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BASIC MATHEMATICS

AFTERSCHOOL
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BASIC MATHEMATICS
Dr. T.K. Jain.

AFTERSCHOOL
Centre for social entrepreneurship Bikaner M: 9414430763 tkjainbkn@yahoo.co.in www.afterschool.tk, www.afterschoool.tk
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Shadow of a building is 12 meters long. Angle of elevation of Sun is 60 degree. What is the hight of the building?
Perpendicular / Base = sqrt(3) Height = sqrt(3) * 12 = 20.78 meters. Answer.
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A ladder is making 45 degree while it is leaning against a wall. The distance of ladder from foot of wall is 3 meters. What is the length of the ladder?
Base / Hypoteneuse = 1/sqrt(2) 3 / Hypoteneuse (length of ladder) = 1/sqrt(2) Length of ladder = 3 * sqrt(2) = 4.24 meters approx. answer
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Compound interest on a sum for 2 years is 832 and simple interest is 800. What will be the difference between simple interest and compound interest after 3 years?
Interest of one year : 400. rate : 8% (32 on 400). Interest on interest for 3rd year : 66.56. thus difference after 3 year : (66.5+32) = 98.5 answer
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Difference between simple interest and compound interest after 2 years @ 8% p.a. is Rs. 16. what will be the difference if the interest in compounded half yearly?
Interest of 1st year : 16*100/8 = 200 Simple interest will be same : 400 Compound interest : 4% on 100 : 4, 4% on 204: = 8.16, 4% on 312.16 = 12.49 total : (4+8.16+12.49)=24.65 ans
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A contractor undertook to complete a piece of work in 120 days and employed 140 men upon it. At the end of 66 days only half of the work was done ,so he put on 25 extra men. By how much time did he exceed the specified time?
TOTAL WORK :(NUMBER OF PERSONS * NUMBER OF DAYS) =(HALF WORK IN 66 DAYS, SO COMPLETE WORK IN = ) 66*2*140 = 18480, OUT OF WHICH ONLY 9240 IS LEFT OUT.
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CONTINUED
NOW WE HAVE ( 140 + 25) PERSONS : 9240 / 165 = 56 DAYS IT HAS TAKEN 66 + 56 = 122 DAYS TOTAL. THE WORK WAS TO BE COMPLETED IN 120 DAYS, BUT IT WILL BE COMPLETED IN 122 DAYS THUS 2 DAYS ARE EXCEEDED BY TIME. ANSWER
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The outline of an icecream is shown in the figure (given in next slide) and is made by placing 3/4th of the circumference of a circle with the radius 2 feet on top of an isosceles triangle of height 5 feet. What is the perimeter of the given figure?
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Measure the perimeter..


Circumference of circle : 2*22/7*2*3/4 =9.43 feet Line AB is : sqrt(4+4) =2.83 BC = sqrt((1.41*1.42)+ 25) = 5.19 Total circumference : 5.19+5.19+9.43 =19.81 answer.
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In the figure given in next slide two circle of radii 100 ft. each intersect as shown. The distance from the centers to the secant AB is 60 ft. Find AB (O1 and O2 are centers of the circles.)

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FIND AB
DRAW A LINE O1M1 WHICH IS 60 FT. O1A IS 100 FT. AM = SQRT(10000 3600) = 80 AM = 80 MN = 100 NB = 80 AB = 260 ANSWER
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PQ is a tangent from an external point P to circle with center 0. If PQ = 21 and the distance to that point P from the center is 29, Find the diameter of the circle.
SEE NEXT SLIDE :

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SOLUTION
ANGLE Q IS A RIGHT ANGLE. PO^2 = SQRT(OQ^2 + PQ^2) OQ^2 = SQRT(PO^2 PQ^2) =SQRT(29^2 21^2) = 20 DIAMETER IS 40 ANSWER
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As shown in figure, OD = 36 cm, OA=20 cm, AB = 25cm. Find the length of chord BC
LET US ASSUME OC =X (36*20) = (15*X) X = (36*20) / 15 = 48 THUS LENGTH OF BC = 15+48 = 63
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SUM OF THE AGE OF FATHER AND SON IS 45. 5 YEARS AGO THE PRODUCT OF THEIR AGES WAS 4 TIMES THE FATHERS AGE AT THAT TIME. WHAT IS THE PRESENT AGE OF FATHER?
Age of Son 5 years ago was 4, so it should be 9 today. Fathers age : 45-9 = 36 answer.
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Kamla got married 6 years ago. Today her age is 1.25 times her age at the time fo marriage. Her sons age is .1 of her age. What is the age of her son?
.25 = 6 so age at marriage = 24, age now = 30. so Sons age = 3 answer.
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Kunal sells apples in boxes of different sizes. Apples are priced at Rs. 6 per apple upto 100 apples. For every additioanl 10 apples, over the first 100 apples, the price for all the apples goes down by 50 paise per apple. What should be the size of box so that when fully packed the box will fetch the maximum?
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Solution
Try different options 100 apples = 600 110 apples = 110 *5.5 = 605 120 apples = 120 * 5 = 600 130 apples = 130 * 4.5 = 585 So on. Thus we can see that maximum price can be fetched at 110 apples. Answer.
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50 persons can do a work in 100 days. 10 persons start it and after every 10 days, 10 more persons join the work. When will the work be completed?
Total work units = 50 * 100 = 5000 Output in first 10 days : 10 * 10 = 100 Out put in 2nd 10 days : 20 * 10 = 200 so it is an AP : 100, 200, 300 . Apply sum of AP formula :
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Continued
n/2 (2a + (n-1)d) = 5000 n/2(2*100 + (n-1)100) = 5000 200n +100n^2 `100n = 10000 N^2 +n 100 = 0 Alpha = ( - b + sqrt(b^2 -4ac)) / 2a = (-1 + sqrt(1 + 4*1*100))/2 = 9.512 or 9.51*10 = 95.1 approx. So the work will be completed in 96 days approximately.
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What is the ratio of A,B,C,D, if A:B = 2:3, B:C = 4:5, C:D = 6:7?
The common value of B between first two ratios are 3 and 4, so multiply the first ratio by 4 and 2nd ratio by 3. we get : 8:12:15 (A,B,C). Common values of C between this and 4th ratio is : 15 and 6. so multiply (A:B:C) by 4 and (C:D) by 10, we get new combined ratio: 32:48:60:70 or 16:24:30:35 answer.
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5 chairs cost as much as 12 stools. 7 stools cost as much as 2 tables, 3 tables cost as much as 2 sofas. If the cost of 5 sofas is Rs. 3750, what is the cost of a chair?
Start from last and multiply with each succeeding value: 3750 *2/5 *2/3 * 12/7 * 1/5 = 342.86
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Two numbers X and Y are chosen randomly from first 30 natural numbers, what is the chance that X^2 Y^2 is divisible by 3 ?
We have 30 * 29 such pairs. X^2 Y^2 = (X+Y) (X-Y) Either the total of X and Y must be divisible by 3 or their difference must be divisible by 3. for example, in case of 1 and 2, their total is divisible by 3.
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Continue
Starting from 1+2, we have 10 such pairs starting from 1. similarly, we have 10 such pairs starting from each digit. Thus we have 10 * 30 such possibilities. Similarly starting with (4-1), we have 9 such possibilities. Thus we have another 10*30 such possibilities. Total = 600 / 870 or 20/29 answer .
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A sum of Rs. 6.40 is made up of 80 coins, which are either 10 paise or 5 paise coins, what is their numbers individually?
Divide 6.4 by 80, we get 8 paise. Now take difference of 10 and 5 from 8. we get : 2 and 3 respectively. Reverse the ratio : 3:2 is the ratio. Thus we have 48 10 paise and 32 5paise coins. We have Rs. 4.8 from 10 paise and Rs. 1.6 from 5 paise coins. Answer.
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In a 12 storey building, 3 persons take a lift and get down at different storeys. In how many ways can they do it, if it is nd known that lift didnt stop at 2 storey.
The first person has 10 options, second person has 9 options and 3rd has 8 options = 10 * 9 * 8 = 720
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Difference between SI (simple interest) and CI (compound interest) for 3 years @ 5% is 12.2, what is the principal amount?
Suppose the amount is 1000. SI is 150. Compound interest is : ( 50+52.5+55.125) = 157.62 If the difference is 7.625, amount is 1000, if the difference is 12.2, the amount should be : 12.2/7.625 * 1000 = 1600 answer. (dont use formula it is simple this way).
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A loan is discharged in 3 equal instalments of Rs. 133.10 each. Rate of interest is 10%. What was the loan amount?
Options : 1. 1000 2. 300 3. 321 4. 331. 5. 350

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Solution
Try from options Suppose loan amount is 331. amount at the end of one year = (331 + 33.1 133.1) = 231 Amount at the end of 2nd year : = (231 + 23 133.1) = 120.9 Amount at the end of 3rd year : 120.9+12.09= 133.1 which is also the installment. Answer.
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WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE OF THE SQUARE ROOT OF 16/10, 25/10?


SQUARE ROOT OF 1.6 = 1.264 SQUARE ROOT OF 2.5 IS 1.58 THE DIFFERENCE IS : .32 ANSWER

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1/3, c, b, 9 ARE IN G.P. WHAT IS b?


G.P. = GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION Formula : ar^(n-1) = term (a = 1st term, r = ratio of two terms, n = number of term). (1/3)r ^ (4-1) = 9 1/3r^3 = 9 R^3 = 27 R=3 2nd term = 1/3 * 3 = 1 3rd term = 1 * 3 = 3 so b = 3 4th term = 3*3 = 9 so answer is 3.
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3, c, b, 9 ARE IN A.P. WHAT IS b?


A.P. = ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION Formula : a+ (n-1)D = term (a = 1st term, d = difference of two successive terms, n = number of term). 3 + ( 4-1) d = 9 3d = 6 or d = 2 2nd term = 3+2 = 5 3rd term = 5+2 = 7 so b = 3 so answer is 3.
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If 6th and 8th term of an AP are 12 and 22 respectively, what is the 3rd term ?
A + 5d = 12 A + 7d = 22 2d = 10 or d = 5 put this in 1st formula : A + 25 = 12 so A = - 13 2nd term is : - 8 3rd term is = - 3 answer
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What is the angle of hour and minute hand, when time is 15.40?
When minute hand moves to 40, the hour hand also moves. The hour hand moves : 5 * 40/60 = 3.33 Thus we have to find angle between : 3 + (40/60) to 8 the gap is So 4.33/12 * 360 = 129.99 or 130 degree approx. answer .
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WHAT IS THE LEAST NUMBER THAT SHOULD BE ADDED TO MAKE 269 A PERFECT SQUARE?
MAKE CALCULATION FOR SQUARE ROOT CALCULATION. TAKE 2 (69 IS ONE PAIR). DIVIDE 2 BY 1. WE GET 1 AS REMAINDER. NOW WE HAVE 169 AND WE HAVE TO DIVIDE BY (1+1) X SO LET US DIVIDE BY 27*7 = 189 SO WE HAVE TO ADD (189 169) = 20. ADD 20 IN 169 TO GET PERFECT SQUARE.
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WHAT IS THE LEAST NUMBER THAT SHOULD BE SUBTRACTED TO MAKE 269 A PERFECT SQUARE?
MAKE CALCULATION FOR SQUARE ROOT CALCULATION. TAKE 2 (69 IS ONE PAIR). DIVIDE 2 BY 1. WE GET 1 AS REMAINDER. NOW WE HAVE 169 AND WE HAVE TO DIVIDE BY (1+1) X SO LET US DIVIDE BY 26*6 = 156 SO WE HAVE TO SUBTRACT ( 169 - 156) = 13. DEDUCT 13 FROM 169 TO GET PERFECT SQUARE
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WHAT SHOULD BE THE MINIMUM NUMBER TO BE MULTIPLIED TO 352 TO MAKE IT A PERFECT SQUARE?
FACTORISE 352, WE GET : 2 *2*2*2*2*11 HERE WE CAN SEE THAT WE HAVE 2^5 AND 11^1. THE POWERS MUST BE IN EVEN NUMBER. SO LET US CONVERT IT INTO 2^6 * 11^2 SO MULITIPLY IT BY 2*11 = 22 ANSWER
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4 dice are thrown simultaneously, what is the probability that the sum of the score is 20?
The total possibilities are : 6^4 = 1296 Possibilities which give 20 are : (5,5,5,5,), (4,6,4,6,), (6,4,6,4,), (4,4,6,6,), (6,6,4,4,), (6,6,6,2),(6,6,2,6), (6,2,6,6,), (2,6,6,6), (6,6,5,3), (6,6,3,5), (63,5,6), (6,5,3,6), (3,5,6,6,)(5,3,6,6,), (3,6,6,5),(5,6,6,3), (6,5,5,4),(4,5,5,6), (6,4,55),(4,6,5,5,)..
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4 COINS ARE TOSSED TOGETHER, WHAT IS THE PROBABILITY OF GETTING AT LEAST 2 TAILS ?
TOTAL POSSIBILITIES : 2^4 = 16 POSSIBILITIES WITH 2 OR MORE TAILS .

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CONTINUED
TTTT,TTTH,THTT, TTHT, HTTT,HHTT,TTHH, THTH,HTHT,HTTH,THHT, = 11/16 ANSWER

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A man divides two sums of money among his 4 sons : R,S,T,U. the second sum of money is twice the first sum of money. The ratio for first sum is : 4:3:2:1. the ratio for second sum is : 5:6:7:8. Out of R,S,T,U, who will receive maximum amount, and what will be the ratio of their final receipts?
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Solution..
Total up the ratios : 4+3+2+1 = 10 5+6+7+8 = 26 LCM of these two numbers is : 130 Let us assume that the first sum is 130 and second sum is 260. Now divide as per ratio : From first sum : 52, 39, 26, 13 From 2nd sum : 50, 60, 70, 80 Totals: 102, 99, 96, 93 thus R gets highest amt.
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While dialing a mobile number, you forget the last two digits. What is the probability that you will be able to dial correct number trying randomly?

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Solution..
There are 10 digits in a mobile number. For each digit, there are : 10 options. (0 to 9). For two digits there are 10 * 10 = 100 options. Thus there is 1/100 probability that you will be able to dial correct number. answer

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A boy was asked to find 7/9 of a fraction . He made a mistake of dividing the fraction by 7/9 and got an answer which exceeded the correct answer by 8/21. what was the correct answer?
th
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Solution
Let us assume the fraction to be X. He had to obtain 7/9X, but he obtained 9/7X 9/7x 7/9x = 8/21 (81-49)/63 x = 8/21 32/63x = 8/21 X = 8/21 * 63/32 = answer
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iNcome of A,B,C are in the ratio of 7:9:12. their expenditures are in the ratio of : 8:9:15. if A saves 1/4th of his income, what is the ratio of their savings?

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Solution
Expenditure of A is 3/4th of income (because savings are 1/4th of income). For A income is 7 and expenditure is 8. we want them to be in ratio of 4:3 Let us multiply 7 by (8*4) = 224 Now let us multiply 8 by (7*3) = 168 These are in the ratio of 4:3 Thus we can obtain solution. For each of the income, multiply by (8*4) and expenditure by (7*3) :
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Continued..
B : income 9 * 32 and expenditure 9*21 C : income : 12*32 and expenditure : 15:21 Their savings are in the ratio : (224-168) : ( 288-189) : (384-315) 56: 99: 69 answer

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Find the smallest number, which when added to each of 6,8,10,13, will make them proportional ?
Start trying from 0, 1,2,3. We you add: 2 you get : 8, 10, 12, 15 these are in proportion. (12 * 10 = 8 * 15, thus these are in proportion). Thus answer is 2.
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50 persons can complete the work in 100 days. In how many days will the work be completed if 10 persons start the work and 10 person join after every 10 days?

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Solution
Total work days = 50 * 100 = 5000 Work done in 1st 10 days : 10*10 = 100 Work done in 2nd 10 days : 20*10 = 200 and so on. Work done is in AP, so we apply the formula for AP. Sum = n/2(2a + (n-1)d) N = unknown, a = 100, d = 100.
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Continued
n/2 ( 2*100 + (n-1)100) = 5000 N (200 + 100n 100 ) = 10000 100n^2 + 200n 100n = 10000 100n^2 + 100n 10000 = 0 n^2 +n 100 = 0

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An article is sold at certain price. If the article is sold at 2/3rd of the price, the loss is 10%. What is the profit in % at original price?
Let us assume cost = 100. Loss = 10%, so reduced price = 90 It is 2/3rd of original price so original price should be : 90 * 3/2 = 135 Thus profit is 35% answer.
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A what % above the cost must an article be priced (marked price) , if gain after 2% discount is 22.5%?
Let us assume cost = 100. selling price after discount = 122.5 Discount is 2% (it is always on marked price), so marked price should be ; 122.5 * 100/98 = 125 Thus it should be marked at 25% above the cost.
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A trader gets 20% profit after giving commission @ 10%. If the rate of commission is increased to 15%, what will be his cost = 100 %? gain in Let us assume
Net selling price (after commission) = 120 Selling price before commission: 120 * 100/90 = 133.33 New commission= 20. new profit = 13.33%
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There is a sweet which is square shape. Its one side is 4 CM. Dhawal converts it into a diagonal shape by pressing it. Now its one diagonal is 8 CM. what is the other diagonal ?
Area of square = 4*4 = 16 Area of rhombus = * (product of diagonals)
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Continued
( X * 8 ) = 16 8X = 32 X=4 Other diagonal is 4. Answer.

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What is the cost of painting a room, whose length = 10 m, breadth = 6 m , height = 4 m. cost is Rs 2 per sq. m.
Area of 4 walls : 2 (length + breadth) * height = 2(10 + 6) * 4 =128 sq. meter Cost = 128 * 2 = 256 Rs.
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There is a rectangle plot of dimension 20m and 10m. out of this plot, two triangles are cut and it is converted into a trapezium, with width remaining the same. The area of the new plot is 150. What is the area of one triangle and what are the 3 sides of the triangle, if both the triangles are equal ?
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Solution
Area of rectangle : 20 * 10 = 200 Area of trapezium = 150 Area of 2 triangles = 50 Area of 1 triangle = 25 Area of trapezium = (sum of parallel sides) * ( distance between them) = (sum of parallel sides) * 10 = 150 Sum of parallel sides = 30 Thus one side is 20 and other is 10. Thus sides of triangle are : 10, (10/2), and hypotneuse of sqrt(10^2 + 5^2) = 11.18 answer.
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Continued
You can also calculate the 3 sides of triangle from following formula : * base * height (it is right angle triangle) One of side of triangle is 10 * 10 * height = 25 Height = 5 Hypoteneuse = sqrt ( 10^2 + 5^2) = 11.18 answer.
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There is a parallelogram land, on the border of which we cut a right angle triangle. The sides of parallelogram are 20m and 13m. The length of one side of triangle, which is on the longer side is 5 m and width equal to the land. What is the area of the resultant land?
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Solution
One of the side of triangle is 5, and one must be 13. Thus the other side must be 12 13^2 = (12^2 + 5^2) (it is right angle triangle). Area of parallelogram = base * hight = 20 * 12 = 240 Area of triangle = * 5*12 = =30 Area of remaining parallelogram = 240 30 = 210 sq. m. answr.
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There is an equilateral triangle, whose area is 9*sqrt(3), and there is an incircle in this triangle. What is the area of the circle ?
Area of equilateral triangle : sqrt(3)/4 * side^2 Sqrt(3)/4 * side^2 = 9 * sqrt(3) Side^2 = 36 or Side = 6
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continued
Radius of incircle = side/ (2*sqrt(3)) Radius = 6/ 2*sqrt(3) = (2*sqrt(3) * sqrt(3)) / ( 2 * sqrt(3) ) = sqrt(3) Area of circle = pi *radius^2 = 22/7 * 3 = 66/7 or 9.43 answer
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There is an equilateral triangle, whose area is 9*sqrt(3), and there is a circumcircle to this triangle. What is the area of the circle ?
Area of equilateral triangle : sqrt(3)/4 * side^2 Sqrt(3)/4 * side^2 = 9 * sqrt(3) Side^2 = 36 or Side = 6
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Continued
Radius of circumcircle = side/ sqrt(3) Radius = 6/ sqrt(3) = 3.464 or 2 * sqrt(3) Area of circle = pi *radius^2 = 22/7 * 4*3 =37.7 ans.

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The breadth of a rectangular plot is 60% of its length. If the perimeter of the plot is 800 meters, what is the area of the plot?
2 ( L + B ) = 800 L + B = 400, and B = .6L L + .6L = 400 or 1.6 L = 400, or L = 250 B = 150 area : 250 * 150 = 37500 answer
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 74

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A rectangular parking space is painted on three sides. The length of un-painted side is 9 meters. The sum total of painted sides (3 sides) is 37 Meters. What is the area of the parking space ?

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Solution
One of the side of rectangle is 9. Sum of 3 sides is 37, one of the side is 9 also, so other 2 sides are : 28 as total or one side as 14. Now multiply 14 to 9, we get the area of the parking space = 126 Sq. meters. (length is 14 & breadth is 9). Answer
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 76

What is the cost of Rs. 5400, 9 per cent stock at 90?


The face value of the shares is 5400, assuming the face value per share to be Rs. 100, we have 54 shares. The cost should be : 54*90 = 4860 answer

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77

How much stock at 105 can be purchased for Rs. 1433.25 ?


Divide 1433.25 by 105, we get 13.65, so we can purchase shares having face value of Rs. 1365 Answer

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78

What annual income will be derived by investing Rs. 1547 in 13 % railway stock at 119?
1547 * 13/119 = 169 per annum.

