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91


. . .
.

1
, .
.
. ,
, .
, , , ,
, ,
.
[1] ,
. , , ,
. . 2
. . 3 . . 4
. ,
. 5 8
.
..
// XXIV
, -, 1997. . 90122.

92

. . .

2
,
. .

2.1 . -
.
[1].
, , , [1],
. , , , .
,
.
P(t) Q(n). [1]
Q(n) = (1 cos )nn + cos E + sin nE,
(1)
Q(n) n, n . (1)
R
Q(n) = E +

sin
1 cos 2
R+
R = exp R ,

R = E

(2)

(2), (1),
, .. = || 0.
1 + 2 cos = tr Q ,

sin
= Q ,

(ab) = ab

(3)


Q(n) = Q(p)Q(q) ,

|p| = |q| = 1

(4)


1 + 2 cos

2 sin n =

cos + cos + cos cos + (1 cos ))(1 cos )(pq)2


2 sin sin (pq),

[sin (1 + cos ) (1 cos ) sin (pq)]p+


+[sin (1 + cos ) sin (1 cos )(pq)]q+
+[sin sin (1 cos )(1 cos )(pq)]pq

(5)

(6)


. , p = q, = + , . ,
p q = 0, (5) : = , =

...

93

. n ,
(6) . ()
[1]
P = P ,

P = P,

(f = df/dt)

= P

(7)

= Z() ,
= ZT ()
(8)

= Z1 (),

= ZT ()

(9)

- Z1 (), ,
Z() = E +

1 cos
sin 2
R+
R ,
2

1
1g 2
Z1 () = E R +
R ,
2
2

det Z = 2(1 cos )/2

g=

sin
2(1 cos )

( 6= 2s)

(10)

(11)

, = 2s(s = 1, 2, . . . ) Z() .
Z(2m) = mm

= Z(2m) = m

.
2 ,
.
. , , || 1,
. ,

cos =

2
2 [2 sin2 + (1 cos )2 ]||
2

Z
4 ||
=
=
2
2
T

4 ||
2 [2 sin (1 cos )2 ]||
2
||
ZZ

, 2
2

cos 1

, 2
=

P =

= n,

n = const

,
. , .

94

. . .


R2k+1 = (2 )k R ,

R = 0 ,

R2k = (2 )k1 R2 ,

(k = 1, 2, . . . )

- Z .
.
ZT = PT Z ,

Z() = ,

(P = )

(12)

Z()
Z(Q) = QZ()QT ,

Q : QQT = E,

det Q = +1

(13)

Q = P, P = ,
Z() = PZ()PT

PZ = ZP,

PT Z = ZPT

(14)

(12) (14), . ,
Z1 () = ZT PT = PT ZT

(15)

(12) (15) .
(8).
(3),
= (tr P) = (1 + 2 cos ) = 2 sin = tr( P) =
tr P

2 sin

1
1

= = (2 ) = () =
(16)
2
2
(8)
P = ,
= (E P)
=
= (P) P
P
, (17)
= ( ) = 2 () = 2 ( )

(E P)

1
= 1 [R(E P) + ]

[ (E P) + ]
2

2
(2)
=

R2 = E = 2 E
(8).

...

95

2.2
,
, , , .
: M ,
U(), ,

M = U()
=

U
dU 1
=
Z ()

(17)

,
M = ZT ()

dU
+ f(, )
d

(18)

: ,
, .. (18)
f(, ) = 0.
,
, . : (18) (17). : , , . : , ,
f(, ) , ()
.
U().
: U()
k,
U() = U(Q(k))

(19)

Q(k).
. Q(()k), .
(19) , (19) .
dU
dU d 0
dU
0
=

=
(k

) = 0,
d
d 0 d
d 0

0 Q(k)


dU
dU
(k) = 0
= 1 k + 2 ,
d
d
1 2 . d,

dU
1
d = 1 d(k) + 2 d(2 )
dU =
d
2
,
U() = U(k, 2 )
(20)

96

. . .

