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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH AND SOFTWARE DESIGN

This chapter deals with the methods of research used whether it


may be historical, descriptive, and experimental or a case study. The
techniques used under Descriptive Research Method as well as the
data gathering tools and analytical tools used will be further explained
in this chapter as well as the methods used in developing the software
and for evaluation.

RESEARCH DESIGN

Methods of Research Used

The proponents have used the Descriptive Research Method


wherein the study is focused on present situations. It involves the
recording, description, analysis and the presentation of the present
system, composition or processes of phenomena.

Under the Descriptive Research Method, the technique used is


the Survey Method, which is otherwise known as normative survey. The
results and findings of the study should always be compared with the
standards. With the survey method, researchers are able to statistically
study the specific areas where the proponents must concentrate.
Findings regarding the common practices being done and the methods
which are commonly adopted by the employees are obtained with the
use of the survey method.
RESPONDENTS OF THE STUDY

The respondents of the study include the employees wherein the


proponents prepare a set of carefully prepared and logically ordered
questions. This respondent focuses on the company’s employees for
they are very important in a sense that this study is all about them.
(See Table 1.)

Table 1.0

Respondents Distribution

N = 61

Position/Status No. of Respondents


Percentage (%)

Agents 46 76%

Secretary/Staff 8 13%

Managers 7 11%

TOTAL 61 100%
The questionnaires are being answered accordingly to the priority
of concern by using predetermined sets of questions with predefined
ranges of answers so as to avoid any conflicting series of response.

Sampling Design and Technique

Sampling may be defined as measuring a small portion of


something and then making a general statement about the whole
thing. It enables the study of a large, heterogeneous population more
economic wise, meaning not too costly, and more realistic and possible
to make. The population to be researched upon is quite small; hence
scientific sampling is implied to each member of the population since
the number of population is attainable for sampling. The proponents
decided to use the unstructured random sampling technique since the
population is well in the reach of statistical evaluation.

To justify the point, the use of Sloven’s Formula was utilized in the
formula of:

N = N / 1 + N (e)2

Where:

n = sample size

N = total population

e = level of confidence (.01 to .05)

Data Gathering Tools


These are the instruments or tools for gathering data in research
used as basis for drawing conclusions or making inferences. Some of
these tools are questionnaires, interviews, empirical observations,
research and analysis used by the proponents as they conduct the
proposed study.

Interview. An Interview is defined as a meeting of two people


face to face to confer about something or an act of questioning to
receive a desired answer that is necessary in solving a specific
problem. This is where data gathering occurs by asking questions for
much needed information from the interviewee verbally and directly.

Observation. This technique is used when the researcher cannot


secure adequate or valid data through the use of the questionnaire or
some other technique. It is considered to be the most direct means of
studying people in so far as their overt behavior is concerned.
Observation of a current operating procedure is another data gathering
tool seeing the system in action gives you additional perspective and
better understanding of system procedures.

Research. Research is simply, the systematic search for


pertinent information on a specific topic or problem. It is systematic
study or investigation or something for the purpose of answering
questions posed by the researcher. It includes reviewing journals,
periodicals, and books to obtain background information, technical
material, and news about industry trends and developments.

Questionnaire. A pre-written series of questions used in


gathering important information’s from one or more persons. This will
be given to the individual who have a direct bearing of the study and in
order to satisfy the proponent’s goal that is to get and measure the
opinions, polls and attitude of the respondents of the study.

Analysis. Analysis is the process of breaking-up the whole study


into its constituent parts of the categories according to the specific
questions under the statement of the problem. This is to bring out into
focus the essential feature of the study.

Statistical Tools

Statistics is one way of getting the information’s organized. To


have a general view of the whole scenario of the study, statistical tool
is used. This also includes the scaling system, which is used by the
proponents as a technique to monitor the respondent’s interpretation
of facts. (See Table 2.0 & Table 3.0)

Table 2.0

Scaling Systems of the Existing System and Proposed


System

Rating Scale Interpretation

5 Excellent

4 Very Good

3 Good
2 Fair

1 Poor

Table 3.0

Scaling Systems for the Problems Encountered of the


Existing System

Rating Scale Interpretation

5 Strongly Agree

4 Agree

3 Disagree

2 Strongly Disagree

1 Undecided

Below are the Formulas used to arrive to the computation used by the
Statistical Tool:

1) Frequency Distribution = n / T * 100%


Where:

n = Number of respondents in a single gender classification

T = Total number of respondents including all the gender


classification

2) Mean() = F(X1 + X2 + …… Xn) / n

Where:

F = Frequency that a given X was chosen by the respondents

X = Represents any of the numerical ratings 5, 4, 3, 2, 1


represents, excellent, very good, good, fair, poor

n = Total number of respondents

3) Weighted mean(x) = f(X1 + X2 + …… Xm)n / N

Where:

n = Total numbers of criteria

Where:

T = Computed + Value

Xp = Overall rating for proposed system

Xe = Overall rating for existing system


Np and Ne = Degree of Freedom

4) CBA(Cost Benefit Analysis) P = F / (1 + l) n

Where:

P = Present Value

F = Total Savings

l = Bank Interest Rate

n = Number of Years

SYSTEM DESIGN

Analytical Tools

The analytical tools used in conducting the proposed study are


the System flowchart, IPO (Input Process Output) and HIPO
(Hierarchical Input-Process-Output), which are precisely discussed in
this section for the development of the system.