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79

What rate per cent will a man receive who invest his money in 9 percent stock at 110?
9.5/110 *100 = 8.64% answer

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80

Which is the better investment 9 per cent stock at 91 or 12 per cent stock at 121?
9 / 91 or 12/ 121, Multiply 9 by 121 and 12 by 91, we get : 1089 and 1092 1092 is more, so 12% on 121 is better investment.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 81

A group of 450 children is arranged in rows for a group photograph session. Each row contains eight fewer children than the row in front of it. What number of rows is possible?
Options : (a) 7 (b)8 (c) 9 (d) 12 Let us assume the first row contains X students. The second row will have (X-8) and 3rd row will have (X-16) children and so on.
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Continued..
Apply the formula for calculation of sum of Arithematic progression (as this is AP). N/2 (2X + (N-1)(- 8)) = 450 N ( 2x - 8N + 8) = 900 Let us try for 3rd option (n = 9) 2X - 72 + 8 = 100 2X =164 or X = 82 The series is : 82, 74, 66, 58, 50, 42 . Thus there are 9 rows. Answer .
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 83

12 persons can do a work in 10 days working 8 hours a day. How many days will be required by 10 persons, who will work 6 hours a day. The efficiency of each of these 10 persons is twice that of the earlier persons.
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Solution
Start with days: 10 * 12/20 * 8/6 = 8 days. Answer

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85

Vipin passes through his field in Ratangarh. His speed is 4 km per hour. He takes 30 minutes to cross the field diagonally. The field is of square shape. What is the area of the field in sq. meters?
Diagonal = 4 * 30/60 = 2 km or 2000 m. Area of square = * diagonal * diagonal = * 2000 * 2000 = 2000000 sq. m. ans.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 86

In his field, Vipin wants to build a walking track of width 4 meters all around the field (inside the boundaries of the field). The cost will be Rs. .01 per sq. meters. What will be the cost of this track?
Deduct the area of field after track from the total area of the field and then get the area of the track. Multiply this number by .01 and get the answer.
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Solution
One side of the field is : Sqrt (20,00,000 sq. m.) = 1414.214 meters Area of field after the track : (1414 8) (1414 8) (we have taken 8 instead of 4, because track is all around, so each side will get reduced by 4 + 4) = 19,77,438 Area of track = (20,00,000-19,77,438) = 22562 Cost of track = 225.6 Rupees. Answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 88

A beggar goes to a king to seek some land. The king gives him a wire 66 m. long and says that whatever area he can cover with this wire will be his area. What is the maximum area that he can cover with this wire?
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Solution
He can either make a square or a make a circle or a rectangle or other polygon. . If he makes a square : one side of square will be : 66/4 = 16.5 Area of land will be : 16.5 * 16.5 = 272.25 sq. m. If he takes square land, the radius of the land will be : as : 2*pi*r = 66, so R = 10.5 Area of the land will be : pi * radius ^2 = 22/7 *10.5*10.5 = 346.5 sq. meters. He will definitely go for it and thus area of land will be 346.5 sq. meters.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 90

Your mechanic has told you that your tire may burst after 300 revolutions, but it is safe till 300 revolutions. You drive at 66 km per hour for 1 minute. Diameter of the wheel is 140 CM . How much more distance can you cover safely?

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91

Solution.
Circumference of the wheel is : 2 * pi * radius = 2 * 22/7 * 70 = 440 CM Distance covered in 1 minute : 66000 * 1/60 = 1100 meters or 110000 cm. 110000/440 = 250 revolutions. It can make another 50 revolution. (it can cover 1100 meters in 250 revolutions, so it will cover in another 50 meters the length as per following : ) 1100 * 50/250 = 220 meters can be still covered. The tire can cover 220 meters more safely. Answer.
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93

How many bullets can be made from a lead cylinder 14 CM high and 6 cm in radius. Each bullet has diameter of 1.5 cm.
Volume of cylinder / volume of sphere Volume of cylinder : pi * r^2 h Volume of sphere : 4/3 pi * r^3 = (22/7 * 6*6*14)/(4/3* 22/7* .75*.75*.75) = 896 answer
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95

A cone has base radius of 21 cm and height of 28 cm. what is its slant height, colume and curved surface area?
Slant height = sqrt (radius ^2 + height ^2) = sqrt (21^2 + 28^2) =35 cm Volume = 1/3 (pi * r^2 * h) = 1/3 * 22/7 * 21*21 * 28 = 12936 cu. cm
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Continued
Curved surface area : = pi * r * l = 22/7 * 21 * 35 =2310 Total surface area: ( pi * r* l ) + (pi * r^2 ) = 2310 + (22/7 * 21*21) = 3696
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 97

A closed wooden box with external dimensions 80 * 60 * 40 is made up of 2 cm thick wood. If 1 cubic cm wood weights 10 grams, what is the weight of empty box?
Volume with external dimension: (80*60*40) Volume with Internal dimensions: ( 76*56*36) Find their difference = 38784. multply it by 10 gram, we have 387840 or 387 kg. answre
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 98

Find volume, surface area and diagonal of a cuboid of a dimensions of 12, 9 and 8 cm. If this is cut to form a cube of maximum dimensions, what will be the length of the diagonal?
Volume = length * bredth * height = 12 * 9 * 8 = 864 cubic cm Surface area; = 2 ( lb * bh * lh)
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Continued
Surface area; = 2 *( 12* 9 + 12 * 8 + 8 * 9) =552 sq. cm Diagonal = sqrt ( length ^2 + breadth ^2 + height ^2) = sqrt ( 12^2 + 9 ^2 + 8^2) =sqrt (144 + 81+64) = 17 If it is converted into a cube, its one side will be 8. Diagonal = sqrt (3 ) * 8 = 13.7 approx. answer
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 100

What is the area of isoscales triangle, whose one of the equal sides is 12 CM and other side is 10.
Formula = sqrt (s * (s-a) * (s-b)*(s-c)) S = sum of three sides / 2 = (12 + 12 + 10) /2 = 17 = sqrt (17 * (17 12) * (17 12) * ( 17 10)) =54.54 sq. cm . Answer
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What is the area of an equilateral triangle, whose side is 6?


Formula Area = sqrt (3) / 4 * side * side = 1.73 / 4 * ( 6*6) =1.73 * 9 = 15.58 answer.

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102

A,B,C,D,E are 5 consecutive odd integers, what is their average?


C Or A+4 Or B + 2 Or D 2 Or E 4 Answer
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If 40 persons consume 240 KG of rice in 15 days, in how many days will 30 persons consume 48 KG of rice?
Start with days, because days are asked: = 15 * 40/30 * 48/240 = 4 days answer

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104

8 men can dig a pit in 20 days. If a man works half as much again as a boy, then 4 men and 9 boy can dig within?
Convert all the men into boys or vice versa: Men are : (earlier :8 )and Now : ( 4 + 6) (we get 6 by dividing 9 by 1.5) = 10 Or boys are : ( 12 ) (8 multipled 1.5) and (6+9 = 15) (here we get 6 by multiplying 4 to 1.5) Now solve it
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Continued
Start with days, as days has been asked. 20 * 8 /10 = 16 days answer.

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106

What is the day on 12 Jan. 2004?


Start from 1/1/1, it was Monday. So 1/1/2 should be Tuesday, ``1/1/3 should be Wednesday. `1/1/4 should be Thursday. (all these years are normal years, so only one day is extra in these years) (12-1)/7 gives 4 as remainder, so 12 January should be Thursday + 4th day : so it should be Monday. Answer
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What is the day on 18 November 1982?


1/1/1 is Monday, so 1/1/0 should be Saturday. 1/1/99 should be Friday and so on. From 2001, to 1983, we have 18 years, with 5 leap years, so we have 18+5 = 23 extra days. 23/7 = 2 extra days So 1/1/83 should be Saturday. From 18 Nov. to 1 Jan, we have (12 +31+1) =44 days. Divide 44/7 = we have 2 extra day + 18th itself. Thus 18 November should be Thursday.
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What is the day on 19 Jan. 1988?


1/1/88 is 13 years behind 1/1/1 These 13 include 4 leap years. We have 13+4 = 17 extra days. Divide 17/7 we get : 3 extra days. So 1/1/88 should be Friday. Now (19-1)/7 = 4 extra days. So 19 January should be Tuesday. Answer
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How many 0 are there in 10!


100 factorial = 10*9*8*7 .. .. We can find that we have Zero in 10, and 2 * 5 = 2 zero in 50 factorial we have 50 zero.

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110

A dog takes 3 leaps for every 5 leaps of a hare. If one leap of the dog is equal to 3 leaps of the hare, the ratio of the speed of the dog to that of the hare is
Dog takes one leap, which is equal to 3 leaps of hare. Thus do takes 3*3 = 9 leaps when hare takes 5 leaps The ratio is : 9:5 answer
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Gold is 19 times as heavy as water and copper is 9 times as heavy as water. In what ratio should they be mixed to get an alloy 15 times as heavy as water
19 15 = 4 15 9 = 6 Let us reverse the ratio : 6:4 or 3:2 answer
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85 liters of a mixture contains milk and water in the ratio 27 : 7. How much more water is to be added to get a new mixture containing milk and water in the ratio 3 : 1?
Water is 7/ (27+7) desired ( 1/(3+1)) (1/4 7/34) = 3/68 1(pure water) - (for desired mix) = Now reverse these ratio : : 3/68 = 17: 1 or 85/17 = 5 liters of water should be added.
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A and B are two alloys of gold and copper prepared by mixing metals in the ratio 7 :2 and 7 : 11 respectively. If equal quantities of the alloys are melted to form a third alloy C, then ratio of gold and copper in C will be
Total of 1st ratio = (7+2) = 9 Total of 2nd ratio = (7+11) = 18
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Solution
LCM of 9 and 18 is 18. so let us take 18 kg of mixtures of both times. From first we get : 14 kg gold and from second we get 7 kg gold. Total we have got 21 kg gold From 1st we have got 4 kg silver, and from second we get 11 kg silver. Total we have got 15 kg silver. Thus we have 21 kg gold and 15 kg silver. The ratio is : 7:5 answer
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If a+b:b+c:c+a=6:7:8 and a+b+c=14,then the value of c is


A+B = 6, so C = 8 B+C = 7, A = 7 C+A = 8, B = 6 But total of A+B+C comes = 21. so we have to reduce them : C = 8 * 14/21 = 5.33

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A can contains a mixture of two liquids A & B in proportion 7:5. When 9 liters of mixture was drawn off and the can was filled with B, the proportion of A & B becomes 1:2. How many liters of mixture was contained by the can initially?
(a) 15 (b)21
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(c) 36 (d) 25
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SOLUTION.
INITIALLY WE HAVE 7: 5 TOTAL OF THIS IS 12. LET US TRY WITH 36. WE HAVE 21 OF FIRST TYPE AND 15 OF SECOND TYPE. NOW WE WITHDRAW IN THE 9 LITERS : WE HAVE 27 LITERS LEFT OUT : WHICH IS : 27 * 7/12 = 15.75 AND 27*5/12 = 11.25 NOW WE ADD 9 LITERS : WE GET 21.25 THUS THIS IS NOT THE ANSWER : CONTINUED
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CONTINUED
TRY WITH 15. FROM THIS WE DEDUCT 9 LITERS. WE GET 6 LITERS. WE HAVE 7:5 = 3.5 AND 2.5 LITERS RESPECTIVELY. NOW ADD 9 LITERS, AGAIN IT IS NOT THE ANSWER TRY 21 : WE GET 21 9 = 12. WE HAVE 7 AND 5 LITERS. NOW ADD 9 OF THE SECOND TYPE : WE GET 7 AND 14. THIS IS 1:2. THUS THIS IS THE ANSWER.
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Two regular polygons have the number of their sides in the ratio 2:1 and their interior angle in the ratio 5:4.The number of sides of the two polygons are
Options : (a) 10,5 (b) 8,4 (C) 12,6(d) 6,3
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Solution
Let us try with option (c) Exterior angle = 360 / number of sides Interior angle = 180 exterior angle 360 / 12 = 30 so interior angle is 180 30 = 150 360/6 = 60 so interior angle is : 180 60 = 120 Thus the ratio is 150:120 or 5:4 answer.
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The wages of labourers in a factory is increasedin the ratio 22:25 and there was a reduction in the number of laboures in the ratio 15:11. Find the original wage bill if the present bill is Rs 5000?
Let us multiply these two ratio and find a new ratio : (22*15) : (25*11) = 6:5 if the original bill was 6, new bill is 5, thus if the new bill is 5, the original bill was 6000. answer.
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An alloy of tin and copper has 6 pounds of copper for every 4 pounds of tin. If 300 pounds of this alloy is made, how many pounds of tin need to be added in order to make the ratio of tin and copper 1:1?
In 300, we have 180 of copper and 120 of tin. In order to make the ratio 1:1, we have to add 60 pounds of tin into it. Answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 123

The ratio of sum of squares of first n natural numbers to square of sum of first n natural number 17:325, the value of n is
(a)15 (b) 25 (c)35 (d) None of these
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Solution
Sum of squares = n(n+1)(2n+1) / 6 Let us try for 15 15(16 *31) / 6 = 1240 Sum of 15 terms = (15 *16)/2 = 120squared = 14400 this doesnt give answer. (answer is (b).
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10 years ago, the age of Ramu was 13 times his daughters age. Now his age is 3 times the age of his daughter. What will be the age Ramu and his daugher after 6 years?
Options: (1) 48 & 22 years (2) 42 years and 18 years (3) 40 years and 16 years. (4) none of these.
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Answer
(2nd option).

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127

Difference between a discount of 33% and two successive discounts of 20% and 25% is Rs. 50, what is the amount of the bill?
Let us assume the amount of the bill = 100 The difference between discounts = 7 (difference between 33 and 40 ( 20+20)) If the diference is 7, the bill amount is 100, If the difference is 50, bill amount should be : 50/7 * 100 = 714.28 ans.
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A court has given a 6 to 3 decision. In how many ways could it have given a decision against the matter?
There are 9 judges. The possibilities for a decision against could be as under : 1:8, 2:7, 3:6, 4:5 (assuming every judge to give his judgement). Thus there are 4 possibilities. Answer
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A had to pay Rs. 22000 to B after 2 years. But after 1 year, B demanded 11000 and deferred Rs. 11000 for another 2 years. Who benefitted by how much. Rate = 10% p.a.

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Solution.
Calculate present values of all these at the time of transaction. Present value of 22000 = 20000 Present value of 11000 (two instalments) = 11000 + 11000 * 100/(120) =11000+ 9167 Thus B is getting : 20167 instead of 20000. Thus B is having benefit of 167 answer 131 06/29/09 AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL
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Hemant can swim against current (which is flowing @ 1 km per hour). He takes 10 minutes to cover three quarters of a KM. What is his speed in still water?
Hemant has swum 750 meters in 10 minutes, so he can swim : 4.5 Km in 1 hour. His speed = 5.5 km per hour (4.5 + 1). Answer
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The average age of 11 players in a a cricket team is decreased by 2 months, when two players ( whose ages are 17 and 20 years) are replaced by 2 new players. What is the average age of new players?
Total of old players : 17+20 = 37 years. Total reduction : 11 * 2 = 22 months Total of new players : 37 Yr. 22 months
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Continued
Total age of 2 new players: 35 years and 2 months. Average age of 2 new players: 35 Years + 2 months / 2 = 17 years and 7 months (35 divided by 2 gives 17 years and 6 months + half of 2 months). Answer
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Probability that a maths problem will be solved by Jitesh is .6. Probability that a maths problem will be solved by VP is .7. what is the probability that at least one of them will solve the problem?
Find the probability that they will not solve the problem: ((1-.6) * ( 1-.7) ) = .12 At least one of them will solve it : 1-. 12=.88 answer
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How many letters can can you form from the following words, with no 2 As coming together? AAAAAABCDEFGHIJKL
There are 17 words with 6 As. Thus we have 12 places for As, and for other words, we have 11 places. Thus we have 12C6 * 11! =fact(12)/((fact(6)*fact(6)) *fact(11) =924*39916800 answer
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 136

Find the chance of getting more than 15 in a throw of 3 dice?


Total number of possibilities = 6^3 = 216 Getting 15 : 666, 665, 656,566,556,565,655,664,646,466 Thus we have 10/216 as the probability Answer
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Values 10,20,15,18,23,25 are assigned weights of 1,3,5,2,5,4 respectively . What is the weighted mean?
(10*1) + ( 20*3) + (15*5)+(18*2)+(23*5)+(25*4)/(1+3+5+2+5 +4) = 396/20 = 19.8 answer
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A person walks @ 3 km per hour for first 15 km, another 12 KM @ 4 km per hour. And last 20 KM @ 2 km per hour. What is the average speed of the person during entire journey?
Avg. speed = total distance / total time = (15+12+20)/ (5+3+10) =47/18 = 2.61 answer
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 139

Rs 1980 are divided among A,B,C. Half of A, 1/3rd of B and 1/6th of C are equal. What are the shares of A,B,C?
Let us assume A = 2, B = 3, and C = 6. A gets : 2/(2+3+6) * 1980 = 360 B gets : 540 and C gets : 1080 answer
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Sum of squares of 3 consecutive odd numbers is 251, what are the numbers?
Squares of 7 = 49, 9 = 81 and 11 = 121 Add these, you get the answer.

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141

A fraction bears the same ratio to 1/27 as 3/7 to 5/9, what is the fraction? ,
X : 1/27 :: 3/7: 5/9 (multiply first to the 4th and 2nd to the 3rd) 5/9X = 1/27 * 3/7 5/9 X = 1/63 X = 1/63 * 9/5 X = 1/35 answer
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 142

Average marks of 120 candidates is 35. that of the passed candidates is 39 and that of failed candidates is 15. what is the number of failed candidates?
X + Y = 120 (X = pass, Y = failed students) 39X +15Y = 120*35 Multiply the first equationMATERIAL and solve it.143 06/29/09 AFTERSCHOOL's to 15
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Continued
39X +15Y = 120*35 15x + 15 Y = 120*15 (deduct it ) 24x = 120*20 X = 100 Y = 20 answer

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144

If A is 40% of B. What % of A is B?
Let us assume B = 100 A = 40 Thus we have to find B as % of A 100/40 * 100 = 250% answer

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145

2^a = 3^b = 6 ^(-c), what is 1/a+1/b+1/c?


Let us assume that all these are equal to a number : 6 C = -1 A = 2.58 B = 1.63 Now solve it 1 / (2.58) + 1/(1.63) -1 = 1 1 = 0 answer
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 146

Umakant is at the top of a tower, he makes an angle of depression of 45 degree to see a boat which is 60 meters away from tower. After 5 seconds, the boat races away and now angle of depression to see it is 30 degree. What is the speed of boat ?
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solution
Height of the tower = 60 meters because angle of depression is 45 degree. When angle is 30 degree: Base / perpendicular = sqrt(3) Base/60 = sqrt(3) =base = 104 approx. Thus boat covers 44 meters in 5 seconds multiplyi to 18/5 = 32 km per hour. Answer
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A & B can do a work in 18 days. B and C can do it in 12 days. A & C can do the work in 15 days. How will they take to complete the work?
1/18 + 1/12 + 1/15 = 37/`180 (this is 2A+2B+2C, we want A+B+C) Multiply it by = 37/360 Reverse it : 360/37 = 9.7 days approx.
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20 men start a work and they can complete it in 40 days. We want the work to be completed in 48 days. When should we relieve 4 workers?
16 persons will work on all 48 days: 1 person can work in 20 * 40 = 800 days. 16 people will do : 16*48 *1/800 = 768/800 Remaining work = 32/800 will be done by 4 persons
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Continued
800 * 32/800 * = 8 Thus after 8 days, these 4 workers be relieved. ans

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Khyati increased her marks by 20%. Now she secured 80% marks. What was her earlier scoring?
80 *100/120 = 66.66% answer

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Due to diversions, Gotis marks decreased by 20%. Now he secured 70% marks. What was his earlier scoring?
70 *100/80 = 87.5%
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1/8th of a pencil is black. Half of the remaining is Yellow. Remaining 7 cm is blue. What is the length of the pencil?
Go in reverse order (last step first.) 7 * 2 = 14 Now multiply it by : 8/7 = 16 CM answer
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What is the amount realised, when a person sells 10000 stock at 15% discount and pays 1.5% brokerage?
He gets : 8500 less 1.5% 8500*98.5/100 =8372.5 answer
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There are two pipes A & B, which can fill a tank in 12 and 15 minutes respectively. When should be close the pipe A, if we want to fill the tank in exactly 10 minutes?
Pipe B will continue for 10 minutes, so it will fill up 2/3 of the tank (10/15 = 2/3). Thus pipe A will fill up 1/3rd of the tank thus pipe A should be closed after 4 minutes (12 *1/3 = 4 minutes). Ans.
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One tap can fill a tank in 60 minutes and another can empty it in 50 minutes. If tank is full, and both the taps are turned on, in how much time will it be empty?
1/50 1/60 = 10/3000 = 1/300 = 300 minutes. Answer
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If the ratio of harmonic mean of two numbers of their geometric mean is 12:13, find the ratio of the numbers.
Options ; (1) 4:9 (3) 2:5 (5) 3:5 (2) 2:3 (4) 3:4
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Solution
Try with options: 4 and 9 gives you geometric mean = 6 It also gives harmonic mean of 5.538 These two numbers are in the ratio of 12:13 as per our requirements. Answer (1)

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Out of pack of 52 cards one is lost, from the remainder of the pack two cards are drawn and are found to be spades. Find the chance that the missing card is spade.
Now we have 50 cards (including missing card). There are 11 spades yet to be identified (two have already been identified). So answer is : 11/50 answer
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Ravi speaks the truth 3 times out of 4, Ram 7 times out of 10. They both say that the ball drawn from a bag which contains 6 different balls is white. Find the probability that it is true.
= * 7/10 = 21/40 answer
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In how many ways can the letters of the word ARRANGEMENT be arranged?
There are 11 digits. Out of these 11, we have 2A, 2R, 2E, 2N, Thus = 11!/(2!*2!*2!*2!) =fact(11)/(fact(2)*fact(2)*fact(2)*fact(2)) =2494800 answer
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In how many ways can a team of 5 boys and 3 girls be selected from 8 boys and 7 girls?
Selection of boys : 8C5 =fact(8) / (fact(5)*fact(3)) =56 Selection of girls : 7C3 =fact(7)/(fact(3)*fact(4)) = 35 Answer = 56*35 = 1960 answer
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Solution