U() 2 , .
(20)
dU
U
U
=2
+
k
(21)
2
d
( )
(k)
, (18)
M = 2

U
U

ZT k
2
( )
(k)

(22)


. , a.
(E P) = (E PT ) = 0

(a a 0 ) = 0,

a 0 = Pa

(22)
(E PT )M =

U
U
(E PT )ZT k =
(Z1 ZT )k =
(k)
(k)
=

U
U
Rk =
k
(k)
(k)

k,
(k k 0 )M = 0

(23)

.
(23) a, k.

2.3

,
. .
[2]. ,
,
.

P = exp R = exp[E],

= 0 + ,

|| 1

(24)

.
, .
P
= P ,

P
= P ,

= P

(25)

P .
P = P ,

P = P ,

= P

(26)

...

97

(25) (26),

= + ,
= ,
(27)

(8).
= Z

= Z ,

= ZT ,

= /

(28)


= ZT

= Z ,

0 ( ),
= ZT

= Z ,

(29)

f(, t).
f(t) = [f(, t)/]=0
f(, t).

P = 0P0 ,

0 = Z0 ,

= 0 + 00 ,

(30)

0 , 0 = |=0 .

P = P00 ,

0 = ZT0 ,

= 0 00 ,

0 = |=0

(31)

() , 0 =
0 = 0.
=

1
1
1
0 =
0 0 =
0 0
0
0
0

(32)

3 .
. ,
k. O,
. , , .1.
, . .
, .
, ,

98

. . .

. 1:
. ,
, A. A . k A.
.
, .
, , ,
,
.

k. A
A = A1 (E kk) + A3 kk

(33)

A1 , A3 ,
, .
, .. ,

A(t) = P(t)APT (t) = A1 (P k 0 k 0 ) + A3 k 0 k 0 ,

k 0 = Pk

(34)

A , .
(34) P .

K = PAPT = A1 + (A3 A1 )(k 0 )k 0


(35)

K = PA = P[A1 + (A3 A1 )(k)k]

(36)

...

99

(35) , (36) .
U(). , ,
(18)
U
Me = ZT ()
+ f(, ),
(37)

.
U() , (37) .(21)
(22).
U
U
Me = 2

ZT k
(38)
2
( ) (k)
, U/(k) = 0.
,
a

2 U
a > 0,

a : |a| 6= 0,

2 U
U
2 U
=2
E+2
(k + k)+
2
2

( )
( )(k)
2 U
2 U
+4

+
kk
(2 )(2 )
(k)(k)

(39)

(40)

U
[PAPT ]+ ZT
= Mext ,
(41)

Mext , .
(41)
+ A + Z1 U = PT Mext ,
A
(42)

(15).

+ Mex .

(42)
Mext = ZT

(43)

+ A + Z1 (U + ) = PT ()Mex
A
(44)

(41) (44)
= Z1 ,

= ZT ,

(45)


t=0:

= 0 ,

= 0 ,

= 0

(46)

100

. . .



A = AE ,

U
= 2u 0 (2 ) = c(2 ),

U = u(2 ) ,

(47)

2 . (42) (43)

+ b + c(2 ) = 0
+ b + c(2 ) = 0 ,
A
A
(48)
(48) Mf = b, b = const, b > 0.
, (48) . (48)
(45).
1
1g
1
1g
= +
() = + +
()
2
2

2
2

(49)


t=0:

= 0 ,

( = 0 = PT (0 )0 )

= 0

(50)

(48) (50)
( ), (
). (48) (49) .
,
. . ,
- .
, .
P() = Q(k)Q(p)Q(k) = Q(p 0 )Q(k),

(51)

= + ,

p 0 = Q(k)p,

p 0 k = pk = 0

(52)


(5), (6). (48) (49) , ,
2
cos )]+ c( ) sin (1 + cos ) = 0
A[ (1

2 sin

c(2 )
A[ + sin )] +
sin (1 + cos ) = 0
2 sin

c(2 )
A[( sin ) )]
+
sin sin = 0
2 sin

(53)

...

101

(5)
1 + 2 cos = cos + cos + cos cos ,

=+

(54)

(53) , b = 0, .. . (53) (54)


, - .
, (53) (51) . ,
(53) (54). - ,
. , .

