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Classical Mechanics - Homework Assignment 7

Alejandro Gomez Espinosa

November 15, 2012


Goldstein, Ch.6, 4 Obtain the normal modes of vibration for the double pendulum shown in Figure 1
assuming equals lengths, but not equal masses. Show that when the lower mass is small compared
to the upper one, the two resonant frequencies are almost equal. If the pendula are set in motion
by pulling the upper mass slightly away from the vertical and then releasing it, show that subsequent
motion is such that at regular intervals one pendulum is at rest while the other has its maximum
amplitude. This is the familiar phenomenon of beats.
Figure 1: Sketch of problem 14. Double pendulum.
Using Figure 1, we can dene the coordinate system in the top of the rst pendulum with x pointing
to the right and y pointing down. Then, the position of each mass is given by:
r
1
= l sin
1
x + l cos
1
y
r
2
= (l sin
1
l sin
2
) x + (l cos
1
+ l cos
2
) y
and the velocities:
v
1
= r
1
= l

1
cos
1
x l

1
sin
1
y
v
2
= r
2
= l(

1
cos
1

2
cos
2
) x l(

1
sin
1
+

2
sin
2
) y

gomez@physics.rutgers.edu
1
and the kinetic energy is:
T =
m
1
v
2
1
2
+
m
2
v
2
2
2
=
m
1
l
2

2
1
2
+
m
2
l
2
2
_

2
1
+

2
2
2

2
cos(
1
+
2
)
_
=
1
2
(m
1
+ m
2
)l
2

2
1
+
m
2
l
2

2
2
2
m
2
l
2

2
cos(
1
+
2
) 1
where the last conditions is due to small oscillations. Thus, the kinetic energy matrix is given by:
T =
_
(m
1
+ m
2
)l
2
m
2
l
2
m
2
l
2
m
2
l
2
_
(1)
In addition, the potential energy:
V = m
1
gl cos
1
m
2
gl (cos
1
+ cos
2
)
= (m
1
+ m
2
)gl cos
1
m
2
gl cos
2
(m
1
+ m
2
)gl m
2
gl
and the potential energy matrix is given by:
V =
_
(m
1
+ m
2
)gl 0
0 m
2
gl
_
(2)
To calculate the resonants frequencies, lets use equation (6.12) of Goldstein where the determinant
det|V w
2
T| = 0 to obtain non-trivial solutions:
det |V w
2
T| =

_
(m
1
+ m
2
)gl 0
0 m
2
gl
_
w
2
_
(m
1
+ m
2
)l
2
m
2
l
2
m
2
l
2
m
2
l
2
_

_
(m
1
+ m
2
)(gl w
2
l
2
) m
2
w
2
l
2
m
2
w
2
l
2
m
2
l(g w
2
l)
_

= m
2
(m
1
+ m
2
)(gl w
2
l
2
)
2
m
2
2
w
4
l
4
= m
2
(m
1
+ m
2
)g
2
l
2
2m
2
gl
3
(m
1
+ m
2
)w
2
+ m
1
m
2
l
4
w
4
(m
1
+ m
2
)g
2
2lg(m
1
+ m
2
)w
2
+ m
1
l
2
w
4
= 0
w
2
=
2lg(m
1
+ m
2
)
_
4l
2
g
2
(m
1
+ m
2
)
2
4(m
1
+ m
2
)g
2
m
1
l
2
2m
1
l
2
=
g(m
1
+ m
2
) g
_
(m
1
+ m
2
)
2
m
1
(m
1
+ m
2
)
m
1
l
=
g(m
1
+ m
2
)
m
1
l
_
1
_
m
2
m
1
+ m
2
_
If m
1
>> m
2
, then w
2
=
g
l
.
To nd the normal modes, we have to calculate (V w
2
T) a = 0. Using Mathematica, we found
that the modes are:
a = a

x a

_
m
1
+ m
2
m
2
y
2
To normalize this expression we use a

T a

= 1:
a
2

_
m
1
+ m
2
+
_
m
1
+ m
2
m
2
_
m
2
_
= 2(m
1
+ m
2
)a
2

and the normalized normal mode are:


a

=
1

2
_
1

m
1
+ m
2
x
1

m
2
y
_
From this expression we can see that the lower normal mode represent the mode with the minus
sign. The equation of the normal modes of the system are:

1
=
1
_
2(m
1
+ m
2
)
(Acos (w
+
t +
+
) + B cos (w

t +

))

2
=
1

2m
2
(Acos (w
+
t +
+
) B cos (w

t +

))
where A, B,
+
,

are constants. Using the initial conditions from the system when wemove the
top mass slightly away from the vertical, we have:

1
(0) =
0
,
2
(0) = 0,

1
(0) = 0,

2
(0) = 0
Replacing this conditions in the equations of the normal modes:

1
(0) =
Acos
+
+ B cos

_
2(m
1
+ m
2
)
=
0

2
(0) =
Acos
+
B cos

2m
2
= 0

1
(0) =
w
+
Asin
+
w

B sin

_
2(m
1
+ m
2
)
= 0

2
(0) =
w
+
Asin
+
w

B sin

_
2(m
1
+ m
2
)
= 0
For convenience, we can choose
+
=

= 0. Then, from the equations above, we found that:


A = B and A =

0

m
1
+m
2

2
. Replacing in the normal modes equations:

1
=

0
2
(cos (w
+
t) + cos (w

t))

2
=

0
2
_
m
1
+ m
2
m
2
(cos (w
+
t) cos (w

t))
To nd the equations of beats, is better to dene w =
w
+
+w

2
and w =
w
+
w

2
, where w

=
w w. Replacing this, we found the expressions:

1
=
0
cos(wt) cos (wt)

2
=
0
_
m
1
+ m
2
m
2
sin(wt) sin (wt)
The can see that the oscillation modes are out of phase, that is why when the amplitude of
1
is
maximum,
2
must be zero and viceversa.
3
Goldstein, Ch.6, 12 Two particles move in one dimension at the junction of three springs, as shown in
the gure. The springs all have unstretched lengths equals to a, and the force constants and masses
are shown. Find the eigenfrequencies and normal modes of the system.
Figure 2: Sketch of problem 12. Two mass points of equal mass m connected to each other.
The positions and velocities of the masses, where the origin is at the left wall, are:
r
1
= a + x
1
r
1
= x
1
; r
2
= 2a + x
2
r
2
= x
2
Therefore, the kinetic energy of the system is:
T =
m x
2
1
2
+
m x
2
2
2
=
_
m 0
0 m
_
(3)
In addition, the kinetic energy of the system with three springs is:
V =
kx
2
1
2
+
3
2
(x
1
x
2
)
2
+
kx
2
2
2
=
1
2
_
4kx
2
1
3kx
1
x
2
+ 4kx
2
2
_
=
_
4k 3k
3k 4k
_
(4)
Then, computing the determinant:
det |V w
2
T| =

4k w
2
m 3k
3k 4k w
2
m

=
_
4k w
2
m
_
2
9k
2
= 16k
2
8kmw
2
+ w
4
m
2
9k
2
= w
4

8kw
2
m
+
7k
2
m
2
=
_
w
2

7k
m
__
w
2

k
m
_
= 0
w
2
1
=
7k
m
w
2
2
=
k
m
To nd the normal modes, we perform (V w
2
T)a = 0. Lets start with w
2
1
:
_
4k k 3k
3k 4k k
__
a
1
a
2
_
= 0 3ka
1
3ka
2
= 0
a
1
= a
2
a =
_
1
1
_
For w
2
2
:
_
4k 7k 3k
3k 4k 7k
__
a
1
a
2
_
= 0 3ka
1
3ka
2
= 0
a
1
= a
2
a =
_
1
1
_
4
Goldstein, Ch.6, 14 Find the expressions for the eigenfrequencies of the following electrical coupled
circuit:
Figure 3: Sketch of problem 14. A electrical coupled circuit.
Lets imagine the current in both loops running clockwise. Then, the energy due to the inductors
(T) in the circuit is given by:
T =
L
1

