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-

01.04.07

:
..-., ..

-
2003

1.

10

1.1 . . . . . . . 10
1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.3 , . . . . . . . 17
1.4 . . . . . . . . . 19
1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.6 . . . 25
1.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
1.8 . . . . . . . . . 32
1.9 . . . . . . 34
1.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
1.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
1.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
1.13

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

1.14 : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
1.15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
2. ( )

63

2.1 . . . . . . . . 64
2.2 . . . . . . 66

2.3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
3.

75

3.1 . . 75
3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
3.3 . . 84
3.4 . . . 88
3.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
4.

96

4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
4.2 . . . . . . 99
4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
4.4 . . . . . . . . . . . 103
4.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
4.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
4.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
4.8 . . . . . . . . . . 117
4.9 . . . . . . . . . . 122
4.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

128

131

141
3


(), , .
.
. ,
- [15], [68].
,

. [15]
. ,

, [913].


.
[15] 4

.
, .
.
. , , , . [2, 3]


.
( ) ( )
[4]
.
[15]
. , , . ,
,
- , 5

, .
. , ,
, .
, ,
, .

.
. , .


. ,


.
, .
6

,
.

, . ,
, , .

, , , . , .

. , .
. .
.
, .
. ,
. 7

1
(,
.).
.

.
.
, , . ,
. : ,
. .
.
[15], .
, .
, .
1
, [52], ( ,
.) (, .).

, .
, ,
.
,
:
, .
, , .

1.

,
- , ,
.
1.1

- () , , 1 . . ,
, , .
- .
.
, , , (, , .). , ,
1

micelle, , , mica, ,
, .

10

, - , , . , ,
.
:
( , , ), ( ), ( , ),
( ). ,
.

, .
, 1974 [14], (. 1.10),
.
,
,

. , [18, 19] (, , ,
) [20].

11


, [21, 22], 1976
() (. 1.5).
1996
[23], .
(
), (. 1.11).
, 2003 , , , ,
[24] , , ,
(. 1.12).
[913],
1974 .
,


(. ).

, , , [15],
- . ,
12

, ,
.
.
80-, 90- . , ,
(density-functional theory)
(self-consistent field lattice theory).

( -)
, .
, .. . [2527]. [28, 29]
, ,
( CH2 , , .)
, . ,
.

13

1.2


. ,
, ..
2 , , .. .
,
, . , .
- , , [30, 31]:
R X

R1
> X ,
R2

X
R (R1 , R2),
R = CH
... CH2} ,
3 CH2 CH
{z 2
|
Nc
, Nc
4 < Nc < 20 .

(1.1)

X
,
, X , -

. ,
, .

14

,
X = SO4 N a+ ,

X = CO2 N a+ ,

X = N + (CH3)3Cl ;

, .
:
CO2 CH2 CO2 CH CH2 O P O2 OCH2 CH2 N + (CH3 )2
|

R1

R2

, , ,
X = O(CH2 OCH2)x ,
x 2 20.
- - .
, Nc . CH2 3
3
v0 ' 26.9
A,

(1.2)

[32]
Vc ' (Nc + 1)v0,
3

(1.3)

.
, . , , v0 , , (
v0 ).
, ,
.

15

CH3,
, CH2.
CH2, ,
CH2 v0,
3v0
0 =
4

!1/3

(1.4)

v0,
0 ' 1.86
A.

(1.5)

[31,
32],
Lc ' 1.5 + 1.265 Nc ,

(1.6)


Lc (Nc + 1)l0 ,

(1.7)

l0 = 1.265
A. ( ), ,
4v0
d=
l0

!1/2

' 5.2
A.

(1.8)

, ()
dH2 O ' 3.0
A.

(1.9)

:
z, 1, 2 ( z > 2
16

);
z = 1;

(1.10)

, ,
(1 5)
A.

(1.11)

, .

1.3


: , , ,
. ctot

. ctot , (), ,
.
, , ,
.
. (, ,
) : 17

, , .
, (CH2)n CH3, . ,
, . , ,
, ,
, . . 1.1. ,
.
.
. ,
, :
;
( );
-.
, . .
.
( ), .
.
.

18

. 1.1
, ,
C12 H25 OSO3Na [22, 31].

, .

1.4

(. [1517]
[68]) .
. 1.2
.
, - ctot cKKM
, , 4. , .

4

, -, ..
, . , -
.

19

. 1.2
( , .) [3335].

, . , .
( [31, 33, 35, 36]).
,
. ,
- , .
,
, .
cKKM
,
10%
c1 ,
ns cM = 0.1c1 ,

20

(1.12)


C8
SO4 Na+
C10
SO4 Na+
C12
SO4 Na+
C14
SO4 Na+
C12
(CH3 )3 N + Br
C16
(CH3 )3 N + Br
C12
(OCH2 CH2 )6 OH

(/)
1.3 101
3.3 102
8.3 103
2.1 103
1.6 102
9 104
9 105

1.1 [31].

cM , ns 5 .
, 10%
, .
. ,
, , ctot cM
c1 . .
, cKKM . . 1.1
( ) . :
( )
,
;
( ) . , , .
.
5

. ,
.

21

1.5

, . , , , ,
.
.
, , .
[31]: , , ,
, , .
. 1.3.
, ,
[21, 22],
.
, . , , . . 1.4.

Vc /L Vc L. () Sc . L L Lc, Lc .
Lc Vc Nc
22

. 1.3
: (A) , (B) , (C)
, (D) , (E) , (F) [31, 35].

23

. 1.4
,
. [21, 22, 31, 37].

(1.3) (1.6). R :

R L. n

Vc
Sc :
n = 4L3 /3Vc = 4L2/Sc ,

L = Vc /3Sc .

(1.13)

(L Lc )

Vc
1
< .
L c Sc
3

(1.14)

( H L)
2LH
L2 H
=
,
Vc
Sc

(1.15)

1/2.
. 1.2 [22, 37], = Vc /LcSc .
.
24


< 1/3

1/3 < < 1/2

1/2 < < 1


1<<2
2<<3
>3



.
.



( )


( - )


1.2
= Vc /Lc Sc ,
[22, 37].

, ,
, ,
, .
1.6


Wn , .. , n - ,
n . Wn c(eq)
n
-,
(eq)

c(eq)
= c1 eWn ,
n
(eq)

c1

(1.16)

. ,

25

(.); kT , k 6 , T 7 . ,
W1 = 0.
Wn . :
n;
c1 (t);
, ( , , .), a1 ,...,aK .
Wn cn n > 1. ,

, . , , () (
). , () , . ( ).
,
Wn c1
Wn = Gn (n 1) ln
6
7

k = 1.380662 1023 /.
T = 300 .

26

c1
,
c0

(1.17)

Gn
a1 ,...,aK n. c0 , (
). , Wn (1.17), , n . ,
c0 c00
Gn , (n 1) ln c00 /c0 .
.
(1.17)
dWn n 0 : dWn = (n 0 )dn,
n , n . , n
;
0 () .
0 = ln c1 +(T ),
(T ) [38]. W1 = 0
G1 = 0.
, .. ,
ctot ( )
.
.

ctot =

ncn (t) ,

(1.18)

n=1

. ,

27

nmax.
(1.18), ,
( Wn n). , n Gn ,
n.
1.7


n n, Wn c(eq)
n
, . , [1517]
.
. 1.5.
Wn , (eq)

ln c1 .
(1.16) ln c(eq)
n
ctot > cKKM 8 Wc , nc , 9 Ws , ns .
Wn0 c = Wn0 s = 0 ,

(1.19)

. Wc = Wnc
, Ws = Wns 8

c , ,
(critical aggregates).
9
s , ,
, (stable aggregates).

28

. 1.5
As ( ) (s) [9, 1517]. / .

.
nc
ns,
Wc Wncnc = 1 ,

Ws Wns ns = 1 .