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Example: Find the sum of the infinite series 16, 4, 1,1/4, 1/16, 1/64.?
Formula = a / ( 1-r), (it is a geometric series) Where ratio = 4/16 (second term / first term) =16 / (1 ) = 16 *4/3 = 64/3 answer
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Find the sum of integers between 1 and 2009 which are divisible by 11?
The first term of the series is 11 (which first term) The last term of the series is : 2002 (which is 182th term) It is AP so the sum of the series = N/2 (first term + last term) =182/2(11+2002) = 183183 answer
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A retired army personnel receives a pension of Rs. 10,000 in his first month of retirement which gets reduced by 90% every succeeding month. what is the total pension which he will receive from government if he never dies?
Formula = a/ (1-r), a=10000, r = .1 =10000/(1-.1) = 10000/.9 =11111 answer
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The sum of the second and the fifth term of an AP is 8 and that of the third and the seventh term is 14. Find the eleventh term.
AP = arithmetic progression ( which increases at fixed interval) 2n term = A+d, 5th term = A +4d 3rd term = A+2d 7th term = A+6d A = first term, d = difference A+d+A+4d=8 and A+2d+A+6d =14
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Answer
A+d+A+4d=8 and A+2d+A+6d =14 2A+5d = 8 2A+8d= 14 Or 3d = 6 OR d=2 Putting in the first equation: 2A +10 =8 or 2A = -2 or A = -1 11th term = A + 10d =(-1) + (10*2) = 19 answer
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A ladder leaning against the wall makes an angle of 45 degree with the ground. The foot of the ladder is 12 feet from the wall. What is the length of the ladder?
We have to calculate Hypoteneuse and we have been given the base. Hyp/Base = sec. the angle is 45 degree. Sec 45 = sqrt(2)
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Continued
Hypoteneuse / Base = sqrt (2) Hypoteneuse / 12 = sqrt (2) Hypoteneuse = 12 * sqrt(2) = 17 feet approx. answer

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The shadow of a Mineret (similar to Qutubminar) is 100 meters long, when the elevation of Sun is 60 degrees. What is the height of the mineret?
We know the base here and we have to calculate perpendicular here. Base is 100. Apply formula for Tan. Perpendicular / base = sqrt (3)
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Prashant is flying over Pacific Ocean in Lufthansa. He observes 2 ships. His place is 3 KM above sea level. Angle of depression towards two ships are 45 and 60 degrees. What is the distance between the ships?
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Solution
Here we will use Cot because : COT = base / perpendicular COT 45 = 1 Base / 3000 = 1, so base is 3000 meters COT 60 = 1/ (sqrt(3)) Base / 3000 = 1/ (sqrt(3)) Base = 3000/(sqrt(3)) = 1732 Distance between ships : 3000-1732=1268 meters. Answer
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From the top of your house, you observe a tower. You are 16 meters above the ground. Your angle of elevation (to observe the tower) is 30 degree. Your angle of depression to observe the bottom of tower is also 30 degree. What is the height of the tower & what is the distance of tower from your house?
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Answer
Hieight of tower : 16 * 2 = 32 meter To know the distance, we will use Cot Base / Perpendicular = sqrt(3) Base / 16 = sqrt(3) Base = 16*sqrt(3) = 27.7 Thus distance between tower and your house is 27.7 answer
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You can make 9 diagonals in a polygon. How many angles are there in that polygon?
Options : 5,6,7,8 Number of diagonals : ( n (n-1) /2 ) n =(n (n-1) /2 n = 9 Try for different options. 6*5/2 6 = 9 Thus there are 6 angles answer.
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Each interior of a regular polygon is 162 degree. How many angles are there in the polygon?
Exterior angle = 180 162 = 18 Formula = 360/angle of exterior angle = number of angles = 360/18 = 20 Thus there are 20 angles in the regular polygon. Answer
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Continued.
Perpendicular / 100 = sqrt (3) Perpendicular = 173 approx. Thus mineret is 173 meters tall (approx. ) answer

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You have 3 digits : 1,2,3. How many 3 digit numbers can you make from them in all (repeatitions are not allowed)?
formula = n! = 3! = 3*2*1 = 6 answer

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You have 4 friends. You have to select them for the party. You may select from 0 to 4. How many options do you have ?
Answer : 2^n = 2^4 = 16 answer
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You have 5 friends. You have to select them for the party. You may select from 1 to 5. You have to select at least one of them. How many options do you have ?
Formula : 2^n 1 = 2^5 1 = 31 answer
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You have following digits : 1,2,4,5,8,0. how many 4 digit numbers can you from which are more than 4000 (repeatition not allowed)
For the first digit, we have three options: 4,5,8 For second digit : we have (6-1) options, for 3rd digit we have (6-2) options, for 4th digit we have (6-3) options = 3*5*4*3 = 180 answer
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7 friends Anamika, Nidhi, Charu, Jyoti, Khyati, Shabnam, & Sonam are going to sit for group discussion. They can either sit in circular form or in linear form. Which method will give them more options and by what numbers?
Number of options to sit linearly : 7!=5040 Number of options to sit circularly: 6! =720 They will get 4320 more options if they sit in linear manner.
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X varies inversely as square of Y. If X = 4, Y = . What will be the value of X when the value of Y is 10?
Let us take square of Y and inverse it : = 16, X is 4. thus we are dividing the solution by 4. Now take the square of new Y and inverse it : 1/100. divide it by 4, we get : 1/400 answer
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What is the value of 2-3*1.5/1.5 +4 of 6(2*1/8)


Apply the rules of BODMAS: First solve the bracket = 6* Now solve of : 4*6*1/4 = 6 Now solve divide : 2-3 *1 + 6 Now solve multiplication 23+6 = 5 answer
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A shopkeeper sells one tubelight and one bulb at Rs. 20 each. On first he earns 15% profit and on bulb he suffers 15% loss. What is his net profit / net loss (in Rupees)?
15% profit : 15/115*20 15% loss : 15/85*20 Find their difference: 300/85 300/115
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Continued..
60/17 60/23 = ((60*23) (17*60)) / (17*23)=360/391 Shortcut : The net loss is (15% * 15%) = 2.25% 40 * 2.25/97.75 = .92 answer

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Out of the 3 numbers, first is twice the second and thrice the third. Their average is 49.5. What is the difference between 1st and 3rd number?
Let us assume the 3rd number to be 2, first is 6 and second is 3. their average is : 11/3 and difference between 1st and 3rd is 4. If avg. is 11/3, the difference is 4, so what will be the difference if average is : 49.5 : 4/(11/3) * 49.5 = 12/11 * 49.5 = 54 answer
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3 boys had some mangoes with them. 1st took one mango and took 1/3rd of the remaining. 2nd and 3rd also did the same. They still have mangoes which can be equally divided among them. What is the minumum number of mangoes that the first person took initially?
They must have at least 3 mangoes now, solve it accordingly.
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Solution..
3 * 3/2 (it is coming in points, so we have to convert the number to 6). 6*3/2 = 9 + 1 Now again 10 * 3/2 = 15 + 1 = 16 Now again : 16 *3/2 = 24 + 1= 25 Thus the first person must have taken : 1 + 1/3 of 24 = 8 = 1 + 8 = 9 mangoes answer
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Naveen borrowed a sum from Uday at the rate of 20% p.a compound interest compounded annually for two years. He repaid the amount in two equal installments (the installments being paid at the end of the year). If each installment is Rs. 7,200, then find the amount borrowed
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Solution.
7200 paid at the end of first year includes interest for 1 year so principal amount is : 7200*100/120 = 6000 7200 paid after 2 years includes interest for 2 years, so the principal should be : 7200 * 100/144 = 5000 Thus principal amount was (6000+5000) = 11000 answer.
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The sum of the squares of any three consecutive odd numbers increased by 1 is divisible by (1) 10 (2) 9 (3) 12 (4) 18
Answer (3) try and find the answer

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The price of a dozen oranges is Rs. 72 and the price of a score oranges is. 100. By what percentage, will the price per orange be cheaper if a score oranges are purchased instead of a dozen oranges? (1 score = 20 numbers)
Rate will be 5 instead of 6 per orange. So 1/6*200 = 16.66% is the answer.
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Rohits house is located 16 km exactly north of his office. Pramods house is located 8 km exactly east of Rohits office. What is the shortest distance between Rohits house and Pramods house?
17.88 Km answer (sqrt of (square of 16 + square of 8))
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bag is having 5 red ribbons, 6 white ribbons and 8 black ribbons. Two ribbons are drawn at random, what is the prob ability that one of them will be white and other one is black?
(6c1 * 8c1) / (19c2) =(6*8 * 2) / ( 19*18) = .28 answer

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A,B,C start a business with capital in the ratio of 1/3, 1/5 and . A withdraws half of his capital after 6 months, but B doubles his capital at that time. Annual profits are Rs. 16000. How will you divide it between A,B, and C?
Let us take LCM of 3,4,5 = 60. As capital = 1/3*60 = 20, Bs capital = 12 and Cs capital = 15
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Continued.
As share : 20 * 6 + 10 * 6 = 180 Bs share: 12* 6 + 24*6 = 216 Cs share : 15 * 12 = 180 Thus their profit sharing ratio is 180:216:180 = 5:6:5 Thus A will get 5/16 * 16000 = 5000 B will get : 6/16 * 16000 = 6000 And C will get : 5/16*16000 = 5000 answer.
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Area of a right angle triangle is 600 sq. cm. its hypoteneuse is 50 cm. what is its perimeter?
Let the height and base be X and Y * x * Y = 600 XY = 1200 X^2 + Y^2 = 50^2 (as per pythogorus rule) (X+Y)^2 = 2500 + 2400 = 4900 (X-Y)^2 = 2500 2400= 100 Thus X+Y = 70 and X Y = 10 and X & Y are 40 & 30. Perimeter is : 40+30+50 = 120 answer
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2 men undertake to do a work for Rs. 600. One alone can do it in 6 days and the other can do it alone in 8 days. With the assistance of a boy, they do the work in 3 days. What should be the share of the boy?

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Solution
Boys ability : 1/3 (1/6 + 1/8) = 1/3 14/48 =2/48 = 1/24 Thus their ratio should be : 1/6:1/8:1/24 or 4:3:1 The boy should get : 1/8*600 = 75 answer

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In 40 liters of mixture of milk and water, the ratio is 3:1. What should be added and in what quantity to make this ratio 1:3?
Milk is now 30 liters ( 40 * ), it will now become 1/4th, thus total quantity will increase to 120. Thus 80 liters of water should be added in it. Answer
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In a 1 KM Race, A beats B by 40 meters or 7 seconds. Find their speeds?


Speed of B = 40/7 meters per seconds. Thus B takes : 1000 / ( 40/7) seconds in total race = 175 seconds. A takes : (175 7) = 168 seconds. Speed of A is 1000/168 = 5.95 meters per seconds. Answer
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2 ^ (X + 4) - 2 ^ (X + 2) = 3, what is X?
We can write it as : 2^x * 2^4 - 2^x * 2^2 = 3 Let us take common factors: 2^x ( 16 4) = 3 12 * 2^x = 3 2^x = 3/12 2^x = (we know that power must be in negative to make this number in fraction). 2^ (-2) = , so x = -2 answer
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4^(2x) - 2 ^(2x) = 12, what is X?


2^(4x) 2^(2x) = 12 Let us take Y = 2^(2x) Y^2 Y = 12 Y^2 Y 12 =0 Y^2 4y +3Y -12 =0 Y (Y 4) + 3(Y -4) = 0 Y = 4 or -3 2^2x = 4 so X = 1 answer Or 16^x 4^x = 12 (we know the difference between 16 and 4 is one, so power must be 1) Therefore X = 1. answer
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X ^ 1/3 = 3, what is X?
X = 27 answer

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212

(X +1) ^ 1/3 = (3), what is X?


X = 26 answer

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(X -1)^(2/3) = 1/9, what is X?


X 1 = (1/9)^(3/2) Or X 1 = (1/3) ^3 (we have solved power and therefore taken square root of 9). X 1 = (1/27) X = 1/27 + 1 X = 28/27 answer

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(X +1)^(3/4) = 1/64, what is X?


X +1 = (1/64) ^ (4/3) X + 1 = (1/4) ^ (4) X + 1 = 1/256 X = 1/256 1 X = - 255/256 answer

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(1/X +3)^(2/5) = 1/4, what is X?


(1/x + 3) = (1/4)^ ( 5/2) 1/x + 3 = ^ 5 1/x + 3 = 1/32 1/x = 1/32 -3 1/x = - 95/32 -95x = 32 X = - 32/95 answer
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(1/X -1)^(5/8) = 1/32, what is X?


(1/x -1 ) = (1/32)^ ( 8/5) 1/x -1 = ^ 8 1/x -1 = 1/256 1/x = 1/256 +1 1/x =257/256 257x = 256 X = 256/257 answer
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(X +1)^(2/3) = 1/9, what is X?


(X+1) ^ ( 2 * 1/3) = (1/9) (x+1) ^ (1/3) = 1/3 (x+1) = 1/27 X = 1/27 1 X = -26 / 27 answer

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HCF of 2 numbers is 12 and their difference is also 12. what are the numbers?
Let us multiply 12 with two consecutive prime numbers. We have 2 and 3 as such numbers. 12 * 2 = 24 12 * 3 = 36 Answer
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4 different bells ring after every 30 minutes, 1 hour, 1 hour, and 1.75 hours respectively. If they toll together at 12, when will they again toll together?
Take LCM of these durations: (.5, 1, 1.5, 1.75) = 21 hours. Thus they will toll together again at 9 the next day.
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The traffic lights at 3 different road crossings change after every 48 seconds, 72 seconds, 108 seconds respectively, if they all change simultaneously at 8.20, when will they again change simultaneously?
Take LCM of 48,72,108 we get : 432 seconds or 7.2 minutes. Thus they will toll together at 27 minutes 12 seconds past 8.
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A = sqrt(9 + sqrt (9 + sqrt (9.to infinity))) ,what is A


A = sqrt ( 9 + A) Square both sides : A^2 = 9 + A A^2 A 9 = 0 Now apply the formula : (-b + - sqrt(b^2 4ac))/2a = 1 +sqrt(1+36) / 2 =( 1+ 6.08) / 2 = 3.54 answer
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What is the day on 7 Jan 1990?


We know that 1/1/01 is Monday. From that we shall go backwards. Let us take 1/1/90. we have 11 years including 3 leap years in between. In a normal year, 1 day is extra, but in leap year 2 days are extra. (divide 365 or 366, you get remainder 1 or 2). Thus in a normal year, you have one extra day. We have 11*1 + 3*1 = 14 extra days, which is 2 week. Thus now we dont have extra day. Thus 1/1/90 should be Monday. Thus 7/1/90 should be Sunday. Ans.
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What is the day on 1/8/89?


We know that 1/1/01 is Monday. From that we shall go backwards. Let us take 1/1/89. we have 12 years including 3 leap years in between. In a normal year, 1 day is extra, but in leap year 2 days are extra. (divide 365 or 366, you get remainder 1 or 2). Thus in a normal year, you have one extra day. We have 12*1 + 3*1 = 15 extra days, which is 2 week + 1 day. Thus 1/1/90 should be Sunday.
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Continued..
January has 31 days, feb. 28 days, march 31 days, april 30 may 31, june 30 and july 31 days. Let us total them : 212 days. Divide it by 7. we get 2 days extra. So 1/8/89 should be Sunday + 2 dyas = Tuesday. Answer

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At what time between 8 and 9, there will be a straight angle ( angle of 180 degree)?
10 minutes pass 8 (but, when the minute hand reaches 10, the hour hand will move little bit). Thus we have to get exact time. 10 * 60/55 = 10.9 or 10 minutes and 54 seconds. Thus 10 minutes, 54 seconds pass 8 will give you the exact time when there will be a straight angle. Answer
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At what time between 2 and 3, there will be a right angle ( angle of 90 degree)?
Gap of 1 minutes gives an angle of 6 ( because 360/60 = 6). Thus 90/6 = 15 There are 2 occasions when there is a gap of 15 points between minute and hour hands. Once at 25 past 2 and again at 55 past 2. now multiply these by 60/55, we get : 25 * 60/55 = 27.27 or 27 minutes and 16 seconds past 2 and 3. so the answer is 27 minutes, 16 seconds past 2. answer
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At what time between 5 and 6, will the two hands (minute hand and hour hand) coincide?
Let us start with 25 minutes past 5, however, the hour hand will move little bit. 25 * 60/55 = 27.27 We get 27 minutes 16 seconds past 5 as the time. Answer
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A watch, which is 10 minutes too fast at noon on Monday gains 3 minutes 12 seconds every 24 hours. What will be the time by it at a quarter past ten on the following Saturday morning?

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Solution
From Monday to Friday : 4 days, so 4* 3 minutes and 3 seconds = 12 minutes + 48 seconds. Now 12 o clock on Friday to 10.25 on Saturday gives : 22.25 22.25/24 * 3.2 = 2.97 = 2 minutes + 58 seconds. Add all these : The time displayed by clock will be : 10 + (15minutes + 12 minutes + 48 seconds + 2 minutes 58 seconds + 10 minutes) = 40 minutes and 46 seconds. Answer
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Find the time between 3 and 4 Oclock when the angle between the hands of a watch are on a third of a right angle?
5 minutes create an angle of 30. Answer should be 20 minutes past 3 & 10 minutes past 3. Multiply 20 by 60/55 = .33*60/55 = .36 Thus 21 minutes 36 seconds after 3 is the right time. AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL 06/29/09 231
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Continued
10 minutes past 3 = 3.1667 Now multipley .16667 *60/55 = .1818 Which is equal to 10 minutes and 54 seconds. Thus answers are : 10 minutes and 54 seconds past 3 and 21 minutes 36 seconds past 3. answer
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How often between 11 and 12oclock are the hands of a clock an integral number of minute spaces apart?
54 answer. (when minute hand moves, the hour hand also moves, so it will not be 60 but 55, but 55 includes 12 also, so deduct 1, answer is 54 answer.
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A MAN HAS 1044 CANDLES. AFTER BURNING, HE CAN MAKE A NEW CAMBLES FROM 9 STUBS LEFT. FIND THE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF CANDLES THAT HE CAN MAKE FROM THESE 1044 CANDLES?
1044/9 = 116 NOW HE WILL BURN THESE & MAKE CANDLES FROM STUBS. 116/9 =12 + 8 STUBS. HE WILL BE ABLE TO GET 12+8 STUBS. THUS HE WILL MAKE ANOTHER 2 CANDLES. TOTAL : 116 + 12 + 2 = 130 ANSWER
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 234

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The letters of the word ORIENTAL are arranged in all possible manner. What is the probability that the consonants and vowels occur alternatively.
Total number of possibilities : 8! Vowels : 4 consonants = 4 thus we have (2 * 4! * 4!) / 8! Answer
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THE LENGTH OF THE RECTANGULAR PLOT IS INCREASED BY 25%. IN ORDER TO KEEP THE AREA UNCHANGED, THE WIDTH SHOULD BE DECREASED BY ?
LET US ASSUME LENGTH = 20 AND WIDTH 10. AREA = 200 NEW LENGTH = 25. NEW WIDTH = 200/25 = 8. THUS WIDTH HAS BEEN DECREASED BY 20%. THE SAME ANSWER WILL BE AVAILABLE ON ANY OTHER OPTION.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 236

THERE ARE 3 LANGUAGES A,B,C. OUT OF 50, 23 CAN SPEAK A . 15 CAN SPEAK B AND 18 CAN SPEAK C. 3 SPEAK ONLY A AND B. 6 SPEAK ONLY B AND C. 6 SPEAK ONLY A AND C. 9 CAN SPEAK ONLY A. HOW MANY SPEAK ALL 3 LANGUAGES?
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 237

SOLUTION
( 23 + 15 + 18 ) ( 3+6+6+9) = 56 24 = 32 NOW DIVIDE 32 BY 2, WE GET 16 THUS PERSONS WHO SPEAK ALL THE LANGUAGES.

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Put the following in ascending order : 1/13, 2/29, 3/41


Ascending means small to large And descending means large to small. Thus put the smallest number first. Solution Let us compare 2/29 and 3/41, multiply (41*29) with both the numbers, we get : 82 and 87 respectively. Thus 3/41 is bigger. Now compare 1/13 and 3/41. (multiply (13*41) to both the numbers). We get : 41 and 39. thus 1/13 is the biggest of all. Thus solution: 2/29, 3/41 and 1/13 answer
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 239

Find harmonic mean of 10, 20, 30?


1/10 + 1/20 + 1/30 = (6 + 3 + 2) / 60 = 11/60 Now multiply it by 1/3 (because there are 3 numbers). We get : 11/180 Now reverse it : 180/11 = 16.36 answer
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Find harmonic mean of .5, .4 and .2 ?


Let us multiply these 3 number by 10 each. We get 5, 4, 2 1/5 + + = (4 + 5 + 10) / 20 = 19/20 Now multiply by 1/3 = 19/60 Reverse it : 60/19 = 3.16 Divide it by 10 : = .32 approx. answer
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What is the difference between AM,GM and HM of 20 and 45 and which is bigger?
AM = (20 + 45) /2 = 65/2 = 32.5 GM = SQRT (20 * 45) = SQRT(900) = 30 HM = * ( 1/20 + 1/45) = ( 65/ 900) = 65/1800, REVERSE IT : 1800/65 = 27.69 THE BIGGEST IS AM, AND DIFFERENCE IS 2.5 BETWEEN AM AND GM AND 2.31 BETWEEN GM AND HM.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 242

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What is the difference between GM and HM of 50 and 72 and?


GM = SQRT (50 *72) = 60 HM = ( 1/50 + 1/72) = ( 122/3600) =112/7200 = 7200/122 = 59.02 THUS DIFFERENCE IS .08 ANSWER AMONG AM,GM,HM, AM IS BIGGER THAN GM, AND GM IS BIGGER THAN HM.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 243

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WHAT IS THE AM,GM AND HM OF 2,3,4?


AM IS 3 GM IS CUBIC ROOT( 2*3*4) = CUBICROOT (24) = 2.88 (BECAUSE THERE ARE 3 NUMBERS, SO WE WILL TAKE CUBIC ROOT, NOT SQUARE ROOT) = 2.88 HM IS : 1/3 ( + 1/3 + ) = (6 +4 + 3) / 12 * 1/3 = 13/36 REVERSE : 36/13 =2.769
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CONTINUED
IN SUCH QUESTIONS, IT IS DIFFICULT TO CALCULATE CUBIC ROOT, THEREFORE CALCULATE AM AND HM, AND THEN FIND AVERAGE OF THESE TWO NUMBERS, THIS WILL BE GM. AM = 3, HM = 2.769 AVERAGE OF THESE TWO NUMBERS IS : ( 3 + 2.769) / 2 = 5.769/2 = 2.88 ANSWER.
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WHAT IS THE SUM OF THE FOLLOWING SERIES FOR FIRST 5 TERMS : 1,3,9,27,.
FORMULA : (IT IS GP, BECAUSE THE RATIO OF TWO TERMS IS SAME) = A (R^N 1) / (R 1) A = 1, R = 3, N = 5 =1 (3^5 1) / (3-1) = 242/2 = 121 ANSWER
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WHAT IS THE SUM OF THE FOLLOWING SERIES FOR FIRST 25 TERMS : 101, 81, 61, ..?