Q
2
1
2
+
L
2

Q
2
2
2
+
L
3
(

Q
2


Q
1
)
2
2
=
(L
1
+ L
3
)
2

Q
2
1
+
(L
2
+ L
3
)
2

Q
2
2
L
3

Q
2

Q
1
=
_
L
1
+ L
3
L
3
L
3
L
2
+ L
3
_
In addition the energy in the capacitors (V) is:
V =
Q
2
1
2C
1
+
Q
2
2
2C
2
+
(Q
2
Q
1
)
2
2C
3
=
_
1
C
1
+
1
C
3

1
C
3

1
C
3
1
C
2
+
1
C
3
_
Applying the procedure of small oscillations to nd the expressions for the eigenfrequencies:
det |V w
2
T| =
_
1
C
1
+
1
C
3
w
2
(L
1
+ L
3
)
1
C
3
w
2
L
3

1
C
3
w
2
L
3
1
C
2
+
1
C
3
w
2
(L
2
+ L
3
)
_
= 0
_
1
C
1
+
1
C
3
w
2
(L
1
+ L
3
)
__
1
C
2
+
1
C
3
w
2
(L
2
+ L
3
)
_

_
1
C
3
+ w
2
L
3
_
2
= 0
By solving this cumbersome equation, we can found the eigenfrequencies of this circuit.
5
Goldstein, Ch.6, 17 A plane triatomic molecule consists of equal masses m at vertices of an equilateral
triangle of sides a. Assume the molecule is held together by forces that are harmonic for small
oscillations and that the force constants are identical and equal to k. Allow motion only in the plane
of the molecule.
(a) Without writing the equations of motion, justify your reasoning on the number of normal modes
of the system and how many of these modes have zero frequency.
In total, it must be six normal modes due to each molecule can move in x and y direction.
Since the three masses are conected with strings, their motion is constrain. Then, three of
this modes have zero frequency because it represents the rigid motion of all the particles in
the x direction, in y direction and, the rotation of the three masses.
(b) One of the normal modes corresponds to a symmetrical stretching of all three vertices of the
molecule. Find the frequency of this mode.
Lets dene the position of the three masses:
r
1
= x
1
x + y
1
y r
2
= (a + x
2
) x + y
2
y r
3
=
_
a
2
+ x
3
_
x +
_

3
2
a + y
3
_
y
Then, the potential energy is given by:
T =
m
2
_
x
2
1
+ y
2
1
+ x
2
2
+ y
2
2
+ x
2
3
+ y
2
3
_
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
m 0 0 0 0 0
0 m 0 0 0 0
0 0 m 0 0 0
0 0 0 m 0 0
0 0 0 0 m 0
0 0 0 0 0 m
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
In the case of the potential energy, we found:
V =
k
2
(d
12
a)
2
+
k
2
(d
23
a)
2
+
k
2
(d
13
a)
2
where:
d
2
12
= (a + x
2
x
1
)
2
+ (y
2
y
1
)
2
d
2
23
=
_

a
2
+ x
3
x
2
_
2
+
_

3
2
a + y
3
y
2
_
2
d
2
12
=
_
a
2
+ x
3
x
1
_
2
+
_

3
2
a + y
3
y
1
_
2
Expanding this expressions and considering only the lower order terms:
d
12
= a + (x
2
x
1
) + ...
d
23
= a
1
2
(x
3
x
2
) +

3
2
(y
3
y
2
) + ..
d
13
= a +
1
2
(x
3
x
1
) +

3
2
(y
3
y
1
)
Therefore the potential energy is given by:
V
k
2
(x
2
x
1
)
2
+
k
8
_
x
2
x
3

3y
2
+

3y
3
_
2
+
k
8
_
x
3
x
1

3y
3
+

3y
1
_
2
6
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
5k/4

3k/4 k 0 k/4

3k/4

3k/4 3k/4 0 0

3k/4 3k/4
k 0 5k/4

3k/4 k/4

3k/4
0 0

3k/4 3k/4

3k/4 3k/4
k/4

3k/4 k/4

3k/4 k/2 0

3k/4 3k/4

3k/4 3k/4 0 3k/2


_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
Using the matrix above, we can calculate the modes with det |V w
2
T| = 0. With help of
Mathematica, the eigenvalue of the symmetrical stretching mode is w
2
=
3k
m
7