(1.20)

Wn
, nc ns

1/2

2
nc = 00
W nc

1/2

2
ns = 00
W ns

(1.21)

,
, .
.
29

,
:
: 1 n n1;
: n1 < n < n2 ;
: n2 n,

10 .
n1 n2

n1 = nc nc ,

n2 = nc + nc .

(1.22)

,
. .
. 1.5 c(eq)
n
.
( ):
.
ns
, (1.21)
Wn Ws +

(n ns )2
,
(ns)2

(1.23)

10

30

,
c(eq)
n

(n ns)2
(eq)

.
cns exp
(ns)2

(1.24)

, 11 ,
cM =

ns c1 exp[Ws] .

(1.25)

.
.
. , .
12.


, , . (1.21), c
(n nc )2
,
Wn Wc
(nc)2

(1.26)


1
(eq)
cn
11

1
(eq)
cnc

(n nc )2
exp
.
(nc)2

(1.27)

, . ,
.
12
, , [15].

31

1.8

Wn , . 1.5, , . (1.19)
, (1.17),
G0nc = G0ns = ln

c1
.
c0

(1.28)

, Gn , G0n nc ns ( ). ,
c1 ,
, , Wn ( ,
). c10
c1 , Wn .
Wn ,
n0, Wn000 = 0. ,
Wn Gn n (. (1.17)), Wn
Gn , , . , Wn
, .
, c10 c1 , Wn
n0.
: c1 < c10 , Wn0 ,
Wn n. 32

, .
, c1 c10 , Wn : .
. c1 , .
c1 ,
, () (. 1.4).
, c10 . , c10 cKKM . , 1.4 ,
ctot , , .
, c10 , Wn,
.
ctot > cKKM ctot
. , c1 c10
.
cKKM c10 .
(1.12) ( )
. ,
(1.12) . , ,
Gn c0 . ctot , 33

c0 , c1 , ns cM , (1.18),
(1.19) (1.25) 13. ctot c1 cM .
ctot (1.12) . .
.
cKKM c10 .
, [20], cKKM c10 , .. c10 ( Wn ) () cKKM .
, , c10 , cKKM . .
1.9

, 1.7, .
[913] (. ).
Wn
n, (
) ( ) c1 > c10 ,

..
, , ,
13

, (1.18) c1 ,
.

34

.
[14] ( 1.10).

,
,
: c1 c10 c1 > c10 . (,
) ( , .).
.
,
, . ,
, , , .
(.), 30 80.
. . , ,
(
). , 35


.
,
14 . . , , c1 > c10 .
,
,
.
.

( ,
,
: n  1).
. , ,
.
, ,
.
, ,
, , ( ) 14

, , .

36

....uuuu.................
........
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
u
.
......


.
.
uuu
.
uuuu
.
u
u
u
.
u
.
u
u
.
u

.... uuuuuuuuu uuuuuu uuuuuuuuuuuuuuu .......
.
.
uuuuuuuuu u
..
.
u

uuu
uuu
u
...
u
u
u
u
..... uuuuuuuu
u
...
u
u
u
u
uuuuuuuuu
uuuuuuuuuuuuuu
.
u
.
...

u
u
u
....
u

...
....
.
...
...
... ..


....
.. 

.
.....
.
.
........
....
.


.
.
.
.
.
............
.

............... 


. 1.6
.


, [15] 1.14.
1.10

, [14],
, [21], [19] [20].
.
:
( ) ();
(. . 1.6).

37

.
, .
Ge . ,

Z2

.
Ge =
80kT R2

(1.29)

Z , ( , ), R
, 0 15, . ,
Z = (ez)n,

3Vc n
R=
4

!1/3

= n1/3,

(1.30)

ez 16, =
(3Vc/4)1/3 , Vc ,
. ,
Ge = b1 n

4/3

(ez)2
b1 =
.
80 2 kT

(1.31)

, 0 (.
1.2) Nc
= 0 (Nc + 1)1/3 .

(1.32)

b1 .
15
16

0 = 8.85418782 1012 /.
e = 1.6021892 1019 .

38

Gs
Gs = S0 /kT,

(1.33)

0 , S : S = 4R2 .
R,
Gs = b3n

2/3

42 0
.
b3 =
kT

(1.34)

Gb ,
Gb = b2n.

(1.35)

.
,
Wn = b1 n4/3 + b2 n + b3n2/3 (n 1) ln

c1
.
c0

(1.36)

00

, Wn0 = 0, (1.36)
n0 = (b3/2b1)3/2.

(1.37)

c10 , Wn n0 , ,
Wn0 0 = 0 .

39

(1.38)

n0 (1.37),
c10
4q
=
ln
2b1b3 + b2 .
c0
3

(1.39)

b2
(1.36), 17
Wn
W n = b1 n

4/3

 q
4

2b1b3 n + b3n2/3 (n 1) ln

c1
.
c10

(1.40)

(1.17), 18
Gn = b1n

4/3

 q
4

2b1b3 n + b3n2/3 .

(1.41)

c10 b1 b3
[20]
ln v0 c10

4q
(4)1/3(3v0)2/30
= BNc ln(Nc + 1) +
2b1b3
.
3
kT

(1.42)

.
b1 b3 .
b1 b3.
,
0 . ,
, 1 5 . 17

ln c10 /c0 .
(1.40) c1 c10
c0 , . (1.17).
18

40

30 50 ,
(80 ). ,
0 3 5 /2 .
b1 b3, (1.31) (1.34), , . , ,
[20] ,
= 5.0
A,

0 = 0.03 /2 ,

= 30 ,

z=1,

(1.43)

b1 = 1.13 b3 = 22.4.
[40] ,
= = 4.37
A,

0 = 0.05 /2 ,

= 40 ,

(1.44)

b1 = 1.59 b3 = 29.
b1 b3
b1 1 2,

b3 20 30.

(1.45)

.
, c1 > c10 .

nc =

v
u
u
t

1/2

b3
3 ln(c1 /c10)
+
2b1
16b1

41

1/2 6
3 ln(c1 /c10)

16b1

(1.46)

ns =

v
u
u
t

1/2

b3
3 ln(c1 /c10)
+
2b1
16b1

1/2 6
3 ln(c1 /c10)

16b1

(1.47)

ns .
nc ns (1.21).
.
,
R ,
R Lc .

(1.48)

(1.6) (1.30) Lc R,

n (l0 /0)3 (Nc + 1)2 ,

(1.49)

l0 0 ,
1.2. ,
n 0.3 (Nc + 1)2 .

(1.50)

Nc  1, (1.50). Nc
n  1, ,
(, ,

42

........ d ....
.....
.
.

.. ........


......
.

.
dH ..O...........

........................ ......... . . ........ 
&
.
.
....... ....... ...... ... .... ...................... 
..... ...

............. L 

.
 ........
r ...
...


........ .. .. ..................
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
%
.............
...... ..... ......... ...........................
.

..................L
.
... ... .....
.
.
.
.
.
... ...
.
 . .

.
.

...
..
.
.
. ..


  


2

d
dH2rO
r....r..r...r..r...r...r...r..rr...r..r..rrr
d.r..r...r..r....r...r...r...r...r.....r..r...r...r...r..... .........

..... .....
....
.....
...
...
....
...
....
...
...
...
.
.
.
...
...
...
.
.
...
...
..
.
.
.
.
....
...
..
.
..
.
.
...
...
...
.
...
..
.
.
...
...
.
...
....
...
...
...
..
...
...
...
...
.
.
...
...
....
... ....
...
... ...
... ..
..
.. ..
.
....................................................................................................................................

r + L

. 1.7
()
().

).

1.11

, [23],
, , . . 1.7. . ,
,
.
, .
, .

43

.
,
(1.29) . R , R = l0Nc , ..
b
Ge = n2 ,
2

b
(ez)2
=
.
2 80 kT (l0Nc )2

(1.51)

, . Nc
,

Gh = BNc ,

(1.52)

B , 1.4 [19, 23].


,
(. . 1.7),
L =

d + d H2 O
r ,
2 sin(/2)

(1.53)

d , , dH2 O (. 1.2).