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SOLUTION
FORMULA (IT IS AP) = N/2 ( 2A + (N-1) D) A = 101, N = 25, D = -20 = 25/2 ( 2*101 + (24)*(-20)) =25/2 (202 480) =25/2 * ( - 278) = - 25 * 139 = - 3475 ANSWER
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IN A SERIES, EVERY 4TH NUMBER IS QUADRUPLED. WHAT IS THE SUM OF THE FIRST 5 TERMS, IF THE FIRST TERM IS 1?

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SOLUTION
IT IS A GP (BECAUSE THE NUMBERS ARE INCREASING IN A FIXED RATIO). 4TH TERM = A * R ^ (N-1) A=1 R=? N=4 AS PER THE STATEMENT : 4 = 1* R^(3) R^3 = 4 OR R = 1.6 APPROX. TOTAL OF 5 TERMS : 1 (1.6^5 - 1)/(1.6-1) =15.8 ANSWER
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IN A SERIES, EVERY 4TH NUMBER IS 8 TIMES. WHAT IS THE SUM OF THE FIRST 5 TERMS, IF THE FIRST TERM IS 3?

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SOLUTION
LET US ASSUME THE FIRST TERM TO BE 1, 4TH TERM IS 8, LET US FIND THE RATIO : 8 = A * R^3 8 = 1 * R^3 R^3 = 8 SO R = 2 WE HAVE BEEN GIVEN THAT A = 3 SUM OF 5 TERMS : 3 *(2^5 1) / (2-1) , =93 ANSWER
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ABHISHEK AND DHAIRYA ARE RIDING BIKES. THEY START TOGETHER. ONE OF THEM RIDES @ 40 KM PER HOUR AND OTHER @ 60 KM PER HOUR. WHEN WILL THEIR GAP BE MORE THAN 10 KM?
HALF AN HOUR
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MAHIPAL AND YOGENDRA INVEST THEIR MONEY IN TWO DIFFERENT SCHEMES. MAHIPAL GETS 40% SIMPLE INTEREST. YOGENDRAS MONEY GETS DOUBLED IN EVERY 2 YEARS. BOTH INVEST 1000 FOR 10 YEARS. WHO WILL RECEIVE MORE AMOUNT & BY HOW MUCH ?

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SOLUTION
MAHIPAL WILL GET : 1000 + ( 400 * 10 ) = 5000 YOGENDRA WILL GET : 1000 * (2)^5 = 32000 YOGENDRA WILL GET 27000 MORE. ANSWER
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GOVIND COMES TO AFTERSCHOOL @ 60 KM PER HOUR AND RETURNS BACK TO HOME @ 40 KM PER HOUR, WHAT IS THE AVERAGE SPEED?
IN SUCH QUESTIONS, ALWAYS USE HARMONIC MEAN. 1/60 + 1/40 = 100/ 2400 NOW MULTIPLY , WE GET 50/2400, NOW REVERSE THESE : 2400/50 = 48 KM PER HOUR. ANSWER.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 257

What is the value of log 5 625 - log 625 5?


We can write it as 4 (because we know that 5^4 = 625 Thus the answer is 15/4 .

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300 gins of sugar solution has 40% sugar in it. How much sugar should be added to make it 50% in the solution?
Suger in 300 gins : 300*40% = 120 and remaining is other material = 180 The other material will now be 50% hence total solution should be 360. thus 60 gins of suger should be added to it to make it 50% solution. Answer.
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In an election between two candidates, a candidate who gets 40% of total votes is defeated by 15000 votes. The number of votes polled by the winning candidate is

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Solution
One person got 40% so other person must have got 60%, the difference is 20%, which is equal to 15000. thus 100% would be equal to 75000 and 60% should be 15 *60/20 = 45000, so the other person got 45000 votes out of 75000 total votes polled. answer

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At an exam in which full marks were 500, A got 10% less than B, B got 25% more than C number C got 20% less than D. If A got 360, what % did D get?
Start with the last person : D. Suppose D got 100, C should get 80 and B should get 100. A should get 90. If A gets 360, D should get : 360 * 100/90 = 400. Thus D gets : 400/500*100 = 80% marks answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 263

A dishonest dealer sells as a weight of 800 gm in place of 1 kg and adds 20% impurities in sugar. What would be his profit % if he claims to be selling at cost price?

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Solution.
Suppose, the dealer has suger of 1000 grams costing 1000. He adds 20% inpurities in it : it becomes 1200 gm. Now he sells 800 gms as 1000 gms, so 1200*1000/800 == 1500. He gets 1500 rupees out of it. Thus his cost was 1000, but profit is 1500, his profit is 50% of the cost (selling at the rate of cost). Answer
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For annual income in the slab of Rs. 1200000 to 2000000, a person pays tax at 20% over the surplus on Rs. 1200000. Jyotis annual salary is Rs. 1500000. How much tax does she pay per annum?
20% of 300000 = 60000 answer

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A merchant buys Rs 20000 worth of goods. On the way 40% of the items are damaged. He is forced to sell them at a 10% loss. What profit % should he make on the rest of the items to make an overall profit of 20%?
Let us suppose that he purchased 20000 kg in Rs. 20000. He has to earn 4000 of profit. He has already lost 8000 KG and he sold them at (8000 800) = 7200. He has to get : 24000 7200 = 16800 from remaining 12000 kg. He should charge : 1.4 per kg. thus his profit in % is 40% on this material.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 267

An alloy contains tin and copper in the ratio 4:5. If tin has 20% impurity and copper 58%, what is the average % impurity?
Suppose we have 400 gram tin, out of which 80 gram is impure. We have 500 gram copper, out of which 290 grams are impurities. Total impurity: 370. % of impurity in total : 370/900 *100 = 41%
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Interest per annum for A is 48 and for B it is : 60. 800+48X = 600 + 60X (where X denotes number of years).
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A borrowed Rs 800@ 6% and B borrowed Rs. 600 @ 10%. After how much time will they both have equal debts? (use simple interest)

269

Solution
800+48X = 600 + 60X 48x 60x = 600-800 -12x = - 200 X = 200/12 = 16.6 years. Answer

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What is the market price of a 9% stock if it yields 10% after paying an income tax of 20%?
Suppose you buy shares of 100. it givesRs. 9 at the end of the year. Income tax = 1.8 Finally you get 7.2, which is 10% of your investment, thus your investment is 72. thus the market price of the share should be 72. answer
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Profit earned on selling an article for 625 is the same as the loss incurred on selling for Rs. 433. what is the cost ?
The cost should be arithematic mean : (625 + 433) / 2 = 529 answer

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A sum of Rs. 817 is divided among A,B,C in such a manner that A gets 25% more than B and B gets 25% less than C. What is the share of A?
Let us start with C, suppose C gets 400, B should get 300. A should get 375 Total = 1075, share of A :375/1075 *817=285. ans.
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What is 30% of 40% of 2/5 of 2500?


First of all solve of We get 1000 Now 40% of 2000 is 400 Not 30% of 800 is 120 answer

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A,B,C,D are consecutive even numbers. There average is 65, what is the value of AD?
Product of A and D = 62*68 = 4216 ans. The four numbers are : 62,64,66,68

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In how many different ways can the the letters of the word PRIDE be arranged?
There are 5 letters in the word PRIDE. Thus we have 5! Different ways: 5*4*3*2*1 = 120 Answer

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Sum of 5 numbers is 555. average of the first 2 is 75. 3rd number is 115. what is the average of the last 2 numbers?
2*75 = 150 + 115 gives : 265 Thus the total of last two numbers is : 285 divide it by 2, we get : 142.5 answer.
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THERE ARE 5 STUDENTS CYCLING IN A VELODROME. THEY COMPPLETE ONE ROUND IN 20, 40, 50, 60 AND 80 MINUTES RESPECTIVELY. THEY START TOGETHER. WHEN WILL THEY BE TOGETHER AGAIN AT STARTING POINT?
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SOLUTION
TAKE LCM OF THESE NUMBERS : 2*2*5*2*2*5 *3 =1200 THUS THEY WILL MEET AFTER 1200 MINUTES (IF THEY CONTINUE TO DO CYCLING). ANS

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WHAT IS THE LEAST NUMBER, WHICH WHEN DIVIDED BY 100, 80 AND 140 GIVES REMAINDER OF 77, 57 AND 117 RESPECTIVELY. ?
1. FIND LCM OF THESE NUMBERS : 2*2*5*5*2*2*7 = 2800 1. DIFFERENCE OF 100 AND 77 IS 23 SO IS WITH OTHER NUMBERS 3. DEDUCT 23 FROM 2800, WE GET 2777. ANSWER
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WHICH IS THE LARGEST NUMBER WHICH WILL LEAVE SAME REMAINDER WHEN IT WILL DIVIDE 130, 250 AND 340?
FIND THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 130 AND 250 = 120 FIND THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 250 AND 340 = 90 NOW FIND THE HCF BETWEEN 90 AND 120, WE GET 30 AS HCF. THE NUMBER IS 30 ANS.
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FIND THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 230 AND 300 = 70 FIND THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 580 AND 300 = 280 NOW FIND THE HCF BETWEEN THESEE, THE NUMBER IS 70 ANS.
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WHICH IS THE LARGEST NUMBER WHICH WILL LEAVE SAME REMAINDER WHEN IT WILL DIVIDE 230, 300 AND 580?

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WHAT IS THE NUMBER WHICH WHEN DIVIDED BY 25, 35 AND 45 GIVES REMAINDER 1, BUT WHEN DIVIDED BY 3 GIVES NO REMAINDER?

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SOLUTION
LCM OF THE 3 NUMBERS IS 1575 NOW ADD 1 IN IT, IT IS 1576, WHICH IS NOT DIVISIBLE BY 3 (AS THE TOTAL OF THESE NUMBERS IS 19, WHICH IS NOT DIVISIBLE BY 3). TRY WITH 2*1575 = 3150, 3* 1575 = 4725, 4*1575 = 6300 , 5 * 1575 = 7875 . SO ON THUS ANSWER WOULD NOT BE POSSIBLE.
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WHAT IS THE LEAST NUMBER WHICH WHEN DIVIDED BY 15,12,14, 18 GIVES REMAINDER 3, BUT WHEN DIVIDED BY 9 GIVES NO REMAINDER?
LCM = 3*5*2*2*7*3 = 1260 ADD 3, WE GET 1263, SIMILARLY TRY FOR 2520,
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SOLUTION..
TRY FOR MULTIPLES OF 1260 WE FIND THAT WHEN 3 IS ADDED TO THEM, THE REMAINDER IS NEVER DIVISIBLE BY 9, THUS NO SUCH ANSWER IS POSSIBLE.

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WHAT IS THE LEAST NUMBER WHICH WHEN DIVIDED BY 5,6,7,8 GIVES REMAINDER 3, BUT WHEN DIVIDED BY 9 GIVES NO REMAINDER?
LCM OF 5,6,7,8 = 5*2*3*7*2*2 = 840 840 + 3 = 843 IS NOT DIVISIBLE BY 9
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SOLUTION
TRY FOR MULTIPLES OF 840 1680 ADD 3 WE GET 1683, WHICH IS DIVISIBLE BY 9 SO THE ANSWER IS 1683. ( A NUMBER WHOSE TOTAL IS DIVISIBLE BY 9, IS ALWAYS DIVISIBLE BY 9, HERE THE TOTAL OF 1683 IS 18, WHICH IS DIVISIBLE BY 9, SO IT IS DIVISIBLE BY 9) ANSWER
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WHICH IS THE LEAST PERFECT SQUARE DIVISIBLE BY 12,18, 20?


LCM IS : 2*2*3*3*5 HERE, 2 AND 3 ARE IN PAIRS, BUT 5 IS NOT IN PAIR, SO MULTIPLY IT BY 5. WE GET : 2*2*3*3*5*5 = 900 ANSWER

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WHICH IS THE LEAST PERFECT SQUARE DIVISIBLE BY 15,35, 40?


LCM IS : 3*5*7*2*2*2 WE NEED ALL THE NUMBERS IN PAIRS : SO SOLUTION : 3*3*5*5*7*7*2*2*2*2 =176400 ANSWER
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WHICH IS THE LEAST PERFECT CUBE DIVISIBLE BY 8, 12, 15?


LCM = 2*2*2*3*5 Take things in group of 3 =2*2*2*3*3*3*5*5*5 = 27000 answer
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The diagonals of a rhombus are 24 and 10, what will be its sides
Let us take half of diagonals : it will be 12 and 5 Apply pythogorus rule Squares of 12 and 5 are 144 and 25 respectively. Add these : 169 Take square root of these : 13. answer
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In how many ways can we form a committee of 3 women and 2 men out of 5 women and 5 men?
5c3 * 5c2 = 5!/ (3! * 2!) * 5! /(2! * 3!) =10 * 10 = 100 answer

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How many 4 digit numbers can be formed from 1 to 6. repeatition is not allowed
For the first digit, we have 6 options, for second digit we have 5 options, for 3rd digit we have 4 options, and for 4th digit, we have 3 options. Multiply these : 6*5**4*3 =360 answer

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How many 4 digit numbers can be formed from 1 to 6 which are more than 2000. repeatition is not allowed
For the first digit, we have 5 options, for second digit we have 5 options, for 3rd digit we have 4 options, and for 4th digit, we have 3 options. Multiply these : 5*5**4*3 =300 answer
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How many 4 digit numbers can be formed from 1 to 6 which are more than 2000. repeatition is allowed
For the first digit we have 5 options, for next digits, we can use 6 options each. 5 * 6*6*6 = 1080 answer
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What is the probability of getting 53 Sundays in a leap year?


Leap year has 366 days. When we divide 366 by 7, we get : 52 + remainder 2. thus these two days could be any of the seven days. Thus the probability that we have 53 Sunday is : 2/7 answer.
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2 trains are moving towards each other @ 60 km per hour. They are 600 m. apart. A bird is moving from one train to another and back. Its speed is 100 km per hour. When will the bird reach back the train from where it started?

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Solution
The bird will catch the first train in : 600 / ( 100 + 60 ) = 600/160 = 3 hours and 45 minutes. Now the bird will move back to the original train. The distance between the two trains now is : 600 ( 3.75* 120) = 600- 450 = 150 Now the bird will take : 150/(100+60) = .93 = 56 minutes. Thus the bird will reach back in 4 hours and 41 minutes approx. answer
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Find the least number, which when divided by 14,15,16 leaves remainder 1,2,3 respectively?
14 1 = 13, 15 2 = 13 and 16 3 = 13 so deduct 13 from LCM Let us take LCM of these 3 numbers. The LCM is : 2*7*3*5*8 = 1680 Now deduct 13 from this number : we get 1667 which is the anwer

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301

Two taps can fill a tank in 12 and 30 minutes respectively. If the taps are opened one by one for 1 minute each, in how much time the tank will be filled up starting with 1st ?
1/12 + 1/30 = 42/360 or 360/42 gives 8.3 minutes. Thus it should take at least 8.3 * 2 = 16 minutes. Let us try with 14 minutes.
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Solution.
14 minutes means 7 minute for each tap. 7/12 or first and 7 / 30 for the second Total = 294/360 Thus we have 66/360 left out which will be filled by the first tap 66/360 1/12 = 33/360, which will be filled by 2nd tap. Thus 33/360 - 1/30 = 21/360 which will now be filled by the first one. Which will take 12 * 21/360 or 7/10 minutes. Thus it has taken 9 minutes + 7/10 minutes. Answer
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304

WE HAVE TWO TYPES OF WHEAT, ONE COSTING 20 PER KG, OTHER COSTING 40 PER KG. IN WHAT RATIO SHOULD WE MIX UP THESE, SO THAT OUR COST IS 25 PER KG?
DEDUCT 20 FROM 25 = 5 DEDUCT 25 FROM 40 = 15 REVERSE THESE : 15:5 OR 3:1 ANSWER
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WE HAVE TWO TYPES OF WHEAT, ONE COSTING 10 PER KG, OTHER COSTING 50 PER KG. IN WHAT RATIO SHOULD WE MIX UP THESE, SO THAT WE MAY SELL THEM @25 PER KG AFTER EARNING 25% PROFIT?

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SOLUTION.
25 * 100/125 = 20 THUS COST IS 20 PER KG NOW DEDUCT 10 FROM 20 AND ALSO DEDUCT 20 FROM 50 WE GET : 10 AND 30 RESPECTIVELY. REVERSE THESE AND FIND THE RATIO : 30 :10 OR 3:1 ANSWER.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 307

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WE HAVE TWO TYPES OF RICE, ONE COSTING 30 PER KG, OTHER COSTING 90 PER KG. IN WHAT RATIO SHOULD WE MIX UP THESE, SO THAT WE MAY SELL THEM @ 100 PER KG AFTER EARNING 25% PROFIT?
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 308

SOLUTION
100 * 100/125 = 80 THUS COST IS 80 PER KG. DEDUCT 30 FROM 80 AND 90 FROM 80 AND WE FIND 50 AND 10 RESPECTIVELY. NOW REVERSE THESE AND FIND THE RATIO : 1:5 ANSWER
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 309

MY FRIEND RAVI SELLS MILK @ 12 PER LITRES, AFTER EARNING 20% PROFIT. SURPRISINGLY, HE PURCHASES THIS MILK @ 15 PER LITRE. IT SEEMS THAT HE ADDS WATER. IN WHAT RATIO DOES HE ADD WATER?
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SOLUTION
12 * 100/120 = 10 PER LITRE THUS COST IS 10 PER LITRE. WE HAVE MILK @ 15 AND WATER @ 0 DEDUCT 10 FROM 15 AND DEDUCT 0 FROM 10. WE GET : 5 AND 10 RESPECTIVELY. NOW REVERSE THESE RATIO AND FIND THE ANSWER : 2:1 ANSWER
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 311

WHAT IS THE SUM OF SERIES : 2,9,16. FOR 20 TERMS?


THIS IS AN ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION BECAUSE THE DIFFERENCE IS THE SAME : (9 2 = 7 ) THE FORMULA FOR CALCULATING SUM OF TERMS IN AP IS : N/2 ( 2A + (N-1) D) A = FIRST TERM (2) , D = DIFFERENCE = 7 N = NUMBER OF TERMS = 20
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CONTINUED
= 20/2 ( 2*2 + (20 -1) 7) = 20/2 ( 4 + 133) = 1370 ANSWER

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313

WHAT IS THE SUM OF SERIES : 3,10,17. FOR 20 TERMS?


N / 2 ( 2A + (N-1)D) N = 20 A=3 D=7 20/2 ( 2*3 + (20 1) 7) = 10 ( 6 + 133) = 1390 ANSWER
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 314

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WHAT IS THE SUM OF INFINITE SERIES : 1024, 512, 256, 128, 64..?
FORMULA FOR SUM OF INFINITE GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION = A / ( 1 R) WHERE R MUST BE LESS THAN 1. R = RATIO OF SECOND TERM TO 1ST TERM = 512 /1024 =1/2 A = 1024 (FIRST TERM) = 1024/ (1-.5) = 2048 ANSWER
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WHAT IS THE SUM OF INFINITE SERIES : 625,125,25, 5..?

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SOLUTION
FORMULA FOR SUM OF INFINITE GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION = A / ( 1 R) WHERE R MUST BE LESS THAN 1. R = RATIO OF SECOND TERM TO 1ST TERM = 125/625 =1/5 A = 625 (FIRST TERM) = 625/ (1-.2) = 625/.8 = 781.25 ANSWER
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WHAT COMES NEXT IN THE SERIES : 12, 18, 27 . AND WHAT WILL BE SUM OF 1ST 10 TERMS ?
THIS IS G.P. (GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION) AS THE RATIO IS SAME : 18/12 = 3/2 NEXT TERM WILL BE : 27 *3/2 = 40.5
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 318

CONTINUED
FORMULA FOR SUM OF A G.P. = A (R^N 1) / (R 1) A = 12 R = 3/2 N =10 = 12 (3/2^10 1) / ( 3/2 1) = 12 (59049/ 1024 1) / (1/2) =12 (57.66 1) / = 12 (56.66) /.5 = 12 *113.32 = 1360 APPROX. ANSWER
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 319

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Due to 40% reduction in the price of tea, a person purchased 4 kg more for Rs. 160. What was the original price ?
Let the original price = 1/x New price = .6 * 1/x Quantity = amount / price per kg.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 320

Solution
160/ (.6 * 1/x) - 160/ (1/x) = 4 = 266.6x 160x = 4 = 106.6 x = 4 X = 4/106.67 Original price = 106.67/4 = 26.66 New price = 16 (approx. answer)

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321

Due to 20% reduction in the price of sugar, a person purchased 10 kg more for Rs. 200. What was the original price ?
Let us assume price = 1/x New price = .8 * 1/x
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Solution
200/ (.8 * 1/x) - 200/ (1/x) = 10 = 250x 200x = 10 = 50 x = 10 X = 10/50 Original price = 50/10 = 5 New price = 4

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323

There are 4 envelopes with addresses marked on them. There are 4 letters addressed to 4 persons (whose envelopes are ready), what is the probability that if we put the letters in envelopes randomly, there will be right letters in right envelopes?

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Solution
Total number of possibilities : 4! = 4*3*2*1 = 24 Thus we have 1/24 probability that the right letter will be there in right envelope.

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325

A card is drawn at random from a pack of cards, what is the probability that it is either black or King or Jack?
There are 26 black and 4 king and jack each. Out of 4 kings and jack, we have 2 black each. Thus probability is (26+2+2) / 52 =30/52 or 15/26 answer
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Hemant will either join PIMS or IIIM. The probabilities are and , what is the probability that he doesnt join any of these institution?
These are mutually exclusive events. So : 1 (1/4 + ) = answer
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Hemant will either join PIMS or IIM. The probabilities are 3/5 and 2/3, what is the probability that he doesnt join any of these institution?
These are mutually exclusive events, combined probability cant be more than 1. so this is not possible.
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Swami has two bags, in first bag, there are 5 nuts and 2 coins. In the second bag there are 3 nuts and 10 coins. Each coin is a golden coin. Swami randomly picks up a bag and randomly draw coin or nuts and gives to the visitor. What is the probability that I would get a coin as a visitor?
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Solution
From first bag : * 2/ (2+5) From 2nd bag : * 10 / (10 +3) Now add these : 1/7 + 5/13 =48/91 answer.

