.
.
.
.
.
.
..............
.............
..
...
..
G
.
.
.
...........
.................
....................................................................
.......................................

n (G) =

z = (x, y)

21.2

Zb

n1 (Gxn ) dxn ,

. 7. ,
OZ

f (x) dx1 . . . dxn1 . I

Gx n

z = (x, y)
Z 6 ................................................
..........
.......
.....
.......

G1

n-
G Rn
(n 1)-
.

21.2.1

, A Rn , ,
: A S.
, :

41

21.2.

U x A,
S.
, . , .
,

3 . .
1. C G0 Rn , C ,
0
G . D, ,
C D 0 D G0 ,
D 0 D.
J x0 C

Kr (x0 ) := {|x x0 | 6 r} G0 .

Kr0 (x) x C
C. C ,
Kr01 (x1 ), . . . , Kr0N (xN ) .

D :=

N
[

=1

Kr0 (x ) ,

D :=

N
[

Kr (x ) ,

=1

C D 0 D G0 . I

21.2. , f : A R,
A Rn , C (A),
x A .
3 , , , . , ,
. , , . .
, .

42

21.

. , A , C .

21.3. f : Rn R
,
f (x) 6= 0.
f :

supp f := x Rn f (x) 6= 0 ,

2. A , G 0
, A G 0 Rn . f :
Rn R C (Rn ), :
(a) supp f , A supp f G 0 ;
(b) x Rn : 0 6 f (x) 6 1;
(c) x A : f (x) 1.
J

f0 (x) :=

e1x , x > 0 ,
0, x 6 0,

4 :
f0 C (R) , supp f0 = [0 , +) .
Y

6
1

....................................
.......................
...................
................
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
............
.............
...............
......................
..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

. 8. f0 ()
4

,
x = 0 . ,
.

43

21.2.

g(x) :=

Rx

+
R

f0 (t)f0 (1 t) dt

f0 (t)f0 (1 t) dt

, g C (R), g(x) 0 x 6 0,
g(x) 1 x > 1, 0 < g(x) < 1 0 < x < 1 (. 9).
h(t) := g(t + 1) g(t), h C (R), supp h = [1 , 1],
0 6 h(x) 6 1 (. 10).

.......................................................................................................
......
...
...
....
..
...
...
..
.
...
...
....................................................................................................................................................................

. 9. g ()
Y

.............
........ .............
.....
....
....
...
...
...
.
...
...
...
....
...
.
.
...
.
.
.
...
..
.
....
.
.
.
.......
.
.
.
.
.
.
......................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................

.10. h ()

44

21.

, , , :
+
X

j=

h(t j)

lim

N +

lim

N
X

j=N

[g(t + 1 j) g(t j)]

g(t + 1 + N ) g(t + N )+

+ . . . + g(t + 1 N ) g(t N )
N +

lim [g(t + 1 + N ) g(t N )] 1 .

N +

x = (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) Rn , R+ .

j1 Z

X x1
j1 1 ,
j2 1 , . . . ,
h

j2 Z

X x1
jn 1 ,
h

jn Z

(j1 ,...,jn )Zn

2
n
j1 h
j2 . . . h
jn 1 .

(21.9)
(j1 , j2 , . . . , jn ) Zn
j = j(j1 , j2 , . . . , jn ) N
(21.9)

X
j (x) 1 ,
j=1

j (x) := h

2
n
j1 h
j2 . . . h
jn .

j C , Qj (j1 , j2 , . . . , jn )
2. Qj
Rn .

45

21.2.

,
5 0 < 2 n < dist (A; Fr G) (. .
A G).

J := j N A supp j 6= .

f (x) :=

j (x)

jJ

.
, A ,
J . f C
C . ,
S
supp j , supp f
jJ


.
, supp f G 0 2 n < dist (A; Fr G).
,

X
X
0 6 f (x) =
j (x) 6
j (x) 1 .
j=1

jJ

, , x A,
1

X
j=1

j (x)

j (x) +

jJ

j J
/

j J
/

j (x)

jJ

j (x) f (x) ,

j (x) (x A,

supp j A = j
/ J ). I
21.2.2

21.4. { | I}
: Rn R C
C A Rn , :
(a) I x Rn : 0 6 (x) 6 1;
5

Qj .

2 n (. . )

46

21.

(b) x Rn U x, ,
|U ; P
(x) 1.
(c) x A :
I

P . 1. (b) x
(x)

. ,
.
2. C k , k N.

21.5. { | I}

A Rn

U J A,
J I : supp U .

n
21.4.

A R , U J

A.

I
C

A,
U J .
J .
1) ,
A .


U J
{U1 , U2 , . . . , UN }, A, .

{D1 , D2 , . . . , DN } , D U = 1, 2, . . . , N ,

0
, D10 , D20 , . . . , DN
A. ,
A U 1 U2 . . . U N ,
C1 := A(U2 . . . UN ) U1 .
1 D1 , , C1 D10 D1
U1 . , :
A C1 U2 . . . UN D10 U2 . . . UN .

21.2.

47

,
D1 U1 , , D10 , U2 , . . . , UN A.
, D2 U2 , D10 , D20 , U3 , . . . , UN A. ,

D U ,

0
0
A.
D1 , D20 , . . . , DN
2, = 1, 2, . . . , N : Rn R C , ,
0 6 (x) 6 1 , supp U , |D (x) 1 .
0
D 0 := D10 D20 . . . DN
A,

x A : 1 (x) + 2 (x) + . . . + N (x) > 0 .


2, f : Rn R
C , ,
0 6 f (x) 6 1 , supp f D 0 , x A : f (x) 1 .

(x) :=

(x)
f (x) , = 1, . . . , N, (21.10)
1 (x) + . . . + N (x)

A,

U I . f (x) , (,
(21.10)
, f (x) 0
(x) := 00 0 := 0 .) C . ,
supp = supp U .
x A,
f (x) 1 , 1 (x) + . . . + N (x) > 0 ,
1 (x) + . . . + N (x) 1.

48

21.

2) ,
A . , A1 A2 A3 . . .
S
Ak k N : Ak A0k+1 .
: A =
k=1

A1 = A0 := (
).


U J
A.
N


U
J 0 :
T 0
0
U := U
2 . A+1 A2 A A1 ,
A+1 A

U J
A A01 . 1) C -

A A01 , U J .
:

J ; supp U ;
X
(x) 1 .
x A A01 :
J

x A
(x) :=

X
X

(x)

=1 J

. ,
x Ak . supp U P
A+1 , (x) 0
> k + 1,
(x) J

(x)
x A ,
(x)

(x) N ; J ,
A,

U J .
3) A Rn . N:

A := x A |x| 6 ; dist(x, FrA) >


,

(x) :=

21.2.

49

A , 2).
n
4)

A R
, S
U I .
U A, ,
U :=
I

A, U I U . 3)
C U , . A,
. I

21.2.3

, , . , . ,
,
6 . R
f (x) dx ,
A

f : A R A, .


A Rn U I ,
U .

Q0 (x) A x A , Q0 (x)

x A.

C ,
I

U I , . f I,
.
21.6. f : A
R A Rn 6 , , R 1 ,
R2 .

50

21.

f (x) dx :=

XZ

(x)f (x) dx ,

(21.11)

I A

I C

A,

U I U .
, (21.11) ,
(21.11) .
. A Rn ,
7 , . .
A1 A2 A3 . . . ,

S
A=
Ak .

k=1

, ,
(21.11), .
,

, . . .

. Rn , A Rn , 21.6
( ) n- .

21.5. A Rn , f : A R ,
.
:
(a)
(21.11)
;

(b) V J
A, J C ,
XZ
XZ
(x)f (x) dx =
(x)f (x) dx ;
(21.12)
I A

J A

7 , , A.

51

21.2.

(c) A , 21.6 .
J M := sup |f (x)| R+ ,
xA

A , Rn .
Z

| (x)f (x)| dx 6 M

(x) dx .

{1 , . . . , N }

N Z
N Z
X
X

(x)f (x) dx 6 M
(x) dx =

=1
=1
A

=M

6M

Z X

Z X
N

(x) dx 6

A =1

(x) dx = M

1 dx = M n () .

, (21.11) ,
.

(b) I J

A, I, J A. (x)f (x)
0 , C,
, C,
XZ

I A

(x)f (x) dx =

XZ X

(x) (x)f (x) dx =

I A J

XXZ

I J A

(x) (x)f (x) dx .

52

21.

:
XZ
XZ X
(x)f (x) dx =
(x) (x)f (x) dx =
J A I

J A

XXZ

(x) (x)f (x) dx .

J I A

,
, . ,
XZ
XZ
(x)f (x) dx =
(x)f (x) dx .
I A

J A

(c) , A ,
,
R R+ C
A, ,
1 dx 6 .
AC

,
C.
F

Z
Z X

f (x) dx
(x)f (x) dx 6

A
A F

Z
X

(x)f (x) dx 6
6 f (x) dx

F
A

6M

Z "

(x) dx = M

Z X

(x)dx 6

/
A F

6M

1 dx 6 M .

AC

+0
Z
XZ
(x)f (x) dx = f (x) dx . I
I A

21.3.

21.3

53

() . x = g(t) [a , b], a < b, g([a , b]).


g(b)
Zb
Z
f (x) dx = f [g(t)] g 0 (t) dt .

(21.13)

g(a)

, g ,
, (21.13)
:
Z
Z
f (x) dx =
f [g(t)] |g 0 (t)| dt ,
(21.14)
g([a,b])

[a,b]

,
. (21.13)
(21.14) , (21.14) .
21.6. A Rn ,
g : A g(A) .
Z
Z
f (x) dx = f [g(t)] | det[g 0 (t)]| dt
(21.15)
g(A)

f : g(A) R.

. (21.15) .
x = (x1 , . . . , xn ), t = (t1 , . . . , tn ),
x = g(t) .

x1 = g (t1 , . . . , tn ) ,
g : .................. ,

xn = g n (t1 , . . . , tn ) ,

(21.16)

54

21.

g.
g:

1
g
g 1

.
.
.
t1
tn
D(x1 , . . . , xn )
D(g 1 , . . . , g n )

det[g 0 (t)] = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =
=
.
g n
D(t
D(t1 , . . . , tn )
n
1 , . . . , tn )
g

...

t1
tn
(21.17)
, (21.15)
, , :
ZZ
Z
f (x1 , . . . , xn ) dx1 . . . dxn =
g(A)

ZZ

f g 1 (t1 , . . . , tn ), . . . , g n (t1 , . . . , tn )

D(g 1 , . . . , g n )
dt1 . . . dtn .

D(t1 , . . . , tn )

(21.18)

J
n Rn . n = 1 : det[g 0 (t)] = g 0 (t), (21.15)
(21.14), 10.
, ,
n. (21.15) ,
. . . (21.16), g i (t1 , . . . , tn ) tj i, j
{1, 2, . . . , n}.

1
g (t)
g 1 (t)
g 1 (t)

.
.
.
.
.
.
t1
tj
tn

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .

det[g (t)] = 0
...
1
...
0 =
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .
n
n
g (t)
g (t)
g n (t)

...
...
t1
tj
tn
D(x1 , . . . , xbi , . . . , xn )
, (21.19)
= (1)i+j
D(t1 , . . . , tbj , . . . , tn )

55

21.3.

1 i- c j-
, xbi ,
(x1 , . . . , xn ) Rn xi
(n 1)- , ,
(x1 , . . . , xbi , . . . , xn ) := (x1 , . . . , xi1 , xi+1 , . . . , xn ) Rn1 .

tbj .
n-
n , :
n = [a , b] n1 A g(A) ,
xi = tj [a , b]. ,
Z

f (x) dx =

g(A)

Zb
a

dxi

n1

Zb
a

Xg(A) (x)f (x) dx =


ci . . . dxn =
Xg(A) (x)f (x) dx1 . . . dx

dtj

Xg(A) [g(t)]f [g(t)]

n1

dx . . . dx
ci . . . dxn
1
cj . . . dtn =

dt . . . dt
cj . . . dtn 1
dt1 . . . dt

XA (t)f [g(t)] |det[g 0 (t)]| dt1 . . . dtn =

f [g(t)] |det[g 0 (t)]| dt .

, (21.15) , .

56

21.

,
A. det[g 0 ( )] 6= 0, ,
. .
i, j {1, . . . , n} :

g i ( )
6= 0 .
tj

: t 7 y :

y1 = t 1 ,

. . . . . . . . . ,
:
yj = g i (t1 , . . . , tn ) ,

......... ,

y = t .
n
n

(21.20)

, , ,
,

...

0
det[ ( )] = g i
t
1
...

0
1
...
g i
t2
...
0

...
...
...
...
...
...

0
0
...
g i
tj
...
0

...
...
...
...
...
...

0
0
. . .
g i ( )
g i =
6= 0 ,
tj
tn
. . .
1

i
gt(j ) . , , U
, ,

: U := (U )

1 :
U . (21.20) , -

57

21.3.

t1 = y 1 ,

. . . . . . . . . ,
1
: tj = hj (y1 , . . . , yn ) ,

. . . . . . . . . ,

t = y .
n
n

1 = Id, ,
yj g i (y1 , . . . , hj (y1 , . . . , yn ), . . . , yn ) .

xi = g i (y1 , . . . , hj (y1 , . . . , yn ), . . . , yn ) yj ,
, g 1 . , g : U g(U ) , :
g = (g 1 ) . ,

Z
Z
f (x) dx =
f (x) dx =
g(U )

1
(g
)( )

(U )

f g 1 (y) det (g 1 )0 (y) dy =

f g 1 (y) det (g 1 )0 (y) dy =

f [g(t)] det (g 1 )0 ( (t)) |det 0 (t)| dt =


=

f [g(t)] |det g 0 (t)| dt .


Z
Z
f [g(t)] |det g 0 (t)| dt .
f (x) dx =
g(U )

58

21.

U A
A. A C A,
.

g 1 A
C 1 g(A),

g(U ) A . 21.6
,
Z

f (x) dx =

A g(U

g(A)

X Z

A U

f (x) [g 1 (x)] dx =

f [g(t)] (t) | det[g 0 (t)]| dt =

f [g(t)] | det[g 0 (t)]| dt . I

21.4


21.4.1

, n-

1 . .
g : D G D Rn G Rn . x0 D, Kr (x0 ) D
n- r c
x0 . g(Kr (x0 )) ,
.
n [g(Kr (x0 ))] =

dx =

g(Kr (x0 ))

Kr (x)

|det[g 0 (t)]| dt =

= |det[g 0 ()]| n [Kr (x0 )] ,

(21.21)

59

21.4.

Kr (x0 ) . (21.21)
|det[g 0 ()]| =

n [g(Kr (x0 ))]


.
n [Kr (x0 )]

(21.22)

r +0 | det g 0 |,
|det[g 0 (x0 )]| = lim

r+0

n [g(Kr (x0 ))]


.
n [Kr (x0 )]

, .
21.7. g .
|det[g 0 (x0 )]| n- x0 g.
2 . n- ,
,
(-):
(a1 , a2 , . . . , an ) Rn ,

= 1, 2, . . . , n .


. n-
Qn := [0 , 1]n =

= (t1 , t2 , . . . , tn ) Rn 0 6 t 6 1 , = 1, 2, . . . , n

x1 = a11 t1 + a12 t2 + . . . a1n tn ,

x = a t + a t + . . . a t ,
2
21 1
22 2
2n n
g :

xn = an1 t1 + an2 t2 + . . . ann tn .

n- -

60

21.

n () =

ZZ

dx1 dx2 . . . dxn =

g(Qn )

ZZ

Qn

| det[g 0 (t)]| dt1 . . . dtn =

a11

ZZ
Z
a
=
mod 21
...
Qn
an1

a11 a12 . . .

a
a22 . . .
= mod 21
.
.
.
... ...

an1 an2 . . .

a12
a22
...
an2

...
...
...
...

a1n
a2n
dt dt . . . dtn =
. . . 1 2
ann

a1n Z1
Z1
Z1
a2n
dt1 dt2 . . . dtn =
. . .
0
0
ann 0

a11 a12 . . . a1n

a21 a22 . . . a2n

,
= mod

... ... ... ...


an1 an2 . . . ann

mod ( ).
.
21.8. n- , n -,
,
.
3 . n- . Rn
, 1
(. . , ). t=g(x) , . . | det[g 0 (t)]| 1.
A Rn ,
n (g(A)) =

g(A)

dt =

| det[g 0 (x)]| dx =

dx = n (A) .

61

21.4.

R2

21.4.2

R2 . (x , y) (r , )
(
x = r cos ,
g :
y = r sin ,

(21.23)

r > 0 , [0 , 2] .
(21.23)
det[g 0 (r, )] =

x x
r cos
= y y =
sin
r

r sin
= r (cos2 + sin2 ) = r .
r cos


ZZ
ZZ
f (r cos , r sin ) r drd .
f (x, y) dxdy =

(21.24)

g(D)


. :
ZZ
ex

y 2

dxdy ,

DR

DR = (x, y) R x2 + y 2 6 R2 , x > 0, y > 0 , . ,

ZZ

DR

ex

y 2

dxdy =

2
Z

ZR

er r dr =

(1 eR ) .
4

ZR
0

er r dr =

R
r2
e
=
4
0

62

21.
RR

J(R) :=

ex dx.

[J(R)]2 =

ZR

ex dx

ZR

ey dy =

ZZ

ex

y 2

dxdy .

[0,R][0,R]


ZZ
ZZ
ZZ
2
2
2
2
2
2
ex y dxdy <
ex y dxdy <
ex y dxdy ,
DR

R ]
R ][0,
[0,
2

[0,R][0,R]

:
2

2

R
< (1 eR ) < [J(R)]2 .
J
4
2

R +,
[J(+)]2 = 4, , , :
+

Z
2

.
ex dx =
2
0

, ,
8 .