System Flowchart. It is formalized graphic representation of a


program logic sequence, work or manufacturing process, organizing
chart, or similar formalized structure.

IPO or the Input Process Output. These are the components


or elements that make up the system. It is also described as tools on
the design of the entire software.
HIPO or Hierarchical Input-Process-Output. A high-level view
of the functions performed by a system as its functions and software
implementation.

Data Flow Diagram. This is a graphic illustration that shows the


flow of data and logic within the system.

Context Diagram. This is an overview of the organizational


system that shows the system boundary, external entities that interact
with the system, and the major information flows between the entities
and the system.

Methods Used in Developing the Software

At this point, the work of the system analyst will be tested to its
fullest ability. This is the part where the system analyst must be able to
determine and explain the methods that will be used throughout the
entire project. Software Development is a tedious task not only for the
programmer but also for the system analyst, because they will decide
on the type, size and creativeness of the system. At this juncture, the
methods used in developing the software must be explained and
defined. The following are the system development methods, namely,
software planning, software analysis, software design, software testing
and software implementation.

Software Planning. This software development method


designates a plan in which a system analyst must first identify. Identify
meaning, to identify the product goals and requirement of the system.
System analyst must also put into consideration the capabilities of the
programmer before deciding the product itself.

Software Analysis. It can be considered as the most difficult


phase because in this phase raw materials or information’s must first
examine thoroughly before converting it into a software design.

Software Design. Design is a visualization of the outcome of a


product but then in software design phase, time is very essential
because designing software is not an overnight job. It takes a long
period of time to ensure efficiency, maintainability and reliability if the
software.

Software Testing. A stage or phase where the proposed system


will be given to a panel of critics and end-users for testing. In this way,
the developer can determine the response of the user whether the
system works or not.

Software Implementation. The phase of the software


development method where software has already been debugged
documented and tested. The objective of the implementation phase is
to deliver a completely functioning and documented information
system.

Software Operation and Maintenance. Maintenance keeps


the system functional at an acceptable level, correct errors and adapts
changes in the new environment to provide new features and benefits.

Methods Used for Product Evaluation


This part consists of the methods used in evaluating the proposed
system in terms of accuracy, efficiency, reliability, speed, portability
and user friendliness which lead to the integrity of the proposed
system.

Technical Feasibility. The proposed system is technically


flexible since computerization of the existing data is possible and the
components needed for the system are widely sold in the market.

Market Feasibility. The proposed system of the proponents is


market feasible since the respondents will be able to save time in
tallying and recording the files of clients. They will also be able to save
time and money by not purchasing a lot of papers for paper works and
documentations.

CBA (Cost Benefit Analysis). This estimates and totals up the


equivalent money value of the benefits and costs to the community
about whatever projects to establish are worthwhile. Evaluating
hardware and software, identifying and forecasting cost and benefits
and performing cost benefit analysis are all necessary activities the
system analyst must accomplish in preparing material for the systems
proposal.

Operational Feasibility

To determine if the proposed system is operationally feasible to


apply or implement. Below are the given criteria, which serve as a
basis to test the proposed system if it really works.

Accuracy. The ability to be precise and avoid errors and the


correctness or truthfulness of something especially in the
mathematical computation of sales so that the business will not suffer
from any losses.

Efficiency. The ability to do something well or achieve a desired


result without wasted energy or effort, or the degree to which this
ability is used in the system.

Reliability. The ability to be trusted to do what is expected or


has been promised. The ability to be trusted, to be accurate or correct
to provide result.

Speed. To reach the maximum or desirable rate of movement or


progress. To be or become fully informed about the latest
developments, to accomplish things in a manner that consumes less
time. Speed is the main concern of the proponents so that the
proposed system will be implemented successfully. In using computer
based program and the idea of automation, speed requirement should
be satisfied.

User-Friendliness. Understandable software applications. Easy


access and easy to use Windows based system.

Portability. The ability to transfer software application to


another computer. The proposed system is hosted online so that users
can easily access the system wherever they are as long as there is
internet access.

CHAPTER II
Review of Related Literature and Studies

This chapter places the current study into the context of previous,
related research. It consist of both the theoretical and conceptual
framework of the present study, the critique of both related studies
and literature that are related to the present study, as well as the
operational definition of terms that are based on observable
characteristics and how it is used in the study.

Theoretical Framework

Theoretical Framework is a separate chapter consisting of a


review of related literature, the theories that have bearing the
problem, the conceptual framework and the hypothesis.