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330

You toss a coin 4 times, what is the probability that you get exactly 3 heads?
The total number of chances are : 2^4. We can write down all the chances : HHHH,HHHT,HHTH, HTHH,THHH,TTHH,HHTT,THTH,HTHT,T TTH,TTHT,THTT,HTTT,TTTT,HTTH,THH T 4/16 OR ANSWER
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PUT THESE IN ASCENDING ORDER : 12/23, 15/27, 11/21 AND 18/31


12/23 11/21 15/21 18/31

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4 PERSONS ARE CHOSEN RANDOMLY FROM A GROUP OF 3 MEN, 2 WOMEN AND 4 CHILDREN, THEN WHAT IS THE PROBABILITY THAT EXACTLY 2 OF THEM ARE CHILDREN?
Here we have to select 2 from 4 children and remaining 2 from other 5 persons. Total we have to select 4 out of these 9 persons.
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solution
(4c2 * 5c2) / (9c4) =((4! / (2! * 2!) * (5!/(3! * 2!) / (9! / (4!*5!) ) = (4*3/2*1) *(5*4/2*1) / (9*8*7*6/4*3*2*1) =60 / 12 6 =10/21 ANSWER

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335

THE CHANCES OF THROWING A TOTAL OF 3 OR 5 OR 11 OUT OF TWO DICE IS ?


TOTAL CHANCES : 6 * 6 = 36 FAVOURABLE CHANES : FOR 3 : (2,1,; 1;2, )=2, FOR 5 (1,4; 2,3; 3,2; 4,1) = 4, FOR 11 (5,6; 6,5) = 2 THUS WE HAVE (2 + 4 + 2) / 36 = 2/9 ANS.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 336

A BAG CONTAINS 3 WHITE AND 5 BLACK BALLS. IF ONE BALL IS DRAWN, WHAT IS THE PROBABILITY THAT IT IS A BLACK BALL?
5/(5+3) =5/8 ANSWER.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 337

AFTERSCHOOLIAN NITESH SWAMI CAN HIT 3 OUT OF 4 SHOTS ACCURATELY IN SHOOTING RANGE. HE TRIES 5 SHOTS. WHAT IS THE PROBABILITY THAT HE WILL HIT EXACTLY 3 SHOTS ACCURATELY?
THE FORMULA APPLICABLE HERE IS : NCR * P^R * Q ^ (N-R)
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SOLUTION
NCR * P^R * Q ^ (N-R) N = 5, R = 3, P = , Q = (1- P) = , C = COMBINATION QUESTION 5C3 *(3/4)^3 * (1/4)^2 =5!/(3!*2!) * 27/64 * 1/16 =10 * 27/64 * 1/16 =135/512 ANSWER.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 339

THERE ARE 6 BOYS AND 6 GIRLS, WHAT IS THE PROBABILITY THAT BOYS AND GIRLS SIT ALTERNATIVELY?
TOTAL WE HAVE 12 (BOYS + GIRLS) TOTAL ARRANGEMENTS : 12! BOYS CAN EXCHANGE THEIR SEATS, SO TOTAL ARRANGEMENTS OF BOYS : 6! GIRLS CAN ALSO EXCHANGE THEIR SEATS, SO TOTAL ARRANGEMENTS OF GIRLS : 6! WE CAN START WITH BOYS FIRST OR WITH GIRLS FIRS, THUS WE HAVE 2! POSSIBILITY
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SOLUTION
THUS SOLUTION IS : (2! * 6! * 6! ) / 12! = (2*1 * 6*5*4*3*2*1) / (12*11*10*9*8*7) =1440/ 665280 =.0021 ANSWER

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341

The sum of length, breadth and height of a room is 19 m. The length of the diagonal is 11m. The cost of painting the total surface area of the room at the rate of 10 per sq. m. is

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342

Solution
Length = L, bredth =B and hight = H Diagonal^2 = L^2 +B^2 + H^2 11^2 = (L+B+H)^2 2 (LB+BH+LH) 121= (19)^2 surface area 361 121 = Surface area Surface area = 240 sq. m. Cost = 240 * 10 = 2400 answer.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 343

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The rectangular plot is 2/3 hectare in area, it is half as long again as it is broad. What is its length?
Area = 2/3 * 10000 sq. m. Let us take bredth = X Length = 1.5 X X * 1.5X = 6666 X^2 = 6666/(1.5) = 4444 X = 66.66 length = 100 answer.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 344

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A rectangle carpet has an area of 60 Sq. m. its diagonal and longer side together equal 5 times the shorter side. What is its length? Options : 5,13,12,15
Try with 12, take width of 5, diagonal = 13, you get the answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 345

Circumference of a circle = 88, what is its area?


2 pi r = 88 or (2*22/7) R = 88 or R= 88 * 7/44 R = 88/2pi = 14 Area : pi * r * r = 22/7 * 14*14 = 616 answer

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346

Area of equilateral triangle when side = 8 cm?


Area of equilateral triangle = sqrt(3) / 4 * side * side =sqrt(3) / 4 * 64 =sqrt(3) * 16 =27.7 sq. cm. answer.

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347

A batsman makes 110 runs in th 11 innings, he increases his average by 2 runs, what was his average for first 10 innings?
Let us assume average after 10 innings = X (10X + 110) = 11(X +2) 10X + 110 = 11X + 22
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Solution.
10X + 110 = 11X + 22 -X = 22-110 = - 88 X = 88 Thus his innings after 10 innings was 88 answer.

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349

1 cu. M. = 25 gms. Weight of a block is 112 kg. Its width = 28cm, hight = 5 cms. What is its length?
=112000/25 = 4480 Thus it is 4480 cubic meters. 4480 = ( .28 * .05 * X ) X = 4480 / ( .28 * .05) =320000 M. ANSWER.

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350

A circular disc of area .49 pi square meters rolls down a length of 1.76 km. The number of revolutions it makes is ?
The radius of this disc is .7 The circumference of this disc is (2pir) = 2 * 22/7 * .7 = 4.4 1760 / 4.4 = 400 revolutions answer.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 351

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A mixture of milk and water has milk and water in the ratio 4:1, but we want to make the ratio to 8:1, how much milk should we add in this. Presently , we have 50 liters of this mixture?

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Solution
Here water will remain fixed. So let us start with water. At present water is 50 *1/5 = 10 liters. Now this water will be 1/9 of the new mixture. That means the total mixture should be 9 times the water. Thus total new mixture should be 90 litres. Out of this 10 liters will be water and 80 litres would be milk. Thus we have to add 40 litres of milk in the mixture. Answer.
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A dishonest salesman professes to sell at cost, but he uses fake weights. He earns 25% by such practices. What weight does he use instead of 1 kg?

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354

Solution .
1 kg = 1000 gram, It contains profit of 25, so 1000 * 100/125 = 800 grams Answer

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355

How much rice of 20 per kg must be mixed in 40 kg of rice costing 60 per kg, if the shopkeeper earns 10% profit after selling this mixture of rice @55 per kg?

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Solution
Our selling price is 55 after earning profit of 10%, so our cost should be : 55 * 100/110 = 50 Now deduct 20 from 50 = 30 Now deduct 50 from 60 = 10 Reverse the ratio : 10 : 30 or 1:3 For 3 kg of rice of rate 60, we should add 1 kg of rice of 20 kg. thus for 40 kg, we should add 13.33 kg of rice of rate 20.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 357

A shopkeeper buys two types of rice, the price of first is twice the nd 2 . He mixes them in the ratio 2:3 and sell them at 48 after earning 20% profit. What are the rate of 1st and 2nd variety of rice?

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Solution
Let the price of the first rice = X Let the price of 2n rice = X / 2 (because the price of first rice is twice the 2nd) Ratio : 2: 3 than means multiply first by 2 and 2nd by 3 and divide by total ( 2 + 3) = 5 to get average : Thus the average is : (2x + 1.5x) / 5 Cost is 48 * 100/120 = 40 per kg.
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Continued
(2x + 1.5x) / 5 = 40 3.5x = 200 X = 200/3.5 = 57.14 The price of other rice is : 57.14/2 = 28.57 answer Note : if the mixing ratio will be 3:2, the answer will be 50 and 25 per kg.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 360

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A sum of Rs. 200 is made up of 800 coins. It has either 10 paise coins or 50 paise coins. What is the number of 10 paise coins
The average is : 200/800 = .25 Now deduct 10 from 25 =15 Deduct 25 from 50 = 25 Reverse these ratios : 25:15 or 5:3 Thus 10 paise coins are 5/8 * 800 = 500 answer
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 361

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Two milk pots contains mixtures of milk and water in the ratio of 4:3 and 8:3 respectively. In what ratio these mixtures be mixed to get a mixture of milk and water in 2:1 ratio?

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Solution
The total of first ratio is : 4+3 = 7 Total of 2nd ratio = 8+3 = 11 Milk in first ratio : 4/7 Milk in 2nd ratio : 8/11 Milk in desired ratio: 2/3

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363

Solution
Deduct 4/7 from 2/3 = 2/21 Deduct 2/3 from 8/11 = 2/33 Reverse these : 2/33 : 2/21 LCM OF 33 AND 21 IS : 231, SO MULTIPLY 231 TO BOTH THE NUMBERS 14: 22 ANSWER
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 364

20 skilled persons take 10 days of 8 hours each, then how many days of 6 hours each would be required by 6 unskilled workers. Three unskilled workers work as much as 2 skilled persons.
Solution : Start with what has been asked. And compare each value
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Solution ..
We now have 6 workers, who are equal to : 6 * 2/3 = 4 skilled persons. We have been asked about days, so start with days: 10 *20/4 (for number of workers) * 8 / 6 (for hours) =200/3 = 66.66 answer
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 366

10 old engines would require 20 mt of coal working 9 hours a day. How much coal will be required for 3 modern engines which work 6 hours a day and and work for 10 days. The modern engines are 25% more efficient than the old enginees.

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Solution
New 4 engines consume as much as earlier 3 engines (75% more efficient). Thus 3 * = 9/4 = 2.25 Start with coal : 20 * 2.25/10 * 6/9 = 3 3 MT is for 1 day, for 20 days, we ned 60 mt of coal answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 368

A garrison had provision for X th days. After 10 days 1/5 of the men deserted. Now again the provision is for X days. What is X?

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369

Solution
Let us assume the number of men = Y Number of days = X XY 10 Y = .8XY X = 50 Thus 50 days (answer).

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A garrison had provision for X th days. After 20 days 1/4 of the men deserted. Now again the provision is for X days. What is X?

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371

Solution
Let us assume the number of men = Y Number of days = X XY 20 Y = .75XY -20Y = -.25XY (divide both sides by y) -20 = -.25X X = 20 / .25 X = 80 days (answer).
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 372

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10 examiners can examine 100 copies in 8 days working 4 hours a day. How many days should be given to 2 examiners for examining 200 copies, when they can work 8 hours a day?

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Solution
Since number of days are asked, so start with days. 8 * 10/2 (no. of persons) * 4/8 (hours) * 200/100 (number of copies) = 40 days. Answer.

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374

cylindrical pipe 240 cm. in length 11 cm and 10 cm in external and internal radius find the cost of painting it from outside at 7 paise per 100 sq. cm.

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375

Solution
Surface area : 2 * 22/7 * 11 *11 *240 = 182537 sq. cm is the surface area Multiply it by .07/100 =127.78 answer

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376

A MILKMAN PURCHASES 20 LITERS MILK AT 12 PER LITERS ADDS SOME WATER AND SELL THE MILK AT 10 AFTER EARNING 25% PROFIT, HOW MUCH WATER DOES HE ADD?

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377

SOLUTION
SELLING PRICE IS 10, WHICH INCLUDES PROFIT OF 25, SO CALCULATE THE COST AS 10 * 100/125 = 8 PER LITRES NOW DEDUCT 8 FROM 12, WE GET : 4 NOW DEDUCT 0 FROM 8 (WE HAVE ASSUMED THE COST OF WATER TO BE 0), WE GET 8 REVERSE THESE : 8: 4 OR 2:1 THUS FOR TWO LITERS OF MILK, HE HAS ADDED 1 LITERS OF WATER. FOR 20 LITERS HE HAS ADDED 10 LITERS OF WATER. ANSWER
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A MILKMAN PURCHASES 100 LITERS MILK AT 15 PER LITERS ADDS SOME WATER AND SELL THE MILK AT 12 AFTER EARNING 20% PROFIT, HOW MUCH WATER DOES HE ADD?

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379

SELLING PRICE IS 12, WHICH INCLUDES PROFIT OF 20%, SO CALCULATE THE COST AS 12 * 100/120 = 10 PER LITRES NOW DEDUCT 10 FROM 15, WE GET : 5 NOW DEDUCT 0 FROM 10 (WE HAVE ASSUMED THE COST OF WATER TO BE 0), WE GET 10 REVERSE THESE : 10:5 OR 2:1 THUS FOR TWO LITERS OF MILK, HE HAS ADDED 1 LITERS OF WATER. FOR 100 LITERS HE HAS ADDED 50 LITERS OF WATER. ANSWER
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 380

A SHOPKEEPER HAS 100 KG OF RICE. PART OF IT HE SELLS AT 10% PROFIT AND REST AT 20% PROFIT. HIS GAIN IS 12% ON THE WHOLE TRANSACTION. HOW MUCH DOES HE SELL AT 10% PROFIT?

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381

SOLUTION
HIS FINAL GAIN IS 12 %. SO FIND ITS DIFFERENCE FROM THE OTHER TWO %. 12 10 = 2 AND 20 12 = 8 NOW REVERSE THESE : 8 : 2 OR 4:1 THUS RICE SOLD AT 10% PROFIT IS : 4/ (4+1) * 100 = 80 KG. ANSWER

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

382

A SHOPKEEPER HAS 100 KG OF RICE. PART OF IT HE SELLS AT 20% PROFIT AND REST AT 40% PROFIT. HIS GAIN IS 24% ON THE WHOLE TRANSACTION. HOW MUCH DOES HE SELL AT 20% PROFIT?

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

383

SOLUTION
HIS FINAL GAIN IS 24 %. SO FIND ITS DIFFERENCE FROM THE OTHER TWO %. 24 20 = 4 AND 40 24 = 16 NOW REVERSE THESE : 16:4 OR 4:1 THUS RICE SOLD AT 20% PROFIT IS : 4/ (4+1) * 100 = 80 KG. ANSWER

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

384

A MIXTURE OF MILK AND WATER CONTAINS 5% WATER (TOTAL 200 LITERS) . HOW MUCH MORE WATER SHOULD BE ADDED SO THAT WATER IS 10% IN THE MIXTURE?
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 385

SOLUTION
190 LITERS OF MILK AND 10 LITERS OF WATER IS THERE. 190 LITERS OF MILK WILL NOW BECOME 90%, SO TOTAL QUANTITY SHOULD BE : 190 * 100/90 = 211.1 THUS 11.1 LITERS OF WATER MUST BE ADDED TO THE EXISTING MIXTURE. ANSWER
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 386

A MIXTURE OF MILK AND WATER CONTAINS 20% WATER (TOTAL 300 LITERS) . HOW MUCH MORE WATER SHOULD BE ADDED SO THAT WATER IS 25% IN THE MIXTURE?
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 387

SOLUTION
240 LITERS OF MILK AND 60 LITERS OF WATER IS THERE. 240 LITERS OF MILK WILL NOW BECOME 75% (as water is 25% now) , SO TOTAL QUANTITY SHOULD BE : 240 * 100/75 = 320 THUS 20 LITERS OF WATER MUST BE ADDED TO THE EXISTING MIXTURE. ANSWER
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 388

I borrowed total Rs. 5000 from two persons. I paid interest @ 10% to one person and @ 20% to another person. I paid total interest of Rs. 900 at the end of the year. How much did I borrow at 20%?
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 389

Solution
I have paid 900, which is 18% of 5000. Thus net rate is 18%. Find its difference from 10 and 20. the difference is 8 and 2 reverse it : 2: 8 or 1:4 Thus money borrowed at 20% is : 4/ (1+4) * 5000 = 4000 answer.

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

390

I borrowed total Rs. 10000 from two persons. I paid interest @ 20% to one person and @ 40% to another person. I paid total interest of Rs. 3500 at the end of the year. How much did I borrow at 20%?
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 391

I have paid 3500, which is 35% of 10000. Thus net rate is 35%. Find its difference from 40 and 20. the difference is 5 and 15 reverse it : 3:1 (3 for 40% and 1 for 20%) thus money borrowed at 20% is : 1/ (1+3) * 10000 = 2500 answer.

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

392

A pot contains 100 litres of milk. 20% of it is draawn out and equal amount of water is added. Again 20% of the liquid is drawn out and equal amount of water is added. This process is again conducted. What is the quantity of pure milk in the mixture now?

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

393

Solution
20% of 100 = 20 now milk left is 80 liters Again 20% is taken out, so 80% of 80 = 64 Again 20% is takin out, so 80% of 64 is = 51.2 liters answer.

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

394

Take LCM of 10 and 11, let us say that we bought 110 toffees. The cost is 100 paise. We sold 110 toffees, we get 121 paise. Thus our cost is 100 and revenue is 121. our profit is 21, thus profitability is 21% answer

If 11 toffees are bought for 10 paise and 10 toffees are sold for 11 paise, what is the profit in %?

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

395

If 21 toffees are bought for 13 paise and 13 toffees are sold for 21 paise, what is the profit in %?
Take LCM of 13 and 21. = 273 we purchase 273 toffees for 169 and sell 273 tofees for 441. profit is : 441-169 = 272 Profitability is : 272/169 *100 = 161% approx
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 396

Price of Jewel passing through three hands (dealers) rises by 65%. 1st and 2nd dealer earned 20% and 25% respectively, rd what is the profit earned by 3 ?
Assume cost = 100, it becomes 120 and 150 at each step. Then it becomes 165. the third dealer earned 15 on 150 so 10% profit. Answer
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 397

A shopkeeper purchases 10 kg rice at Rs 600. He sells it at a loss. The loss is equal to selling price of 2 kg. What is the selling price per kg?
600/12 = 50 so the sales price is 50 per kg.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 398

A shopkeeper purchases 20 kg rice at Rs 500. He sells it at a loss. The loss is equal to selling price of 5 kg. What is the selling price per kg?
ANSWER : 20 PER KG
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 399

BANKERS DISCOUNT ON A SUM DUE 2 YEARS HENCE IS THE 21/20 OF THE TRUE DISCOUNT, WHAT IS THE RATE IN %?

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

400

SOLUTION
BANKERS GAIN IS 1 ON TRUE DISCOUNT OF 20 IN 2 YEARS, SO IT IS .5 FOR ONE YEAR. BANKERS GAIN IS ALWAYS SIMPLE INTEREST ON TRUE DISCOUNT. .5 ON 20 IS 2.5% ANSWER

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

401

BANKERS DISCOUNT ON A SUM DUE 4 YEARS HENCE IS THE 9/5 OF THE TRUE DISCOUNT, WHAT IS THE RATE IN %?

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

402

SOLUTION
BANKERS GAIN IS 4 ON TRUE DISCOUNT OF 5 IN 4 YEARS, SO IT IS 1 FOR ONE YEAR. BANKERS GAIN IS ALWAYS SIMPLE INTEREST ON TRUE DISCOUNT. 1 ON 5 IS 20% ANSWER

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

403

.5 OF A NUMBER IS .0005 OF ANOTHER NUMBER, WHAT IS THE RATIO OF THE TWO NUMBERS?

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

404

SOLUTION
LET US MULTIPLY BOTH THE NUMBERS BY 10000, WE GET : 5000 AND 5 5 IS COMMON IN BOTH, SO DIVIDE BY 5 WE GET : 1000 AND 1 THE RATIO IS JUST OPPOSITE : 1: 1000 IS THE ANSWER.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 405

X VARIES AS SQUARE OF Y. IF X = 4, WHEN Y IS 1/5, WHAT WILL BE THE VALUE OF X, WHEN THE VALUE OF Y IS 2?

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

406

SOLUTION
WHEN Y =1/5, Y^2 = 1/25, WHICH GIVES US X = 4. THUS THERE IS CONSTANT OF 100 WHICH SHOULD BE THERE. 100* 1/25 = 4 NOW WHEN Y = 2, ITS SQUARE IS 4, MULTIPLIED TO 100, GIVES 400 ANSWER.

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

407

PRESSURE VARIES INVERSELY AS VOLUME. TEMPERATURE VARIES DIRECTLY AS VOLUME. IF VOLUME IS 50 CU.M., THE PRESSURE IS 1 AND TEMPERATURE IS 25 C., IF VOLUME IS 200, WHAT WILL BE PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE?
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 408

SOLUTION
VOLUME HAS BEEN INCREASED 4 TIMES. TEMPERATURE WILL INCREASE BY 4 TIMES : 25*4 = 100 PRESSURE WILL BE IMPACTED BY , THUS PRESSURE WILL BE 1 * = .25 ANSWER (THERE IS INVERSE RELATION).
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 409

The probability of happening an event A is 0.5 and that of B is 0.3. If A and B are mutually exclusive events, then the probability of happening neither A nor B is

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

410

Solution..
Mutually exclusive means only one of the two events can take place : either A or B. Total probability is always 1. As these events are mutually exclusive, we will deduct from 1 1 (.5+.3) = .2 answer.

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

411

Three letters are to be sent to different persons and addresses on the three envelopes are also written. Without looking at the addresses, the probability that the letters, go into the right envelope is equal to 6.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 412

Solution
Total possibilities are : 3! = 6 (because there are 3 envelopes) Only one possibility out of 3! Is correct one The answer is 1/6 Answer.

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

413

The probability of happening of an impossible event is

Zero

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

414

A card is. drawn at random from from pack of cards. The probability of this card being a red or queen is
Number of red cards : 26 Number of queens : 4 Red queens =2 Thus probability = (26+ 4 2) / 52 = 28/52 or 7/13
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 415

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

The probabilities of three mutually exclusive events are 2/3, 1/3, 1/6. comment.
This is not possible. Total of three mutually event cannot be more than 1. Here it is more than 1. this statement is incorrect. 06/29/09 AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL
www.afterschoool.tk FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

416

A purse contains 4 copper coins and 3 silver coins, the second.purse contains 6 copper coins and 2 silver coins. If a coin is drawn out of any purse, then the probability that it is a copper coin is
Copper coin from first purse : 4/7 Copper coin from 2nd purse : 6/8 Total : * 4/7 + *6/8 = 2/7 + 3/8=37/56 ans.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 417

A bag contains 3 white and 2 black balls and another bag contains 2 white and 4 black balls. A ball is picked up randomly. The probability of it being black is ?
Answer : * 2/5 + * 4/6 = 1/5 + 2/6 = (6+ 10)/30 = 16/30 or 8/15 answer
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 418

A coin is tossed 3 times. The probability of getting exactly two heads is


The probabilities are : HHH,HHT,HTH,THH,TTT,TTH,THT,HTT Exact 2 heads : 3/8 answer

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

419

A bag contains 4 white, 5 red and 6 green blls. Three balls are picked up randomly. The probability that a white, a red and a green ball is drawn is.
(4*5*6) / (15c3) = 120/ (15!/ (12! *3!)) =`120 / ((15*14*13 )/ (3*2*1))= 120/455 = 24/91 answer
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 420

What is 3*4/4 4 + 5 / 5 *2?