R2 .
ZZ 2
x sin(xy)
I=
dxdy ,
y
G

G ,
y=

x2
y2
y2
x2
, y=
, x=
, x=
,
a
b
p
q

0 < a < b, 0 < p < q.

J ( )
u , v

y = x , a 6 u 6 b ,

u
2

x =
, p 6 v 6 q.
v
8 , (18241907)
.

63

21.4.
(x, y) (u, v)
(
x = u23 v 13 ,
y = u13 v 23 .

x
2
= u13 v 13 ;
u
3
1
y
= u23 v 23 ;
u
3

D(x, y)
= u
y
D(u, v)
u

x
1
= u23 v 23 ;
v
3
y
2 13 13
= u
v
,
v
3

x
v
y
v

4
1
1
= .
9
9
3


I=

ZZ

x2 sin(xy)
1
dxdy =
y
3

Zb
a

Zb
a

u43 v 23 sin(uv)
dudv =
u13 v 23

[a,b][p,q]

1
=
3
1
=
3

ZZ

u du

Zq

sin(uv) dv =

1 sin pb sin pa
sin qb sin ga
[cos pucos qu] du =

. I
3
p
q

21.4.3


R3

R3 (x, y, z)
(r, , z) (, , ) .

x = r cos ,
(21.25)
g :
y = r sin , r > 0 , 0 6 6 2 , z R .

z = z,

64

21.

: z = const, =
= const r = const ( ).
(21.25)

cos r sin 0

det[g 0 (r, , z)] = sin r cos 0 = r .


0
0
1
,

:
ZZZ
ZZZ
f (x, y, z) dxdydz =
f (r cos , r sin , z) r drddz .
g(D)

x = cos cos ,

g :
y = sin cos , > 0 , 0 6 6 2 , 6 6 .

2
2

z = sin ,
(21.26)
: = const, = const
= const ( ).
(21.26)

cos cos sin cos cos sin

det[g 0 (, , )] = sin cos cos cos % sin sin =


sin

0
cos

cos cos sin cos sin

= 2 cos sin cos cos sin sin = 2 cos .

sin
0
cos
,
:
ZZZ
ZZZ
f (x, y, z) dxdydz =
f [g(, , )] 2 cos d d d .
g(D)

65

21.4.

21.4.4

n-

1. n-
Z
t
I := exAx dx ,

(21.27)

Rn

x1

x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) Rn , xt := ... .

xn

, A n n-, x 7 xAxt .
,
x = tH
( ) :
xAxt = tHAH t tt = 1 t21 + . . . + n t2n ,

t = (t1 , . . . , tn ) ,

1 , . . . , n () A, ,
det A = 1 . . . n . (21.27)
x = tH , | det H| = 1,
r
+
+
r
r
Z
Z

n
n t2n
1 t21
dtn =
e
dt1
e
I=
. . .
=
.
1
n
det A

,
Z

Rn

xAxt

dx =

n
.
det A

2.
Rn .
x = (x1 , . . . , xn ),
= (r, 1 , . . . , n1 ) .

66

21.

x1 = r cos 1 ,

x2 = r sin 1 cos 2 ,

x = r sin sin cos ,


3
1
2
3
(21.28)
g :

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.... ,

xn1 = r sin 1 sin 2 . . . sin n2 cos n1 ,

xn = r sin 1 sin 2 . . . . sin n2 sin n1 ,

r > 0 , 0 6 1 6 , . . . , 0 6 n2 6 , 0 6 n1 6 2 .
(21.28)
g :
F 1 r2

(x21 + x22 + x23 + . . . + x2n ) = 0 ,

F 2 r2 sin2 1

(x22 + x23 + . . . + x2n ) = 0 ,

F 3 r2 sin2 1 sin2 2 (x23 + . . . + x2n ) = 0 ,


..........................................,
F n r2 sin2 1 sin2 2 . . . sin2 n1 x2n = 0 .

F (, x) = 0. ,
0
F
(, x) + Fx0 (, x) g 0 () = 0 .

(21.28)

g 0 () = (Fx0 )

()
1

0
F
.

,
1 0
(21.28): [g 0 ()] = [Fx0 ] F
,

0
det F
0
n
J := det [g ()] = (1)
.
(21.29)
det [Fx0 ]
(1)n ,
(-1)

21.4.

67

. J, (21.29)

F 1 F 1
F 1

r
1
n1

F 2 F 2
F 2

1
n1
r

F n F n
F n

r
1
n1
J = det [g 0 ()] = (1)n
=

F 1
F 1

x1
xn


F n
F n

x1
xn

0
2 2r 2

2r sin 1

n2

Q
2
2

2r
sin k sin n1 cos n1

k=1

.
=

2x1

0
2x2

0
2x3

(1) 0

0
0
0
2xn

, .
, :
J = r n1 sinn2 1 sinn3 2 . . . sin2 n3 sin n2 . (21.30)
n-

68

21.

, , :
ZZ
Z
f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) dx1 dx2 . . . dxn =
g(A)

ZZ

f [g(r, 1 , . . . , n1 )] J drd1 . . . dn1 ,

(21.31)

J (21.30).
. n- Vn n-
x21 + x22 + . . . + x2n 6 R2 .

J ,

k+1
2

,
sin d =
2 k2 + 1

2
Z
0


Z Z
Z
Vn =

dx1 dx2 . . . dxn =

2
2
x2
1 +...+xn 6R

ZR

n1

dr

1 d1

sinn3 2 d2 . . .

sin n2 dn2

Z2

dn1 =

sin

n2

...

Rn
2 2n2
=
n

sin

n2

1 d1

sin

n3

1 d2 . . .

sin 1 d1 =

n1
n2
( 23 )
(1)
Rn n1
n2 2
n3 2 . . .

=
2

n
2 ( 22 +1) 2 ( 21 + 1)
2 2 + 1 2 2 + 1
=

1
2 n2 Rn
Rn
2 n2
=
.
n
(n2)
n(n2)

Vn =

2 2 Rn
.
n n2

(21.32)

69

n = 1, 2, 3
, , .
R,
(n 1)-
(n 1)- Sn1 :=
:= x Rn x21 + . . . + x2n = R2 :
n

n1 (Sn1 ) =

2 2 Rn1
.
n2

21.1.

RR

f (x, y) dxdy, :

D=
1)

[0, 1] [0, 1]

2)

[0, 1] [0, 1]

3)

[0, 1] [0, 1]

4)

[0, 2] [0, 2]

5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)

11)

[0, 1] [0, 2]

f (x, y) =
x2
1 + y2
1
(1 + x + y)2
1
(1 + x2 + y 2 )32
x sin(x + y)
x2 yexy

[0, 2] [0, 2]

x 2 y cos(x2 y)

{|x|
6 1}
2 + |y|

x + y2 6 9
(
|y| 6 1 ,
06x62

x + y 6 3 ,
x > 0,

y>0

x2
sign(x2 + y 2 4)

{|x| + |y| 6 1}

x3 y 5

p
|x y 2 |

x2 + y 2 , [.]

70

21.
(

12)

m)

13)

y > x2 ,
x > y2

x2 + y

0 6 y 6 x 6 2,
y > x1

x2
;
y2

{ > y > x > 0}

21.2.

RR

cos(x + y) .

f (x, y) dxdy -

, :
1) D (0, 0), (1, 1),
(1, 1);

2) D = x2 + y 2 6 x ; 3) D = {|x| + |y| 6 2};

D :
4) x2 + y 2 > 1 , 0 6 x 6 1 , 0 6 y 6 1;
5) 0 < y 6

1 x
,
6 y 6 2x;
x 2

6) x2 + y 2 > 2x + 2y 1 , 1 6 x 6 2 , 0 6 y 6 1;
7) y > x2 , y 6
8) y >

x2 + 1
;
2

1
x2 , x > 0;
2

9) x2 + 2y 2 6 8a2 , x2 y 2 > 2a2 x > 0;


10) x2 + y 2 6 a2 , (x a)2 + (y a)2 6 a2 ;
11) x + y 6 1 , x y 6 1 , y 2 6 2x + 1;
12) x 6 2y 6 x , x2 y 2 6 1;
13) x2 + y 2 6 1 , (x + 1)2 + (y 1)2 > 1 , y > 0;
14) y 2 6 2x + 4 , y 2 > 4x + 4.
21.3. :

71

R1

1)

Ry

dy

dx

R2

1x2

54
R

f (x, y) dy ;

Ra

8)

R2

32y
R

6x
R

f (x, y) dx ;

f (x, y) dy .

2x

dy

sin
Ry

f (x, y) dx ;

dx

R2x

f (x, y) dy ;

f (x, y) dy ;

2x2 2
sin
Rx

f (x, y) dy ;

cos x

2ayy 2

dy

f (x, y) dx ;

a2

R1

dx

dx

12)

6)

2x2 2

dx

R2

11)

f (x, y) dx ;

dy

R1

10)

4)

3y 2

dy

9)

f (x, y) dx ;

9y 2

R1

7)

R1
0

25y 2

dy

5)

2)

R3

3)

f (x, y) dx ;

2+

dy
2

76yy2

f(x, y) dx .

76yy2

21.4. ,
:
1)

RR

ln(1 + x2 + y 2 ) dxdy ;

x2 +y 2 6R2

2)

RR

x2 +y 2 61

3)

RR

x2 +y 2 6R2

4)

RR

1 x2 y 2
dxdy ;
12x + y 2

(h 2x 3y)dxdy ;

x2 +y 2 6Rx

R2 x2 y 2 dxdy ;

72

21.
5)
2

RR

arctg
2

16x

+y 69,
x 36y6x 3

RR

6)

x2 +y 2 6ay

RR

y
dxdy ;
x

p
x2 + y 2 dxdy ;

x
p
dxdy ;
2
a x2 y 2
x2 +y 2 6ax
p
RR
8)
sin x2 + y 2 dxdy .

7)

2 6x2 +y 2 64 2

21.5. ,
ZZ

f (x, y) dxdy ,

:
D=

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

2
y2
x

2 + 2 6 1,
a
b
x > 0,

y>0

x2
xy
y2

6 ,
+
2
3
6
x > 0 ,

y>0

1 6 y 6 2 ,
x
x
x 6 y 6 3x

x2 6 y 6 3x2 ,
3
1
6 2y 6
x
x
(
1 x 6 y 6 3 x,
x
6 y 6 2x
2
1 6 x y 6 1 ,
2
1
6y6
x
x

f (x, y) =

xy ;

xy ;

x2 y 2 + y 2 ;

x3 + y 3 ;
(x + y)2
;
x
x2 y + xy 2 , ;

73

7)

D=

f (x, y) =

x3 6 y 6 2x3 ,
x 6 2y 6 6x

x2 ;

x 1 6 y 6 x + 1,
x 1 6 y 6 x + 1

x2 y + xy 2 .

8)

21.6. :
Ra

1)

0
R1

2)

dx
dx

Ra

dx

Rx

e1
R

dx

R4

5)

R3

Rz

dz

dy (x + y + 2z)dz ;
0

dy

xy
R

x3 y 2 z dz ;

ex1
R

dy

dx

dz

x+y+e
R
e

xyz dz ;

0
R3

6)

Ry

4)

0
R2

dy

3)

Rx

z 2 x2

ln(z x y)
dz ;
(x e)(x + y e)

xy 2 z 2 dy ;

3z
R

dy

1z

3yz
R
0

dx
.
(x + y + z)2

21.7. , , :
1xy
1x
R1
R
R
1)
dx
dy
f (x, y, z) dz;
2)

R1

Rx

dx

3)

R1

R1

dx
dx

5)

RR
0

dy

4)

dy

dy

4xy
R

f (x, y, z) dz;

1|y1|
R

f (x, y, z) dz;

dx

f (x, y, z) dz;

4x
R

R2

Ry

R2 x2

R
0

dy

x2R
+y 2
0

f (x, y, z) dz;

74

21.

6)

RR

R2 x2

dx

R2 x2

dy

R2 x2 y 2

f (x, y, z) dz.

21.8.

RRR

f (x, y, z) dxdydz -


, :

1) V = x2 + y 2 6 R2 , 0 6 z 6 1 ;
2

2) V = x + y 2 6 h2 z 2 , 0 6 z 6 H ;

3) V = x2 + y 2 6 R2 , x2 + y 2 + z 2 6 4R2 ;
2

4) V = x + y 2 + z 2 6 2az , x2 + y 2 6 z 2 ;

5) V = x2 + y 2 + z 2 6 4R2 , z > R ;
2

6) V = x + y 2 + z 2 6 4R2 , x2 + y 2 6 4Rx .
RRR
21.9.
f (x, y, z) dxdydz V

, :
o
nx
y
z
+ + 6 1 x > 0, y > 0, z > 0 ;
1) V =
3
4
2
x2 + y 2 + z 2 6 4Rz , x2 + y 2 + z 2 > Rz ,

z2
x2 + y 2 6
;
3
2

3) V = x + y 2 + z 2 6 R2 , x2 + y 2 + z 2 6 2zR ;

4) V = x2 + y 2 + z 2 6 2yR , x2 + y 2 6 z 2 ;

5) V = x2 + y 2 + z 2 6 8z 8 , 3(x2 + y 2 ) 6 z 2 ;

6) V = x2 + y 2 + z 2 6 2yR , x2 + y 2 > z 2 .
2)

V =

21.10. ,
( ):
b
b2
1) y 2 = x , y = x;
a
a

2) y = x , y = 2 x;
2

2
3) x + y 2 = 2ax3 ;

3
4) x2 + y 2 = x4 + y 4 ;

2
5) x2 + y 2 = 2a2 (x2 y 2 );
6) x3 + y 3 = 2xy , (x > 0 , y > 0);
7) (x + y)3 = xy , (x > 0 , y > 0);

8) (x + y)3 = x2 y 2 , (x > 0 , y > 0);

2
x2 + y 2
x
y2
=
9)
+
.
4
9
25

21.11. , ( ):
1) x = 0 , y = 0 , z = 0 , x = 4 , y = 4 , z = x2 + y 2 + 1;
y2
x2
+
;
2) x = 0 y = 0 x = a2 y = b2 , z =
2p
2q
x
y
z
3)
+ + = 1 , x = 0 , y = 0 , z = 0;
a
b
4) y = 0 , z = 0 3x + y = 6 , 3x + 2y = 12 , x + y + z = 6;
5) z = x2 + y 2 , x + y = 1 , x = 0 , y = 0 , z = 0;
6) z = x2 + y 2 , z = 0 , y = 1 , y = 2x , x + y = 6;

7) y = x , y = 2 x , z = 0 , x + z = 6;
8) 2z = y 2 , 2x + 3y = 12 , x = 0 , y = 0 , z = 0;
9) z = 4 x2 , 2x + y = 4 , y = 0 , z = 0 , (x > 0);
10) x2 + y 2 = 4 , x2 + z 2 = 4;
11) z = x2 + y 2 , y = x2 , y = 1 , z = 0;
z2
b
x2
+ 2 = 1 , y = x , y = 0 , z = 0 , (x > 0);
12)
2
a
c
a
13) z = x2 y 2 , z = 0 , y = ex , y = ex ;

14) z 2 = xy , x + y = 1 , z = 0;
15) z = cos x cos y , x + y = 2 , x = 0 , y = 0 , z = 0;
16) z = (x 1)2 + y 2 , z + 2x = 2;
17) z = x2 + y 2 , z = x + y;
18) x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4 , x2 + y 2 = 3z;
19) z = x2 + y 2 , z 2 = xy;
2
2
20)
x + y 2 + z 2 = a2 x;
2
2
21)
x + y 2 + z 2 = a2 xyz;
2
3
22)
x + y 2 + z 2 = a2 z 4 ;
2
3
23)
x + y 2 + z 2 = a2 (x2 + y 2 )2 ;
2
2
24)
x + y 2 + z 4 = a3 z;
25) x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1 , x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 16 , z 2 = x2 + y 2 ;
26) x2 + z 2 = a2 , x + y = a , x y = a.

22. ,
,


.
, , .

22.1
22.1.1


Rn .

22.1. 1 Rn
r : [a , b] Rn , [a , b] R.
, r(a) = r(b), , r(a) 6= r(b). 2 ,
t1 6= t2 = r(t1 ) 6= r(t2 ), r(a) = r(b) . ,
r 0 , t [a , b] : r 0 (t) 6= 0.
, T = {t0 , t1 , . . . , tN } [a , b],
a = t0 < t1 < . . . < tN = b , k := [tk , tk+1 ] , tk := tk+1 tk ,
l(T ) , 1

, r = r(t), t .
2 .

77

22.1.

r(t0 ), r(t1 ), . . . , r(t0 ):


l(T ) =

N
1
X
k=0

|r(tk+1 ) r(tk )| =

v
u
t

N
1 uX
n
X
k=0

j=1

[xj (tk+1 ) xj (tk )] ,

(22.1)
x1 (t), . . . , xn (t) r(t).
22.2. ,
(22.1) T, :
l :=

lim l(T ) =

(T )0

lim

(T )0

N
1
X
k=0

|r(tk+1 ) r(tk )| .

(22.2)

22.1. r : [a , b] Rn ,
,
l=

Zb
a

|r (t)| dt =

Zb q

[x01 (t)]2 + . . . + [x0n (t)]2 dt .

(22.3)

J , (22.1).
v
N
1 uX
X
u n 0
2
t
l(T ) =
xj (tjk ) tk ,
(22.4)
k=0

j=1

jk [tk , tk+1 ] k = 0, 1, . . . , N 1. jk k, j, (22.1)


. (22.3),
= (10 , 11 , . . . , 1,N 1 ):
(|r 0 |; T, ) =

v
u
t

n
N
1 uX
X
k=0

j=1

x0j (1k )

tk .