The study is focused on the System Theory, which states that, "A
System refers to any collection or combination of programs,
procedures data and equipment utilized in processing information". A
system is mainly made up of three components that represent the
units of analysis or the variables under study. As the result of the
study, it represents Input as the Independent Variable (IV), the Process,
as the Intervening Variable (ITV), and the Output as the Dependent
Variable (DV).
The upper portion of the paradigm (shown on Figure 2.0) clearly
illustrates how the existing system will be processed. The materials
used in the traditional method, which is a manual way of recording files
using the pen, pencils, papers and columnar notebooks serves as the
input; and the manager being able to get the incoming files of the
clients serves as the output.

The lower portion of the paradigm illustrates how the proposed


system will be processed. It illustrates the new method of recording
files through the use of a computer, which serves as the input; the
process is automated and is therefore faster, more efficient and easier
to work with. The manager can now get the recorded files faster by
inputting the records.

Related Literature

This section presents both foreign and local related literatures


relevant to the study. This relevance is shown by the proponents in
order to give more reason and understanding of the proposition.

Tom DeMarco & Tim Lister of Peopleware, 2nd Edition, Dorset


House (1:58) cited that:

"Companies that sensibly manage


their investment in people will
prosper in the long run"

The authors of the book state that if companies manage


investment in people wisely, it will reap the rewards in the future as
the company grows. It will succeed in the long run because the people
within the company are the ones contributing to the growth of the
company. Thus entails the importance of taking care of the people
within the company.

Caper Jones of A Practitioners Approach, Fifth Edition (2:114)


cited that:

"Good estimating approaches and


solid historical data offer the best
hope that reality will win over
impossible demands."

The author of the book stated that in business, good estimating


approaches and solid historical data are beneficial tools to be taken
advantage of. As to with research studies, one does not jump to start
right away, but the approach should start with solid historical data so
that awareness of the study be met with a hopeful result that will win
over impossible demands.

Carl P. Zeithami & Thomas S. Bateman of Management Function


and Strategy (3:139) cited that:

"In today's business environment,


planning has become a widespread
management function, involving
people throughout the organization
in the analysis, identification, and
selection of goals and priorities."

Authors of the book state that planning is very important for


every individual, work group, or organization because it helps the
systematic process during which decisions are made about the goals
and activities, just like companies using a manual system method to
carefully plan on what would be the possible solution to make the
system work faster so that there is less probability of errors in the
activities, and in considering the need for a computerized system in
order to better answer the problem.

Related Studies

This section presents other related studies by the people who


conducted studies similar to the proponents that will also greatly help
in the progress of the study. And it will also help the understanding of
the proposition.

Mark Dominic dela Torre (4:1) stated that:

"The concepts of a simple dream, a


determination, quality and
perseverance are the forefront to
any business that leads to
successful outcome."

Having the concept of determination and assuring quality service


to customers, the proponents created an online software program to
cater to company employees in making their job more efficient thus
delivering quality service and determining a successful business.
Gaudelyn C. Pantilo (5:1) stated that:

"The increasing demand gave us


the idea how to deal with our
ongoing progress. It motivates us
to meet their need efficiently."

The company needs to continually diversify to meet the ongoing


demands of the business sectors today. Thus, proponents created an
online software program for the company to have a more efficient work
force, easily manage all its transactions and to meet the demands of
this ever changing economy.

Kneener Lim and Antonette Goyenechea (6:2) stated that:

"Records security is also one of the


primary objectives and all the
information received from its
clients are confidential."

The proponents created and designed a software program for the


company to make the system perfect where all the records should be
kept, thus giving the assurance that these files are secured and
accessible for the advancement of the company.

Synthesis
The caption that is stated on the related studies by Kneener Lim
and Antonette Goyenechea and the studies that were conducted are
related to the proponents' study because these studies are concerned
with the records system of the company. Both studies are related in the
area of the importance in keeping all the records and files of the clients
of a company and putting into account solid historical data of the
company that could be used to further improve the company’s growth
in the future. It will give the assurance that these files are secured and
accessible for the advancement of the company. It also guarantees
that people’s job will be easier, faster and more efficient for the benefit
of the company.

Definition of Terms

The following terms below are used verbosely during the study.

Operational Terms

The definition of terms are based on observable characteristics and


how it is used in the study.

Client. A person that can receive services from the employees


and agents.

Company. A business enterprise firm.

Employee. A person employed at a wage or salary.

File. A receptacle that keeps loose objects such as papers or any


collection of items.

Manager. A person that manages a business.


Record. A document that contains an account particularly in
terms of collection.

Services. Non-monetary programs provided by companies that


benefits clients.

Conceptual Terms

The definitions of terms are based on concepts or hypothetic ones,


which are usually taken from the dictionary.

Automated. The conversion of the process of automation has


been already done.

Computer System. The configuration that includes all functional


components of computer and its associated hardware or software.

Database. An integrated collection of data which provides a


more efficient way of storage and retrieval of data and is capable of
processing large portions of data immediately.

Information. Is data that has been changed into a useful form of


output.

Process. A series of actions, changes, of functions that bring


about an end or a result.

Software. A computer terminology use to describe the unseen


programming codes and running application inside the computer
system.
System. A set of related components that produces specific
results.

Technology. It is the study of practical or industrial arts.

Technological Advancement. A technical advancement or


progress resulting to a development of another technology.