(4/n)1/2

(1.54)

n  1. r . 1.7
r = (sn/4)1/2, s .
44

(.. n)
d + dH2 O s1/2 1/2
n .
L =
(4)1/2

(1.55)


Nc = (L/l0) n,
2a 3/2
Gh =
n ,
3

2a
d + dH2 O s1/2
=B
.
3
(4)1/2l0

(1.56)

.
,
Wn =

b 2 2a 3/2
c1
n
n (n 1) ln .
2
3
c0

(1.57)

, n0 , c10,
:
a
n0 =
2b

!2

ln

c10
a2
= .
c0
4b

(1.58)


b 2 2a 3/2 a2
c1
Wn = n
n +
n (n 1) ln
,
2
3
4b
c10

(1.59)

(1.17)
Gn =

b 2 2a 3/2 a2
n
n +
n.
2
3
4b

45

(1.60)

a b.
,
a b.
d, dH2 O l0 , 1.2. s 2

s ' v0/l0 21
A .
a 1.3 ,

b 0.1 .

(1.61)

, ,

(.
1.10).
.
(1.59). c1 > c10
Wn

a 2 b ln c1 /c10
nc =
2b

(1.62)

a + 2 b ln c1 /c10
ns =
.
2b

(1.63)

nc
ns

1/2

1/2

2
nc = 00
W nc

2
ns = 00
W ns

1/2
anc

2b

46

2b

1/2

1/2

1/2
ans

, W

"

4a
c1
W = 3/2 ln
3b
c10

#3/2

(1.64)


.
.
,
.

L < L. (1.55)

4 l02Nc2
n<
.
(d + dH2 O s1/2)2

(1.65)

d dH2 O 1.2 s ' v0/l0, n < 1.54 Nc2,


(Nc = 12) . n
, n = 10.

1.12

, -
, , , [40, 41]. ,
47

....... d ....
.
......
.
.

. ... ...


......
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
dH ..O

........................ .............. ...........................
. 
.
&
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..........
..........


.
.
.
.

r ..

....
.
.


.. ...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
... ...
..........................
.
.

....................... ..............
.
.
.
.
...... ... .....
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
 .. ..

......

..
...
.......


  


2

. 1.8
.

.
, , ( ).
, . , . , . (
) ,
, .
, . . 1.8.
, . ,
(1.54)
n  1.
dH2 O
48

d r ,
r =

d + dH2 O 1/2
n .
2 1/2

(1.66)

Nc , ,
,
4 3
r = nv0(Nc + 1)
3

(1.67)

( Nc ,
CH3 CH2), Nc,
Nc =

(d + dH2 O )3 1/2
n 1 .
6 1/2v0

(1.68)

, ,
(Nc Nc )l0, r
r (Nc Nc)l0,

d + dH2 O (d + dH2 O )3l0 1/2

n ,
r = (Nc + 1)l0 +

2 1/2
6 1/2v0

(1.69)

, n.
1
=
(Nc + 1)l0

d + dH2 O (d + dH2 O )3l0

,
2 1/2
6 1/2v0

(1.70)


r = l0 (Nc + 1)[1 + n1/2] .

49

(1.71)

1.2,
0.15
.
Nc + 1

'

(1.72)


. ,
, . ,
= 0 . ,
(n1/3 n1/2).
,
: Wn. , [40, 41],

1/2

1
c1
bn2
2a 3/2
a 1/2
1/2 5 + 2n0
Wn =

n + n n0 1 n0
ln
+ const . (1.73)
1/2
1/2
2
2 (1 + n )
3
2
c10
4 + n0

a b (1.73) ,
, , . const (1.73)
Wn n, .
n0
1/2

1/2

n0 (1 + 41 n0 )
a
=
.
1/2
2b
(1 + n0 )4

(1.74)

50



15
1/2

n0
,
n0 = n
0 1 +
2


n
0 = (a/2b)2 .

(1.75)

.
, , , Nc 3 4,
n nmin = (5 6)2

36v02
.
(d + dH2 O )6

(1.76)

Nc < Nc ,

n nmax = (Nc + 1)2

36v02
.
(d + dH2 O )6

(1.77)

d, dH2 O v0 ,
1.2, (1.73)
1
1
(5 6)2 n (Nc + 1)2.
4
4

(1.78)

Nc 12 .
, ,

|n1/2| 0.08 .

(1.79)

, .

51

1.13


, / ,
. , , , /
, / , . ,
,
. , , ,
: ,
( ),
- ( ), . ,
.
An , n , 4 :
An , An An1 + A1 ;
An , An + A1 An+1;
An1 , An1 + A1 An ;
An+1 , An+1 An + A1.
An , . t ,

52

, ,
n . ,
cn
( ) jn ( )
n .
cn
cn jn+
n . ,
jn+ ,
jn+ = qn c1 .

(1.80)

jn1
cn1 jn+1
cn+1 . -

,


cn = t jn cn jn+cn + jn1
cn1 + jn+1
cn+1 .

(1.81)

t , -
[42, 43]:
cn
= [Jn+1 Jn ] ,
t

n2,

(1.82)

Jn
+
Jn = jn1
cn1 jn cn ,

n2.

(1.83)

c(eq)
( Jn(eq) = 0) (1.83) n

(eq)

+
jn1
cn1 jn c(eq)
=0,
n

53

n2,

(1.84)

jn
(eq)

+
jn = jn1
cn1/c(eq)
,
n

n2.

(1.85)

(1.16) , (1.85)
+
jn = jn1
eWn Wn1 ,

n2.

(1.86)

(1.86) . c1 .
(1.17) (1.80) (1.86),

jn = qn c10eGn Gn1 .

(1.87)

,
. , , (1.18).
1.14

[15] , , ,
- , .
, -

54

.
, , .
.
, . [2] :
nc  1 ,
nc /nc  1 ,

ns  1 ;

nc /(ns nc )  1 ,

ns /(ns nc )  1 .

(1.88)
(1.89)

n
( ) Wn.
, Wn ,
n = 1 .

eWc  1 ,

eWc  eWs .

(1.90)

(1.88) (1.23)
(1.26)
. , , [4648] .

55


, .
, , . , ,
. ,
. ,
() .
:
1. ;
2.
;
3. .
, .
. , , t(1) , t(2) t(3) ,
. , , .
.
56

.
(,
) .
, , , .
[2] ,
( ) (. ).
,
(. ),
[5] .
[2], J ( )
J ( )

J

jc+ c1 eWc
=
,
nc

jc+ cM e(Wc Ws )
=
ncns

(1.91)

( jc+ , nc ).
- (1.82)
, , , ,
.
, (1.88), ns ns . ,

57

, ns cM . (1.90) ns  1,

.
(1.18),
c1 + ns cM = ctot .

(1.92)



cM (t)
= J (t) + J (t) ,
t

(1.93)

c1 .
, -
.
.
[3] ,
:

1 n nc nc ;

ns ns n ns + ns;

58


nc nc n nc + nc.
,
. , (
)
t(2)

1
2
cM
+
= +
2
js (ns)
c1

(1.94)

(1.94) . ,
.

(nc)2
tc =
.
2jc+

(1.95)


, [3].
, [49, 50].

.
, ,
[47, 51] t(1) (n)

59

(1)

n. tmin (n)
t(1)
max (n)
(1)

tmin (n) =

1
,
jn

t(1)
max (n) =

n
.
jn

(1.96)

.
.
, . - n 1/jn,
tmon =

1
.
js+

(1.97)

ns , tmon
. , ns tmon
() . .
, .
,
tmic =

cM
nc ns eWc Ws
=
|J |
jc+

60

(1.98)

.
[4]
,
.
(1.92) (1.93)
(1.25) . ,
, [4],
t(3)

cM nc exp[Wc]
n2s cM
1+
.
=
c1 jc+
c1

(1.99)

( , ).
. n2s cM /c1  1 (1.99)
(3)

nc exp[Wc]
'
,
n2s jc+

n2s cM /c1  1 ,

(1.100)


t(3)

cM nc exp[Wc]
'
,
c1 jc+

n2s cM /c1  1 .