(22.5)

78

22.

(22.4) (22.5)
:
q

a2 + a2 + . . . + a2n a2 + b2 + . . . + b2n 6
1
1
2
2

p
6 (a2 b2 )2 + . . . + (an bn )2 6 |a2 b2 | + . . . + |an bn | .

, :

|l(T ) (|r 0 |; T, )| =

v
NX

u n
u n
1 uX

0
2 u X
0
2
t
xj (jk ) t
xj (1k ) tk 6
=
k=0

j=1
j=1
v

uX
N
1 uX
X
u n
u n 0

2
0 ( ) 2 t
t
tk 6
6
x
x
(
)
j jk
j 1k

j=1
j=1
k=0
6

N
1 X
n q
X
k=0 j=2

1
n N
X
X
j=2 k=0

x0j (jk ) x0j (1k )

tk 6

|x0j (jk ) x0j (1k )| tk 6


6

"N 1
n
X
X
j=2

k=0

(x0j ; k )

tk 0

(T ) 0 x02 , . . . , x0n . ,
(22.4) (22.5) . (22.3) . I
22.3. r : [a , b] Rn
: [ , ] Rn ,
: [a , b] [ , ], ,
t [a , b] : [ (t)] r(t) .
, ,
.

79

22.1.

,
, .
22.4.
,
22.3.
, ,
.
22.2.
r : [a , b] Rn

: [ , ] Rn

, .
J : [ , ] Rn , < :
l=

|0 ( )| d .


= (t) ,
,
l=

| ( )| d =

Zb
a

| [ (t)]| (t) dt =

Zb
a

|r 0 (t)| dt .

,
l=

|0 ( )| d =

Za
b

|0 [ (t)]| | 0 (t)| dt =

Zb
a

|r 0 (t)| dt . I

. 1. , , . .
( , ).
2.
, , .

80

22.

, , r : [a , b] Rn ,
a < b. , ,
,
Zt
s = s(t) := |r 0 (u)| du , 0 6 s 6 l .
(22.6)
a

J s (t) |r (t)| > 0, (22.6) .


t = t(s), ,
t0 (s) =

1
1
= 0
> 0.
s0 (t)
|r (t)|

, (22.6) , r = (s) := r(t(s)),


s [0 , l] . I
3. r = (s) | 0 (s)| 1,
s .
4.
:

l=

Zb p
[x0 (t)]2 + [y 0 (t)]2 dt ,
a

l=

Zb p

[x0 (t)]2 + [y 0 (t)]2 + [z 0 (t)]2 dt .

22.1.2

1-
( )

,
r : [a , b] D, [a , b] R, a < b,
D Rn . 3 f :
D R.
3 ,
D.

81

22.1.

22.5. 1-
f
Z

f (r) ds :=

Zb
a

f [r(t)] |r 0 (t)| dt .

(22.7)

.
r(t) = (x1 (t), . . . , xn (t)) ,
(22.7) :
Z

f (x1 , . . . , xn ) ds :=

:=

Zb
a

f [x1 (t), . . . , xn (t)]

(x01 (t)) + . . . + (x0n (t)) dt .

, . . n = 2,
Z

f (x, y) ds :=

Zb
a

f [x(t), y(t)]

p
[x0 (t)]2 + [y 0 (t)]2 dt .

, . . n = 3,
Z

f (x, y, z) ds :=

Zb
a

f [x(t), y(t)]

[x0 (t)]2 + [y 0 (t)]2 + [z 0 (t)]2 dt .

1- , (22.7) . , (22.7)
1-
. , , .
22.6. , r 1 : [a1 , b1 ] D, a1 < b1 , r 2 : [a , b]

82

22.

D, a2 < b2 , (),
: [a1 , b1 ] [a2 , b2 ], , (). .
. , r =
= r(t), a 6 t 6 b , : r(a) r(b), . ,
( , ) .
, .

.
1 . 1- . , .
J (22.7), : : [ , ] D, < ,
t = t( ) , : r[t( )] ( ). (22.7) t = t( ), = (t),
Z

f (r) ds :=

(b)
Z

Zb
a

f [r(t)] |r 0 (t)| dt =
0

f [r(t( ))] |r (t( ))| t ( ) d =

(a)

f [( )] |0 ( )| d ,

, t = t( ),
= (t), . I
. ( ),
Z

f (r) ds =

Zl
0

f [r(s)] ds .

83

22.1.

22.7. 1 1 ,
r = r 1 (t), a 6 t 6
6 c, r = r 2 (t), c 6 t 6 d,
r 1 (c) = r 2 (c) , r 01 (c) = r 02 (c) 6= 0 .

(22.8)

1 2 ,
:
(
r 1 (t) , a 6 t 6 c ,
r=
r 2 (t) , c 6 t 6 b .
2 ( ).
22.7
Z
Z
Z
f (r) ds = f (r) ds + f (r) ds .
(22.9)
1 2

. (22.9)
. , (22.8) ( )
. ,
,
- (
) .

2 (). |f (r)| 6 M , |

f (r) ds| 6 M l, l

.
J (22.7),

Zb

0
f (r) ds := f [r(t)] |r (t)| dt 6 M |r 0 (t)| dt = M l . I


1- . .
(x) x. M .

84

22.

0 , , , . . . , N 1 . P0 , P1 , . . . , PN 1
k ,
(Pk ).

N
1
X
(Pk ) sk ,
(22.10)
M
k=0

sk k . (22.10)
,

Z
M = (x) ds .

22.1.3

2-
( )

, r : [a , b] D, [a , b] R, a < b,
D Rn .
a b. F : D Rn
4 F = (P1 , . . . , Pn ).
22.8. 2-
F
Z
hF |dri =

[P1 (x)dx1 + . . . + Pn (x)dxn ] :=

Zb
a

Zb
a

hF (r(t)) | r 0 (t)i dt =

{P1 [r(t)] x01 (t) + . . . + Pn [r(t)] x0n (t)} dt .

(22.11)

, D.

85

22.1.

. n = 2 2-
Z

[P (x, y) dx + Q(x, y)dy] :=

:=

Zb
a

P [x(t), y(t)] x0 (t) + Q[x(t), y(t)] y 0 (t) dt .

n = 3 2-
Z

[P (x, y, z) dx + Q(x, y, z) dy + R(x, y, z) dz] =:

:=

Zb
a

P [x(t), y(t), z(t)] x0 (t) + Q [x(t), y(t), z(t)] y 0 (t)+

+ R [x(t), y(t), z(t)] z 0 (t) dt .

2- , (22.11) . , (22.11)
2- .
, 1-
2- .
2- 1- ,
2- .
.
1 . 2- ,
, , , , .
J 1 , , = ( ),
6 6 , . t = t( )

86

22.

, , r[t( )] ( ). (22.11) t = t( ), = (t),


Z

hF | dri =

Zb
a

hF [r(t)] | r 0 (t)i dt =

(b)
Z
hF [r(t( ))] | r 0 (t( ))it0 ( ) d =
=
(a)

(b)
Z
Z
0
=
hF [( ))] | ( )i d = hF | di ,
1

(a)

+ = (a), = (b), , -
= (b), = (a), . I
2 . = (t)
r(t).
Z
Z
hF | dri = hF | i ds ,
(22.12)

ds .
J
r(t + t) r(t) = r 0 (t) t + o(t)

t 0

, r 0 (t)
r(t). ds = |r 0 (t)| dt, , (t) :=
:= r 0 (t)|r 0 (t)|, | (t)| 1, (22.11) (22.12). I
. (22.12)
1- 2- . ,
2-
(, , 2- - .)

87

22.2.


2- . D R3
, . . F : D R3 ,
F (x, y, z) = P (x, y, z)i + Q(x, y, z)j + R(x, y, z)k ,
, r :
[a , b] D, a b.
A F . , F , s,
hF | si.
, , ,
, .

A

N
1
X
k=0

hF (Pk ) | r k i .

Z
A=

hF | dri .

,
I
A = hF | dri

22.2

22.9.
G, , -

88

22.

x2 + y 2 < 1 , x2 + y 2 < 1 ; y > 0 . , , . G G0 . ,


, G. G
G.
, G = G0 t G.
22.10. G = G0 t G, G0 R2 .
G , G0 R2 ,
G R2 .
G = G0 t Fr G ,
Fr G G. : Fr G
G ?
: , , ,
. .
.
n
o

G0 := z = r ei 0 < r < 1 , 0 < < 2 R2

,
[0 , 1)

(. . 11). G = z C |z| 6 1

(. . 12), G0 t G = (r , ) 0 6 r 6 1 , 0 6 6 2 , (r , 0) (r , 2) 0 < r 6 1 ,
(0 , ) (). , Fr G ,
G ,
[0 , 1] ,
1 1
(. . 13).

, G
, ,
. . Fr G = G.

89

22.2.

.
..........................................
........
......
......
....
....
...
...
...
.
...
....
...
...
..
.
..
...
...
..
...
.
....
..
.
.
.....
.......
....
...........
......
...................................

. 11.

. 12.

. 13.

, G, . , , . .
. , r = r(x),
x .
x .
, r = r(x(y)), y 7 x(y)
.
. .
: G ,
G0 .
22.3 ( 5 ). G = G0 t G
G, , (P , Q) : G R2 .

Z
ZZ
Q P

dx dy .
(22.13)
(P dx + Q dy) =
x
y
G


.
5

(17931841) .

90

22.

1. G G.
J [a , b] R
, G. G

G = (x , y) R2 a 6 x 6 b ; y1 (x) 6 y 6 y2 (x) ,

y = y1 (x) y = y2 (x)
(. 14). ,
ZZ

P
dx dy =
y

Zb
a

Zb

dx

yZ
2 (x)

P
dy =
y

Zb
a

y1 (x)

y=y2 (x)

dx =
P (x , y)
y=y1 (x)

[P (x, y2 (x)) P (x, y1 (x))] dx =

P (x , y) dx ,

G
, x const, dx 0.
R [c , d] , G. G

G = (x , y) R2 c 6 y 6 d ; x1 (y) 6 x 6 x2 (y) ,

x = x1 (t) x = x2 (t)
(. 15). ,
ZZ

Q
dx dy =
x

Zd
c

Zd
c

xZ2 (y)

x1 (y)

Q
dx =
x

Zd
c

x=x2 (y)

dy =
Q(x , y)

[Q(x2 (y), y) Q(x1 (y), y)] dy =

x=x1 (y)

Q(x , y) dy ,

G , y const, dy 0.

91

22.2.

ZZ

P
dx dy =
y

ZZ

(22.14)

P dx ,

Q
dx dy =
x

(22.15)

Q dy .

(22.15) (22.14), (22.13). I


6

y = y2 (x)

..?
.................

-.............

y = y1 (x)

...............
...
...
.

. 14.
(22.14)

c
O

.........
....

..?
.................

...............
...
...
.

x = x2 (y)

.........
....

x = x1 (y)

6
-.............

. 15.
(22.15)

2. G D -
,
(
x = x(u , v) ,
:
y = y(u , v) ,
D G,
. D,
G.
J (22.13), (22.13) ,
e , v) := (Q )(u , v) .
Pe(u , v) := (P )(u , v) , Q(u

x
x
y
y
e
e
P dx + Q dy = P
du +
dv + Q
du +
dv =
u
v
u
v

x
e y du + Pe x + Q
e y dv .
+Q
= Pe
u
u
v
v

92

22.


D,


Z
y
y
x
x
e
e
e
e
+Q
+Q
du + P
dv =
P
u
u
v
v
D

ZZ

x
e y Pe x + Q
e y
=
+Q
dudv .
Pe
u
v
v
v
u
u
D

(22.16)

, , ( , ,
), (22.16):

e y Pe x + Q
e y =
Pe
+Q
u
v
v
v
u
u

!
!
e x Q
e y
Pe x Pe y
Q
x
y
=

x u
y u
v
x u
y u
v

!
!
e y
e x Q
Pe x Pe y
x
Q
y

x v
y v
u
x v
y v
u

! x x

e
e
Q P

u v .
y y
x
y

u v
, (22.16)
:


Z
x
e y du + Pe x + Q
e y dv =
Pe
+Q
u
u
v
v
D

! x x
ZZ e

Q Pe

u v du dv .
=
y y
x
y

D
u v
x , y,
(22.13). I

22.2.

93

22.3.
J , G
G. , G
, , ,
,

. (x0 ,y0 ) G0 ,

(x x0 )2 + (y y0 )2 < r2
G0 .
(x0 , y0 )
G,
V 3 (x0 , y0 ) G (x x0 )2 + (y y0 )2 < r2 ,
.
, (x0 ,y0 ) G,
V 3 (x0 , y0 ) G (x x0 )2 + (y y0 )2 < r2
r > 0. r , V
(x x0 )2 + (y y0 )2 = r2 G (. 16). , G G (x0 , y0 ).
W := V , W . , ,
(x0 , y0 ) (0 , 0),
(x0 , y0 )
. , , W (. 17). y = y(x),
y(0) = y 0 (0) = 0 G W .

u = x ,
(22.17)
1 :
r 2 x2

(y y(x)) ,
v = 2
2
r x y(x)

W
, , .
, (22.17) x2 + y 2 = r2 ,

94

22.

.......................................
..........
....
.....
...
...
...
....
...
....
...
G
.
.
(x0 , y....0V)
..
...
..
...
..
.
.
....
...
.........
?
.........................

W
O

.........................................
..........
...
.....
...
...
...
....
...
....
...
...
..
...
..
.
...
.
.
...
.
..
....
........... .............
.............

y = y(x) v = 0.

. 16. V

. 17. W

G ,
. {U1 , . . . , UN } G , .
1 2 ,
.
{1 , . . . , N }
C G, {U1 , . . . , UN }.
,

ZZ
Q P

dx dy =
x
y
G

ZZ "

N
X

=1

N
X

=1

!#

dx dy =

ZZ X
N

(Q )
(P ) dx dy =
x
y
=1
G

N ZZ
X

(Q )
(P ) dx dy =
=
x
y
=1
U

95

22.2.

N Z
X

[( P ) dx + ( Q) dy] =

=1U

N Z
X

(P dx + Q dy) =

=1G

Z X
N

G =1

(P dx + Q dy) =

(P dx + Q dy) . I

. 1. . , - . ,
-
, , .
2.
. dx dy ,
dx dy.
3. . , , G - G. P Q, (x , y) G

P (x, y)
Q(x, y)

1.
x
y
, , ,

Z
ZZ
ZZ
Q
P
dxdy =
(P dx + Q dy) .
2 (G) =
1dxdy =

x
y
G

Q(x, y) x, P (x, y) 0
Z
2 (G) =
x dy .
G

Q(x, y) 0, P (x, y) y
Z
2 (G) = y dx .
G

96

22.

,
Z
y dx + x dy
.
2 (G) =
2
G

22.3

22.3.1

G R2 . G P, Q : G R, .
P (x, y) dx + Q(x, y) dy, . .
2-
( ).
22.11. F :
G R

P (x, y) dx + Q(x, y) dy
G, (x , y) G (h , k) R2

DF (x, y)(h, k) = P (x, y) h + Q(x, y) k .

(22.18)

22.4. F P dx + Q dy G, F (x, y) + C, C .
J F1 P dx + Q dy.
(x, y) := F1 (x, y) F (x, y)
D(x, y)(h, k) 0.
,
(x, y) C G. ,
F1 (x, y) F (x, y) + C . I

97

22.3.

22.5. F
P dx + Q dy G, ,

(
x = x(t) ,
a 6 t 6 b , (x(t), y(t)) G ,
y = y(t) ,
R a b. (P dx + Q dy)

t=b

[P (x, y) dx + Q(x, y) dy] = F [x(t), y(t)]


=
t=a

= F [x(b), y(b)] F [x(a), y(a)] .

(22.19)

J
Z
[P (x, y) dx + Q(x, y) dy] =

Zb
a

{P [x(t), y(t)]x0 (t) + Q[x(t), y(t)]y 0 (t)} dt .

(22.20)

,
F [x(t), y(t)] 0
F [x(t), y(t)] 0
d
F [x(t), y(t)] =
x (t) +
y (t) =
dt
x
y
= P [x(t), y(t)]x0 (t) + Q[x(t), y(t)]y 0 (t) .
, F [x(t), y(t)] (22.20).
, (22.19). I
. (22.19) , R
22.5 [P (x, y) dx + Q(x, y) dy] (. .

), . , ,
, .

98

22.

22.3.2

22.12. ,
P dx + Q dy (a , b) G0 , U G0
(a , b) F : U R,
P dx + Q dy U .
. (
) ,
22.11. ,
.
.

22.6. P, Q : G R
G . :
Q(x, y)
P (x, y)
(a) (x, y) G :

;
x
y
(b) G ,
Z

[P (x, y) dx + Q(x, y) dy] = 0 ;

(c) (x, y) G
P (x, y) dx + Q(x, y) dy
.
J :

(a)

(c) =

(b)

99

22.3.

(a) (b) G .
(a),
Z

(P dx + Qdy) =

ZZ

Q P

x
y

dxdy =

ZZ

0dxdy = 0 .

(b) (c) (a , b) G , U G
.
F : U R, (x , y) U :
(x,y)
Z

F (x , y) := C +

[P (u, v) du + Q(u, v) dv] ,

(22.21)

(a,b)

C ,
[(a, b); (x, y)].
,
(x + h, y + k)
(22.21) K
, (x, y)

(h , k) ,

(x + h , y + k) U .
(a, b)
(a , b), (x , y),
U
(x + h , y + k)
U (. . 18).
. 18. 22.6
(b)

0=

(P dx + Q dy) =

(x,y)
Z

(a,b)

(x+h,y+k)
Z

(x,y)

(a,b)
Z

(x+h,y+k)

(P dx + Q dy) .