, . , .
[1]. .
(48) (49) . ,
. , (48) (49).
(48) ,
A( )+ b( ) = 0

b
A

= exp( t)(0 0 )

(55)

.
a) 0 0 = 0 ,

b) 0 0 = |0 0 |e 6= 0

, (55)
=

P =

(t) = (t)(t)

(48) (49),
+ b + c(2 ) = 0,
A

= (t)(t)

, .
A + b + c(2 ) = 0,

= ,

= m ,

m = const

(56)

,
. : a) b = 0, c(2 ) > 0
; b) c(2 ) = c = const .
(56) .
, 0 6= . (49) ,
g( ) =

1
( + )
2

(57)

(55)
g() exp(

1
b
t)(0 0 ) = ( + )
A
2

(58)

102

. . .

(8) (58)
1
( + ) = sin
2
(58)
2(1 cos )
b
= (0 0 ) exp( t)
2
A

(59)

, ,
0 0 . ,
(t) = (t)Q(e)m ,

m = 0 /0 ,

me = 0 ,

(0) = 0,

(60)

e 0 0 . (60) ,
2e
=

(61)

(61) (59),
|0 0 |
b
=
exp( t) > 0
2(1 cos )
A

1 cos 0
b
=
0 exp( t), 0 > 0
1 cos

(62)

.

sin

e (1 cos )e
= +

(48) , e e,
. , e e (62),

A( sin 2 ) + b + c(2 ) = 0

(63)

, ..b = 0, (63) (62)


. , , (63) .

c(2 )
2 =
,
A sin

= const

(64)

,

= = 0

...

103

(63) ,
,
c(2 ) = c = const .
(60)
P = Q() = Q(e)Q(m)QT (e)

(65)

, (51) e 6= k.
,
= . , (65),
, (51). (51) (53)
, , . , (51)
p = 0 /|0 | ,

k = e = (0 0 )/|0 0 | ,

= ,

= 0,

= ,

(53) (62) (63) b = 0


.

5

.

5.1
Mext , = = 0. (41)
U
=0

U
U
+
k=0
(2 )
(k)

(66)

(39) ,
U
> 0,
(2 )

(67)

, (39).
(66) , k. (66)
2

U
U
(k) +
=0
(2 )
(k)

(68)

(39) ,

U
U
= F(2 , k)k ,
F(2 , k) + 2
>0
(69)
(k)
(2 )
(67) (69) (68) k = 0, ..
= 0.

104

. . .

(39) (69) .
,
U(2 , k) =

1
2 C 1 2
1 2 (C3 C1 )(k)2
+
,
2 2 2 + (k)2 2
2 (k)2

(70)

2 > 0, 2 > 0, C1 > 0, C3 > 0 , , C1 , C3 . (70)


,
20 (k0 )2 < 2 ,

(k0 )2 < 2

, t
2 (t) 2 ,

k(t) 2

2 2 2 0.1, 2 0.1.
2 2 ( ),

U(2 , k) =

1
C1 2 (k)2 + C3 (k)2 ,
2
2

(71)

5.2

Mext = Mex = Lk

(72)

(41)
2

U
U
+
ZT k = Lk
2
( )
(k)

(73)

(11)
1
1g
ZT k = k + k +
[(k) 2 k]
2
2
(73) k (74)

U
1g
U
1 U
2
+
(k)
k +
[ (k)k] = 0
(2 )
2
(k)
2 (k)

(74)

(75)

,
k = 0

= (k)k

(76)

...

105

, . (75)
2

U
1g
U
+
(k)
= 0,
2
2
( )

(k)

U
= 0,
(k)

(67). , (76) . (76) (73),


2

U
U
(k) +
=L
2
( )
(k)

(77)

(69) .
(71),
k = L/C3 ,
= Lk/C3
(78)

5.3

Mext = Mex = LPk,

(79)

.. k 0 = Pk.
(73)
2

U
U
+
Z1 k = Lk,
(2 )
(k)

(80)

P = , PT ZT = Z1 .
, = (k)k. (77) , , (78).

5.4
, .. [3].
p
Mext = Mex = L(k + Pk)/ 2(1 + kPk)

(81)

p
U
U
+
ZT k = L(k + Pk) 2(1 + kPk)
2
( )
(k)

(82)

(82) , (76) (78). (70)


.
. (72), (79) (81) ..
[3]. , . .
,
(81) , .
, .

106

. . .

5.5 - 1
, . , .
, ,
, .