(1.101)

.
[5] ,
.
, 61

. , ,
, , .
, , :
tmon  tc  t(1)  t(2)  t(3)  tmic .

(1.102)

, , ,
.
1.15

. , . -
,
, . .
.

Wn, , .
62

2.
( )
, ( ).

. ,
, .
[4648] .
[56] , ,

.
( 2.1) ( 2.2).
, [46, 47]. 2.3
[56].
2.4. 2.5, .

63

2.1

, - (1.82). ,
, n2 , , n2  nc.

cn2 = 0 .

(2.1)

, .

n2,
nc nc n < n2 .

(2.2)

(1.86) (1.82)
Jn =

+
jn1
eWn1

Wn1

Wn

cn1 e

cn .

(2.3)

(s)
c(s)
= J (s) , J (s)
n Jn = Jn

n. (2.3)
J

(s)

+
jn1
eWn1

(s)
eWn1 cn1

64

eWn c(s)
n

(2.4)

(2.4)
(s)
eWn0 cn0

(s)
eWn0 +1 cn0 +1

J (s) Wn0
,
= + e
jn0

(2.5)

(2.5) n0 n0 = n (
n nc nc ) n0 = n2 1. (2.1),
eWn c(s)
n

=J

eWn0
+ ,
n0 =n jn0

n2 1
(s) X

(2.6)

(s)
c(s)
n J . -

(2.6) n = nc nc 1
(s)

(eq)

cnc nc = cnc nc ,

(2.7)

( ) J (s)
,
J (s)

eWn

= c1
+
n=nc nc jn
nX
2 1

(2.8)

C (2.6)
c(s)
n , .
, (2.6) (2.8) .
1

(2.7) , n < nc nc (2.6) n (.. |n nc | nc ).


(s)
, n < nc nc cn (eq)
cn ,
. 2.4 .

65

2.2

(2.8).

|n nc | nc .

(2.9)

jn+ n,
+
jn+n
0

jn+

1+O

 0 

n
n

(2.10)

jn+

jn+c

nc 
1+O
nc


|n nc | nc .

(2.11)

eWn n < nc n > nc (


) eWn n ( (2.9))
(n 1, n + 1) O(1/nc). , (2.8),
n +n

eWn
eWnc c Z c
00
2
= +
dn e|Wnc |(nnc ) /2 (1 + a ) ,
+
jnc n n
n=nc nc jn
nc +n
X c

(2.12)

a
!

nc
1
a = O
+O
nc
nc

(2.13)

(2.12) erf(x),
1
erf(x) =

66

Zx

et dt .

(2.14)

, (2.9)
eWn
= erf(1)
+
n=nc nc jn
nc +n
X c

nc eWnc
(1 + a) ,
jn+c

(2.15)

x = 1
erf(1) ' 0.8427 .

(2.16)

,
erf(1), , . ,
(1.91)
2. (2.15)
.
(2.8) n ' nc + nc
n = n2 1. n nc + nc Wn0 , ,
,
|Wn0 c +nc |





Wn Wnc +nc




n (nc + nc )

nc + nc n n2 .

(2.17)

|Wn0 | nc + nc
2/nc. ,
2

eWn eWnc e1 e nc (nncnc )

nc + nc n n2 .

(2.18)

(2.18),
2

[46, 47] a
nc , nc N . Wnc nc Wnc = N
nc . N N = 1
( (1.20)) .
(2.15) erf(N ), N = 2
, erf(2) ' 0.9953. , N , . [46, 47].
, N
. N
.

67

n,
nc + nc n nc + nc +

nc
.
2

(2.19)

jn+ (2.19) (2.10).


Wnc
eWn
1 e
e
+
jn+c
n=nc +nc jn
nX
2 1

e nc

(2.20)

n=0


Wnc
eWn
nc
1 e

e
,
+
+
j
j
2
n=nc +nc n
nc
nX
2 1

(2.21)

2/nc. (2.15) (2.8)



eWn
'
+
n=nc nc jn
nX
2 1

nc eWnc
(1 + a ) ,
jn+c

(2.22)

erf(1) e1/2 .

1/nc nc /nc (2.13).
(2.22) (2.8), ( )
Ja(s)

c1 eWnc
=
,
nc jn+c

(2.23)

(2.13). , nc /nc
(2.8),
68

1/nc eWn .
, (2.23)
(1.99)
.
2.3

(2.23)
, , . [56]
n ,
n =

|J (s) Ja(s) |
,
J (s)

(2.24)

a , (2.13)

a =

1
nc
+
.
nc
nc

(2.25)

, , [56] , , .
.
, 3 [56].
,
3

, . .

69




Wn = an2/3 bn ,

(2.26)


a = 4(3v/4)2/3/kT ,

b = ln( + 1) ,

(2.27)

, v
, .
(2.26) nc nc

2a
nc =
3b

!3

4a3/2
nc =
.
3b2

(2.28)

jn+
n

jn+ = k vt (9v 2/16)1/3c1 n2/3 ,

(2.29)

k (
), vt .
, (2.26) (2.29) n.
(2.23) .
[46],
1
1,
nc

nc
1.
nc

(2.30)

[46], Wn jn+
70

b\a
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5

7
8
9
0.279 0.185 0.129
28.35 23.20 19.44
0.425 0.296
37.29 31.25
0.536
44.44

10
0.09
16.60
0.214
26.68
0.386
37.95
0.615
50.39

3.0

11
0.07
14.39
0.160
23.13
0.288
32.89
0.456
43.68
0.668
55.51

12
0.05
12.63
0.123
20.29
0.220
28.87
0.348
38.34
0.508
48.71

13
0.04
11.20
0.09
18.00
0.172
25.60
0.272
34.00
0.396
43.20

14
0.03
10.02
0.07
16.11
0.138
22.91
0.217
30.42
0.315
38.66

2.1
n a (2.23)
J (s) ( ).

n nc nc, (2.30) n. (2.26) (2.29) n


.
(2.23) (2.8) a
7 14 ,
. b, (2.27) , 1 3, .
n .
. 2.1,
n,
a . (2.30)
.
. 2.1, (2.23)
, . , n
a b b
71

a. n
a .
2.4

, , .
.

, ()
;
, . . 2.1

.

(2.13) ,
, ,
.
n2 n2  nc .
nc nc n n2
2.2 .

72

100

80

Wn

60

40

20

20
0

50

100

150

. 2.1

( a b a = 10,
b = 2) () (
a = 1.35, b = 0.1 c1 = 1.495271 102
).

, n2 cn2 ( (2.1)) :
n2 4.
, , n2
(2.6) (2.8) ,
.
n2 . ,
, ,
,
() . ,
4

,
.

73


. ,
n = nc nc , 2.1. , (2.7)

.
2.5

( ), ,
. ,
. . ,
.
[56].

74

3.
, - , ( , , .). , . ,
.
. [52].
3.1

, , .
: , , .
, Wn , (1.17), Gn ,
. ,
-

75

1 n,
Gn =

M
X

gm (a1 , ..., aK ) nm ,

(3.1)

m=0

> 0 , gm (a1 , ..., aK ) , a1 ,...,aK . = 1/3,


= 1/2. ,
n,
: Gn n, . ,
, . ,
Gn , , .
,
- . ,
, .
, Gn
n. , 1.14 ,
1

(1.41) (1.60) .
(1.73) n1/2 .
.
( ),
.

76

n (. ). , .
(3.1) Gn n 1. , ,
, , .
, (3.1),
,
, , (3.1) Gn n 1. , , n .
, , , Wn . ,
, 2 . ,
Wn 3 ns . (1.17), ns 4
Wn
0=
n

|n=ns

Gn
=
n

|n=ns

ln c1 .

(3.2)

(3.1),
2

(. 1.5), .
.
3
(3.1) Gn n Wn . ,
, .
, (3.1).
.
4
, . , ln c1 ,
, , , c10
c0 . , , ,
.