100

22.

(22.21)
F (x + h , y + k) F (x , y) =
=

(x+h,y+k)
Z

(P dx + Q dy)

(x,y)
Z

(P dx + Q dy) =

(a,b)

(a,b)

(x+h,y+k)
Z

(P dx + Q dy) .

(x,y)

,
F (x + h , y + k) F (x , y) =
=

Z1
0

[P (x + th, y + tk) h + Q(x + th, y + tk) k] dt =


= P ( , ) h + Q( , ) k

( , ) [(x , y) ; (x + h , y + k)].
(22.18) :
|[F (x + h, y + k) F (x, y)] [P (x, y) h + Q(x, y) k]|

=
h2 + k 2
|[P ( , ) h + Q( , ) k] [P (x, y) h + Q(x, y) k]|

=
=
h2 + k 2
|[P ( , ) P (x, y)] h + [Q( , ) Q(x, y)] k|

=
6
h2 + k 2
q
2
2
6 [P ( , ) P (x, y)] + [Q( , ) Q(x, y)] 0

06

(h , k) (0 , 0) P Q.
(c) (a) :
(x0 , y0 ) G :

Q(x0 , y0 ) P (x0 , y0 )

6= 0 .
x
y

101

22.3.

,
Q
P
U 3 (x0 , y0 ), , (x, y) U

x
y
P (x0 , y0 )
Q(x0 , y0 )

. ,
x
y
U .

F : U R,
0 6=

ZZ

Q P

x
y

dx dy =
=

(P dx + Q dy) = F (x , y)

=0

.
: 0 6= 0 . I
22.3.3


.
22.13. 0 1
a b, r 0 :
[0 , 1] G r 1 : [0 , 1] G,
G R2 , r(s, t) r s (t) : [0, 1] [0, 1] G, :
(
r(0, t) r 0 (t) 0 ;
(a) t [0, 1] :
r(1, t) r 1 (t) 1 ;
(
r(s, 0) a ;
(b) s [0, 1] :
r(s, 1) b .
22.14. 0 1 ,
r 0 : [0 , 1] G r 1 :
[0 , 1] G, G R2 ,
r(s, t) r s (t) :
[0, 1] [0, 1] G, :

102

22.

(a) t [0, 1] :

r(0, t) r 0 (t) 0 ;
r(1, t) r 1 (t) 1 ;

(b) s [0, 1] : r(s, 0) r(s, 1) .

.......................................................
.
..........
...... .....................................................................................................
.
.
.
.
.
.
................ ....
. ......................
.
.
.
.
.
.
.............................................................................
1 ............. .......................
............................
.................
.......................
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
............... ..............
..
................ ............................ b
.............
.........................................
.....................
.
.
.
.
................
............
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..........................................................................................
........ .
.................
...........
..................
........................................
.................
............
................. ...
..................................................................................................................... ........... s ..............
.............................
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
........................................................................................................
......... ...... ..
...... ..............................................................................................................................................................................................
........ ....................
.
...
......... ...................................................................................................... ................
...........
....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.................
.
.
.
0
.......................................

. 19.


(. 19, 20). , s , r s : [0, 1] G,
r s (t) : r(s, t). s s
s . , 0 1
G , , 0 1 ,
,
G. , s ,
, s .
.

. 20.

22.3.

103

.
.

22.7 ( ). P , Q :
G R G R2 ,

Q(x, y)
P (x, y)
(x, y) G :

.
x
y
0 1 G,
Z
Z
(22.22)
(P dx + Q dy) = (P dx + Q dy) .
1

J J : [0 , 1] R,
Z
(22.23)
J(s) := (P dx + Q dy) , s [0 , 1] ,
s

s 22.13 22.14.
, J ,
(22.22).
:= dist (Fr G ; r ([0, 1] [0, 1])) R+
G [0, 1] [0, 1]
r. (0 , )
r, = () ,
(s, t) , (, ) :
(
|t | 6 ,
= |r(s, t) r(, )| < .
(22.24)
|s | 6
[0, 1], J().
[0 , 1]
0 = t 0 < t1 < t2 < . . . < t n = 1 ,
,
K0 , K1 , K2 , . . . , Kn1 ,

104

22.


r(, t0 ) , r(, t1 ) , r(, t2 ) , . . . , r(, tn1 )
. K G,
22.6(c)

F0 , ; F1 , F2 , . . . , Fn1 .

(22.25)

(22.24) r ( [t , t+1 ]) K , , r :
[t , t+1 ] K ,
:
Z
(P dx + Q dy) = F [r (t+1 )] F [r (t )] ,

= 0, 1, ... , n 1.

(22.26)

(22.26)
.
, F1 , F2 , . . . , Fn1 ,
:
F+1 [r(t+1 )] = F [r(t+1 )] = 0 , 1 , . . . , n 2 .
(22.26),
J() =

n1
X
=0

(P dx + Q dy) =

n1
XZ

(P dx + Q dy) =

=0

{F [r (t+1 )] F [r (t )]} = Fn1 [r (1)]F0 [r (0)] .


(22.27)

J(s) | s| < .
t [t , t+1 ] (22.24) , |r s (t) r (t )| < ,
. . r s (t) K , s r = r s (t),
t [t , t+1 ], [t , t+1 ] K .

22.3.

105

, s ,
,
Z
(P dx + Q dy) = F [r s (t+1 )]F [r s (t )] , = 0, 1, . . . , n1.

,
J(s) =

n1
X
=0

(P dx + Q dy) =

n1
XZ

(P dx + Q dy) =

=0
s

{F [r s (t+1 )] F [r s (t )]} = Fn1 [r s (1)]F0 [r s (0)] .


(22.28)

r s (0)
r (0) a, r s (1) r (1) b, . .
(22.27) (22.28) . J() J(s) | s| < .
r s (1)
r s (0), F0 Fn1 . . . Fn1 (r) F0 (r) C. ,
(22.27) (22.28) , . .
J() J(s) | s| < .
, J : [0 , 1] ,
[0 , 1] , .
, (22.22). I
22.15. G R2 , r : [0 , 1] G
().
. 1. ,
r(t) c, c G .
, , ,
.
2. ,
. .
, 11 17.

106

22.

22.8. G R2 ,
P, Q : G R . :
Q(x, y)
P (x, y)
(a) (x, y) G :

;
x
y
(b) 6 G,
Z

(P (x, y) dx + Q(x, y) dy) = 0 ;

(c) ,
Z
[P (x, y) dx + Q(x, y) dy]

, ;
(d) G
P (x, y) dx + Q(x, y) dy.
J :
=

(a) = (b)

(d) = (c)
(a) (b) , G
, 0 ,
. . r = r(t) c. ,
22.7,
Z

(P dx + Q dy) =

(P dx + Q dy) =

Z1
0

0 dt = 0 .

6 r : [0, 1] R 2 , r([0, 1]).

107

22.3.

(b) (c) 1 2
G. 1 21 .
(b) ,
Z
Z
Z
(P dx + Q dy) = (P dx + Q dy) (P dx + Q dy) ,
0=
1

1 21

. .

(P dx + Q dy) =

(P dx + Q dy) .

(c) (d) F : G R,
F (x , y) := C +

(x,y)
Z

[P (u, v) du + Q(u, v) dv] ,

(22.29)

(x0 ,y0 )

C , (x0 , y0 ) G , (x, y) G, G.
, (22.29) (x, y) G.
, F ,
(x1 , y1 ) G ,
[(x1 , y1 ) ; (x, y)] G

dist ((x1 , y1 ) ; (x, y)) < dist ((x1 , y1 ; FrG)) =: d .


(x1 , y1 ) d
G (x, y). ,
(22.29) ,

F (x, y) =

(xZ1 ,y1 )

(P dx + Q dy) +

(x0 ,y0 )

(x,y)
Z

(P dx + Q dy) , (22.30)

(x1 ,y1 )

G, , (x1 , y1 ) (x, y). (22.30)

108

22.

,
DF (x, y)(h, k) = P (x, y) h + Q(x, y) k ,
, 22.6(c).
(d) (a) F : G R
P dx + Q dy G. (x, y) G
F (x, y)
F (x, y)
P (x, y) ;
Q(x, y) ,
x
y

2 F (x, y)
2 F (x, y)
Q(x, y)
P (x, y)

, . .

. I
xy
yx
x
y

22.4

22.4.1

R
7 , R3 .
, S R3 , , S (. . S

S

(x x0 )2 + (y y0 )2 + (z z0 )2 < r2 ,
(x0 , y0 , z0 ) S.
. :
. .
, S,
r = r(u , v), (u , v) D R2 .
,

, . , , ,
7

22.2.

109

22.4.

21 24. . ,
D 0 R2 , ,

8 ,
.
, ,
,
.

.
...
...
........
.....................................................................

. 21.

...................................................
......
............
.
......
... .............................................. .....
.
.......................................
...
..
....
..
.........
.....
.
.
.
.
.
..................
.
.
.
.
.
.
..............................

. 22.

......................
.......
....... ........................................................................ .................
..
.................
.
..................................................................
.....
.
....
.............
............................................................

. 23.

22.16. S r = r(u, v) : D R3 , D R2
- D. , r 0u r 0v ,
(u, v) D : r 0u r 0v 6= 0.
22.17. S ,
: S (S).
:
z = f (x, y) , (x, y) Dxy ,

(22.31)

8
: L R2 R2 D + , D (. . R2 = D + t L t D )
.

110

22.

(22.32)

x = g(y, z) , (y, z) Dyz ,

(22.33)

y = h(z, x) , (z, x) Dzx ,


S,
(22.31).
T = {D1 , D2 , . . . , DN } , Dxy =

N
[

Dk ,

k=1

Dxy

D1 , D2 , . . . , DN
.

(k , k ) Dk , Sk
S,
Dk , S (k , k , k ),
k = f (k , k ).
k = 1, 2, . . . , N ,
. 24.
, . . - , ,
Dk .
,
.
S
, (T ) T
.
22.9. S R3 ,
r = r(u, v), (u, v) D R2 ,
,
ZZ
(22.34)
2 (S) =
|r 0u r 0v | dudv .
..........................
.............. ........ ......................
........
.....
...
.
.
.
...
..
..
...
...
...
...
...
....
....
...
...
...
...
...
....
...
...
.
.
...
..
...
...
...
...
....
....
.....
.
.
.
.....
....
....
....
...
...
.
.
...
....
..
...
..
....
.
.
..
....
.....
..
.
....
....
.................
......................................

111

22.4.

J 22.17 ,
(22.31) (22.33). , S (22.31), .
T = {D1 , D2 . . . , DN } Dxy ,
, . (k , k ) Dk , k = f (k , k ), . S (k , k , k ):
z k =

f (k , k )
f (k , k )
(x k ) +
(y k ) .
x
y

f (k , k )
f (k , k )
i
j + k x
y
S (k , k , k ).
, , ,
k. 2 (k )
, Dk . , Dk
k xOy,
n =

hnk ki
=
2 (Dk ) = 2 (k ) cos(nk , k) = 2 (k )
|nk | |k|
2 (k )
=r
2
2 .

k ,k )
k ,k )
1 + f (x
+ f (y

2 (k ) =

1+

f (k , k )
x

f (k , k )
y

2 (Dk ) .

, -

112

22.

:
2 (S)
=

N
X

2 (k ) =

k=1

N
X

k=1

1+

f (k , k )
x

f (k , k )
y

2 (Dk ) .
(22.35)

, . (T ) 0
(22.35)
s
2 2
ZZ
f
f
2 (S) =
1+
+
dxdy .
(22.36)
x
y
Dxy

(22.32),
s
2 2
ZZ
g
g
+
dydz .
(22.37)
1+
2 (S) =
y
z
Dyz

(22.33),

s
2 2
ZZ
h
h
2 (S) =
1+
+
dzdx .
(22.38)
z
x
Dzx

, S
r = r(u, v), (u, v) D,

x = x(u, v) ,
(u, v) D .
(22.39)
y = y(u, v) ,

z = z(u, v) ,

113

22.4.

S , . .
( xOy).

k r 0u r 0v 2, . .
0
0

hk r u r v i 6= 0 ( ,
). , (x, y) D

i
j k 0

0
x
x0v
> 0.
hkr u r 0v i = k x0u yu0 zu0 = 0u
yu yv0
x0v yv0 zv0

( ,
x = x(u, v) ,
y = y(u, v) ,
(
u = u(x, y) ,


v = v(x, y) ,
Dxy D. S :
z = z(u, v) = z (u(x, y); v(x, y)) =: f (x, y) ,
(22.36).
(22.36) ,
(u, v)
f f
.
,
x y
(u, v):

f
x

f
y

= zu0

u0
zv0 0x
vx

u0y
vy0

= zu0
:

0
zu
0
0 0
0 0
y
f
zu y v z v y u
= u0
= 0
0
x u

x
x0u x0v
0
yu yv
yu

x0
zv0 0u
yu
0
yv
0

y
u0
zv0
x u
0
yu

= zu0

x0v
yv0

x0u
x0u
.
x0v
yv0

x u
zv0
0
0
0
0
0
0
z
yv
zu xv + zv xu
f
0
u0
,

=
=
0
0
x u x v
x u
xv y
0
0

yu yv0
yu
yv0

x0v
zv0
.
x0v
yv0

114

22.

(22.36),

0
0
1
zu zv0 2
xu x0v 2 2

0
0

ZZ
yu yv0
zu zv0

x0u x0v
dudv =
1
+
2 (S) =
+

0
0

xu x0v 2
xu x0v 2 yu0 yv0
0
0

D
yu yv0
yu yv0
s

ZZ
x0u x0v 2 yu0 yv0 2 zu0 zv0 2

=
yu0 yv0 + zu0 zv0 + x0u x0v dudv =
D
ZZ
=
|r 0u r 0v | dudv . I
D

. ,

|r 0u r 0v | =

p
EG F 2 dudv ,

E , F , G S. ,
ZZ p
2 (S) =
EG F 2 dudv .
D

22.18. S R3 , , . .
n = n(x, y, z) : S R3 ,
, (x, y, z) S n S .

.
. : .
, .

115

22.4.

. ,
, n = n(x, y, z).
.

22.19. S R3
r = r(u, v) : D S

= (, ) : G S

,
(

= (u, v) ,
= (u, v) ,

D G ,

(22.40)

, ((u, v) ; (u, v)) r(u, v).

. , S
R , (22.40) , ,
.

22.10.
S R3 . ,
S.
J 22.9 = (, ) :
G S S
2 (S) =

ZZ
D

0
0 dd .

(22.40),
( , ) (u , v). -

116

22.

9
2 (S) =

Z Z

=
((u, v); (u, v)) ((u, v); (u, v))
D

v0
dudv =
v0
0

Z Z

u v0

=
r(u, v) r(u, v) mod u0 v0 dudv =
D
ZZ
0

r u u0 + r 0v v0 r 0u u0 + r 0v v0
=
0

mod u0
u

mod u0
u
0
ZZ
u
=
|r 0u r 0v | mod 0
v
D

v0
dudv =
v0

u0
mod u0
v0
u
=

ZZ

v0
dudv =
v0

|r 0u r 0v | dudv ,

(22.34). I
. ,
(. . )

dS := |r 0u r 0v | dudv .

mod ( ). , |.|
- .

117

22.4.

22.4.2

1-
( )

G0 R3 , f : G0 R
( ). S G0 - .
22.20. 1- f S
ZZ
ZZ
f (r) dS :=
f [r(u, v)] |r 0u r 0v | dudv ,
(22.41)
S

r = r(u, v) : D S S.
S , {S1 , S2 , . . . , SN }
- .
{1 , 2 , . . . , N } , . dS = |r 0u r 0v | dudv ,
.
22.21. 1- f S
ZZ
S

f (r) dS :=

N ZZ
X

k (r)f (r) dS ,

(22.42)

k=1 S
k

.
, , S
, , (22.42) ,
(22.41). 1- .
1 f , S
, 1- , ( ,

118

22.

S, ),
.
2 1-
f (r) 1 S :
ZZ
2 (S) =
dS .
S

S R3 ( ) = (x, y, z).
M S. S
{S1 , S2 , . . . , SN } (k , k , k )
Sk , k = 1, 2, . . . , N ,
M

N
X

k=1

(k , k , k ) 2 (Sk ) .


:
ZZ
M=
(x, y, z) dS .
S

.
ZZ
z dS .
I=
x2 +y 2 +z 2 =1

J z x y,

I=2

ZZ

x2 +y 2 61

1+

x2
y2
+
dxdy =
2
2
1x y
1 x2 y 2
=

ZZ

x2 +y 2 61

dxdy = . I

119

22.4.

22.4.3

2-
( )

G0 R3 ,
F = P i + Q j + R k : G0 R3
( ), S
G0 .
22.22. S G0 R3 , r = r(u, v) : D S.
- F = P i + Q j + R k
S, r 0u r 0v ,

ZZ

[P dy dz + Q dz dx + R dx dy] :=

:=

ZZ
D

F [r(u, v)]r 0u r 0v dudv .

(22.43)

. 2-
.
(22.43) , S 2- .
J , (22.43) r 0u r 0v
(r 0u r 0v ) . I

(22.43) .
r(u, v) = x(u, v)i + y(u, v)j + z(u, v)k ,

120

22.