= L k / |k|,
L k > 0
(83)
,
. L > 0, .. L < 0
. (44) (Mex =
0)

(U + )
U
U
=0 2
+
k = L/
(84)
2

( )
(k)
, k > 0 k (84)
2

U
U
(k) +
=L
(2 )
(k)

(69) .
(71) (78).

5.6 - 2
()
= Lk

= Lk

(85)

U
U
+
k = Lk
2
( )
(k)

(86)

, k, .. ,
(86) . (71) (78).
, . :
.
. ,
, .

,
.
.

...

107

6 .


, ,
.. . [4],
, , ,
. .
0: P0 , 0 ..
P .
= 0 + ,

P = exp[E] ,

|| 1,

(87)

.
. (44).
+ A + Z1
A

(U + )
= PT Mex,

(88)

(0 = 0)
Z1
0

(U + )
= PT0 Mex,0
0

(U + )
(U + )
2 (U + )
2 (U + )

0 0

=0

(89)

=0

.2.3.
(88) = 0,
A0 + Z01

2 (U + ) T
Z0 0 + (Z1 )Z0PT0 Mex,0 = 0PT0 Mex,0 + PT0 (Mex ) (90)
0 0

, Mex,0 .
- Z1

1
1 g0
(Z1 ) = E +
(E0 + 0E) +
2
20

d 1g
1
+
0 0E0
d
2
0
=0
,

1
1 g2 1
ZT Z1 = g2 + 2 E +

4
2
4

108

. . .

(71).
2 U
= C1 (E kk) + C3 kk ,

2
= 4 C3 (E k),
0 0

(91)

4 = 1 (83) 4 = 0 .
,
0 = Lk/C3 ,

Mex,0 = 3 Lk,

(92)

3 = 1 (72), (79) (81); 3 = 0 .


(90)
T
1
A 0 + [(C1 4 C3 )Z1
0 Z0 + ((1 + 4 )C3 C4 )kk]0 2 Mex,0 +

1 g0
0(Mex,0 ) = 0Mex,0 + PT0 (Mex )
20

(93)

, A , 0
0 = xk + y ,

yk = 0 ,

= ZT
0 0 = xk + g0 y + 0 2ky

(94)

(93)
A3 x
+ C3 x = kMex ,

20
3 L 2
3 L
2
+ (C1 4 C3 ) g0 +
A1 y

+ 3 C3 g0 (1 g0 ) y
ky =
4
4C3
2

(95)

= (PT0 kk)(Mex )

(96)

5 ,
.

6.1
0 = 0. (95) (96)

+ C1 y = 0
A3 x
+ C3 x = 0 ,
A1 y
, ..
.

6.2

4 = 0 ,

3 = 1 ,

(95) (96)
A3 x
+ C3 x = 0,

Mex = 0

...

20
L2
L
2
+ C1 g0 +
A1 y

+ C3 g0 (1 g0 ) y ky = 0

109

4C3

(97)

. , ,
. [5], [6].

6.3

4 = 0 ,

Mex = LP0 (yk) ,

3 = 1 ,

kMex = 0 ,

kP0 = k

(95) (96)
A3 x
+ C3 x = 0,

"
+
A1 y

C1 g20

2
+ 0
4

#
L2
L

+ C3 g0 (1 g0 ) y + ky = 0
4C3
2

(98)

L. (97) (98) , .
. .. .

6.4

4 = 0 ,

Mex =

3 = 1 ,

1
LP0 (yk) ,
2

kMex = 0

(95) (96)


L2
2
+ C1 g20 + 0
+ C3 g0 (1 g0 ) y = 0
A3 x
+ C3 x = 0 ,
A1 y
4

4C3

(99)


L,
C1 (g20 + 20 4) + C3 g0 (1 g0 ) >

L2
4C3

(100)

, L
g0 =

0 sin 0
1 L2
'1
,
2(1 cos 0 )
12 C23

.. (100) . (99) [5], .

110

. . .

6.5 - 1

4 = 1 ,

3 = 0 ,

Mex = 0

(95) (96)
A3 x
+ C3 x = 0 ,

2
+ (C1 C3 ) g20 + 0 y = 0
A1 y
4

(101)

C1 C3 > 0 , C1 C3 < 0
. C1 C3
0 ,
, ,
,
.