77

, ( , )
.
3.2

f (x), x > 0:
f (x) =

n eGn xn =

n=1

eh(n

; x)

(3.3)

n=1

h (n ; x)
h (n ; x) = Gn n ln x ln n .

(3.4)

f (x):
f (x) x
h (n ; x) ( Gn
n). , f (x) 0 x > 0.
,
x

f(x)
= f+1 (x) .
x

(3.5)

, f (x)
.
 ns h (n ; x) ,
ns. ,
h (n ; x) /n (3.2).  ns
n.
78

f (x) , , :
f (x) = x +

nX
0 1
h (n ; x)

n=2

n=n0

eh (n

; x)

= x + f0(x) + f (x) .

(3.6)

, :
n0 .
n0 ,
cn : n0 = nc . ,

, ..,
f0(x)  f (x) .

(3.7)

f0(x), (3.6)
f (x) x + f (x) .

(3.8)

f (x), ,
. (3.6) , h (n ; x) ns ,

f (x) exp[ (x)],

(3.9)

(x)
(x) = h (ns ; x) +

1
1
ln h00 (ns ; x) ln(2) .
2
2
79

(3.10)

ns f ,
f /f = (ns) ,

(3.11)

f = (ns )1f1 .

(3.12)

(1.18)
f (x) c1 ,
c1 = x

f1 (x) = ctot .

(3.13)

f (x) ctot (3.13), c1 ,


f1 (c1) = ctot .

(3.14)

(3.9) (3.14) (3.8),


c1 ,
ctot = c1 + exp[1 (c1)] .

(3.15)

,
, (3.14).
(3.13). ,
c1 a1 ,...,aK .
a1 ,...,aK , f1(c1 )
( ).
80

(3.13) ak ,
c1/ak
"

c1
f1
=
ak
c1

#1

f1
.
ak

(3.16)

f1/c1 (3.5).

X
f1
Gn
=
neGn xn
ak n=1
ak

(3.17)

Gn n,
Gn X
= gm,k nm ,
ak
m

(3.18)

gm,k =

gm
.
ak

(3.19)

, c1
,
ln c1
1 X
=
gm,k fm+1(c1 ) .
ak
f2(c1) m

(3.20)

f (3.6), f (3.12), f0(c1 ) (3.7),


X
X
ln c1
1
=
c1 gm,k + f1 gm,k nm
s
ak
m
m
c1 + ns f1

(3.21)

, (f1 )
(c1 ),
c1 c1

P
m gm,k

P
ns f1 f1 m gm,k nm

s

. -

f .
81

: ln c1 /ak
f1.
ln c1 X
= gm,k nsm1 .
ak
m

(3.22)

(3.2) : ln c1 ns .
(3.2) ak ,
X
ln c1
ns
= m gm,k nsm1 + gm (m 1)nsm2
ak
ak
m

(3.23)

ns .
gm,k (m 1)nm
ns
s
m
= P
,
ak
gm m(m 1)nsm1
P

(k = 1...K) .

(3.24)

, ,
ns a1 ,...,aK .
.
ns a1 ,...,aK
c1 (3.2).
ak , (3.24) .
. , , (3.24)
. ,
.
. Gn
82


G(n),
a1 ,...,aK (3.3), (3.24) .
, G(n)

a1 ,...,aK . , G(n)

(3.24), ,
, . ,
G(n)
(3.2),
c1
0 (ns)] ,
c1 = c1 exp[G

(3.25)

c1 (3.24) G(n).

. , ns Gn ,
(3.24) Gn . ,
0 (n) (3.25),
G
.
(3.24)
n , (m 1), m m0 = 1/,
( , 1/ , ). , (3.24)
gm0 g0 ,
gm0 . g0
nm
s , ns  1. ,
.

83

(3.24)? ( )
.
,
, , , (1.60). ,
( Wn, , .),
. ,
Wn, , . 3.5.
3.3

,
1.10. (1.41) Gn ,
Gn = b1 n

4/3

4q
2b1b3 n + b3n2/3 ,

(3.26)

b1 b3
(1.31) (1.34) . (1.41) n = 1/3,
g0 = 0,

g1 = 0,

g2 = b3,

g3 =
84

4q
2b1b3,
3

g4 = b1 .

(3.27)

(3.24) ( ). gm (3.24),
ns
3
n4/3
s
,
=
1/3
b1
2 2b1ns b3 n1/3
s
2/3
ns
3
ns
=
.
1/3
b3
2 2b1n1/3
s b 3 ns

(3.28)
(3.29)

ns = (b3/b1)3/23 (b1, b3)

(3.30)

(2 1)
2b1
=
,
b1
22 1

(2 1)
b3
=
,
b3
22 1

(3.31)


2 (2 1) = 3(b3)b1 ,

(3.32)

2 (2 1) = 1(b1)b2
3 .

(3.33)

, 1(b1) 3(b3),
2
1 (b1)b1
1 = 3 (b3 )b3 .

(3.34)

b1 b3 , ,
3(b3) = (ctot)b2
3 ,

1 (b1) = (ctot )b1 ,

(3.35)

(ctot ) ctot (. . 3.1). 1 (b1) (3.33), 85

ns
ns = (b3/2b1)

3/2

= 1 + 1 + 4(ctot)b1b2
3 .

(3.36)

(3.36) (3.2),
h
i2
2q
c1 = exp
2b1b3 1/4 1/4
3

(3.37)

b1 b3. ,
. ,
,
.
() ,
(
(3.37),
b1 b3 , , ). , , . , . , ,

. , , c1 (
.) (3.37), ,

, .. . ,
, , (3.51) (.), ,

86

ctot
c1

2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
1.9865
2.1159
2.1471
2.1648
2.1771
2.1865
2.1942
32.774 22.852 20.486 19.156 18.232 17.525 16.953

3.1
c1 ctot ,
b1 = 2.0, b3 = 30.

. ,

.
b1 b3. ctot
(ctot ), ctot . , c01 b01 , b03 ctot
(1.18) (3.14),
c01 (3.37) .
(ctot ) ctot , . 3.1.
, Wn n, , . , ctot c1 .
(3.37) ,

b1 b3 . ,
. . 3.2
(
(1.18)), b1 b3 .

87

b3 \b1
28
29
30
31
32

1.0
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9

1.5
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.8

1.6
0.3
0.4
0.6
0.7
0.7

1.7
0.1
0.3
0.4
0.6
0.7

1.8
0.0
0.1
0.3
0.5
0.6

1.9
0.3
0.0
0.2
0.3
0.5

2.0
0.5
0.2
0
0.2
0.4

2.1
0.7
0.4
0.2
0.1
0.3

2.2
1.0
0.7
0.4
0.1
0.2

2.3 2.4 2.5


1.3

1.6
1.2

1.9
1.5
1.0

0.9
0.9 0.8
0.6 0.4 0.6
0.0 0.1 0.2

3.2
( ) (3.37), b1 1.0
2.5, b3 28 32. 1% (
, ).