ZZ
S

[P dy dz + Q dz dx + R dx dy] =

ZZ
D

0
y
P u0
yv

zu x0u
xu yu0
zu0

dudv =
+Q 0
+R 0
zv0
zv x0v
xv yv0

Z Z P [r(u, v)] Q[r(u, v)] R[r(u, v)]

dudv .

zu0
yu0
x0u
=

0
0
0

xv
yv
zv
D


n = i cos + j cos + k cos :=

r 0u r 0v
,
|r 0u r 0v |

cos , cos , cos


,
cos2 + cos2 + cos2 = 1 ,

ZZ

[P dy dz + Q dz dx + R dx dy] =

ZZ

ZZ

hF |ni dS =

[P cos + Q cos + R cos ] dS .

(22.44)

2-
1- .
, S .
(22.43) , . {S1 , S2 , . . . , SN }
S , {1 , 1 , . . . , N }
, .
r = r k (uk , vk ) : Dk Sk
Sk , (k = 1, 2, . . . , N ). ,

121

22.4.

, . . ,

D(uk , vk )
> 0 , Sk Sj 6= .
D(uj , vj )

,
r 0uk r 0vk = r 0uj r 0vj

D(uk , vk )
.
D(uj , vj )

2-
:
ZZ

[P dy dz + Q dz dx + R dx dy] :=

:=

N ZZ
X

k=1 D

hk F | r 0u r 0v i dudv .

(22.45)

.
ZZ
I=
[x dy dz + y dz dx + z dx dy]
S

x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1,
.
J
xi + yj + zk
= xi + yj + zk .
n= p
x2 + y 2 + z 2

, , (22.44),
I=

ZZ
S

hF | ni dS =

ZZ
S

(x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) dS =

ZZ
S

dS = 4 . I

122

22.

22.5

22.5.1

,
G0 R3 , (
).
22.23.
f : G0 R ()
grad f : G0 R3 , :
grad f :=

f
f
f
i+
j+
k.
x
y
z

(22.46)


F = P i + Qj + Rk : G0 R3
() div F :
:
div F :=

P
Q R
+
+
.
x
y
z

G0 R,
(22.47)

( )
F = P i + Qj + Rk : G0 R3
() rot F : G0
R3 , :

R
R Q
P
Q P

rot F :=
i+
j+
k.
y
z
z
x
x
x
(22.48)
,
10 .
10 () (18051865)
.

123

22.5.

22.24. 11
:=

i+
j+
k,
x
y
z

(22.49)

(x, y, z) 7
7 f (x, y, z)
f :=

f
f
f
i+
j+
k,
x
y
z

(22.50)

(22.50) f .

F . , ,
:
f
f
f
i+
j+
k;
x
y
z
Q R
P
+
+
;
divF = h | F i =
x
y
z

i
j
k

rot F = F = x y z
.
P
Q R
grad f = f =

(22.51)
(22.52)
(22.53)

,
, ,
u :=

2u 2u 2u
+ 2 + 2 = h | ui = divgrad u ,
x2
y
z

.
11 , .

124

22.

22.5.2

12
, .
22.11. S G0 R3
S,
F = P i + Qj + Rk : G0 R3 .
ZZ
I
hrot F | ni dS = hF | dri ,
(22.54)
S

r = xi + yj + zk S, n = n(x, y, z) , S, S
S,
.
. . n = i cos + j cos + k cos ,

I
Z Z cos cos cos

(P dx + Q dy + R dz) .
(22.55)
y
z dS =
x
P
Q
R
S
S
,

ZZ
Q
R
P
R

cos +

cos +
y
z
Z
x
S

I
P
Q
cos dS = (P dx + Q dy + R dz) .
+

x
y

(22.56)

, 1- 2- ,

ZZ
Q
R
R
P
dy dz +
dz dx+

y
z
Z
x
S

I
P
Q
dx dy dS = (P dx + Q dy + R dz) . (22.57)
+

x
y
S

12

(18191903) -

22.5.

125

, , ,

Z Z dy dz

x
P

dz dx

I
dx dy

dS = (P dx + Q dy + R dz) .
z

R
S

(22.58)

, . .

J , S r = r(u, v) :
D S, . ,

n=

r 0u r 0v
,
|r 0u r 0v |

dS = |r 0u r 0v | dudv ,


:
ZZ

hrot F | r 0u r 0v i dudv =

[hF | r 0u i du + hF | r 0v i dv] .

(22.59)
(22.59)
,
I

[hF | r 0u i du + hF | r 0v i dv] =

ZZ
D

hF | r 0v i
hF |r 0u i dudv =
u
v
ZZ
0 0

=
hF u | r v i hF 0v | r 0u i dudv .
D

126

22.

,
ZZ
ZZ

0 0
hF u | r v i hF 0v | r 0u i dudv =
hrot F | r 0u r 0v i dudv ,
D

(22.60)

. .
hF 0u | r 0v i hF 0v | r 0u i hrot F | r 0u r 0v i .

(22.61)

Q R 0, . . F (x, y, z)
P (x, y, z)i. (22.63) :
(Px0 x0u + Py0 yu0 + Pz0 zu0 )x0v (Px0 x0v + Py0 yv0 + Pz0 zv0 )x0u =

zv0
x0v
0 zu
0 x u
, (22.62)
+ Pz 0
= Py 0
xu x0v
yu yv0

x
P

k
zu0 =
zv0

j k

= Pz0 j Py0 k x0u yu0 zu0 =


x0v yv0 zv0
0

x0v
zv0
0 x u
0 zu
= Py 0
+ Pz 0
.
yu yv0
xu x0v

k

z
0

i
0
x u
0
xv

j
yu0
yv0

(22.63)

(22.62) (22.63) , (22.60) F P i.


(22.60) F Qj F Rk.
, (22.60)
F , , (22.59).
S. {S1 , S2 , . . . , SN }
S Sk .
S , r = r k (u, v) Sk

127

22.5.

, . D(u, v)
,

D(, )
.
{1 , 2 , . . . , N } S,
{S1 , S2 , . . . , SN }.
,
N
!
ZZ
ZZ
X

hrot F | ni dS =
rot
k F n dS =
S

N ZZ
X

k=1 S
k

k=1

hrot (k F ) | ni dS =

N I
X

k=1S
k

hk F | dri =

I
I X
N
k F | dri = hF | dri .
= h
S k=1

,
Sk
.
,
. I
22.5.3

,
.
22.25.
V R3 ,

,

x2 + y 2 + z 2 < 1 , x2 + y 2 + z 2 < 1 , z 6 0 .
V 0 V.

128

22.

V. ,
V = V 0 t V.
R3 , R3 ( , V 0 ) .
V. , (x0 , y0 , z0 ) V

x2 + y 2 + z 2 < 1 , z 6 0
,
, , V
(x0 , y0 , z0 ) Oz.
V,
, , .
.
22.12 ( ).
V R3 V ,
,
F = P i + Qj + Rk : V R3
(
).
ZZZ
V

Q R
P
+
+
dx dy dz =
x
y
z
ZZ
=
(P dy dz + Q dz dx + R dx dy) ,

(22.64)

, ,
ZZZ
ZZ
div F dx dy dz =
hF | ni dS ,
V

(22.65)

n = n(x, y, z)
V .
, .

129

22.5.

1.
V R3 -
V.
J Vz R3 , Oz,
V. V
V = {(x, y, z) Vz | z1 (x, y) 6 z 6 z2 (x, y)} ,
z = z1 (x, y) z = z2 (x, y) V,
V 0 .

Dz := Vz {z = 0} R2 ,

ZZZ

R
dx dy dz =
z

ZZ

ZZ

dx dy

Dz

z2Z(x,y)

R
dz =
z

z1 (x,y)

{R[x, y, z2 (x, y) R[x, y, z1 (x, y)]} dxdy =

Dz

ZZ

R dxdy ,

13 . ,
ZZ
ZZZ
R
dx dy dz =
R dx dy .
(22.66)
z
V

,
ZZZ

Q
dx dy dz =
y

ZZZ
V

ZZ

Q dz dx ;

(22.67)

ZZ

P dy dz .

(22.68)

P
dx dy dz =
z

13 , , ,
xOy .

130

22.

, (22.64). I
2. G D -
, R3 ,

x = x(u, v, w) ,
:
y = y(u, v, w) ,

z = z(u, v, w) ,

D
G, . D, G.
J (22.66) (22.68).
(22.68).

(22.68) ,

Pe (u, v, w) := (P )(u, v, w) .

0
0
dy = yu0 du + yv0 dv + yw
dw , dz = zu0 du + zv0 dv + zw
dw . (22.69)

dy dz 14
(22.69).
0
0
dw) =
dw) (zu0 du + zv0 dv + zw
dy dz = (yu0 du + yv0 dv + yw

0
0
0
0
0
0

y w y u
y y w
dw du + yu0 yv0 du dv .

= v0
0 dv dw + 0
zu zv
zw zu0
zv zw

, (22.68)

0
ZZ
0
y v y w
yw yu0
e

dw du+
P 0
0 dv dw + 0
zv zw
zw zu0
D
0

yu yv0

+ 0
du dv .
zu zv0

14 (dydz = dzdy)
.

22.5.

131

, D
,

0
0
ZZZ
0
y v y w
yw yu0

e
e

+
P 0
P 0
0 +
zv zw
zw zu0
u
v
D

0
y

yv0
Pe u0
+
du dv dw . (22.70)
zu zv0
w

0
yw
yu0 yv0
yv0 yw
yu0

+
0.
0 +
0
zu0
u zv0 zw
v zw
w zu0 zv0

(22.70)
:

Z Z Z Peu0 Pev0 Pew0

y 0 y 0 y 0 du dv dw =
v
w
u
z0 z0 z0
w
v
u
D

0
xu x0v x0w
ZZZ

P
0
=
((u, v, w)) yu0 yv0 yw
du dv dw =
x
0
zu0 zv0 zw
D
ZZZ
P
dx dy dz .
=
x
G

, (22.68) . I
22.12.
J V
{V1 , V2 , . . . , VN } ,
. Vk
V 0 , Vk V 0 . Vj
V r R+ , Vj V ,
, r.

132

22.

Vk ,
1. Vj ,
2 1. , Vj
. (x0 , y0 , z0 ) Vj ,
Vj , r . , , , , (x0 , y0 , z0 ) = (0, 0, 0), xOy,
Oz . z = z(x, y)
Vj , 15 .

u = x,

v = y,
:

w = p

p
r 2 x2 y 2

r2 x2 y 2 z(x, y)

[z z(x, y)] ,

Vj , .
, {V1 , V2 , . . . , VN } V.
{1 , 2 , . . . , N } V, . ,

ZZZ
V

div F dx dy dz =

ZZZ
V

div

N
X

=1

dx dy dz =

15 ,
.

22.5.

N ZZZ
X

=1 V

div ( F ) dx dy dz =

N ZZ
X

=1 V

h F | ni dS =

N ZZ
X

=1 V

Z Z X
N
V

=1

133

h F | ni dS =

F n dS =

ZZ

hF | ni dS . I

.
. F ,
, .

S, F S. ,

.
( ) , V
.
V . , V ,
V .

134

22.

22.1. 1-
Z
f (x, y) ds ,
L

:
f (x, y) =

L :

1)

1
xy


(0, 2) (4, 0) ;

2)

xy



(0, 0) , (0, 2) , (4, 0) , (4, 2) ;

3)

y = sin x , 0 6 x 6 ;

4)

(x2 + y 2 )n

x2 + y 2 = a 2 ;

5)

xy

6)

xy

7)

xy

8)

y2

9)

xy

10)

4xy

11)

12)

arctg

13)

x + 4y

r 2 = cos 2 ;

13)

|y|

r = a(2 + cos ) .

y2
x2
+ 2 = 1 , (x > 0 , y > 0) ;
2
a
b
(
x = a(t sin t) ,
0 6 t 6 2 ;
y = a(1 cos t) ,
x2 + y 2 = ax ;

y = max {2 x, 2x} , 0 6 x 6 2 ;
|x| + |y| = 1 ;
2

x 2
y = min
, 2a x2 , x > 0 ;
a

x2 y 2
y
x

(x2 + y 2 )2 = a2 (x2 y 2 ) , x > 0 ;


r = 2 , 0 6 6 a ;

135

22.2. 1-
Z
f (x, y, z) ds ,
L

:
f (x, y, z) =

1)

x2

z2
+ y2

2)

xyz

3)

2z

4)

xz

5)

y2

6)

|y|

p
x2 + y 2

22.3.
x
2

L :

x = a cos t ,
y = a sin t , 0 6 t 6 2 ;

z = at ,
(
x2 + y 2 + z 2 = R 2 ,
x + y + z = 0,
x > 0, y > 0, z > 0;

x = t cos t ,
y = t sin t , 0 6 t 6 2 ;

z = t,
(
r = a cos
,

;
z = 4a 1 cos
2
(
2
2
2
2
x +y +z =R ,
x + y + z = 0;
(
x2 + y 2 = z 2 ,
x2 + y 2 = ax .
x dy, L

y
3

= 1 (2, 0) (0, 3).


R
22.4. (x2 y 2 ) dx, L
+

y = x2 (0, 0) (2, 4).


R
22.5. (x2 + y 2 ) dy, L L

(0, 0), (2, 0), (4, 4),


(0, 4),
.
R
22.6. (x cos y dx + y sin x dy), L
L

(0, 0) (, 2).

136

22.
22.7.
Z
[xy dx + (y x) dy] ,
L

L (0, 0)
(1, 1), :
1) y = x; 2) y = x2 ; 3) y 2 = x; 4) y = x3 .
R
22.8. (y dx x dy), L
L

22.9.

22.10.

22.11.

22.12.

x = a cos t, y = b sin t,
t [0, 2].
R y 2 dx x2 dy
, L

x2 + y 2
L
x = a cos t, y = a sin t,
t [0, 2].
R
x dx + y dy + z dz
p
, L
2
x + y 2 + z 2 x y + 2z
L
(1, 1, 1)
(4, 4, 4).
R
(y 2 dx + z 2 dy + x2 dz), L
(
x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4 ,
(z > 0),
L
x2 + y 2 = 2x ,
,
.
R
[(x + y) dx xy dy], L
L

x14 + y 14 = a14 (0, a) (a, 0).


R
22.13. (xy 2 dx yx2 dy), L L

2(x + y) = (x y)2 (0, 2) (2, 0).


R
22.14. (xy dxx2 dy), L
L

x4 2x2 y 2 +y 3 = 0 (14, 18) (0, 0).


R
22.15. (xy dx x3 y 3 dy), L
L

|x y| + |x + y| = 1,
.
R
22.16. (x dy y dx), L
L

x4 + y 4 = a2 (x2 + y 2 ),
.

137

R
22.17. (xz dx+ax dyx2 dz), L
L

az = y, x + y + z = a, x > 0, y > 0 (0, a, 0)


(a, 0, 0).
R
22.18. (yz dx+ay dz az dy, L
L

x2 + y 2 = z 2 , y 2 + x2 = ax, y > 0, z > 0


(0, 0, 0) (a, 0, a).

22.19. 1-
ZZ

f (x, y, z) dS ,

f (x, y, z) =

S :

1)

xyz

2)

x2 y 2 ,

3)

x2 + y 2 ,

{x + z = 1 , x > 0 , z > 0} ,
0 6 y 6 1;
p
z = a 2 x2 y 2 , ;

4)

5)

S = V,
np
o
V =
x2 + y 2 6 z 6 1 ;

1
p
,
2 y2 z2
x2 + y 2 + z
2

6)

x +y +z,

7)

xyz ,

8)

xy + yz + zx ,

9)

x y2 + z2 ,

10)

|xy| ,

1
2

S

y = sin x , 0 6 x 6 ,
Ox ;

2z = 2 x2 y 2 , z > 0 ;

x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = a2 , z > 0 ;
2
z = xy , x2 + y 2 6 a2 ,
z>0 ;
2
x + y2 = z2 ,

2
x + y 2 > 2ax , z > 0 ;
2
x + y 2 = a2 , x 6 z 6 x ,
x>0 ;
2

x + z 2 = a2 , y 2 + z 2 = a2 ;

138

22.

22.20. 2-
ZZ
(x dy dz + y dz dx + z dx dy) ,
S

S [0, 1]3 , .
RR 2 2
22.21.
x y z dx dy,
S

S x2 +y 2 +z 2 = R2 , z 6 0,
.
RR
22.22.
z dx dy, S
S

y2
z2
x2
2 + 2 + 2 = 1,
a
b
c
.

22.23.
ZZ
(xz dx dy + xy dy dz + yz dz dx) ,
S

S ,
x + y + z = 1 , x = y = z = 0.
22.24.
ZZ
(yz dx dy + xz dy dz + xy dx dz) ,
S

S ,
x2 + y 2 = a2
x = y = z = 0 , z = H.
22.25.
ZZ
(x6 dy dz + y 6 dz dx + z 6 dx dy) ,
S

S
z = x2 + y 2 , z 6 1 .
22.26. , ,

139


A B:
R
1) [(x + y)dx + (x y)dy], A(2, 1), B(1, 0);

R
2) (2xy dx + x2 dy), A(0, 0), B(2, 1);
R
3) [(x4 + 4xy 3 )dx + (6x2 y 2 5y 4 )dy], A(2, 1), B(0, 3);
R
4) [(x2 +2xyy 2 )dx+(x2 2xyy 2 )dy], A(3, 0), B(0, 3);

R
5)
[(3x2 2xy + y 2 )dx + (2xy x2 3y 2 )dy], A(1, 2),

B(1, 2);
R
6) (ex cos x dx ex sin x dy), A(0, 0), B(x0 , y0 );

R
7)
(yzxyz1 dx + zxyz ln x dy + yxyz ln x dz), A(1, 1, 1),

B(2, 2, 2);
R
8) [yz dx + xz dy + xy dz], A(2, 1, 0), B(1, 2, 3).