Apply BODMAS First divide the numbers, we get : 3*14+1*2 Now apply the multiply rule: 34+2 Now do the addition and subtraction : = - 3 answer.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 421

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

What is 3*4/ (4 4) + 5 / (5 *2)?


Apply BODMAS first solve brackets : 3 * 4/0 + 5 / 10 Now divide = 3* infinite + .5 Thus this cant be solved further.

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

422

What is 4 + 3 of 8/4 2 * 6?
Apply BODMAS First solve of : 4 + 24 / 4 2 * 6 Now solve the divide : =4+62*6 Now solve multiply : = 4 + 6 12 = - 2 answer.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 423

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

What is 2 2of2 *3 / 4 * 2/4 + 2*4?


First solve of (as per rule of BODMAS) = 2 4 *3 /4 * 2/4 + 2 *4 NOW DIVIDE : = 2 4 * .75 * .5 + 2 * 4 NOW MULTIPLY : = 2 - 1.5 + 8 = 8.5 ANSWER
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 424

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

Put these in descending order : 2/7, 4/7, 3/8, 5/11 and 6/13?
Descending means first bigger and then smaller (opposite of ascending) : Compare the numbers: 4/7 is bigger than all the numbers. Between 5/11, 3/8 and 6/13, 6/13 is the biggest, followed by 5/11 and 3/8 Thus the correct order : 4/7, 6/13, 5/11, 3/8 and 2/7 answer
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 425

Which is bigger 2^1/2 or 3^1/3 or 4^1/4?


LCM of , 1/3 and is 12. so let us raise their power to 1/12 Multiply 2^1/2 by power of 6/6, multiply 3^1/3 by 4/4 and multiply 4^1/4 by 3/3 so that we may denominator 12 in all the powers. : 2^6/12, 3^4/12 and 4^3/12 Now solve the numerator powers: 64^ 1/12, 81^1/12 and 64^1/12 thus the bigger number is 3^1/3 answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 426

Put these in ascending order : 3^1/3, 4^1/4 5^1/5?


Out of 3^1/3 and 4^1/4, 3^1/3 is bigger. Now compare 4^1/4 and 5^1/5. LCM is 20. Let us multiply 4^1/4 by 5/5 and 5^1/5 by power of 4/4, we get 4^5/20 and 5^4/20 Solve the numerator powers : 1024^1/20 and 625^ 1/20 Thus the proper order is : 5^1/5, 4^1/4 and 3^1/3 (in ascending order, start with the smallest and put the largest at the end).
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 427

A shopkeeper sells two umbrellas. One at 20% loss and other at 20% profit. What is the net profit / loss?
4% loss

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

428

A shopkeeper sells two umbrellas. One at 40% loss and other at 40% profit. What is the net profit / loss?
16% loss

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

429

On selling 40 umbrellas, a shopkeeper gets selling price of 10 umbrellas as profit. What is the profit in %?
Let us assume one umbrella selling for Re1. total selling price = 40 total profit = 10. cost 4010= 30. profit = profit/cost *100 So profit : 10/30 *100 = 33.33% answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 430

If selling price of 10 umbrellas is same as the cost of 15 umbrellas, what is the profitability in %?
Let us assume that selling price of 10 umbrellas is 30 (LCM OF 10 AND 15 IS 30). Thus selling price of one umbrella is 3. Cost of 15 umbrella is also 30, so cost of one umbrella is 2. profit is Re ( 3 2) = 1. Profitability = * 100 = 50% answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 431

A shopkeeper sells at cost. However, due to defective weights, only 800 grams are weighed when 1 Kg should have been there. What is his profitability?

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

432

Solution
Let us assume that cost is Re 1 per gram. He actually sells 800 grams but collects money for 1000 grams. He gets Rs. 1000 but his cost is only 800. Thus his profit is 200 on cost of 800. Profitability = 200/800 * 100 = 25% answer.

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

433

Ravi gets two options to buy a car. 1. get a discount of 50% 2. get three successive discounts of 20%. Which option will give him more profit (& how much) if the marked price of car is Rs. 10 lakhs?

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

434

Solution
1st option : discount of Rs. 5 lakhs = net price of Rs. 500000 2nd option : 10 lakhs * 80/100 *80/100 * 80/100 = 512000 Thus in the case of first option he will save Rs. 12000 more. Answer.

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

435

A person sells an article for 20% profit. Had he purchased it for 15% less and sold it for Rs. 50 less, he would have earned 25% profit. What is the cost of the article?

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

436

Solution
Let us assume that cost is 1000. he sells it for Rs. 1200 (20% profit). 15% reduction in cost = 1000 150 = 850. His new cost is 850. He gets 25% profit, so new selling price is : 850+212.5=1062.5 which is 137.5 less than 1200. If the difference is 137.5, cost = 1000 If the difference is 50,, the cost should be : 1000 * 50/137.5 = 363.6 answer 06/29/09 AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL 437
www.afterschoool.tk FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

A person sells an article for 15% profit. Had he purchased it for 10% less and sold it for Rs. 400 less, he would have earned 25% profit. What is the cost of the article?

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

438

Solution
Let us assume cost = 1000 Add 15% profit = 1150 New cost : 900 Add 25% profit = 225 = 1125 If difference is 25, cost is 1000 If difference is 1, cost is 1000/25 If difference is 400, cost should be 1000/25*400 = 16000 answer
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 439

Vipin bought a TV with 30% discount on marked price. Had he bought it at 35% discount, he would have saved Rs. 2000. What is the marked price of the TV?

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

440

Solution
2000 is equal to 5% of the marked price, so the marked price is : 2000 * 100/5 =40000 answer

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

441

A company buys goods for 1000 and sells them for 1200. Umakant, an MBA suggests the company to buy at 20% discount and sell at 20 discount. What will be the impact on profitability?

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

442

Solution
Now they would buy at 800 and sell at 1200 240 = 960. The profit is 960 800 = 160. profit = 20% (earlier also it was 20%) Thus there is no impact on profitability, but total profit will change, as earlier they were earning 200 per item, now they will earn 160 per item. Answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 443

WHAT IS THE HCF & LCM OF 120, 140, 180?


LOOK AT THE FACTORS : 120 = 2*2*2*3*5 140 = 2*2*5*7 180 = 2*2*3*3*5 WE FIND THAT 2*2 AND 5 IS THERE IN EVERY NUMBER, SO HCF = 2*2*5=20 LCM = 2*2*2*3*3*5*7 = 2520 ANSWER
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 444

WHAT IS THE HCF AND LCM OF 1250 AND 2420?


Divide 2420 by 1250, we get : 1170 as remainder. Now divide 1250 by 1170, we get 80 as remainder. Now divide 1170 by 80, we get 50 as remainder. Now divide 80 by 50, we get 30 as remainder. Now divide 50 by 30, we get 20 as remainder, now divide 30 by 20, we get 10 as remainder. Divide 20 by 10, we get 0 as remainder. Thus HCF is 10. LCM is (1250 * 2420)/10 = 302500 answer. (HCF*LCM=Product of numbers)
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 445

WHAT IS HCF & LCM OF 1938 AND 2736?


Solve by division method Divide 2736 by 1938, remainder is 798, divide 1938 by 798 and remainder is 342, divide 798 by 342 and remainder is 114, which completely divides 342. We get 114 as HCF LCM = (1938 * 2736) / 114 = 46512 answer
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 446

What is the HCF and LCM of 2/5, 3/15 and 5/25?


HCF : TAKE HCF OF 2,3,5, THIS IS 1. TAKE LCM OF 5,15 AND 25, IT IS 75 THUS HCF IS 1/75 LCM : TAKE LCM OF 2,3,5, IT IS : 30 TAKE HCF OF 5,15,25, IT IS 5. THUS LCM IS 30 / 5 = 6 ANSWER
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 447

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

WHAT IS HCF & LCM OF .3, .2 AND .09 ?


Multiply all the numbers by 100. We get : 30, 20 and 9 HCF of these three numbers is 1. Thus HCF is 1/100 LCM of these numbers is : 180, thus LCM is 180/100 = 1.8 answer.

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

448

WHAT IS HCF & LCM OF .56, .42 and .72?


Multiply all the numbers by 100, We get 56, 42 and 72. Now find their factors : 56 = 2*2*2*7 42 = 2*3*7 and 72 = 2*2*2*3*3 Thus HCF = 2 divided by 100 = 2/100 LCM = 2*2*2*3*3*7 = 504 divided by 100 = 5.04 answer.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 449

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

A person goes @ 10 km per hour downstream and @6 km per hour in upstream, what is the speed of water?
Find the difference of the two speeds and divide by 2. ( 10 6) / 2 = 2 km per hour. Answer.

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

450

A person goes @ 10 km per hour downstream and @6 km per hour in upstream, what is the speed of the person?
Add the two speeds and divide by 2 (10 + 6) / 2 = 8 km per hour.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 451

Dudi swims against the currents @ 8 km per hour. The speed of current (water) is 3 km per hour. What will be the time that Dudi take to go 4 km and return back through the current ?

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

452

Solution ..
Speeds are 8 and 14 km respectively upstream and downstream. Therefore total time taken is 30 minutes + 17.1 minutes. Thus total time is 47.1 minutes.

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

453

A boat covers 30 km upstream and 20 km downstream in 10 hours, but covers 20 km upstream and 30 km downstream in 8 hours, what is the speed of water?

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

454

Solution
Approx. 4.5 km per hour

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

455

Karishma takes 10 hours in 40 km upstream, if the speed of water is 1 per hour, how much time will she take in 60 km downstream ?
Her speed is 40/10 = 4 + speed of water = 5. Downstream speed = 5 + 1 = 6 km per hour. She will take : 60/6 = 10 hours in downstream journey.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 456

Umakant is learning swimming, he takes 3 hours in downstream 4 km. speed of water is 1 km per hour. How much time will he take in 2 km upstream?

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

457

Solution
Distance / speed = time or distance / time = speed 4/3 = 1.33 which includes speed of water 1. thus speed of Umakant is .33 km per hour. He will not be able to travel upstream. Answer.

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

458

A person takes 1 hour downstream and 1.5 hour upstream in travelling 15 km each side. What is the speed of current?

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

459

Solution
Speed upstream is 15/1.5 = 10 km per hour Speed downstream is 15/1 = 15 km per hour Speed of water : (15 10) / 2 = 2.5 km per hour answer.

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460

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

461

A person travels @ 20 Km per hour for his office, but returns back @ 30 km per hour. It takes him 24 hours to travel to office and back. What is the distance of his office from home?
First calculate average speed. 1/20 + 1/30 = 5/60 now multiply by , we get 5/120 or 1/24 or 24 km per hour.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 462

Continued
He takes total 24 hours, so total distance covered : 24 * 24 = 576 now divide it by 2, we get 288 KM answer.

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

463

Rs. 20 is the true discount on Rs. 260 due after some period of time. What will be true discount on the same bill, if period is reduced by half and interest rate remains same
TRUE DISCOUNT WILL BE REDUCED BY HALF. TRY WITH ANY VALUES TO FIND THE ANSWER Let us assume period : 1 year Present value = 260 20 = 240. Rate of interest is : 20/240 * 100 = 8.33%
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 464

CONTINUED
NOW TRUE DISCOUNT FOR 6 MONTH AND RATE : 8.33% PRESENT VALUE = (260 * 100) / ( 100 + (1/2*8.33) = 250 APPROX. THUS TRUE DISCOUNT IS RS. 10 NOTE : YOU MAY ASSUME ANY OTHER YEAR, ANSWER WILL BE SAME.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 465

2^(X-1) + 2^(X+1) = 80, WHAT IS X?


WE TAKE 2^(x -1) AS COMMON VALUE. 2 ^(X 1) (1 + 2^2) = 80 2^(x-1) * (1 + 2^2) = 80 5 * 2^(x -1) = 80 2^(x -1) = 16 2^(x -1) = 2^4 X-1 = 4 X = 5 ANSWER
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 466

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

Bankers discount on some money for 1.5 years is 558 and true discount for 2 years is Rs 600. What is the rate & amount of bill ?
First find bankers discount for 1 years, so that you may compare these.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 467

Solution
558 * 2/3 or 372 Difference of Bankers discount and true discount is : 372 300 = 72. (bankers gain). Bankers gain is always simple interest on true discount, so rate is : 72/300 * 100 = 24, Amount of bill : 372 * 100/24 = 1550 ANS
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 468

Bankers discount on certain sum is 11/10 of true discount, what is the rate ( period = 1 year)?
Let us assume bankers discount = 11 True discount = 10 Thus bankers gain is 1 Which is 10% of true discount, Thus rate = 10% answer.

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

469

Hulash is twice as good as Goti in solving mathematics. Together they can prepare a book of mathematics in 14 days, in how many days will Hulash alone prepare the book?
Ratio of their efficiency is : 2:1, so 1/14 * 2/3 and `1/14 * 1/3 will give : 21 and 42 as answers. Hulash will do it in 21 days and 06/29/09 Goti in 42 days. AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL Answer www.afterschoool.tk FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

470

Continued
If period is reduced by half, the net impact will be that instead of 8.33 we will use half of it : 4.166 Solving it : (100 * 260) / ( 104.166) = 249.6 True discount = 260 249.6 = 10.4 answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 471

The ratio of the areas of the incircle and the circumcircle Of a square is
Answer ; 1:2

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

472

A horse is placed for grazing inside a rectangular field of 70 m by 52 m and is tethered to one corner by a rope 21 m long. On how much area can it graze?

Apply the forumula of circle and get 1/4th of it.


06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 473

Solution
22/7 * 21 *21 * 1/ 4 =346 sq. m. answer.

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

474

The area of a rhombus is 2016 sq. cm. and its side is 65 cm. The lengths of the diagonals (in cm ) respectively are
Options : (a)125,35 (b) 126,32 (c)132,26 (d)135,25

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

475

Solution ..
Formula : ( product of diagonals) Let us assume diagonals : 2x and 2y ( 2x * 2y) = 2016 or xy = 1008 (X+Y)^2 = X^2 + 2XY + Y^2 X^2 + 2016 + Y^2 = (x+y)^2 (x-Y)^2 = X^2 2xy + y^2 =X^2 + Y^2 2016= (X-Y)^2
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 476

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

Continued
X^2 + y^2 = 65^2 2016 + 65^2 = (x+y)^2 4225 2016= (X-Y)^2 (X+y)^2 = 6241 (X-y)^2 = 2209 X + Y = 79 X Y = 47 2x = 126 or X = 63 and Y = 16 Diagonals are : 2x and 2y so 126 and 32 answer.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 477

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

The number of common terms the two sequences 17, 21,25, and 16,21,26. Upto 468 is ?
The common differences are 4 and 5 respectively, LCM is 20, so the two series should meet at interval of 20 each. Thus 468 / 20 gives 23 as the answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 478

The number of common terms the two sequences 10, 21,32, and 7,16,25,34. Upto 500 is ?
The first series is progressing at interval of 11 and the second series is progressing at interval of 9. LCM of 9 and 11 gives 99, which should give us 5 common terms till 500. These commong terms will be :
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 479

Solution
First term is 43 and next terms are : 142, 241, 340, 439 Solution..

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

480

A cubical foodgrain sellar has a diagonal equal to sqrt(300) meters. What is its surface area?
Diagonal of cube = side * sqrt (3) Our diagonal is : 10 * sqrt(3) Thus side is 10. Surface area = 6 * side * side = 6 *1 0 * 10 = 600 answer
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 481

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

Suppose you have to pay Rs. 2400 to a person after 2 years, what amount would you pay today (if you are allowed to deduct true discount @ 10%)?
Formula : ( 100 * amt) / ( 100 + (rate*time)) =(100*2400) / (100 + (10*2) =(100*2400)AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL answer. / (120) = 2000 06/29/09
www.afterschoool.tk FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

482

Suppose you have to pay Rs. 2400 to a person after 2 years, what amount would you pay today (if you are allowed to deduct discount @ 10% compound interest )?
Present Worth = Amt / ( 1 + rate / 100)^n =2400 / (110/100)^2 or 2400/1.21=1983.4
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 483

True discount on a bill due after 3 years @ 12% is 360, what is the value of the bill?
Suppose, we have 100 as present value, add interest for 3 years, it becomes 136. Thus a true discount of 36 gives bill amount of 136, therefore 360 should give 1360. Bill amount : 1360 answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 484

True discount on a bill due 9 months hence @ 6% is 180, what is the amount of the bill?
Start with present value of 100. We get 4.5 of interest on this and the bill amount becomes 104.5 If the true discount is 4.5, the bill amount is 104.5, so if the True discount is 180, the amount of bill should be 104.5 *180/4.5 = 4180 answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 485

Bankers discount and True discount on sum of money are 110 and 100 respectively. Time : 1 year, rate = 10%, what is the amount of bill ?
Solution Bill amount = 1100, discount 100, bankers discount = 110, present value = 1000. bankers gain 10,
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 486

Hulash gives you two options for payment : He may give you Rs. 2000 today or Rs. 2900 after 3 years. The rate of interest is 12%, which option is better for you?
2nd option is better : present value of 2900 is more than 2000, so it is better option.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 487

Jitesh has to pay Rs. 2200 to Hemant after 1 year. Hemant asks for 1100 today and 1100 after 2 years. Who has benefitted from this and by what amount in terms of present value? Rate : 5%
Present value of Rs. 2200 is Rs. 2095, Present value of 1100 is 1000. and Jitesh is making payment of 1100. Thus he is actually paying 2100. Hemant has benefitted by Rs. 5. ans. 06/29/09 AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL 488
www.afterschoool.tk FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

Khyati owes Shabnam Rs. 2720 after 3 years, but Shabnam also owes Khyati Rs. 3900 after 5 years. They decide to settle their dues today. Who will pay to whom and what amount. Rate = 6%

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

489

Solution
Khyati has to pay today : (2720*100)/(118) =2305 Shabnam has to pay today: (3900*100)/(130) = 3000 Thus Shabnam will pay (3000 2305) = 695 to Khyati to settle the accounts. Answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 490

Find the cost of marbelling a floor of a varandah 5 m wide around a rectangular room 30 m. in length and 25 m wide at Rs. 1.50 per sq. m.
Area including varandah: 40 * 35 =1400 Area of room : 30*25 = 750. Area of varandah : 650. cost : 650*1.5=975
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 491

Find the area of a triangular field whose three shies are 300,400 and 500 m. Find the perimeter also.
This field has one angle as 90 degree (as 3^2 + 4^2 = 5^2) Area = ( base * height) =1/2 (300*400) = 60000 sq.m. Perimeter : 1200 m. answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 492

Find the number of bricks required to build a wall 10 m. long 1.5 m thick and 4 m in height. The brick is 25cm long 15 cm wide and 10 cm in thickness.
(1000*150*400)/ (25*15*10) = 16000 answer.

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

493

Let us assume the original dimensions to be 10*10= 100 New ones : 14*13 = 182 There is increase of 82% answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

The opposite pairs of sides of a square are increased by. 40% and 30% respectively. The area of tile resulting rectangle exceeds the area of the square by

494

A circular plot has perimeter of 660 metres. A plot in the shape of a square having its vertices on the circumference of the circle is marked in the field. Calculate the area of the square field.
2 * pi * r = 660 or r = 660/2pi = (660 * 7) / (2 *22) = 105. thus diagonal of the square is 210. area of square is : *210*210 =22050 sq. m.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 495

The length of a rope by which a cow must be tethered in order that it may be able to graze an area of 9856 sq. metres is
Pi * r^2 = 9856 R^2 = (9856 *7 ) / 22 = 3136 R = 56. answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 496

A party congress shamiana has been constructed as cylindrical to a.height of 3 m and conical above it. If the diameter of the base is 140 m and the slant height of the conical portion is 80 m, how much of 2 m wide canvas would be required to construct the shamiana?
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 497

Solution .
Surface area of cylinder : 2 * pi * radius* hight = 2* 22/7 * 70 * 3 = 1320 Surface area of cone : pi * radius * l = 22/7 * 70 * 80 = 17600 Thus total surface area : 18920, now divide it by 2, we get : 9460 meters. answer
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 498

A cylindrical bucket of height 36 cm and radius 21 cm is filled with sand. The bucket is emptied on the ground and a conical heap of sand is formed. The height of the conical heap is 12 cm. The radius of the heap at the base Is - 06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 499

Solution
Volume of sand in bucket : Pi * radius * radius * height = 22/7 * 21*21*36 = 49896 This is equal to volume of the cone Volume of cone : 1/3 * pi * radius * radius * height = 1/3*22/7 *r^2 * 12 = 49896 12.57 R^2 = 49896 = 3969 radius = 63 ans 06/29/09 AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL 500
www.afterschoool.tk FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

If 12 persons can complete a work in 240 days, how many persons will be required to finish the work in 20 days?
Total mandays are : 12 * 240 = 2880 Divide it by 20, we get 144 workers.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 501

10 persons can complete a work in 20 days working 12 hours a day. If they work 8 hours a day, how many days will it take ?
Total manhours (12*20*8) =2400 Divide 2400 by (8*10) = 30 days. Answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 502

20 persons can complete a work in 20 days. They are replaced by 5 persons of double efficiency. How much time these 5 persons will take, if the work is also doubled?
Total mandays : 20 * 20 * 2 (double)= 800 Divide it by 5*2, we get 80 as the answer.

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

503

10 men or 20 children can complete a work in 25 days. If we have 3 men and 4 children, how much time will it take?
Convert men into children we find that now we have 10 children working. Total child days are : 20*25 = 500. divide it by 10, we get 50 days. answer
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 504

Scale on map shows .5 CM = 200 Km. if the distance between two points on map is 5 CM, what is the actual distance?
Answer 2000 km,

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

505

20 persons can complete a work in 40 days working 6 hours a day. They started the work, but 2 workers left after 10 days. Another 2 workers left after next 10 days. For how many hours (in a day) should they work in a day to complete the work on time?