, b3 30
32 ( 28) () 20C (..
5C 45C). , b1 . , (, N aCl)
, b1. -
b1 (
). ,
. 3.2 b1
b3. , , (3.37) 1%
.
3.4

. 1.11 (1.59) , Gn
b 2 2a 3/2 a2
Gn = n
n +
n.
2
3
4b
88

(3.38)

, a b , (1.51)
(1.56). (1.59)
n = 1/2
g0 = 0,

g1 = 0,

a2
g2 = ,
4b

g3 =

2a
,
3

g4 =

b
.
2

(3.39)

gm,k (3.24),
,
ns
2
n3/2
s
=
,
a
3 2bns an1/2
s
2
ns
ns
=
.
1/2
b
2bns ans

(3.40)
(3.41)

ns = (a/b)22(a, b)

(3.42)

2da d(2 1)
=
,
a
( 2/3)

3db d(2 1)
=
,
2b
( 2/3)

(3.43)

.
a b,
3| 2/3| = 1 (b)a4 ,

(3.44)

3| 2/3| = 2 (a)b3 ,

(3.45)

1(b), 2(a) b a .
, :
1(b) = Cb3 ,

2(a) = Ca4 ,
89

(3.46)


3 | 2/3| = Ca4b3 ,

(3.47)

C.
, , 3 . , (1.60) Gn ,
, bn an1/2 + a2 /4b = ln c1 , ( ns )

ns =

a
+
2b

2
v
u
u ln c1

(3.48)

, 1/2, (3.47)
2/3.
,
4 3
' 2/3 + (a40b3
0 )a b ,

(3.49)

, (3.42),
2

2a
b2

ns =
+ G (ctot ) 3 ,
3b
a

(3.50)

G ctot . ( (1.18) a0 , b0 ),
. . 3.3 G (ctot ) ctot a b (. 1.11).
, . (3.2)

90

ctot
c1
G

2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
1.6280
1.6460
1.6549
1.6608
1.6652
1.6687
1.6716
592.08 541.82 517.62 501.66 489.76 480.29 472.42

3.3
G c1 ctot ,
a = 1.5, b = 0.1.
b \ a
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15

1.0
0.0
0.7
1.2
0.9
1.3

1.1
0.9
0.0
0.8
1.3
1.2
0.2

1.2

0.8
0.1
0.9
1.4
1.4
0.6

1.3

0.8
0.1
0.9
1.4
1.6
1.1
0.4

1.4

0.8
0.0
0.8
1.4
1.5
1.5
0.5

1.5

0.9
0
0.7
1.3
1.7
1.7
1.1

1.6

1.0
0.1
0.6
1.3
1.7
1.8

1.7

1.2
0.3
0.5
1.1
1.6

1.8

1.5
0.5
0.3
1.0

1.9 2.0

1.8
0.7 2.2
0.0 1.0

3.4
( ) (3.51),
a b (ctot = 2).

c1 :

2
a2 
4 3

c1 = exp
1 + G (ctot )a b
.
36b

(3.51)

, .
. 3.4 ( ) (3.51). c1 a b
: (3.14)
(3.51).
c1 > 1 ( c10).
c1 < ctot ( ).
91

, (3.51) , 2%, ,
a b . .
, (3.51) .
, .
,
c1 a b,
.
, (3.51)
(3.37) .
a, b b1, b3, ( = 1/3
= 1/2 ). ,
. b1 , b3 a, b
( ),
(3.37) (3.51), .
3.5

, ,
:
;
;
92

Gn n;
.
, , . . ,
. , , (
(3.37) (3.51)). . , Gn
n .
, , Gn . , ( (1.17), (3.1)
.), ,
.

.
3.2
G(n)

, , ns . ,
Gn ,
, .
: .
93

. ,
. ,
, . , . 3.1 c1 ctot = 5 ( c10). ,
5c10 , ,
. ,
, .
.
,
3.2, , ( , )
gm .
Wn
,
c10 . , c10 ,
, . ,
b1 b3 (1.39), (1.58) a b. ,
( )
(,
94

, ).
, ,
n , ,
.
, ,
(, ) ,
( , ,
). ,
( (1.41)
(1.60) ). ,

,
.
,
.

95

4.

. . ,
, , .
[15]
.
, ,
.
, , .

, , . (),
.
, , [39, 53]. 2000 [54].
2003 [55].
96

4.1

jn+
Wn n = 1.
, jn+, , ,
. , jn+ n
( (2.29) jn+
: jn+ n2/3) eGn Gn1 ,
-.
jn+
, qn (1.80) q,
qn = q .

(4.1)

, , .
(1.41) (1.60)
. b1, b3 a, b . ,
c10, , . 1.8. ,
c10 , ,
97

(, ).
, c10 (, , ). (1.39)
(1.58),
. , c10
, .
(1.39) (1.58) ,

c0 = c0 exp(b2)

(4.2)

c0 = c0

(4.3)

. c0 , b2 (. 1.10).
(1.39) (1.58) , , c10 c b1 b3
ln

c10
4q
=
2b1b3
c0
3

(4.4)

a b
c10
a2
ln
= .
c0
4b

98

(4.5)

,

c1
,
c0

n = b1(n4/3 1) + b3(n2/3 1) . (4.6)


G

n (n 1) ln c1 ,
Wn = G
c0

n = b (n2 1) 2a (n3/2 1) . (4.7)


G
2
3

n (n 1) ln
Wn = G

(1.40) (1.59) Wn W1 = 0.
, c10
(4.4) (4.5), ,
c0 ,
c10 .
4.2


. a b (b1 , b3 ), , ctot ,
c0 q (4.1).
,
. , = q
c0 t q
(1.82),
99

c0 c0 = 1. , , . ,
, c0 q.
, a, b (b1 , b3 )
ctot , , . a,
b (b1, b3 ) ctot .
(1.82) (4.1) (1.86)
jn , (1.17)
,
cn ( )
n 2


cn

= c1 ( )cn1( ) + cn+1( )eGn+1 Gn cn ( ) c1 ( ) + eGn Gn1 ,

(4.8)

(1.18)

. eGn+1 Gn
a b (b1 , b3
) . , .
(4.8) . , , .
cn (0) = c(eq)
,
n
100

(4.9)

c(eq)

n
. , .
.
, .
, ctot .

a b (b1, b3 ). , , 1
, .
ctot (1.18)
(1.16).
ctot =

n=1

nc(eq)
=
n

n=1

(eq)

n(c1 )n eGn

(4.10)

(eq)

(1.16).
c1 , c(eq)
n
, .

.
, nmax
. 1

,
. , ,
- .

101


cnmax ( ) = 0 .

(4.11)

, (. (1.16) (1.60) )
, a b (1.61)
nmax 200 cnmax 10150
.
4.3


, 1.14.
, , 2 n nc nc . (1) [47], .
(1)

1.14. (1.96) tmin(n) t(1)


max (n)
, n, ,
(1)
n1 G
n] ,
min(n) = exp[G

(1)
n1 G
n] .
max
(n) = n exp[G

(4.12)

C .
,

. (2) , [15] (. 1.14),

102


(2)
th

1
2
cM
+
=
c1 (ns)2
c1

(4.13)


. .
[15] (3) , (1.99) 1.14.

(3)

th

cM nc exp[Wc]
n2s cM
=
1+
,
c21
c1

(4.14)

cM (1.25).

(4.12) - (4.14) .
, ,
,
(4.12) - (4.14).
4.4

(4.8)
(1.18) ,
. a
, b ctot ,
c(eq)
n

103

, a
,
,
:
a
= 1.35 ,

b = 0.1 ,

ctot = 2.1 102 ,

a = 1.30 .

(4.15)

( , ). ctot ( ) (4.15) c0 .
c10 ( ) ctot ,
, , .
, . , ,
[15]. ,
, ctot . ,
,
.
. 4.1
. CM

c0 ,

CM =

ns +2n
X s

ncn .

(4.16)

n=ns 2ns

. 4.1, . . 4.1 104

nc
nc
ns
ns
Wc
Ws
c1 , 102
c1 /c10
cM , 105
CM , 103

a = a = 1.35 a = a
= 1.30
23.7
26.0
7.2
8.5
74.5
62.4
9.6
10.6
20.50
20.43
8.54
15.66
1.495271
1.780108
1.424
1.217
5.00
0.00547
3.695
0.00334

4.1
(a = a
= 1.35) (a = a
= 1.30) .


Wn n . , a .
(4.8)
- ,
(4.8),
(1.18). . , d , d - . , dmax. 1.
,
d = 5 102. , 106,
1010. , , 108 1012 .
105

35

30

25

20
2
15

10

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

. 4.1
Wn n
( ) ( )
.

.
,
:
1. - ,
, .
2. .
3. , (
106

). ,
, .
4. - , , .
5. 2-4 ,
.
.
,

.
.


.
, - , ,
.
107

10

x 10

9.9

c2()

9.8

9.7

9.6

9.5

9.4
0

20

40

60

80

100

. 4.2
: , ( )
(4.17) . ,
30 .