22.27. , :
R
1) (xy dx + 2xy 2 dy), L L

(1, 0), (0, 1), (0, 0),


;
R
2) [x3 y 3 dx + (x y)2 dy], L ABC, A(2, 1),
L

B(0, 3), C(2, 1).


R
3)
[(xy + x + y)dx + (xy + x y)dy], L
L

x2 + y 2 = ax, y 6 0, (0, 0)
(a, 0);
R
4) [(xy + x + y)dx + (xy + x y)dy], L L

x2 +y 2 = ax, x 6 a2, (a2, a2)


(a1, a2);
R
5) [(1 y2) dx + y2 dy], L L

x2 +y 2 = a2 , y > 0,
.
R
6) [(ex cos y y 2 )dx + (ex sin y x2 )dy], L L

x2 + y 2 = 2ax,
.

140

22.
7)

(y 53 dx x53 dy), L
x23 + y 23 = a23 ,

.
R
8) [(x2 + y)dx + (y 2 + z)dy + (z 2 + x)dz], L
L

x2 + y 2 = 4, x + z = 2,
.
R
9) [(xy + z)dx + (yz + x)dy + (xz + y)dz], L L

x2 + y 2 + z 2 = a2 , x + y + z = 0, .
R
10) [(z 2 y 2 )dx + (x2 z 2 )dy + (y 2 x2 + x)dz], L
L

x2 + y 2 = 8x, x + y + z = 0, .
R
11) (2xy dx+z 2 dy+x2 dz), L 2x2 +2y 2 = z 2 ,
L

x + z = a,
.
R 2
[z x dx + (z + x + y)dy + zx2 dz], L
12)
L

x2 + y 2 = ax, x2 = y 2 + z 2 ,
.
R
13) (xyz dx + y z dy + x2 z dz), L
L

x2 + z 2 = a 2 ,

y 2 + z 2 = a2 ,

x > 0,


.
22.28. , :
RR
1)
[(1 + 2x)dy dz + (2x + 3y)dz dx + 3y + 4z)dx dy],
S

S x + 2y + 3z 6 1, x > 0, y > 0,
z > 0, ;
RR
2)
[(1 + 2x)dy dz + (2x + 3y)dz dx + 3y + 4z)dx dy],
S

S |x y + z| + |y z + x| + |z x + y| = a,
;
RR
3)
[z dx dy + (5x + y)dy dz], S S

x2 + y 2 6 z 2 , 0 6 z 6 4,
;

4)

RR
S

[z dx dy + (5x + y)dy dz], S

x
y2
+ +z 2 = 1, ;
4 RR9
5)
[z dx dy + (5x + y)dy dz], S
S

1 6 x2 +y 2 +z 2 6 4, ;
RR 2
(x dy dz +y 2 dz dx+z 2 dxdy), S
6)
S

[0, a] [0, b] [0, c], ;


RR 2
(x dy dz + y 2 dz dx + z 2 dx dy), S
7)
S

x2
y2
z2
2 + 2 6 2 , 0 6 z 6 c,
a
b
c
;
RR 3
8)
(x dy dz + y 3 dz dx + z 3 dx dy), S S

x+y +z 6 a, x > 0, y > 0, z > 0,


;
RR 3
(x dy dz + y 3 dz dx + z 3 dx dy), S
9)
S

x2 +y 2 +z 2 = a2 , .
22.29. :
1) div(uu) = uu + (u)2 ;
2) div(uv) = uv + hu|vi;
3) div(uc) = cgradu , c ;
4) grad(uv) = ugradv + vgradu;
5) div[F ] = h|rotF i hF |roti;
6) div(uF ) = udivF + hF |gradui;
7) divgradu = u;
8) rotgradu 0;
9) rot(u F ) = urotF + gradu F .

23.
,


, Rn .

2- .

23.1

23.1.1

V () n R.
V k := V . . . V .
{z
}
|
k

T :
V k R
(k-), i = 1, . . . , k a R
:
T (v 1 , . . . , v i + v 0i , . . . , v k ) =T (v 1 , . . . , v i , . . . , v k )+
+ T (v 1 , . . . , v 0i , . . . , v k ) ;
T (v 1 , . . . , a v i , . . . , v k ) =a T (v 1 , . . . , v i , . . . , v k ) .
T :
V k R
k- V , k-, T k (V ), ()
R, S, T T k (V ) a R -

23.1.

143

(S + T )(v 1 , . . . , v k ) := S(v 1 , . . . , v k ) + T (v 1 , . . . , v k ) ,
(a S)(v 1 , . . . , v k ) := a S(v 1 , . . . , v k ) .
,
T k (V ). , S T k (V ), T T l (V );
S T T k+l (V )
:
(S T )(v 1 , . . . , v k , v k+1 , . . . , v k+l ) :=
:= S(v 1 , . . . , v k ) T (v k+1 , . . . , v k+l ) .
, , S T T S .
:
(S1 + S2 ) T =S1 T + S2 T ;

S (T1 + T2 ) =S T1 + S T2 ;
(aS) T =S (aT ) = a (S T ) ;
(S T ) U =S (T U ) .

, S T U ;
,
T1 . . . Tk .
, T 1 (V ) = V (, V ).
T k (V ) T 1 (V ).
23.1. (v 1 , . . . , v n )
V , (1 , . . . , n ) 1 V , . . i (v j ) = ij . , k
i1 . . . ik , (i1 , . . . , ik = 1, 2, . . . , n) ,
T k (V ), nk .
1 ,

, .

144

23.

J
(i1 . . . ik )(v j1 , . . . , v jk ) =
(
1 (i1 , . . . , ik ) = (j1 , . . . , jk ) ,
= (i1 ,...,ik ),(j1 ,...,jk ) =
0 (i1 , . . . , ik ) 6= (j1 , . . . , jk ) .
k w 1 , . . . , w k , wi =

n
P

aij v j ,

j=1

T T k (V )
n
X

T (w1 , . . . , w k ) =

j1 ,...,jk =1

n
X

j1 ,...,jk =1

a1j1 . . . akjk T (v j1 , . . . , v jk ) =

T (v j1 , . . . , v jk ) (j1 . . . jk )(w1 , . . . , w k ) .

,
T =

n
X

j1 ,...,jk =1

T (v j1 , . . . , v jk ) (j1 . . . jk ) ,

j1 . . . jk
T k (V ).
, ai1 ,...,ik ,
n
X

i1 ,...,ik =1

ai1 ,...,ik (i1 . . . ik ) = 0 .

(v j1 , . . . , v jk ),
aj1 ,...,jk = 0. , i1 . . . ik . I

,
. , f :
V W
f : T k (W ) T k (V ), :
(f T )(v 1 , . . . , v k ) := T (f (v 1 ), . . . , f (v k ))

(23.1)

23.1.

145

T T k (W ) v 1 , . . . , v k V .
1.

f (S T ) = f (S) f (T ) .
J S T k (V ), T T l (V ).
f (S T )(v 1 , . . . , v k , v k+1 , . . . v k+l ) =

= (S T )(f (v 1 ), . . . , f (v k ), f (v k+1 ), . . . , f (v k+l )) =


= S(f (v 1 ), . . . , f (v k )) T (f (v k+1 ), . . . , f (v k+l )) =
= (f S)(v 1 , . . . , v k ) (f T )(v k+1 , . . . , v k+l ) =

= (f S) (f T )(v 1 , . . . , v k , v k+1 , . . . v k+l ) . I

23.1.2 ,
,

()
. ,
, , . . det T n (Rn ), n .
, , . .
23.1. T k (V )
2 , i, j = 1, . . . , k, i 6= j,
(. . . , v i , . . . , v j , . . .) = (. . . , v j , . . . , v i , . . .) ,
v,
( ).
k (V ) k-
, , T k (V ).
2 .

146

23.

, , . , ,
, .
23.2. k
: {1, . . . , k} {1, . . . , k}. k! k
. Sk .

. ,
,

1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
=
, =
.
5 4 3 2 1
3 1 2 5 4

1 2 3 4
= =
3 1 2 5


5
1

4
5

2
4
=

3
3

4
2
1
3

5
1
2
5

3
4

=
4
1

5
2

23.3.

1
2
...
k
=
(1) (2) . . . (k)


((1), (2), . . . , (k)).
(
+1 , ,
sgn :=
1 , .
23.4.
Alt : T 7 Alt T

T T k (V )
1 X
sgn T (v (1) , . . . , v (1) ) .
Alt T (v 1 , . . . , v k ) :=
k!
Sk

147

23.1.

23.2. T T k (V ) k (V )
(a) Alt (T ) k (V ) ;
(b) Alt () = ;
(c) Alt(Alt(T )) = Alt(T ) .
J (a) (i, j) 3 , Sk .
0
:= (i, j), (i < j),
Sk ,
(Alt T )(v 1 , . . . , v j , . . . , v i , . . . , v k ) =
1 X
sgn T (v (1) , . . . , v (j) , . . . , v (i) , . . . , v (k) ) =
=
k!
Sk
1 X
=
sgn T (v 0 (1) , . . . , v 0 (i) , . . . , v 0 (j) , . . . , v 0 (k) ) =
k!
Sk
1 X
sgn 0 T (v 0 (1) , . . . , v 0 (k) ) = (Alt T )(v 1 , . . . , v k ) .
=
k! 0
Sk

(b) k (V ), = (i, j) ,
(v (1) , . . . , v (k) ) = sgn (v 1 , . . . , v k )
. ,
.
(Alt )(v 1 , . . . , v k ) =

1 X
sgn (v (1) , . . . , v (k) ) =
k!
Sk

1 X
(v 1 , . . . , v k ) X
=
sgn sgn (v 1 , . . . , v k ) =
1=
k!
k!
Sk

Sk

= (v 1 , . . . , v k ) .

(c)
(a) (b). I
3 (i, j),
i j, .

148

23.

. k (V ) , 23.1. , k (V ) l (V ),
, ,
k+l (V ). ( ), .

23.5.
k (V ) l (V )
:=

(k + l)!
Alt( ) .
k! l!

(23.2)

23.3. , 1 , 2 k (V ), , 1 , 2
(V ), a R, f : V W :
(a) (1 + 2 ) = 1 + 2 ;
(b) (1 + 2 ) = 1 + 2 ;
(c) (a) = (a) = a ( );
(d) = (1)kl ;
(e) f ( ) = f () f ().
J (a)
l

(k + l)!
Alt((1 + 2 ) ) =
k! l!
(k + l)!
(k + l)!
=
Alt(1 )+
Alt(2 ) = 1 +1 .
k! l!
k! l!
(1 + 2 ) =

(b)
(k + l)!
Alt( (1 + 2 )) =
k! l!
(k + l)!
(k + l)!
=
Alt( 1 )+
Alt( 2 ) = 1 + 2 .
k! l!
k! l!
(1 + 2 ) =

(c)
(k + l)!
(k + l)!
Alt((a) ) =
Alt( (a)) =
k! l!
k! l!
(k + l)!
=a
Alt( ) = (a) = a ( ) .
k! l!

(a) =

23.1.

149

(d) ,

( )(v 1 , . . . , v k+l ) =
(k + l)! X
=

sgn (v (1) , . . . , v (k) )(v (k+1) , . . . , v (k+l) ) ,


k! l!
Sk+l

( )(v 1 , . . . , v k+l ) =
(k + l)! X
=

sgn (v (1) , . . . , v (l) )(v (l+1) , . . . , v (k+l) ) .


k! l!
Sk+l

. :
(v (1) , . . . , v (k) ) (v (k+1) , . . . , v (k+l) )
(v (1) , . . . , v (l) ) (v (l+1) , . . . , v (k+l) ) .

1
...
k+l
1
... k + l
=
=
.
(1) . . . (k + l)
(k + 1) . . . (k)
, ,
k l ,
.
(e) f ( ) ,
f ( )(v 1 , . . . , v k+l ) = ( )(f (v 1 ), . . . , f (v k+l )) =
(k + l)! X
sgn
=
k! l!
Sk+l

(f (v (1) ), . . . , f (v (k) )) (f (v (k+1) ), . . . , f (v (k+l) )) =


(k + l)! X
=

sgn (f () f ())(v (1) , . . . , v (k+l) ) =


k! l!
Sk+l

= (f () f ())(v 1 , . . . , v k+l ) . I

150

23.

23.4.
S T k (V ) , T T l (V ) , k (V ) , l (V ) , m (V )
:
(a) Alt(S) = 0 , Alt(S T ) = Alt(T S) = 0;
(b) Alt(Alt( )) = Alt( ) = Alt( Alt( ));
(k + l + m)!
(c) ( ) = ( ) =
Alt( ) .
k! l! m!
J (a) Alt(S T ) = 0 :
Alt(S T )(v 1 , . . . , v k+l ) =
X
sgn S(v (1) , . . . , v (k) ) T (v (k+1) , . . . , v (k+l) ) .
=
Sk+l

G Sk+l , , k + 1, . . . , k + l.
G Sk ,
X

"

sgn S(v (1) , . . . , v (k) ) T (v (k+1) , . . . , v (k+l) ) =

0 Sk

sgn S(v 0 (1) , . . . , v 0 (k) ) T (v k+1 , . . . , v k+l ) = 0 ,


Alt(S) = 0.
0
/ G.

, G0 := 0 G ,
(w1 , . . . , w k+l ) := (v 0 (1) , . . . , v 0 (k+l) ).
X

G0

sgn S(v (1) , . . . , v (k) ) T (v (k+1) , . . . , v (k+l) ) =


"

= sgn 0

0 G

sgn 0 S(w 0 (1) , . . . , w 0 (k) )


T (wk+1 , . . . , w k+l ) = 0

23.1.

151

, . , GG0 =
= . , G0 , = 0 0
0 G, 0 = ( 0 )1 G .
, Sk+l
,
.
Sk+l .
Alt(T S) = 0
, Sk+l
,
.
(b)
Alt(Alt( ) ) = Alt( ) Alt( ) = 0 .
, (a)
0 = Alt( [Alt( ) ]) =

= Alt( Alt( )) Alt( ) ,

(b) .
(c)
( ) =

(k + l + m)!
Alt(( ) ) =
(k + l)! m!
(k + l + m)! (k + l)!
=

Alt( ) .
(k + l)! m!
k! l!

(c) . I
.
( )

( )

( ) 1 2 . . . r . - (v 1 , . . . , v n ) V (1 , . . . , n )
T 1 (V ), k (V ) k = 1, . . . , n.

152

23.

23.5.

i1 i2 . . . ik , 1 6 i1 < i2 < . . . < ik 6 n , (23.3)


k (V ),

n
n!
.
(23.4)
=
k
k! (n k)!
k > n k (V ) = {0}.
J k (V ) T k (V ). 23.1

X
=
ai1 ,...,ik i1 . . . ik .
16i1 ,...,ik 6n

,
X
ai1 ,...,ik Alt(i1 . . . ik ) . (23.5)
= Alt() =
16i1 ,...,ik 6n

Alt(i1 . . .ik ) i1 . . .ik


, k (V ).
k > n, i1 , . . . , ik {1, . . . , n}
, i1 . . . ik
. , k (V ) = 0 k > n.
1 6 k 6 n, , (23.5) (. . , i
),
X
bi1 ,...,ik Alt(i1 . . . ik ) ,
=
16i1 <...<ik 6n

, , k (V )
(23.3). ,
.
X
ci1 ,...,ik (i1 . . . ik ) .
0=
16i1 <...<ik 6n

153

23.1.

(v j1 , . . . , v jk ),
0=

16i1 <...<ik 6n

16i1 <...<ik 6n

ci1 ,...,ik (i1 . . . ik )(v j1 , . . . , v jk ) =

ci1 ,...,ik

(i1 + . . . + ik )!
(i1 . . .ik )(v j1 , . . . , v jk ) =
i1 ! . . . i k !
= cj1 ,...,jk

(j1 + . . . + jk )!
,
j1 ! . . . j k !

, , cj1 ,...,jk = 0 .
, (23.3) (23.4). I
. ,
V n, n (V ) 1. , n- V
.
n- ,
.

23.6. (v 1 , . . . , v n )
n
P
V , n (V ). n w i =
aij v j V
j=1

(w1 , . . . , w n ) = det(aij ) (v 1 , . . . , v n ) .
J

(w1 , . . . , w n ) =
=

16j1 ,...,jn 6n

n
X

jn =1

j1 =1

anjn v jn =

a1j1 . . . anjn (v j1 , . . . , v jn ) =

= (v 1 , . . . , v n )

:=

a1j1 v j1 , . . . ,

n
X

1
j1

sgn a1j1 . . . anjn =

2
j2

...
...

Sn

= (v 1 , . . . , v n ) det (aij ) ,
n
jn

. I

154

23.

. 23.6 ,
n (V ) V :
(v 1 , . . . , v n ), (v 1 , . . . , v n ) > 0, , (v 1 , . . . , v n ) < 0. (v 1 , . . . , v n ) (w 1 , . . . , wn )
n
P
aij v j ,
, A = (aij ) , w i =
j=1

(v 1 , . . . , v n ) (w1 , . . . , wn ) , det A > 0.


V .

23.1.3

23.6. ,
Rn
x Rn ,

n
Rx := dx := x0 x x0 Rn .
Rnx Rn ,
x. (e1 , e2 , . . . , en )
Rnx ,
( 1 , 2 , . . . , n ) = (dx1 , dx2 , . . . , dxn )
T 1 (Rnx ), . .
i (ej ) = dxi (ej ) = ij . dx Rnx
,
dx = (dx1 , dx2 , . . . , dxn ) = e1 dx1 + e2 dx2 + . . . + en dxn .
i ,
i (dx) = dxi (dx) = dxi .
23.7.
k ( k-), D Rn ,
D 3 x 7 (x) T k (Rnx ). x

23.1.