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

506

Solution :::
Work completed so far : 20*10*6 = 1200 + 18*10*6 = 1080 Thus total work completed : 2280 Total work required was : 20*40*6 = 4800 man hours. Now we have 16 workers and work left out is 4800-2280 = 2520. answer : 2520/ (16*20) = 7.8 or they should work approx. 8 hours a day.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 507

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

2 pipes can fill a tank in 24 hours (together). 4 pipes of similar capacity are added, how much time will it take to fill the tank?
One pipe takes 24*2 = 48 hours. Thus 1/48 * 6 pipes = 1/8 or 8 hours is the time required to fill the tank.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 508

A pipe can fill a tank in 24 hours and another can fill it in 36 hours. When should the first pipe be closed so that the tank is filled in exactly 18 hours. Both the pipes are opened simultaneously

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

509

Solution
The second pipe continues for 18 minutes. Thus it fills half of the tank. Thus remaining half is filled by first pipe. The firs pipe should take 12 minutes to fill its half. Thus the first pipe should be closed exactly after 12 hours. Answer.

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

510

100 persons can build a wall 1000 km long in 1000 days. How many more persons will be required to build 4000 km long wall in 500 days ?

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

511

Solution
Start from what has been asked (number of persons). Multiply it with other relevant factors : 100 * 4000/1000 * 1000/500 = 800 We require 800 persons to build the great wall. We require 700 more persons. Answer

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

512

The fifth term of the series 2,4,6, This is AP (arithmetic progression) The starting term is 2 and difference is 2 in two terms. Thus the fifth term will be : A+4D =2+4*2 =2+8 = 10 answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 513

The next term In the series 4, 16, 36 is.


Options : (a) 64 (b) 4. (c) 50 (d) 81 Solutions : In this series we find : 2^2, 4^2, 6^2, the next term should be 8^2, thus the answer is 64. answer.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 514

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

The number which will come in place of ? 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, ?, 28, 36,
Let us look the differences between the terms : The gaps are : 2,3,4,5 so next term should be 6,7, 8 So 15 + 6 = 21 answer
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 515

Find out odd one in the series. 2, 3, 7, 16, 33, 57, 93

Look at the differences : 1^2, 2^2, 3^2, 4^2, 5^2, 6^2 . Thus instead of 32, we should have 32 (16 + 4^2) = 32. answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 516

Find out the number which does not fit in the following series. 2, 8, 32, 72, 152, 312, 632

Look at the gap, it is * 2 + 8. thus 2 *2 + 8 = 12, 12*2 + 8 = 32, 32*2 + 8 = 72 and so on. Thus instead of 8, we should get 12 here. Ans.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 517

In the series find the next term. 40, 38,41, 39, 42, 40,

Here we are having differences in the following series : - 2, + 3, - 2, + 3 and so on. Thus next we should have 43 as the answer.

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

518

Find the odd one : 10, 15, 30, 90, 210, 615, 1830
The series is like this : * 3 15 Thus 10*3 15 = 15, 15*3 15 = 30, 30, 30 *3 15 = 75. So instead of 90, we should write 75. answer.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 519

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

14, 26, 36, 50, 62, 74,86 WHICH IS THE ODD VALUE IN THE SERIES
IN THIS SERIES, THE DIFFERENCE IS OF 12 IN EACH TWO VALUES. THUS 14+12 = 26, 26 + 12 = 28 26 + 12 = 38 SO INSTEAD OF 36, WE SHOULD HAVE 38 ANSWER
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 520

SERIES :
Which of the following numbers will come in place of? 20, 50, 40, 70, 60,90 ?, 110 (a) 60 (b) 77 (c) 80 (d) 95 SOLUTION : The difference is as under : + 30, - 10, + 30, - 10, so instead of ?, we should have 80 ( 90 10 = 80) answer (c)
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 521

Question on Age
Sum of ages of father and his son is 60 years while difference is 30 years. What is fathers age? (a) 60 years (b) 45 years (c) 50 years (d) 40 years Solution : Father : 45, son : 15, solution
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 522

Question on age :
The ratio of ages of Anil and Rakesh is 3:4. After 5 years it will be 4: 5. What is Rakeshs present age. (a) 28 years (b) 26 years (c) 20 years (d) 18 years Solution : The present age of Anil and Rakesh is : 15 and 20, add 5 years to it and it will be 20 and 25 (in the ratio of 4:5). Answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 523

The age of Reenas mother is three times that of Reenas age. After 10 years it will be twice of Reenas age. What is her mothers present age ? (a) 10 years (b) 20 years (c) 30 years (d) 40 years Solution : Try with 30. Reena is 10, and after 10 years their age will be 40 and 20. answer (c )
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 524

Question on age :
The age of Rakeshs father is 4 times of Rakeshs age. 5 years ago it was 7 times that of sons age. What is present age of Rakesh ? (a) 7 years (b) 10 years (c) 15 years (d) 18 years Solution : Try with 10, his father is 40. 5 years ago his age was 5 and that of father 35. answer ( b)

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

525

Ratio of ages of two friends is 2 :3. Three years ago it was 3:5. What are their present ages ? (a) 15 years, 18 years (b) 12 years, 18 years (c) 12 years, 15 years (d) 15 years, 20 ears
Try with (b) option : 12 and 18 years. Answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 526

Question on age
The Ratio of ages of two friends is 3:5 and sum of their ages is 80 years. What are their present ages in years ? (a) 10, 60 (b) 20, 60 (c) 40, 30 (d) 30, 50 Solution : (d) 30 and 50 years.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 527

The ratio of present ages of P and Q is 5 : 7 respectively. If the difference between Q.s present age and Ps age after 6 years is 2, what is the total of present ages of P and Q? (a) 52 years (b) 48 years (c) 56 years (d) 50 years SOLUTION : Their ages are : 20 and 28, so answer (b)
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 528

The difference between simple interest and compound interest after 2 years @ 20% is 600, what will be the difference after 4 years?
Simple interest of one year : 600*100/20 = 3000 Principal : = 3000 *100/20 = 15000 Thus after 4 years, simple interest : 12000 But compound interest will be : (3000 + 3600 + 4320 + 5184) = 16104 Thus difference will be 4104 answer
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 529

The difference between simple interest and compound interest on some amount in 3 years @10% is 62, what will be this difference in 6 years?
Start with Rs. 100, look at the difference and compare, find the principal = 2000. the difference will be : 343.12 approx. 530 06/29/09 AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL www.afterschoool.tk FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS answer

The difference between simple interest and compound interest on some amount in 3 years @10% is 155, what will be this difference in 6 years?
Solve it : 857.8 answer

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

531

The difference between simple interest and compound interest on some amount in 3 years @10% is 136.4, what will be this difference in 6 years?
Answer : 754.8 answer

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

532

What is the distance between A (-2,-7) and B (1, 2)?


In order to get the distance : Sqrt ( (1 (-2))^2 + (2 (-7))^2) =sqrt(9 + 81) =sqrt(90) =3 *sqrt(10) answer

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

533

What is the distance between A (-4,-3) and B (1, -2)?


= sqrt ((x2 x1)^2 + (y2 y1)^2) X1 =-4, x2=1, y1=-3,y2=-2 =sqrt (( 1 (-4))^2 + (-2 (-3))^2) =sqrt(25 + 1) =sqrt(26) =5.09 answer
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 534

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

What is the value of (1/128)^ (-6/7)?


Answer : 64

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

535

What is the value of 625 ^ (-5/4)?


1/3125 answer

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

536

Which is bigger : 8^(7/3) or 128^(5/7)?


= solve it in steps : 8 ^ ( 1/3 * 7) = 2^7 = 128 128^(1/7 * 5) = 2 ^ 5 = 32 Thus first number is bigger.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 537

2^x * 8^(1/5) = 2 ^ 1/5, what is X?


Write it as : 2^x * 2^(3/5) = 2 ^ 1/5 2^x = 2^(1/5 ) / (2 ^ (3/5) 2^x = 2 ^ ( 1/5 3/5) 2^x = 2^ (-2/5) X = - 2/5 answer

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

538

2^(x-1) + 2 ^(x+1) = 320, what is x?


Let us take 2^(x-1) as common. We get 2^(x-1) (1 + 2^2) = 320 5 * (2^(x-1)) = 320 (2^(x-1)) = 64 (2^(x-1)) = 2^6 X1=6 X = 7 answer
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 539

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

3^(x) + 3 ^(x+1) = 108, what is x?


Take 3^x as common 3^x (1 +3^1) = 108 4 * 3^x = 108 3^x = 27 3^x = 3^3 X = 3 answer

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

540

X ^(12/3) * x ^(6/2) = 128, what is X?


X ^4 * x^3 = 128 X^ 7 = 2^7 X = 2 answer.

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

541

How many words can you make from the letters of ONE, FOUR, SEVEN?
ONE : there are 3 digits, so 3! = 3*2*1 = 6 FOUR : there are 4 digits : so 4! = 4*3*2*1 = 24 SEVEN : there are 5 letters with 2 similar ones : 5!/2! = (5*4*3*2*1) / (2*1) = 60 answer
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 542

How many words can you form from ELECTION?


There are 8 digits, but we have 2 E. Thus we have 8!/ 2! = (8*7*6*5*4*3*2*1)/ (2*1) =20160 answer

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

543

How many words can you form from INNOVATION?


There are 10 digits, but we have 3N, 2 I and 2 O. = (10*9*8*7*6*5*4*3*2*1) / (3*2*1*2*1*2*1) =151200 answer.

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

544

How many words can you form from JITENDRA, with the condition that all the vowels should come together.
There are 3 vowels and 5 other letters. We will treat vowels as one unit. Thus we have 6!. Vowels can be interchanged, thus we have 3! More. = 6! * 3! =6*5*4*3*2*1*3*2*1 = 4320
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 545

How many 3 letter words can you make from CAT, repeatitions are allowed.
There are 3 letters, so the answer is : 3*3*3 = 27 answer

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

546

How many 3 letter words can you make from CAC, repeatitions are allowed.
For the first digit, we have only two options : C and A, similarly, we have two options for second digit and for third digit also. Thus we have 2 * 2* 2 = 8 answer.

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

547

How many 4 letter words can you make from DUDI, repeatitions are allowed.
For the first digit, we have 3 options, (D,U,I). We have 3 options for 2nd, 3rd and 4th digit also. Thus : 3*3*3*3 = 81 is the answer.

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

548

How many 4 letter words can you make from RMAT, repeatitions are allowed.
4*4*4*4 = 256 ANS.

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

549

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

550

In how many ways can the letters of the word DELHI be arranged so that the vowel can occupy only even place?

We have 2 vowels for two places : 2! = 2*1= 2 We have 3 other letters and 3 other places: 3! = 3*2*1 =6. Total 2*6 = 12 answer
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 551

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

In how many ways can the letters of the word DELHI be arranged so that the vowel should come together?

We shall consider vowels as one unit. We will have 4 digits ( D,L,H and vowels). Vowels can be interchanged so 2!. 4! * 2! = 48 answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 552

How many words can you form from CAT so that vowel occupy only odd place?
There are two odd places : 1 and 3 We have only one vowel : A. Thus we have 2p1 = 2 options For the other two places, we have 2 options, so 2!, Thus total options are : 2*2 = 4 answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 553

If x is 25% of Y, what is y in % to x?
Let us assume y to be 100, thus x is 25. now since we have to take X to the base, solve it as : 100/25 * 100 = 400% You should start with Y, and assume any value for Y, and proceed to X. If Y is 1000, X will be 250 and then you have to put X as denominator.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 554

There are 8 consecutive even numbers starting from A (then we have b,c,d,e ). What will be the average of these 8 even numbers?
Option: `1. d, 2, e, 3 e+1, 4. d+1 5, cannot be determined. Answer : d + 1

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

555

There are 7 consecutive even numbers starting from A (then we have b,c,d,e ). What will be the average of these 7 even numbers?
Options : a, b, d, c, ,e answer : D
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 556

The average temperature for the first 4 days of a week was 41, the average for the last 4 days was 40. What was the temperature on 4th day of week if it is given that the average for the week was 40?
Total for week : 7 * 40 = 280 Total for first 4 days : 164 Total for last 4 days : 160 total of these = 324 Thus 4th day temperature : 324- 280 = 44 ans
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 557

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

Vijay comes to afterschoool at an average speed of 60 km per hour but returns back @ 20 km per hour. What is average speed?
As per vijay it is 30 km per hour. In such questions, you have to find harmonic mean of the two speeds.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 558

Calculation of harmonic mean:


1/60 + 1/20 = 80 / 1200 = 1/15 Now multiply it by We get : 1/30 (revert it) Now change it to 30 Km. per hour answer

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

559

The average height of our cricket team is 6 feet. If the hight of 12th player is also included, the average becomes 5 feet and 11 inches. What is the height of the 12th player?
Total height of 11 players : 66 feet. Total height of 12 players : 71 feet The height of 12th player : 5 feet answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 560

(x + 2) and (x 1) are factors of an equation : x^3 + 10x^2 + mx +n = 0, what can be the values of (m+n)?
Let us put the value of x as -2 and 1 and try: We get -2m+n = -32 and M + n = -11 So the answer is -11.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 561

What is the HCF , LCM of 32 and 62?


For finding HCF factorise these : 32 = 2*2*2*2*2 62 = 2 * 31 Thus the common factor is 2. For LCM we take maximum power of each factor, we get : 2^5 * 31 = 992 answer
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 562

What is HCF of 20x^2 9x +1 and 5x^2 - 6x + 1.


Let us factorise these : 20x^2 5x 4x + 1 5x(4x-1) 1(4x 1) Or (5x -1) and (4x -1) Similarly : for 5x^2 6x + 1 We can write it as 5x^2 5x x + 1 5x(x -1) -1(x 1) = (5x -1) (x -1) The HCF is (5x -1) answer
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 563

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

What should be added to 2x^2 +x +1 = 0 so that we get 2x^2 -2x +21 =0


Subtract 1st equation from second equation, we get : (2x^2 -2x +21) - (2x^2 +x +1 ) = - 3x + 20 answer

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

564

What is the union of A and B, if : A = { 1,2,5} and B {x;, x=set of all prime numbers less than 10}
Solution A U B = {1,2,3,5,7}

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

565

What is the difference of A and B, if : A = { 1,2,5} and B {x;, x=set of all prime numbers less than 10}
A B = {1}

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

566

What is the symmetric difference of A and B, if : A = { 1,2,5} and B {x;, x=set of all prime numbers less than 10}
(a-b) U (b a) = {1} + {3,7} = {1,3,7} answer
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 567

What is the intersection of A and B, if : A = { 1,2,5} and B {x;, x=set of all prime numbers less than 10}
A B = {2,5}

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

568

What is the difference of 2 series for first 10 terms?


A : 2,7,12,17 . B : 32, 16, 8, 4. First series is AP (arithmetic progression) with D = 5, but 2nd series is GP (geometric progression) with r = Sum of AP = n/2 (2a+ (n-1)d A = 2, d = 5 = 10/2 (2 * 2 + ( 10 1)MATERIAL 5) 06/29/09 AFTERSCHOOL's 569
www.afterschoool.tk FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

= 10/2 (2 * 2 + ( 10 1) 5) = 5 ( 4+ 45) = 245 Sum of GP = a (1 r^n) / (1 r) = 32 ( 1 (1/2)^10) / ( 1 ) = (32 (1 1/1024) ) / .5 =63.9 Difference : 245 63.9 = 181.1answer
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 570

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

What can you say about roots of x^2 x 2? Are they real?
In this a = 1, b -1, and c = -2 D = b^2 4ac = (1 4 (1*-2)) =1+8 =9 If D > 0 and it is a perfect square, we have both the roots as real, unequal and rational.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 571

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

Calculate the roots in the previous example ::::


Alpha = ( - b +sqrt (b^2 4ac)) / 2a =( - (-1) + sqrt(9) / 2*1 = ( 1 + 3) / 2 =2 Beta = ( - b -sqrt (b^2 4ac)) / 2a =( - (-1) - sqrt(9) / 2*1 = ( 1 - 3) / 2 = - 1 answer
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 572

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

What are the roots of : 2x^2 6x +7 = 0


A = 2, b = -6 and c = 7 Alpha = ( - b +sqrt (b^2 4ac)) / 2a =(-(-6) + sqrt(36 56) ) / 4 =6 + sqrt(-20) / 4 As D is negative, we have imaginary roots.

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

573

What is the sum of the roots : x^2 6x +2 = 0


Equaltion is like this : Ax^2 - (sum of roots) x + products of roots =0 Thus we can say that b = sum of roots and c = product of roots. Thus sum of roots is ( - 6) = 6 answer.

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

574

If x^2 kx + 12 = 0, and alpha beta = 1, what is the value of K?


Options : 0, + - 5, + - 1, + - 7 We know that C = products of roots. 12 = alpha * beta K = alpha + beta We know that (x-y)^2 = (x + y )^2 4xy (as (x + y)^2 = x^2 + 2xy + y^2) and (x Y)^2 = x^2 2xy + y^2) Thus we can write : (1)^2 = (k)^2 4*12 K^2 = 49 or K = 7
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 575

X^2 -3x +2 =0, so based on its roots prepare a new equation, where both the roots are added one ( alpha +1) and (beta +1)?
The roots are : Alpha = ( - b +sqrt (b^2 4ac)) / 2a =(3 + sqrt (9 8) ) / 2 =alpha = 2 and beta =1. new roots = 3,2 Thus new equation: x^2 5x + 6 = 0 ans.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 576

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

577

IF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A NUMBER AND 1/5TH OF THIS NUMBER IS 20, WHAT IS THE NUMBER ?
LET US ASSUME THE NUMBER TO BE X X X/5 = 20 5X X = 100 4X = 100 OR X = 100/4 = 25 ANSWER.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 578

A SUM AT 3% SIMPLE INTEREST BECOMES 364.8 IN 4 YEARS. WHAT IS THE PRINCIPAL?


IF YOU DEPOSIT 100, IT BECOMES 112 IN 4 YEARS. THUS BASED ON THIS WE CAN SOLVE IT : 100/112 * 364.8 = 325 ANSWER.

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

579

What is total surface area of a cube, whose one side is 2 cm?


Formula= 6 * side square = 6 * 2*2 =24 sq. cm answer.

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

580

The price of a commodity increases by 20% and its consumption decreases by 10%, what is the net change in the expenditure by the person?

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

581

Solution..
Let us assume price = 100 Consumption = 100 Total expenditure = 10000 New price = 120 New consumption : 90 New total expenses = 10800 = 800/`10000 * 100 = 8% Thus there is 8% increase in expenditure.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 582

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

At what time between 2 and 3 pm, the two hands of a clock coincide?
10 minutes past 2 Multiply 10 by 12/11, so the answer is : 10.9 pass 2 pm. Answer.

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

583

In how many ways can 5 boys and 3 girls sit on a bench, so that no two girls sit together side by side?

6p3 = 120 for girls 5! = 120 for boys. Thus 120 * 120 = 1440 answer.

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

584

What is the square root of (1/625)^1/4 ?


We can write it as : = (( 1/5)^4)^1/4 This is equal to 1/5 answer.

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

585

What is the value of (1/64)^ 5/6?


Solution : To remove the negative sign, we will convert it into : 64 ^ 5/6 We can write 64 as : 2^6 Thus we can write it as : ( 2^6) ^ 5/6 6 gets cancelled. 2^5 is left out, which is 32 . Answer
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 586

What is the value of : 216 ^ - 4/3?


In order to remove the negative sign, we will write it as : 1/216 ^ ( 4/3) 216 can be written as 6 ^3 Thus we can write it as : (1/6^3)^4/3 We can write it as : 1/6^4 or = 1/1296 answer
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 587

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

Which is bigger :2^1/2 or 3^1/3 ?


3 ^1/3

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

588

What is the number of all possible proper subsets of the following set: X= {2,3,4}
Formula : (2^n 1) = ( 2^3 1) = 7 answer.

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

589

What is the sum of first 33 natural numbers ?


Formula : n/2 (1st number + last number) = n/2 (1 + 33) = 33/2 * 34 = 33 * 17 = 561 answer

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

590

Mention the smallest 3 digit prime number?


Start with 101, square root of 100 is 10, so try with all the prime numbers till 10. try with 2,3,5,7 and if it is not divisible any any prime number till 10, it is a prime number. Answer = 101

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

591

What is the sum of the series : 1,8,27,64 .1000?


It is a series of cubes of 1,2,3,4 till 10. (formula for addition of series of cubes) Formula : N^2 ( N + 1)^2 / 4 = 10 ^2 (11)^2 / 4 = 100 * 121 / 4 =3025 answer

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

592

What will be the sum of the series : 36,49,64,81 . 225?


This is the series of squares starting from square of 6. Forumula for sum of squares of n series : N (n+1) * ( 2n +1) / 6 Sum of series from 1 to 225 : 15 * (16) *( 31) / 6 = 1240 Sum of series from 1 to 5 : 5 * (6) * (11) / 6 = 55 Sum from 36 to 225 : 1240 55 =1185answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 593

There are three terms which are in Geometric Progrssion. First term is 12, the square of the second term is : 225, what is the 3rd term?
If three terms are in GP, we can say : Square of middle term = (first term * third term). Thus third term is : 225 / 12 = 18.75 We know that the second term is 15. we can calculate the 3rd term by : ( second term * second term / first term) = 15 * 15/12 = 18.75
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 594

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

How many numbers divisible by 8 are there between 900 and 1700?

Divide 1700 by 8 We get : 212 (ignore decimals) Divide 900 by 8 We get : 112 (ignore decimals) 212-112 = 100 answer
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 595

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

11% of a number exceeds 7% of the same by 18, then What is the number?
As we can see the difference is (11-7) = 4 4% is equal to 18 Thus 100% should be equal to : 18/4 * 100 = 450 answer.

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

596

WHAT IS THE TOTAL SURFACE AREA OF A CUBE, WHOSE ONE SIDE IS 2 C.M.?
FORMULA = 6 * SIDE ^2 = 6 * 2^2 = 24 SQ. CM. ANSWER.