6.6 - 2
(85)
4 = 0 ,

3 = 0 ,

Mex = 0

(95) (96)
A3 x
+ C3 x = 0 ,

2
+ C1 g20 + 0 y = 0
A1 y
4

(102)

L.

7
. 56 ,
, .
,
.
, , ..
|L| C3 > 0 ,

, , . . ,
. ,
, .
.
= = ,

Z = E,

U
= C ,

P = E + E,

...

111

(71). (79)
(43)

+ C = Lk ,
A

t = 0 : = 0 ,

= 0

(103)

A C ,
(103) . , .
, Lk y (98), . ,
. , , , .
? . . ,
L. ,
. . [7]
(79),
. , , ,
. .
. .
. .
, ,
, .
. :
(78). . 6, ,
.. , .. . ,
, . : , , ,
- , ,
. , .. [3] ,
A, C. , ,
L , . ,
,
,
[4]. , ,
.

112

. . .

8


(72) (69)
Mex = L(l1 k + l2 Pk) ,

= (l21 + l22 + 2l1 l2 kPk) 2 ,

(104)

l1 = 1, l2 = 0 ; l1 = 0, l2 = 1
l1 = l2 = 1 .

A(t) = P[A1 E + (A3 A1 )kk]PT = A1 E + (A3 A1 )k 0 k 0 ,
dU
= B(x, 2 ) + D(x, 2 )k ,
d

k 0 = Pk;

x k

(35) (36).
(36).
= L(l1 k + l2 k),

1
1
A1 2 + (A3 A1 )(k)2 + U()
2
2

(105)

,
Zt
0 = L ()k(l1 () + l2 ())d

(106)

(106) t, |L| 0 , .
(106) t , , |L|.
. [6],c.159-160, l1 = 1, l2 = 0 ,
, .
, .
, .., , l1 = 1, l2 = 0
l1 = 0, l2 = 1 , l1 = l2 = 1 0 . ,
, . .
.
[A1 + (A3 A1 )(k 0 )k 0] + B + DZT k = L(l1 k + l2 k 0 )

(107)

. (107)
[A1 +(A3 A1 )(k)k]+(A3 A1 )(k)k+B+DZ1k = L(l1 k+l2 PT k) (108)

...

113

k 0 = k.
(108) (107)
[A1 ( ) + (A3 A1 )(k)(k 0 k)] + (A3 A1 )(k)k + Dk =
= L[(l1 l2 )k + l2 k 0 l1 PT k]

(109)

(109) k,
[A1 ( )k + (A1 A3 )k(1 cos )] = L(l1 l2 )(1 cos ),

(110)

cos = kk 0 = kPk.
(110) . (8) (10)
1 cos
= (Z ZT ) = 2

(111)


= xk + y ,

yk = 0 ,

y = y(t)Q((t)k)m,

(112)

mk = 0, 2 = x2 + y2 .
,
= k(y
k()
y) ,
k( ) = 2(1 cos )

y2
,
2

2 k,
y
y = y
(1 cos ) = (1 cos )

y2
2

(110) 1
[(1 cos )F]= L(l1 l2 )(1 cos ),

(113)

F = 2A1 + (A1 A3 )k

, (113) , L(l1 l2 ) = const . (113) .


, F t = 0 .
(1 cos )F (113) ,
, (1 cos ) = 0. ,
F . (113)
, F .
(113) , , F t = 0
, .. , (113) (-1).
, l1 6= l2 , ,
k, . , ,
1 (113)
...

114

. . .

.., . ,
. ,
.
,
.
.
. ,
, ( ) . , (18).
, , (18) ,
, ,
(105) (106). , , .. : ,
.


[1] Zhilin P.A. A New Approach to the Analysis of Free Rotations of Rigid
Bodies.//ZAMM Z. angew. Math. Mech. 76 (1996), 4. pp.187-204.
[2] ..
// . . ,
N458, .-.: 1995, . 56-73.
[3] .. . .: , 1955. 584 .
[4] .. . .: , 1987. 304 .
[5] .. . .: ,
1961. 339 .
[6] . . .: , 1971.
192 .
[7] .., .. // . . , N446, .-.: 1993, . 174.

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