155

(x) =

16i1 <...<ik 6n

i1 ...ik (x) i1 . . . ik =

16i1 <...<ik 6n

i1 ...ik (x) dxi1 . . . dxik ,

(23.6)

i1 ...ik (x) , .
(23.6) , . .,
i1 ...ik . , ,
, ,
C . ,

.
,
f , :
( + )(x) := (x) + (x) ;
( )(x) := (x) (x) ;
(f )(x) := f (x) (x) .
f f .
.
23.7. f : Rn R ,
1-

df (x) =

f (x)
f (x)
dx1 + . . . +
dxn .
x1
xn

156

23.

J f ,
f (x)
f (x)
dx1 + . . . +
dxn =
x1
xn
f (x)
f (x)
=
dx1 (dx) + . . . +
dxn (dx) =
x1
xn

f (x)
f (x)
1
n
=
dx + . . . +
dx (dx) . I
x1
xn

df (x)(dx) =


f : Rn Rm ,

y = f (x) .

x Rn
Df (x) : Rn Rm .
,
f : Rnx Rm
y ,

f (dx) = (Df (x)(dx))y .

k
n
f : k (Rm
y ) (Rx ) ,

k- Rm
y k- f

n
Rx (f )(x) := f ((y)), . .

(f )(x)(dx1 , . . . , dxk ) := (f (x))(f (dx1 ), . . . , f (dxk ))


dx1 , . . . , dxk Rnx .
23.8. g : Rn R , y = f (x) = (f 1 (x), . . . , f m (x)) : Rn Rm , , , ,
f i
f i
(a) f (dy i ) =
dx1 + . . . +
dxn ;
x1
xn
(b) f (1 + 2 ) = f (1 ) + F (2 ) ;
(c) f (g ) = (g f ) f () ;
(d) f ( ) = f () f ().

23.1.

157

J (a) ,
dy i = i d i (f (x)) = i ,
(f (dy i ))(x)(dx) = d i (f (x))(f (dx)) = i (Df (x)(dx)) =

n
n
i
i
X
X
f
(x)
f
= Df i (x)(dx) =
dxj =
dxj (x)(dx) .
x
x
j
j
j=1
j=1
(b)

f (1 + 2 )(x)(dx1 , . . . , dxk ) =
= (1 + 2 )(f (x))(f (dx1 ), . . . , f (dxk )) =
= 1 (f (x))(f (dx1 ), . . . , f (dxk ))+
+ 2 (f (x))(f (dx1 ), . . . , f (dxk )) =
= f (1 )(x)(dx1 , . . . , dxk ) + f (2 )(x)(dx1 , . . . , dxk ) .
(c) g : Rn R
f (g )(x)(dx1 , . . . , dxk ) =
= (g f )(x) (f (x)) (f (dx1 ), . . . , f (dxk )) =

= (g f )(x) (f ())(x)(dx1 , . . . , dxk ) .

(d) k (Rn ), l (Rn )

f ( )(x)(dx1 , . . . , dxk+l ) =
= f ((x) (x))(dx1 , . . . , dxk+l ) =

= f ((x)) f ((x))(dx1 , . . . , dxk+l ) =


= (f () f ())(x)(dx1 , . . . , dxk+l ) . I

.
23.9.
X
(y) =
j1 ...jk (y)dy j1 . . . dy jk
16j1 <...<jk 6m

, f : Rn Rm .
X
(f )(x) =
j1 ...jk (f (x))df j1 (x). . .df jk (x) . I
16j1 <...<jk 6m

158

23.

. x = f (t) : R3 R3
. f (),
=
= P (x1 , x2 , x3 )dx2 dx3 +Q(x1 , x2 , x3 )dx3 dx1 +R(x1 , x2 , x3 )dx1 dx2 .
J 23.8,

f () = (P f )(t) f (dx2 dx3 ) + (Q f )(t) f (dx3 dx1 )+


+ (R f )(t) f (dx1 dx2 ) =

= (P f )(t) f (dx2 ) f (dx3 ) + (Q f )(t) f (dx3 ) f (dx1 )+


+ (R f )(t) f (dx1 ) f (dx2 ) =

x2 1 x2 2 x2 3
dt +
dt +
dt
= (P f )(t)
t1
t2
t3

x3 1 x3 2 x3 3
dt +
dt +
dt +

t1
t2
t3

x3 1 x3 2 x3 3
dt +
dt +
dt
+ (Q f )(t)
t1
t2
t3

x1 1 x1 2 x1 3
dt +
dt +
dt +

t1
t2
t3

x1 1 x1 2 x1 3
dt +
dt +
dt
+ (R f )(t)
t1
t2
t3

x2 1 x2 2 x2 3

=
dt +
dt +
dt
t1
t2
t3

x2 x2
x2 x2

t2
t3 dt2 dt3 + t3
t1 dt3 dt1 +
= (P f )(t) x
3 x3
x3 x3

t2
t3
t3
t1

x2 x2
!

1
t1
2
t
2
+ x
dt dt +
3 x3

t1
t

x3 x3
x3 x3

t2
t3 dt2 dt3 + t3
t1 dt3 dt1 +
+ (Q f )(t) x
x
x
x
1
1
1
1

t2
t3
t3
t1

x3 x3
!

t1
1
2
t
2
+ x
dt dt +
1 x1

t1
t2

23.1.

x1

t2
+ (R f )(t) x
2

t2

159

x1 x1
x1

t3
3
1
t3 2
t1 3
x2 dt dt + x2 x2 dt dt +

t3
t3
t1

x1 x1
!

1
t1
2
t
2
+ x
dt dt . I
2 x2

t1
t2

, dt2 dt3 , dt3 dt1 ,


dt1 dt2 , .
,
.

23.10. x = f (t) : Rn Rn ,
f (h dx1 . . . dxn ) = (h f ) det[f 0 ] dt1 . . . dtn . (23.7)
J
f (h dx1 . . . dxn ) = (h f ) f (dt1 . . . dtn ) ,
,
f (dx1 . . . dxn ) = det[f 0 ] dt1 . . . dtn .
f = (f 1 , . . . , f n ), 23.8(d) ,
f (dx1 . . . dxn )(t) = f (dx1 )(t) . . . f (dxn )(t) =
1

f n (t) 1
f (t) 1
f 1 (t) n
=
dt + . . . +
dt
...
dt + . . .
t1
tn
t1
f n (t) n
dt =
... +
tn
X
f 1 (t)
f n (t)
sgn
=
...
dt1 . . . dtn =
ti1
tin
16i1 <...<in 6n

= det[f 0 (t)] dt1 . . . dtn ,

160

23.

1
i1

2
i2

...
...

n
im

. I

. , , , d,
0- () 1-. .

23.8.
X
ai1 ...ik dxi1 . . . dxik
=
16i1 <...<ik 6n

k- x Rn .
(k + 1)- d, :
X
d :=
dai1 ...ik dxi1 . . . dxik =
=

16i1 <...<ik 6n
n
X
X

16i1 <...<ik 6n j=1

ai1 ...ik
dxj dxi1 . . . dxik .
xj

(23.8)

23.11. :
(a) d ;
(b) k-, d( ) = d +(1)k d ;
(c) d(d) = 0, , d2 = 0 ;
(d) k- Rm , f : Rn
Rm , f (d) = d(f ).
J (a) 0- (. . )
, .
d k- (23.8) 0-.
(b) ,
= dxi1 . . . dxik

= dxj1 . . . dxjl ,

,
d = d = d( ) = 0 ,

161

23.1.


.
= a - (),
X

16j1 <...<jl 6n

bj1 ...jl dxj1 . . . dxjl ,


d( ) =
=

16j1 <...<jl 6n

16j1 <...<jl 6n

d(a bj1 ...jl ) dxj1 . . . dxjl =

(da bj1 ...jl + a dbj1 ...jl ) dxj1 . . . dxjl =


= d + d .


d( ) = d

16i1 <...<ik 6n

16j1 <...<jl 6n

16i1 <...<ik 6n
16j1 <...<jl 6n

ai1 ...ik dxi1 . . . dxik

bj1 ...jl dxj1 . . . dxjl

(dai1 ...ik bj1 ...jl + ai1 ...ik dbj1 ...jl )

dxi1 . . . dxik dxj1 . . . dxjl = d + (1)k


X

ai1 ...ik dxi1 . . .dxik dbj1 ...jl dxj1 . . .dxjl =


16i1 <...<ik 6n
16j1 <...<jl 6n

= d + (1)k d .
(c)
d =

n
X
ai

16i1 <...<ik 6n k=1

1 ...ik

xk

dxk dxi1 . . . dxik ,

162

23.

d2 = d(d) =

n
n X
X
2 ai

16i1 <...<ik 6n j=1 k=1

1 ...ik

xk xj

dxj dxk

dxi1 . . . dxik .


, . . dxk dxk = 0,
k 6= j
2 ai1 ...ik
2 ai1 ...ik
dxj dxk +
dxk dxj = 0 .
xk xj
xj xk

(d)
k . , . , , ,
d(f )(x) =
= d( f )(x) =

(f (x))
(f (x))
df 1 (x) + . . . +
df n (x) .
x1
xn

1
n
+ ... +
(x) =
x1
xn
((f (x))
((f (x))
=
df 1 (x) + . . . +
df n (x) .
x1
xn

(f (d))(x) = f

, .
, ,
f (d) = d(f ) k- . , (k + 1)-
dxi .
f (d(dxi )) = f (ddxi +(1)k d(dxi )) = f (ddxi ) =
= f (d) f (dxi ) = d(f ()) df i = d(f () df i ) =
= d(f () f (dxi )) = d(f ( dxi )) . I

163

23.1.

23.9. , d 0, ,
, , d .

. d(d) 0 ,
= d . , , , . . .
, = d arctg xy
. P dx + Q dy ,
22.6 22.8. . 4

Rn .

23.10. A Rn
0 Rn , x A [0, x] A.
23.12 ( ).
, A Rn ,
0, .
J k N I, k- (k 1)- I , I(0) = 0
= I(d) + d(I) . d = 0
= d(I).
X
(x) =
(23.9)
ai1 ...ik (x) dxi1 . . . dxik .
16i1 <...<ik 6n

A 0,
x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) A
:
(I)(x) :=
:=

k
X

16i1 <...<ik 6n j=1

1
Z
(1)j1 tk1 ai1 ...ik (tx) dt
0

d
ij . . . dxik ,
xij dx . . . dx
i1

(23.10)

4 (18541912)
.

164

23.

dxij , . = I(d) + d(I)


. (23.10),
d(I)(x) =
=k
+

Z1

tk1 ai1 ...ik (tx) dt dxi1 . . . dxik +

16i1 <...<ik 6n 0

16i1 <...<ik 6n

1
Z
a
(tx)
i1 ...ik
dt xij
(1)j1 tk
x
i
j=1 i=1

n
k X
X

d
ij . . . dxik .
dx dx . . . dx
i

i1

(23.11)

, (23.9)

d(x) =

n
X
ai

16i1 <...<ik 6n i=1

1 ...ik

(x)

xi

dxi dxi1 . . . dxik .

(k + 1)- I,
I(d)(x) =

Z
tk ai1 ...ik (tx) dt xi dxi1 . . .dxik
=
xi
16i1 <...<ik 6n i=1
0

1
Z
n
k X
X
X
ai1 ...ik (tx)
dt xij
(1)j1 tk

xi
j=1 i=1
X

n
X

16i1 <...<ik 6n

d
ij . . . dxik .
dx . . . dx
i1

(23.12)

(23.11) (23.12) -

23.2.

165

,
d(I) + I(d) =
=k

16i1 <...<ik 6n 0
n
X

Z1

16i1 <...<ik 6n i=1

16i1 <...<ik 6n

Z1
0

23.2.1

tk

ai1 ...ik (tx)


dt xi dxi1 . . .dxik =
xi

1
Z
d [tk ai1 ...ik (tx)] dt dxi1 . . . dxik =
dt
0

16i1 <...<ik 6n

23.2

tk1 ai1 ...ik (tx) dt dxi1 . . . dxik +

ai1 ...ik (x) dxi1 . . . dxik = (x) . I

23.11. k-
A Rn
c : [0 , 1]k A, [0 , 1]k := [0 , 1] . . . [0 , 1]
{z
}
|
k- , 1 6 k 6 n.

R0 [0 , 1]0 {0}.
A c : {0}
A, ,
. 5 . , n-
n- I n : [0 , 1]n Rn , x [0 , 1]n : I n (x) x.
5

() ,
c [0 , 1]n
, .

166

23.

23.12. S n- , Z . n- f : S Z, f (c) = 0 c S,
.
f : c 7 k 6= 0, = 1, . . . , N , n- .
: k1 c1 + k2 c2 + . . . + kN cn . c = 1 c
n- ,
c 1,
0. () n-
( ) ()
. ,
n- .
n- c n N
(n1)- , c c. n- ,
n- , , n- .
.
25(a) ( ), (. .
). 25(b) ,
, (
).
,
, , . 25(b) .

.

167

23.2.

+1

+1

(b)
(a)
. 25.

I n : [0 , 1]n [0 , 1]n n-
(. . ). i =
= 1, . . . , n (n 1)-
n
n
( ) I(i,0)
I(i,1)
.
x = (x1 , . . . , xn1 ) [0 , 1]n1
n
I(i,0)
(x) := I n (x1 , . . . , xi1 , 0, xi+1 , . . . , xn1 )

(x1 , . . . , xi1 , 0, xi+1 , . . . , xn1 ) ,

n
(x) := I n (x1 , . . . , xi1 , 1, xi+1 , . . . , xn1 )
I(i,1)

(x1 , . . . , xi1 , 1, xi+1 , . . . , xn1 ) .

n
n
(i, 0)- I n , I(i,1)
(i, 1) I(i,0)
(. 26)

I n :=

1
n X
X

i=1 =0

n
.
(1)i+ I(i,)

168

23.
2
I(2,1)

1
I(1,0)

-I(1,1)

2
I(1,0)

2
I(1,1)

I2

2
I(2,0)
. 26.

n-
c : [0 , 1] A (i, )-

n
c(i,) := c (I(i,)
),


c :=

n X
1
X

(1)i+ c(i,) .

i=1 =0

, n-
P
ki ci
X

X
ki (ci ) .

ki ci :=


.
23.13. n-
c (c) = 0 2 = 0.
J 1 6 i 6 j 6 n 1.
n- I n . x = (x1 , . . . , xn2 )
[0 , 1]n2

n
I(i,)

(j,)

n1
n
I(j,)
(x) =
(x) = I(i,)

n
= I(i,)
(x1 , . . . , xj1 , , xj , . . . , xn2 ) =

= I n (x1 , . . . , xi1 , , xi , . . . , xj1 , , xj , . . . , xn2 ) .

23.2.

169

n
I(j+1,)

(i,)

n1
n
= I(j+1,)
(x) =
I(i,)

n
= I(j+1,)
(x1 , . . . , xi1 , , xi , . . . , xn2 ) =

= I n (x1 , . . . , xi1 , , xi , . . . , xj , , xj+1 , . . . , xn2 ) .


,

n
I(i,)

n
I(j+1,)

i 6 j.

c, c(i,) (j,) =

= c(j+1,) (i,) i < j n-


c. 2 c:
(c) =

n X
1
X

(j,)

(1)

i=1 =0

i+

c(i,)

(i,)

1
1 n1
n X
XX
X

i=1 =0 j=1 =0

(1)i+j++ c(i,) (j,) .

c(i,) (j,)

c(j+1,) (i,) , 1 6 i 6 j 6 n 1,
. 4n (n 1) ,
, . ,
, 2 c = 0.
n- ,
n- . I
. n- c,
c = 0, . c , c1 , , c = c1 .
23.13 c = (c1 ) = 0, . . . :
? . , , R2 (0, 0)
t 7 e2it , t [0 , 1], .

170

23.

23.2.2

, d2 = 0 2 c = 0 ,

c . .
.
k- [0 , 1]k Rk .
(x) = f (x) dx1 . . . dxk
f : [0 , 1]k R.

Z
Z
f
:=
[0,1]k

[0,1]k


Z
Z
Z
Z
(x) dx1 . . . dxk := f (x) dx1 . . . dxk .
[0 , 1]k

[0 , 1]k

k-, A Rk , c k-
A.
Z
Z
:=
c () .
c

[0,1]k

, , c = I k k- ,
:
Z

Ik

f (x) dx1 . . . dxk =

(I k ) (f (x) dx1 . . . dxk ) =

[0,1]k

[0 , 1]k

f (x1 , . . . , xk ) dx1 . . . dxk .

23.2.

171

k = 0.
- : A R,
- c : {0} A c(0) A.

Z
:= (c(0)) ,
c

. . .
. 1. = P dx + Q dy
1- R2 , c () R2 .

Z
Z1
:= c (P dx + Q dy)
0

2- c.
2. 2- = P dy dz + Q dz dx + R dx dy R3
c [0 , 1]2 R3 :
Z
ZZ
c (P dy dz + Q dz dx + R dx dy) .
:=
c

[0,1]2

2- .

,
k-
P
ki ci
k- =
Z

:=

ki

ci


.
23.14 ( ).
(k 1), A Rn ,
c k- A.
Z
Z
d = .
c

172

23.