, ,
.
.
4.5

,
n nc nc,
.
c2 ( ), . 4.2. 108

10

x 10

9.8
9.6

c ()

9.4
9.2
9

8.8
8.6
8.4
0

20

40

60

80

100

. 4.3
: , ( )
(4.17) . , .

c1 ( ).
. 4.3.

cn ( ) n nc nc c(q)
n ( ) c1 ( )
(1) (n) . c(q)
n ( )
c1 ( ) (1.16), (1.17)

c(q)
n ( ) = exp[n ln c1 ( ) Gn ] .

(4.17)

(1) (n) n. (1) (n)


n , 109

(1)

n min (n)
2
4.2
3
6.1
4
8.0
5
10.0
6
12
7
14
8
16
9
19
10
21

(1) (n)
3.4
7.6
12.9
18.6
29
35
45
57
74

(1)
max
(n)
8.4
18.2
32.0
50.2
72
100
133
170
213

4.2
(1) (n)
(1)
(1)
min max
.

n. . 4.2 n
(1) (n), , (1)

(1)
(4.12) min max
.

, (1) (n) ( ,
,
).

(1) (2),
(4.12)

(1) (2) ' eG2 .

(4.18)

d
- :

d  (1) (2) .

110

(4.19)

15

10

1
2
10

(q)

cn()/cn ()

10

10

5
6
0

10

10

20

40

60

80

100

n
. 4.4
k = 10k
(k = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7), c1 (k ). n 10
, .

. 4.2 d = 5 102
.

, . 4.4,
n1 10 ,
(4.17)
. n1
. 4.1 nc 2nc. (1)

111


(1) ' (1) (n1) .

(4.20)

. 4.2 , (
a, b ctot ) (1)
(1) 102 .

(4.21)

, . 4.4 .
a
a a
,
.
4.6

, . .
. c1 ( )
.
. 4.4,
4.
,
( ) 112

1
(2)

1000 2000 3000 4000


2400 2900 3400 3900

4.3
(2) 1 2 = 1 + 1000.
(2)

. th
(4.13)
(2)

th = 3.2 103 .

(4.22)

(2)
( c0 ) CM ( ). (4.16)
cn ( ). (2)

(2)


2 1


=

ln[CM (1)/CM (2)]





(4.23)


CM ( ) .
(4.23) , 1 2 .
, (4.23) , 1 2. , . 4.3
1 2 = 1 + 1000, , .
(4.23) (2) 1
,
. 113

(.
. 4.1) .
W
Wn () ,
.
, . .4.3
(4.22) (2) .
4.7


(3)

th ,
(4.14) . 4.1
(3)

th = 1.9 106 .

(4.24)

(3)

, th
c1 ( ).
.
c1 ( ) (eq)

c1
(eq)

c1 ( ) ' c1

+ A exp[ / (3) ] ,

(4.25)

A , (3)
(eq)

c1 ( ). c1

a = a
, b ctot (
114

1 , 106
(3) , 106

2
3
4
5
6
1.64 1.80 1.89 1.94 1.97

4.4
(3) , 1 2 = 1 +
106 .

) (4.10),
c(eq)
n . (4.25)
(3) c1 (1) c1 (2) 1
2 ,
(3) =

ln[(c1 (1)

2 1
(eq)
c1 )/(c1(2)

(eq)

c1 )]

(4.26)

c1 ( ) (4.25),
(4.26) (3) 1 2 . .
4.4 (3) , 1 2. ,
(4.24).
(3) ,
1 ( 2 = 1 + 106),
(3) 2.01 106 ,

(4.27)

.
,
.
, (4.24) (3)

. , (3) th ,
. , . 4.1, CM
115

ctot , (4.15).
, , ,
(, ..). , ,
. .
.
, c1 ( ), cef f ( ),
cef f ( ) = c1 ( ) +

nc 2n
X c
n=2

nc(eq)
n ( ) ,

(4.28)

c(eq)
n ( ) (4.17). ,
c1 ( )
c1 ( ), cef f ( ). (4.17), (4.28)
dcef f ( ) dc1 ( )
=
d
d

nc 2n
X c
n=2

n ] .
n2 exp[(n 1) ln c1 ( ) G

(4.29)

1.4.
(3)

th (3) , 116

(3)

. , th (3)
,
, .
. , , .
, ,
(3)

th (3) .
4.8

, .
. 4.1, , .
,
. ,
.
, .
:
a
= 1.25,

b = 0.1,

ctot = 3.017369 102,

a
= 1.30,

(4.30)

.. b ctot a 1.25 1.30.


. 4.5 ,
117

nc
nc
ns
ns
Wc
Ws
c1 , 102
c10 , 102
cM , 106

a
= 1.25 a
= 1.30
23.9
22.4
8.5
7.3
57.9
68.3
10.6
9.7
17.18
17.78
12.96
8.26
2.421998 1.996625
2.011579 1.462533
1.08825 89.34237

4.5

, (4.30).

. (4.13)
(4.14)
(2)

(3)

th = 1.94 103 ,

th = 6.99 106 .

(4.31)

2
(2) = (1.7 2.5) 103 ,

(3) = 11.9 106 .

(4.32)

, . ,
1.7 . , , . .
(. 1.14 [4]).
:
;

1 , 2 , ;
.

118

;
;
.
, ,
. , . . 4.5 ctot

(a)

ctot = c1 + ns cM ,

(4.33)

. . 4.5
(4.30),
(a)

ctot = 3.017369 102 ,

ctot = 2.606827 102 .

(4.34)

, , (4.31) (4.32).
(a)

ctot ctot
(a)

: ctot = 2.1 102 ctot ' 1.78 102.


,

(4.24), . 4.7. , .

: 119

,
cM =

ns +2n
X s

cn ,

(4.35)

n=ns 2ns

(1.25).
cgauss
= 8.880419 105 .
M

cM = 8.934237 105 ,

(4.36)

, ,
.
, ,
. [4],
, . ,
,
.
(1 + 1/ns)

c1
<1,
ctot

(4.37)

,
( ). ctot (1.92), (4.37)
n2s cM /c1 > 1 .

(4.38)

, (4.38) , -

120


.
. 4.5, n2s cM /c1 ' 20.6, . , , , n2s cM /c1 ' 0.01. ,
.
n2s cM /c1.
t(0) [4]:
t(0)

nc

nc exp[Wc]
(1 + 1/ns)c1

=
1

n
nc ns jc+ (1 + 1/ns) c
ctot

(4.39)

(4.37). . t(0) .
,
(0)

nc

nc exp[Wc]
(1 + 1/ns)c1

=
nc 1
nc ns c1 (1 + 1/ns)
ctot

(4.40)

. 4.5 t(0) = 16.1 106,


, (3) (4.31). [4],
. ,
(1.99)
(3) , .

121

4.9


.
Wn
jn+ n.
-,
( ).
Wn jn+
. Wn . (4.6)
.
.
Wn qn, . ,
(1)

d min(2)
d = 1010.

: b1 b3 ctot .
, b3 26 28 b1 = 1.5 ctot = 2.6 105.
122

nc
nc
ns
ns
Wc
Ws
c1 , 105
c10 , 105
cM , 103

b3 = 26
b3 = 28
12.4
15.7
5.1
6.2
52.6
51.9
10.5
11.3
16.68
21.80
7.78
16.02
1.833452 2.590555
1.300509 2.028459
1.427972 0.000576

4.6
(
b3 = 26) ( b3 = 28) ,
.

c10 (
). . 4.6
, .
, ,
. , (). .
(1) (2) 7.2109 (1)

min (2) 7.36109.


,
. . , ,
,
.
123

(4.13) (2) :
(2)

th 2.455 104 ,

(2) ' (2.1 3.3) 104 .

(4.41)



.