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

597

A cone and a hemisphere have equal bases and equal volumes. The ratio of their heights is
Base = 22/7 * r * r (in both cases), so radius is same in both the cases. Volume of cone : 1/3 *22/7* r*r*h Volume of hemisphere : 2/3 *22/7*r*r*r 1/3h = 2/3r or H = 2r thus the ratio of their heights is 2:1. answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 598

A room is in the shape of a cube, with one side of 3 meters. What is the length of the longest rod that can be put in this room?
Diagonal of the cube = sqrt(3) * side = 3 * sqrt(3)

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

599

If all the edges of a rectangular prism are doubled and its shape is left unchanged, then its volume becomes
Volume of prism = area of base * height As we can see that each of the edge of the rectangular base has been doubled. Thus we can say : (2L * 2 B ) * 2 h = 8 times the original volume. Answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 600

A spherical ball of radius 3 cm is melted and recast into three spherical balls. The radii of two of these balls are 1.5 cm and 2cm. The radius of the third ball is
Volume of original ball : 4/3*22/7*3*3*3 Volume of the new balls : 4/3*22/7*1.5^3 + 4/3*22/7*2^3 the resultant will be the volume of the third ball. 36 pi 47.66 = 65.47 4/3 *22/7 *r^3 = 65.47 or r^3 = 65.47*21/88 = 15.62 or Radius = 2.5 answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 601

A hemispherical bowl of internal radius 9 cm contains a liquid. This liquid is to be filled into cylindrical shaped small bottles of diameter 3 cm and height 4 cm. How many bottles will be needed to empty the bowl?
2/3 * 22/7*9^3 divided by 22/7*1.5^2*4 1527.4 / 28.28 = 54 bottles answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 602

A cone, a hemisphere and a cylinder stand on equal bases and have the same height. The ratio of their volumes is
Volume of cone : 1/3*pi*r^2*h Volume of hemisphere = 2/3*pi*r^3 Volume of cylinder=pi*r^2*h Height = radius. Thus we have ratio : 1/3: 2/3: 1 or 2:4:6 OR 1:2:3 ANSWER.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 603

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

A cylindrical tub of radius 12 cm contains water upto a depth of 20cm. A spherical iron ball is dropped into the tub and thus the level of water is raised by 6.75 cm. The radius of the ball is
Old volume: 22/7*12^2*20 = 9051 New volume : 22/7*12^2 *26.75 = 12106 The difference = 3054.8 Or the radius is : cubic root of (3054/(4/3*22/7)) =9 Cm Answer.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 604

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

The diameter of a copper sphere is 6cm. The sphere is melted and drawn into a long wire of uniform circular cross section. If the length of the wire is 36 cm, the radius of wire is
Volume of sphere : 4/3*22/7*3^3= 113.14 Radius of wire is :sqrt( 113.14/(22/7*36)) = 1 answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 605

A right cylinder and a right circular cone have the same radius and the same volume. The ratio of the height of the cylinder to that of the cone is
Pi*r^2*h = 1/3 pi*r^2*h Thus we can say that the ratio of heights is : 1:3 answer.

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

606

The ratio of the volume of a right circular cylinder and a right circular cone of the same base and height will be
3:1 answer.

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

607

The average marks of a student in 8 subjects are 87. Of these, the highest marks are 2 more than the one next in value. If these two subjects are eliminated, the average marks of the remaining subjects are 85. What are the highest marks obtained by him?
Total of 8 = 87*8 = 696 Total of 6 = 85*6 = 510 The difference is : 186. Thus highest marks are : 94 and second highest is 92 answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 608

Amit, Sachin and Veeru join a 2000m race. Sachin beats Veeru by 120 metres and Amit by 250 metres. By how many metres does Veeru beat Amit over the full distance?
When Veeru runs 1880 meters, Amit runs only 1750 meters. Thus Amit will run : 2000*1750/1880 = 1861 thus Veeru will beat Amit by 139 meters. Answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 609

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

610

If x is 90% of y, what percent of x is y?


Let us assume Y to be 100. thus X is 90 Y is 100/90*100 = 111% of X. answer.

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

611

If the numerator of a fraction is increased by 20% and its denominator is decreased by 10%, the fraction becomes
Let us assume the numerator has become : 120 Similarly, the denominator has become 90. Thus the new fraction is : 4/3 of the previous fraction. Answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 612

The average weight of a group of boys and girls is 38 kg. average weight of the boys is 42 kg, and that of the girls is 33kg. If the number of boys is 25, find the number of girls?
38 is the mid point, so take difference from both the numbers. We get (42-38) = 4 and (38-33) = 5. thus the ratio of boys and girls is 5: 4. Thus the number of girls is 4/5*25= 20 answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 613

The average age of 10 boys is l5years.Of this 3 boys having an average age of 22 years left. What is the average age of the remaining boys?
Total age = 10 *15 = 150 3 left out : 22*3 = 66 so remaining 150-66 =84 The average of remaining =84/7= 12 years answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 614

The cost of carpeting a room 15 metres long with a carpet 75 cm wide at 30 paise per metre is Rs. 36. The breadth of the room is
Area of room = length * bredth Total length of carpet : 36/.3 = 120 meters Total area of carpet used :=.75 * 120= 90 sqmeters. Thus width of the room = 90/15= 6 meters. Answer. (length = 15, width = 6 meters). Answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 615

The length of a rectangle is doubled while its breadth is halved. What is the percentage change in area ?
Let us assume that length is 20 and width is 10. Length is doubled = 40, but wideth is halved = 5. new area is 200. Thus area remain unchanged.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 616

The length of a rectangle is increased by 60%. By what percent would the width have to be decreased to maintain the same area ?
Let us assume the length be 100, width be 50. We have new length 160. Thus new width is 5000/160 = 31.25. Thus there is reduction of 37.5% in the width. Answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 617

A rectangular plot of land with an area 600 sq.m is fenced, length of fencing being 100 m. Length of the plot is
Area = length X bredth L + B = 50 (half of total fence, which is 100 meters) and L * B = 600 The length and width are 30 and 20 respectively. Answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 618

A 5 m wide lawn is cultivated all along the outside of a rectangular plot measuring 90 m X 40 m. The total area of the lawn is

We can add lawn on either side of length and width. We have new area 100*50 = 5000. The area of rectangle is 90*40 = 3600. Thus area of lawn is 5000-3600=1400 sq.m. answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 619

Around a rectangular garden of length 10 m and width 5 m, a road I m wide is laid. The cost of metalling the road at Rs. 200 per sq. m is
Let us add 1 meters on either side of length and width. We get 12*7 = 84. the area of garden is 50. Thus the area of road is 84-50 = 34 sq.meters. The cost is : 34*200 = Rs. 6800 answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 620

The area of a rectangular field is 52000 sq m This rectangular area has been drawn on a map to the scale 1 cm to 100 m. The length is shown as 3.25 cm on the map. The breadth of the rectangular field is
The length is 3.25*100= 325 meters. The width is : 52000/325= 160 meters. thus the width is 1.6 CM answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 621

What is the square root of .4?


It is not .4, it is .40 Thus square root of .40 is .632 answer.

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

622

The cost of fencing a square garden is Rs. 400 at the rate of Re. I per metre. The area of the garden in square metres is
One wall is of 100 meters (because 4 walls are of 400 meters). The area of square field is : 100*100 = 10000 Sq. meters.

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

623

If the side of a square be increased by 50%, the percent increase in area is


Suppose the side of square 100 Area : 100 * 100 = 10000 Now we increase the side by 50% : 150 * 100 = 15000 The increase is by 5000 or 50%. If both the sides are increased, the new are will be : 150 * 150 = 22500 the growth is of 125% increase. Answer.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 624

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If the area of an equilateral triangle is 24 .5 sq. m, then its perimeter is


Area of equilateral triangle = sqrt(3)/4 * side * side = 24.5 Side *side = 24.5 * 4 / (sqrt (3) Side * side = 98 / sqrt (3) = 56 Side = 7.52 Perimter = 7.52 * 3 = 22.5 answer.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 625

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The ratio of the area of a square to that of the square drawn on its diagonal is
Let us assume the side of square is 1. its diagonal is sqrt (2) Area of square is 1, then area of square on diagonal is 2. Thus the ratio is 1: 2 answer.

1 (side) Sqrt(2)

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626

The base of a right angled triangle is 5 metres and hypotenuse is 13 metres. Its area will be
Altitude = sqrt (13^2 5^2) = sqrt (169 25) =sqrt (144) = 12 Area = * base * height =1/2 * 5 * 12 = 30 answer.
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13

627

The area of an equilateral triangle whose side is 8 cms, is


Area of equilateral triangle = sqrt(3)/4 * side * side = =sqrt (3) / 4 * 8 * 8 =27.3 approx. answer.

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

628

A room 5.44 m x 3.74 m is to be paved with square tiles. The least number of tiles required to cover the floor is
Let us find HCF 544 and 374. for this divide 544 by 374, we get remainder of 170, now divide 374 by 170, we get 34 as remainder, now divide 170 by 34, we get 0 as remainder. Thus one side of tile should be 34 cm. the number of tiles is (544*374)/ (34*34) = 176 answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 629

The sides of a triangular board are 13 metres, 14 metres and 15 metres. The cost of painting it at the rate of Rs. 8.75 per sq. m. is (13 + 14 + 15) / 2 = 21 = sqrt((21-13) * (21- 14) * (21-15) *21) =84 Total cost = 84 * 8.75 = 735 rupees. Answer.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 630

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Area of four walls of a room is 77 square metres. the length and breadth of the room are 7.5 metres and 3.5 metres respectively. The height of the room is
2(7.5*height) + 2(3.5*height) = 77 15 H + 7 H = 77 22 H = 77 or H = 77/22 = 3.5 answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 631

The cost of papering the four walls of a room is Rs. 480. Each one of the length, breadth and height of another room is double that of this room. The cost of papring the walls of this new room is
The cost will be 4 times, thus cost will be 1920 .
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 632

The length of a rope by which a cow must be tethered in order that she may be able to graze an area of 9856 sq.m. is
Area of circle : pi * radius * radius Radius * radius = 9856 / (22/7) Radius = 56 meters. Answer.

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

633

The length of minute hand on a wall clock is 7 cms . The area swept by the minute hand in 30 minutes is

Area of half circle = * pi * radius * radius = * 22/7 * 7 * 7 = 77 sq. cm.


06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 634

A and B start a business with initial investments in the ratio 12: 11 and their annual profits were in the ratio 4: 1. If A invested the money for 11 months, B invested for :
(12 * 11 ) / (11*X) = 4/1 44X = 12*11 X = 12*11/ 44 = 3 B invested his capital for 3 months only.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 635

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Goti started a business with Rs. 21000 and is joined afterwards by Vinod with Rs. 36000. After how many months did Vinod join, if the profits at the end of the year are divided equally
21000*12 = 36000*X X = 12*21000/ 36000 X=7 Thus Vinod invested his capital after 5 months (12-7) after the start of the business.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 636

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A and B entered into partnership investing Rs 12000 and Rs. 16000 respectively. After 3 months, B withdrew Rs. 5000 while A invested Rs. 5000 more. Out of total annual profit of Rs. 16000, the share of A exceeds that of B by :
A (12*3 + 17*9) = 189 B (16*3 + 11*9) = 147 The ratio of A & B = 9:7 Thus A will get 9000 & B will get 7000. answer.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 637

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A, B, C subscribe Rs. 47000 for a business. If A subscribes Rs. 7000 more than B and B Rs. 5000 more than C, then out of a total profit of Ks. 9400, B receives
Let us assume that C invested X. B invested X + 5000. A invested X + 12000 3X +17000 = 47000 or X = 10000 Ratio of capital : 22:15:10. B will get 15/47*9400 = 3000 answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 638

A, B, C start a business. If A invests 3 times as much as B invests and B invests two-third of what C invests, then the ratio of capitals of A, B, C is
Let us assume that C invested Rs. 300. B invested 200. A invested 600. Thus the ratio is : 6:2:3 answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 639

If 6 (A capital) = 8 (Bs capital) = 10 (Cs capital), then the ratio of their capitals is:
For A = take product of 8 * 10 = 80 For B = 6 *10 = 60 For C = 6*8 Thus ratio : 80:60: 48 Or : 20: 15: 12 answer.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 640

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If As capital is equal to twice Bs capital and Bs capital is three times Cs capital, then the ratio of their capitals is :
Let us assume Cs capital to be 1. Bs capital is 3, and As capital is 6. Thus their ratio is 6:3:1 answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 641

A, B Center into partnership. A invests some money at the beginning. B invests double the amount after 6 months and C invests thrice the amount after 8 months. If the annual profit be Rs. 9000, then Cs share is: Let us assume A invested $ 1. 1 *12 (for A), B = (2*6) , for C = (3*4) Thus their ratio is equal. Each will get Rs. 3000 out of 9000. answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 642

Monu, Sonu and kapsa rented a video cassette for one week at a rent of Rs. 350. If they used it for 6 hours, 10 hours and 12 hours respectively, what is the rent to be paid by Kapsa?

Ratio is : 6:10:12 or 3:5:6 Thus Kapsa will pay : 6/14 *350 = 150 Rupees. Answer.

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643

A, B, C start a business with capitals in the ratio 1/3, , 1/5. A withdraws half his capital at the end of 4 months. Out of a total annual profit of Rs. 847, As share is:
Let us assume that their capitals were : 20, 15 and 12. the profit sharing ratio is : (20*4+10*8):15*12: 12*12 = 160:180:144 or 40:45:36 As share : 40/(121) * 847 = 280 answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 644

A, B, c hired a taxi for Rs. 520 and used it for 7, 8 and 11 hours respectively. The amount of hire charges paid by B was:

B = 8/ (7+8+11) * 520 = 160 answer.


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A and B entered into partnership with capitals in the ratio 4 and 5. After 3 months, A withdrew 1/4 th of his capital and B withdrew 1/5th of his capital. The gain at the end of 10 months was Ks. 760. The share of A in this profit is

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646

Solution
Let us assume that A and B invested Rs. 4 and 5. for first 3 months: 12 & 15. Now A and B withdraw Re. 1 each. Thus new amounts are 3 and 4 for 7 months. Thus 21 and 28 are the new amounts. The ratio is ((12+21): (15+28) = 33:43 Thus A will get : 33/ (33+43) * 760 = 330 answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 647

Four milkmen rented a pasture. A grazed 18 cows for 4 months, B 25 cows for 2 months, C 28 cows for 5 months and D 21 cows for 3 months. If As share of rent in Rs. 360, the total rent of the field (in rupees) is: A = 18*4 = 72, B = 25*2 = 50, C = 28*5 =140, D = 21*3 = 63 Thus 325/72 * 360 Total amount is = 1625 answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 648

A and B enter into partnership. A invests Rs. 16000 for 8 months and B remains in the business for 4 months. Out of a total annual profit, B claims 2/7of the profit. The contribution of B (in rupees) was :
Ratio of A : B = 5:2 B = 2/5 * 128000 = 51200 now divide it by 4 to get the capital of B. 12800 answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 649

A circular pipe is to be designed in such a way that water flowing through it at a velocity of 7 m per min. is collected at its open end at the rate of 11 cubic meter per min. what should be the inner radius of the pipe: Formula : pi * radius * radius * height R^2 * 22/7*7 = 11 R^2 = 11/22 = 1/2 R = 1/ (sqrt(2)) answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 650

Radius of the first : 2*22/7*r = 18 R = 18 * 7/44 = 2.86 Radius of the second = 2*22/7*r = 30 R = 30*7 / 44 = 4.77 Volume of the first : 22/7*2.86*2.86*30 and volume of the second is : 22/7*4.77*4.77*18 the ratio is :1 : 1.66 answer.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 651

Two rectangular sheets of paper each 30 cm x 18 cm are made into two right circular cylinders, one by rolling the paper along its length and the other along the breadth. The ratio of the volumes of the two cylinders, thus formed, is

06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk

The altitude of a circular cylinder is increased six times and the base area is decreased to one-ninth of its value. The factor by which the lateral surface of the cylinder increases, is
Formula of lateral surface area : 2*pi * r*h Radius and hight will change. Let us assume the area of base has reduced by 1/9. thus r = sqrt (1/9 *pi) thus we can compare them as : (2 pi are common) = r*h : 1/3 r*6h = the new area is 2 times the old area. Answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 652

Two cylindrical vessels with radii 15 cm & 10 cm and heights 35 cm & 15 cm respectively are filled with water. If this water is poured into a cylindrical vessel 15 cm in height, then the radius of the vessel is
Volume of first : 22/7*15*15*35=24750 Volume of 2nd =22/7*10*10*15 = 4714 Add them : 29464 22/7*r*r*15 = 29464, thus radius^2 = 625 or r=25
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 653

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Two circular cylinders of equal volume have their heights in the ratio 1: 2. Ratio of their radii is
Pi * R^2*h = pi*r^2 2h R^2 / r^2 = 2/1 Or the ratio of the radius is sqrt(2) : 1 Answer.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 654

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A solid cylinder has a total surface area of 231 cm If its curved surface area is two-third of the total surface area, the volume of the cylinder is?
Total base surface area is : 1/3 *231 = 77 2 * ( pi *radius * radius) = 77 Radius ^2 = 77 *7 / (2*22) = 12.25 or R= 3.5 2*22/7*35*h = 154 or h = 154*7 / (2*22*35) =.7 Vol. = 22/7 *3.5*3.5* .7 = 26.9 answer
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 655

The radius of a wire is decreased to one-third; If volume remains the same, the height will become:
New formula : 22/7 * (1/3 r)^2 * h = 22/7 * r^2 * H We can say that 1/9h = H Or new height is 9 times the earlier height.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 656

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The sum of the radius of the base and the height of a solid cylinder is 37 m. If the total surface area of the cylinder be 1628 m its volume is ?
R + h = 37 Total surface area = 2pi r * h + 2 pi * r^2 2pi r (h+r) = 1628 or r = 1628 *7/ (37**2*22)=7 Thus 22/7*7*7*30 = 4620 cubic meters
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 657

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The radii of the two cylinders are in the ratio 2 : 3 and their heights are in the ratio 5 : 3. The ratio of their volumes is
First cylinder : 22/7*2r *2r*5h Second cylinder : 22/7*3r*3r * 3h =their ratio is : 20:27 answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 658

The number of coins 1.5 cm in diameter and 0.2 cm thick to be melted to form a right circular cylinder of height 10 cm and diameter 4.5 cm is
Bigger cylinder=22/7*2.25*2.25*10 Coin = 22/7*.75*.75*.2 Divide cylinder by coin (volumes) we get : 450 as the answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 659

A rectangular tin sheet is 12 cm long and 5 cm broad. It is rolled along its length to form a cylinder by making the opposite edges just to touch each other. The volume of the cylinder (in cm) is
2 * 22/7 * radius = 5 Radius = 5/2 * pi =22/7 *(5/2 * pi) ^ 12 = 23.86 answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 660

A hollow garden roller 63 cm wide with a girth of 440 cm is made of iron 4 cm thick. The volume of the iron used is:
Radius of outer cover 2 * 22/7 * r = 440 or r= 70 Inner radius = 66 Volume of iron 22/7 * (70 66)* (70 +66) * 63 = 107712 answer. (pi *( R^2 r^2 ) * h ) Volume of outer : 22/7*70*70*63 =970200 Volume of inner : 22/7*66*66*63 = 862488
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 661

2.2 cubic dm. of lead is to be drawn into a cylindrical wire 0.50 cm in diameter. The length of the wire is
Convert this into cm, we get 2200 cubit cm. 22/7 * .25*.25 * h = 2200 H = 2200 * 7 / (22*.25*.25) = 11200 cm ans.

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

662

If the area of a circle be equal to that of a square. then the ratio of the side of the square and the radius of the circle is
Side ^2 = pi * radius * radius Let us assume that side is 1. 1 = pi * radius * radius Thus radius = sqrt(1/pi) Thus ratio of side and radius is 1: .56 answer.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 663

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The perimeter of a square whose area is equal to that of a circle with perimeter 2 pi x, is
Radius of the circle is X. (circle boundary = 2 pi r) Area of circle : pi * x^2 Area of square = pi x^2 = side square Side = sqrt (pi) * x Perimeter of square = 4 * side Perimeter = 4x sqrt(pi) or 7.09 X answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 664

The radius of a circle is increased so that its circumference is increased by 5%. The area of the circle will increase by
the circumference has increased by 5%, so radius must have also increased by 5%. Thus new radius is 105% in comparison to earlier radius. Thus the increase in area is : (105)^2 (100)^2 or 11025-10000 or 10.25% answer.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 665

The ratio of the areas of the incircle and circumcircle of an equilateral triangle
The radius of incircle = side of traingle / (2 * sqrt(3)) The radius of circumcirlce is = side of triangle / (sqrt(3) Area of the first: pi*side square / 12 Area of 2nd : pi * side^2/3 thus the ratio of area is : 1:4 answer

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

666

The area of the circle inscribed in an equilateral triangle of side 24 cms,


Radius = side / (2 * sqrt(3)) Radius = 24/(2 * sqrt(3)) = 4 * sqrt(3) Area = pi * radius * radius = 22/7 * 4* sqrt(3) * 4 * sqrt(3) = 150 sq. cm. answer.
AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 667

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From the following find the best option for FARM ? (First row number & then column no.)

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

668

WHICH IS BEST OPTION FOR FARM?

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

669

Solution
From the options given, the first option is the best option as it gives the word FARM as the combination of all the letters give you the word FARM. Answer.

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About AFTERSCHOOL
PGPSE - Worlds most comprehensive programme on social entrepreneurship after class 12th Flexible fast changing to meet the requirements Admission open throughout the year Complete support from beginning to the end from idea generation to making the project viable.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 671

Branches of AFTERSCHOOL
PGPSE programme is open all over the world as free online programme. Those who complete PSPSE have the freedom to start branches of AFTERSCHOOL A few branches have already started one such branch is at KOTA (Rajasthan).

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Workshop on social entrepreneurship


We conduct workshop on social entrepreneurship all over India and out of India also - in school, college, club, association or any such place - just send us a call and we will come to conduct the workshop on social entrepreeurship. These workshops are great moments of learning, sharing, and commitments.
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 673

FREE ONLINE PROGRAMME


AFTERSCHOOL is absolutely free programme available online any person can join it. The programme has four components : 1. case studies writing and analysing using latest tools of management 2. articles / reports writing & presentation of them in conferences / seminars 3. Study material / books / ebooks / audio / audio visual material to support the study 4. business plan preparation and presentations of those plans in conferences / seminars
06/29/09 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 674

100% placement / entrepreneurship


AFTERSCHOOL has the record of 100% placement / entrepreneurship till date Be assured of a bright career if you join AFTERSCHOOL

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AFTERSCHOOL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS

675

Pursue professional courses along with PGPSE


AFTERSCHOOL permits you to pursue distance education based professional / vocational courses and gives you support for that also. Many students are doing CA / CS/ ICWA / CMA / FRM / CFP / CFA and other courses along with PGPSE. Come and join AFTERSCHOOL

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676