J , c = I k
k- , (k 1) [0 , 1]k .
(k 1)-
ci . . . dxk ,
f (x) dx1 . . . dx

.
,
. , :
Z

k
I(j,)

[0,1]k1

ci . . . dxk =
f (x) dx1 . . . dx

k
ci . . . dxk ) =
(I(j,)
) (f (x) dx1 . . . dx

[0,1]k1

ci . . . dxk =
f (. . . , xj1 , , xj+1 , . . .) dx1 . . . dx

0 i 6= j ,

R
ci . . . dxk
f (. . . , xi1 , , xi+1 , . . .) dx1 . . . dx
=
=
k1
[0,1]

i = j ,

0 i 6= j ,
R
=
f (. . . , xi1 , , xi+1 , . . .) dx1 . . . dxk i = j .

[0,1]k

I k

ci . . . dxk =
f (x) dx1 . . . dx

173

23.2.

k X
1
X

(1)

i+

j=1 =0

[0,1]k1

= (1)i+1

k
ci . . .dxk ) =
(I(j,)
) (f (x) dx1 . . .dx

f (. . . , xi1 , 1, xi , . . .) dx1 . . . dxk +

[0,1]k

+ (1)

f (. . . , xi1 , 0, xi , . . .) dx1 . . . dxk .

(23.13)

[0,1]k

,
Z

Ik

Ik

ci . . . dxk =
d f (x) dx1 . . . dx

f (x)
ci . . . dxk =
dxi dx1 . . . dx
xi
Z
f (x)
dx1 . . . dxi . . . dxk =
= (1)i1
xi
Ik
Z
f (x)
= (1)i1
dx1 . . . dxk .
xi
[0,1]I k

, ,
, :
Z

Ik

ci . . . dxk =
d f (x) dx1 . . . dx
= (1)

i1

Z1
0

...

Z1
0

ci . . . dxk
dx1 . . . dx

Z1
0

f (x)
dxi =
xi

174

23.

= (1)

i1

Z1

...

Z1

[f (. . . , xi1 , 1, xi+1 , . . .)

ci . . . dxk =
f (. . . , xi1 , 0, xi+1 , . . .)] dx1 . . . dx
Z
= (1)i1
f (. . . , xi1 , 1, xi+1 , . . .) dx1 . . . dxk +
[0,1]k

+ (1)i

(23.14)

f (. . . , xi1 , 0, xi+1 , . . .) dx1 . . . dxk .

[0,1]k

(23.13) (23.14) ,
, . .
Z
Z
.
d =
I k

Ik

c (k 1)- ,

Z
Z
=
c ()
c

d =

I k

c (d) =

Ik

d(c ) =

Ik

c () =

I k

,
P , k- c =
ki ci
Z
c

d =
P

ki ci

d =

X
=

ki
X

d =

ci

ki

ci

=
P

ki ci

. I

23.3.

23.3

175


23.3.1

, Rn

k , , Rk . ,
k- ,
Rn .
23.13. M Rn k- , x0 M :
(M) : U Rn , x0 ; V Rn ; h : U V , ,

h(U M ) = V Rk {0} =

= x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) V xk+1 = . . . = xn = 0 .

(23.15)

. {x0 },
x0 Rn , .
Rn n- .
n- n- S n Rn+1 ,

n
n+1
S := x R
|x| = 1 .

, Rn .
23.15. A Rn , g : A Rp , 1 6 p 6 n 1,
, , x A, g(x) =
= 0, rang [g0 (x)] p. g 1 (0) Rn
n p.

176

23.

J
. I
23.16. V Rn k. x0 M
:
(C) : Rn U 3 x0 ,
Rk W f : W Rn , ,
(a) f (W ) = M U ;
(b) x W : rang [f 0 (x)] = k.
J h : U V ,
(M).

W := a Rk (a, 0) h(M ) Rn .

f : W Rn f (a) :=
:= h1 (a, 0). , f (W ) = M U . H : U
Rk H(z) := (h1 (z), . . . , hk (z)),
H(f (y)) y y W .

H 0 (f (y)) f 0 (y) Id : Rk Rk ,
, , rang [f 0 (y)] k . I
23.16.
f1 : W1 Rn f2 : W2 Rn
6
f21 f1 : f11 (f2 (W2 )) Rk
.
k- k- .
, k-

Hk := x = (x1 , . . . , xk ) Rk xk > 0 .

6 f 1 f f 1 f
1
2
2
1
.

23.3.

177

23.14. M Rk k- , x0 M (M),
:
(M0 ) : U Rn , x0 , V Rn h : U V , ,

h(U M ) = V Hk {0} =

= x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) V xk > 0 , xk+1 = . . . = xn = 0 .

, x0 M
(M) (M0 ). ,
(M),
M.
M M 0 . ,
(M0 ), M . M
M.
, , , . , , M = M 0 t M.
23.3.2

M Rn k ( ),
f : W Rn , W M ,
x = f 1 (a) M. rang [f 0 (x)] k ,
f : Rka Rnx ,

k
f Ra k- Rnx . g : V Rn , V M ,
x = g 1 (b),



g Rkb = f f 1 g Rkb = f Rka


, k- f Rka x.

178

23.


M x Mx .
, A Rn , M, F : A Rn
A, x A : F (x) Mx . f : W Rn , W M, f .
G : W Rn , ,
f (G(a)) = F (f (a)) a W.
F : M Rn ,
x M F (x) Mx .
,
M . - G
W , , f (G(a)) = F (f (a)) a W .
, F ,
G. ,
.
g : V Rn , g (H(b)) = F (b)
b V , H(b)

G f 1 (g(b)) ,
G H.
. , x M (x) p (Mx ),
p M. f : W
Rn x, f ()
p- W . ,
f (). p W

X
i1 ...ip dxi1 . . . dxip ,
=
i1 <...<ip

i1 ...ip M . d ,

x i1 ...ip . d.

23.3.

179

23.17. p-
M (p + 1)- M , ,
f (d) = d(f )
f : W Rn .
J f : W Rn
x = f 1 (a), v 1 , . . . , v p+1 Mx . Rka
w 1 , . . . , w p+1 ,
f (wi ) = v i .
d(x)(v 1 , . . . , v p+1 ) := d(f )(a)(w 1 , . . . , w p+1 ) .
, d(x) , d
. I
M Rn ( ).
(. . ) f : W f (W ) M , W Rk , f (W ).
W - , ,
(e1 , . . . , ek ). a W , x = f (a).
((e1 )a , . . . , (ek )a ) Wa ,
(f ((e1 )a ), . . . , f ((ek )a )) Mx M x.
x f (W ), , , f (W ) M . f (W ),
g : V g(V ) M ,
V Rk : V W 6=
V W 6= .
g(V ),
f (W ). , f (W ) g(V ) ,
, . ,
x f (W ) g(V ) Mx ,

180

23.

. , . V , .

,
M ( ),
, ( . ,
f : W f (W ) , g : V g(V ) , h : U h(U ) ,
,
f (V ) g(W ) = , f (V ) h(U ) 6= , g(W ) h(U ) 6= ,
,
.
,
h(U ) .
, M .
,
. M k-
, x M , (M )x (k 1)- k- Mx .
, Mx
(M )x . . f : W Rn 0 W Hk f (0) = x.
f (v),
v = (v1 , . . . , vk ) vk < 0. nx . ,
.
M Rn k- M . x M
v 1 , . . . , v k1 (M )x , (nx , v 1 , . . . , v k1 ) , Mx .

23.3.

181

w 1 , . . . , w k1 (M )x , (nx , w1 , . . . , w k1 ) ,
Mx , (v1 , . . . , vk1 ) (w1 , . . . , wk1 )
(M )x . , M M ,
,
.
Hk
, , , (1)k .
, .
, M Rn (n 1), , M
n- . (v 1 , . . . , v n1 ) Mx .
nx Rnx , Mx
(nx , v 1 , . . . , v n1 )
Rnx . nx . ,
x M . , M
n = n(x) M . , , 7
. ( ), .
,
: 7

(17901868) .

182

23.

,
(. . ).
23.3.3

k- M Rn :
p- p-
c : [0 , 1]p M . c ,
, . .
Z

:=

c () .

[0,1]p

p-
, . 0 6 p 6 k 6 n. p = k , Rk W [0 , 1]k ()
f : W Rn , , x [0 , 1]k : c(x) f (x).
, . M ,
, k- , f .
23.18. M Rn k , c1 , c2 : [0, 1]k M k- M ,
k M , c1 ([0, 1]k ) c2 ([0, 1]k ).
Z

c1

(23.16)

c2

J supp ,
Z

c1

[0,1]k

c1 ()

[0,1]k

(c2 c1
2 c1 ) ()

[0,1]k


(c1
2 c1 ) c2 () .

183

23.3.

,
Z
Z
(c21 c1 ) c2 () =
[0,1]k

c2 () =

(23.17)

c2

[0,1]k

c2 () = f dx1 . . .dxk . g := c1
2 c1
23.10,

1
k
(c1
2 c1 ) c2 () = g (f dx . . . dx ) =

= (f g) det[g 0 ] dx1 . . . dxk =

= (f g) | det[g 0 ]| dx1 . . . dxk ,

det[g 0 ] = det[c1
2 c1 ] > 0. (23.17) t = g(x),
(23.16). I
k k-
M Rn . M k- c, 0
c([0, 1]k ),
Z
Z
:= .
M

23.18 ,

c.
k M , O M, , U O
k- c, U c([0, 1]k ).
M , .

Z
XZ
:=

, ( , M ). , ,

184

23.

, .
(. . O ).

k- M.
M ,
c k- M,
c(k,0) M ,
M. ,
, , c(k,0) , k ,
, k . , (k 1)- M,
c([0, 1]k ),
Z
Z
= (1)k
.
c(k,0)

, c(k,0) (1)k
c c.
Z
Z
Z
Z
k
=
= (1)
=
.
c

c(k,0)

(1)k c(k,0)

,

(1)k .
.
23.19 ( ).
M Rn k-
M, (k 1) M.
Z
Z
d =
,
(23.18)
M

M .
J , k- c : [0, 1]k M M ,

185

23.3.

= 0 c (0, 1)k .
Z

d =

d =

c (d) =

dc () =

c () =

= 0,

I k

[0,1]k

[0,1]k

= 0 c. ,

= 0, -

= 0 M .
, k- c : [0, 1]k M ,
,

M ,
c(k,0) , = 0 c [0, 1]k .
Z
Z
Z
Z
d = d = =
.
M

, ,
M O
,

P .
,
1

0 d(1) = d
X

d ,

d = 0 .

M , ,
, ,
XZ
d = 0 .
M

186

23.

,
Z

d =

XZ

Z X

23.3.4

d =

d( ) =

X Z

(d + d) =

Z X

. I


,
(23.18) .
M = [a , b] R ( ), a b.
- M = +1 {b} 1 {a} (. .
b, (+1), a, (1)). - = F : [a , b] R, F 0 =: f .
d(x) = dF (x) = f (x) dx.
(23.18), 8
Zb
a

f (x) dx = F (b) F (a) .

M R2 M, , P, Q : R2 R
.
(x, y) := P (x, y) dx + Q(x, y) dy
1- R2 .
, 8 , - (. . )
.

23.3.

187


d := dP dx + dQ dy =

P
Q
P
Q
=
dx +
dy dx +
dx +
dy dy =
x
y
x
y

Q P

dx dy .
=
x
y
(23.18),

ZZ
Z
Q P

dx dy =
(P dx + Q dy) .
x
y
M

M R3 M , ,
P, Q, R : R3 R
.
(x, y, z) := P (x, y, z) dx + Q(x, y, z) dy + R(x, y, z) dz
1- R3 .
,
d := dP dx + dQ dy + dR dz =

P
P
P
dx +
dy +
dz dx+
=
x
y
z

Q
Q
Q
+
dx +
dy +
dz dy+
x
y
z

R
R
R
dx +
dy +
dz dz =
+
x
y
z

R Q
P
R
=

dy dz +

dz dx+
y
z
z
x

Q P

dx dy .
+
x
y

188

23.

(23.18),

Z Z
R Q
R
P
dy dz +
dz dx+

y
z
z
x
M

Z
Q P
+

dx dy =
(P dx + Q dy + dz) .
x
y
M

M R
M , ,
P, Q, R : R3 R
.
(x, y, z) := P (x, y, z) dydz+Q(x, y, z) dzdx+R(x, y, z) dxdy
2- R3 .
,
d := dP dy dz + dQ dz dx + dR dx dy =

P
P
P
dx +
dy +
dz dy dz+
=
x
y
z

Q
Q
Q
+
dx +
dy +
dz dz dx+
x
y
z

R
R
R
dx +
dy +
dz dx dy =
+
x
y
z

P
Q R
=
+
+
dx dy dz .
x
y
z
(23.18),

ZZZ
Q R
P
dx dy dz =
+
+
x
y
z
M
ZZ
=
(P dy dz + Q dz dx + R dx dy) .
M

189

23.1. 9 :
1) (x2 dx3 dx4 + x1 dx2 dx3 )+
+ (x3 dx1 dx4 + x4 dx1 dx2 )

(x1 x2 dx1 + x2 x3 dx2 + x3 x4 dx3 + x4 x2 dx4 ) ;

x1 x2
2) d arctg
d(x3 x1 x2 x4 );
x3 x4
3) d(2x21 x2 x3 dx4 dx4 +x21 x22 dx3 dx4 2x1 x22 x4 dx1 dx3 );
4) d(2x1 x2 ex3 +x4 dx1 dx3 +
x21 ex3 +x4 dx2 dx3 +2x1 x2 ex3 +x4 dx1 dx4 +x21 ex3 +x4 dx2 dx4 ) :
5) d(2x1 x2 x3 x4 dx1 + x1 x23 x4 dx2 x21 x2 x4 dx3 + x1 x2 x23 dx4 );
6) d(x(z 2 y 2 )dx + y(x2 z 2 )dy + z(y 2 x2 )dz);
7) d(xyz 2 dx dy + x2 yz dy dz + xy 2 z dz dx);
8) d((x1 x2 dx1 +x2 x3 dx2 +x2 x4 dx3 +x1 x4 dx4 )(x4 dx1 +
x3 dx2 + x2 dx3 + x1 dx4 )).
23.2.
:
1) 2zx dx + 2zy dy + (x2 + z 2 )dz;
2) 2xyz dx + (x2 z z 2 y)dy + x2 y dz;
xyz

3)
ye
+ zy 2 zexyz dx + xexyz + x2 yzE xyz dy +
x2 y 2 exyz dz;
4) z(xy) cos(x+yz)dxdy+x(y+z) cos(x+yz)dydz
y(x + z) cos(x + y z)dz dx;
5) (x1 x2 +x3 x4 )dx1 dx2 +(x1 x3 +x2 x4 )dx1 dx4 +(x1 x4 +
x2 x3 )dx2 dx3 + (x21 + x22 + x23 + x24 )dx3 dx4 .

23.3. L, :
(
x = t,
1) = (x + sin x)dy y(cos x + 1)dx; L :
y = t cos t ;

9 . . .

190

23.
2)

3)

4)

x = t ln t ,
y = t;

x = a cos t ,
= yz dx xz dy + xy dz; L : y = a sin t ,

z = bt ;

x = at sin t ,
2
2
= xz dx + yz dy + x + y dz; L : y = at cos t ,

z = bt2 .
= y dx x dy; L :

23.4.

= x dy dz + y dz dx + z dx dy
S, :

x = u ,
1) S : y = v ,

z = u sin v + v sin u ;

x = arctg v + uv ,
2) S : y = u ,

z = v ;

x = u ,
3) S : y = uv ln(u2 + v 2 ) ,

z = v;

x = r cos cos ,
4) S : y = r sin cos ,

z = r sin .

1. . . . ., 19971998.
. III.
2. . . . .,
1974.. III.
3. . . ., 1966.
4. . .
, 1996.
5. . . . ., 1997. . IIII.
6. . . .
., 1968. . III.
7. . ., . ., . . . ., 1985.
8. . . .
., 19901991. . III.
9. . . . .,
19881989. . IIII.
10. . ., . ., . ., . . .
. .-., 1994.
11. . . . ., 1998.

. . 122
. 89
. . 11
. . . 27
, 62
. . 181
. . 163
. . 124
. 62
. 34

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20. , . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.1 ,
. . . . . . . . . . . .
20.2 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.2.1 n- . . . .
20.2.2 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.2.3 . . .
20.3
20.3.1 Rn . . . . . . . . . . .
20.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.4 Rn . . . .
20.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.4.2
E Rn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.4.3
Rn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.4.4 n- . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.1 .
21.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.1.2
21.2 . . . .
21.2.1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

5
5
8
8
11
15
17
17
19
23
23
24
26
27
29

34
34
34
36
40

. . . . 40

194

21.2.2 .
21.2.3 . . . . . . .
21.3
21.4 . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.4.1 , n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.4.2 R2 .
21.4.3 R3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.4.4 n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22. , ,
22.1 . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.1.1 Rn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.1.2 1-
( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.1.3 2-
( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.3 . . . .
22.3.1 . . . . . . . . .
22.3.2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.3.3 .
22.4 . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.4.1

. . . . . . . . . .
22.4.2 1-
( ) . . . . . . . . .
22.4.3 2-
( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.5 .
22.5.1 . . . . . . .
22.5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.5.3 . . . .

45
49
53
58
58
61
63
65
69

. . . 76
. . . 76
. . . 76
. . . 80
. . . 84
. . . 87
. . . 96
. . . 96
. . . 98
. . . 101
. . . 108
. . . 108
. . . 117
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

119
122
122
124
127

195

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
23. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23.1 . . . . .
23.1.1
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
23.1.2 , ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23.2 . . . .
23.2.1
23.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23.3 . . . . . . .
23.3.1 , Rn . . . . . . .
23.3.2
. . . . . . . . . .
23.3.3 . . . .
23.3.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . 142
. . . 142
. . . 142

. . . 145
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

154
165
165
170
175
175

. . . 177
. . . 182

. . . 186
. . . 189
. . . 191

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193