(4.14):
(3)

(3) ' 0.29 .

th 0.27 ,

(4.42)


. , . ,
, b1 = 1.5, b3 = 28, b3 b3 = 26.
ctot = 2.6 105.
. 4.6.
(3) , (4.14) :
(3)

(3) ' 0.45

th 0.30 ,

(4.43)

, -

124

. . 4.6
(0) = 1.04 .

(4.44)

n2s c1 /cM : n2s c1 /cM ' 21.5.


, , :
(a)

ctot = 2.6 105 ,


cM = 1.427972 103 ,

ctot = 2.584 105 ;

(4.45)

cgauss
= 1.425043 103 .
M

(4.46)

,
.
, , ,
.
4.10

, ,
.
,
.

125

W Wn
. ,
[15]
W  1

(4.47)

(. (1.90)), , c1 c10 . . 4.7


(3)
a
= 1.30, b = 0.1 a
= 1.25,
b = 0.1 W . ctot
. , W = 1.61
(3)

(3) th , ,
(3)

(3) th . , -, (3)

(3) th W = 0.9,
cM
(3)

(1.25). , (3) th .
,
Wn n ( n)
qn ,
n . Wn (. 1.10, 1.11, 1.12).
qn n ,
: qn ' q. ,

126

ctot
c1 /c10
c1
nc
ns
nc
ns
Wc
Ws
W
(3)
th , 105
(3) , 105

0.030
0.029
0.028
0.027
0.026
1.198912 1.167919 1.134232 1.102491 1.069015
0.0241
0.0235
0.0228
0.0222
0.0215
24.0
25.0
26.2
27.7
29.5
57.7
56.2
54.4
52.4
49.4
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.3
11.5
10.6
11.0
11.4
12.1
13.2
17.27
17.89
18.58
19.35
20.20
13.20
14.67
16.20
17.74
19.30
4.07
3.22
2.38
1.61
0.90
6.9
3.3
1.6
0.9
0.54
7.0
3.6
1.8
1.0
0.50

4.7
Wn
ctot ( W ).

qn n

eGn Gn1 , -. , () qn .
, , . ,
.
.
.

.

127


.
[15]
, . ,
. , ,
.
.
, ( ), . ,

, .
, ( ) .


- .
128

, ,
. (, ).

. ,
. , , :
(1 2)%. ,
,
.

,

, .
-, .
: , . - .
, 129

. , , ,
, .
.
. [15]. ,
, . , .
.
[39, 52, 53, 56]
- [54]
[55].

130

.
[913] .
, .
,
, .
, , [15] (. 1.14).
,

, [913].
, 1.14,
. , .


(eq)
n (t) = (cn (t) c(eq)
n )/cn .

(5.1)

(1.84), -

131

- (1.82) n ,
(eq)





n
cn+1

= jn+1

(1
+

(1
+

n
1
1
n1
1
1 .
n n
(eq) n+1
t
cn

(5.2)

Jn

Jn =

jnc(eq)
n

n n1(1 + 1) 1 .

(5.3)

.
, 1 , (5.2) (5.3)
,
(eq)





n

cn+1

= jn+1
n
1
n1
1 ,
n n
(eq) n+1
t
cn

Jn =

jn c(eq)
n

n n1 1 .

(5.4)

(5.5)

, : n , n , jn c(eq)
n
. 1 . .

, .
.

,
132

: 1 n n1 , n1 < n < n2 () n2 n,
n1 n2
3.
, jnc(eq)
(
n
) .
:

n n1 1 =

Jn
(eq)
jncn

0,

1 n n1 ,

' J/jnc(eq)
n ,

n 1 < n < n2 ,

0,

(5.6)

n2 n,

,
, Jn
n. , ,

c(eq)
n
, .
, , ,
( n).
,
. , 4 . ,
. ( ),
3

, .
n1 n2 .
4
, , ..
.

133

.
, .
, .
, ,
( ), ( ). :
, . ,
.
, Jn n.
(5.6), n 1 ,
n,

n1,

1 n n1 ,

n = n1 JRn ,

Rn =

n1 JR,
1

(eq)
n1 <n0 n jn0 cn0

n 1 < n < n2 ,

(5.7)

n2 n,
R=

(eq)
n1 <n0 <n2 jn0 cn0

(5.8)

. (5.7) (1.18), n

n=1

nn c(eq)
=0,
n

(5.9)


n1
X

n=1

1n2 c(eq)
n

n1 <n<n2

nn c(eq)
n

n=n2

134

n(n1 RJ)c(eq)
=0.
n

(5.10)

: ,
(). ,
.
:

cef f =

n1
X

n=1

c(eq)
n

cM =

n=n2

c(eq)
;
n

(5.11)

/

m3 =

n=n2

nn c(eq)
;
n

(5.12)

( )
<n21 >=

1
cef f

n1
X

n=1

n2c(eq)
,
n

<n23 >=

1
cM

n=n2

n2 c(eq)
;
n

(5.13)


1
<n3 >=
cM

n=n2

nc(eq)
.
n

(5.14)

,
.
, (5.10)
1 <n21 > cef f + 1 <n23 > cM RJ <n3 > cM = 0 ,

135

(5.15)

J,
<n21 > cef f + <n23 > cM
1 .
J=
R <n3 > cM

(5.16)

, 1 (5.9),
,
m3 ,
1 <n21 > cef f + m3 = 0 .

(5.17)

<n21 > cef f + <n23 > cM


J =
m3 .
R <n3 > cM <n21 > cef f

(5.18)

, ,
P

m3 /[

m3
dm3
= P
J .
(eq)
dt
nn2 n cn

(eq)
nn2 n cn ],

(5.19)

n=n2

n c(eq)
=
n

2 cM + <n21 > cef f


m3
<n3 > <n21 > cef f

(5.20)

( 2 =< n23 > (< n3 >)2 ).



dm3
1
=
m3 ,
dt
tslow

(5.21)


tslow

<n21 > cef f + 2 cM


= R cM
.
<n21 > cef f + <n23 > cM

136

(5.22)

, ,
, , 1.14 . ,
.
(5.22)
, .
. ,
, 1.7.
(1.24) , ,

= ns/ 2

<n3 >= ns ,
(

(5.23)

2 ).


, jn ,
. , jn /jn+ ,
jn
(eq) (eq)
(eq) 1/(ns )2 2(nns )/(ns )2
(eq)
=
c
c
/c
=
c
e
,
1
n1
1 e
n
jn+

(5.24)

n ns ns ns + ns e4/ns . ns (
),
jn j .
137

(5.25)

(1.27) R,
R=

X
1
1 (nnc)2 /(nc )2
e
,
j n1 <n<n2 cnc

(5.26)


.
R=

nc
.
j cnc

(5.27)

,
tslow

cM nc <n21 > cef f + 2cM


=
.
j cnc <n21 > cef f + <n23 > cM

(5.28)

, 2cM / < n21 > cef f , < n23 >


n2s .
tslow =

cM nc
n2s cM
1
+
j cnc
cef f

(5.29)

, ,
,
cef f c1 .

(5.30)

, j ' jc+ , (5.29)


(1.99) 1.14, [15]
.

138

.
, .
,
, n:
(n, t)

=
c(eq) (n)
t
n

(n, t)
j (n)c(eq) (n)
1 (1 + (n, t)) .
n

(5.31)

[44, 45].
, . n n. , , c(eq) (n), j (n),
(n, t) n, .. .
, , .
, (5.31)
,
(, c(eq)
n ,
ns ).
(1.24) . , jn
n , ..
j .
, c(eq)
jn ,
n
(5.31). , |(n, t)|  1 (..
139

),
(n, t) = (n)et ,

(5.32)


n ns 0
(ns)2
(n) +
(n) = 2(n ns ) 1 .
(n) 2
ns
j
00

(5.33)

, ,
(
. [3, 9]),
2j
m =
m,
(ns)2

m = 1, 2, ... .

(5.34)


,
.

tf ast

1
2
cM
=
+
.
j
(ns)2
c1

(5.35)

js+ js (.
[3]), (5.35) tf ast (1.94) t(2) , .

140


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