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Prepared by: Tomas, R.A.N. Javier, G.M. Besinio, Z. Sayana, J.E. Pastrano, M.D.

Although Jos Rizal, now eleven years old, had passed

a good entrance examination in Manila in June, 1872, he nearly failed to matriculate in the Ateneo in July, because his mother's arrest had made him a month late, and because he looked so little, so slender, so young. He would not have been admitted at all but for the intercession of Dr. Manuel Burgos, a nephew of the recently executed Dr. Jos Burgos.

Pepe Rizals formal schooling started when, at the age

of eleven, he was admitted into the Ateneo Municipal which was then under the supervision of the Spanish Jesuits. The curriculum of the five-year secondary course (leading to the degree of Bachiller en Artesor AB), included subjects such as Christian doctrine, Sacred history, Latin, Spanish, Greek, French, English, Algebra, Trigonometry, Geometry, Universal history, Spanish history, Latin literature, rhetoric and poetics, Social ethics, Psychology, Logic and other branches of Philosophy.

Young Rizal tackled his work as a genius would. He

captured many honours in literary and artistic contests. He always had an edge over his classmates and he stayed at the top even during the written and oral examinations. His report cards were usually marked sobresaliente (excellent).

Whenever there was an oratorical tilt, Pepe Rizal was

there winning medals as usual. He wrote a playlet in Spanish called "Junto al Pasig", which was presented in school. On the spiritual side of school activities, Rizal was also a high-point man. He was Prefect of the Sodality of Our Lady with Fr. Pablo Pastells, S.J. as the Director.

Following the rigid methodical habits which he had

learned from his father and which were taught by his Jesuit teachers, he prepared a schedule so that he would not lose an hour: study and reading until four p.m.; four to five, exercise; five to six social and miscellaneous obligations. This careful husbanding of every minute began to show results almost at once.

He began at the bottom of the school, but within a

month he was "Emperor of Rome". The Ateneo had divided the students into two "empires", Roman and Carthaginian, to fight for academic supremacy. It was this war that soon brought young Rizal triumph and prizes. At the end of the first quarter he received the grade "excellent".

1872 Arithmetic . . . . . . . . . . . .Excellent 1872-3 Latin 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . " Spanish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 1873-4 Latin 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . Excellent Spanish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 1874-5 Latin 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . Excellent Spanish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Greek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " General History . . . . . . . . . . . " Hist. of Spain and Phil. . . . . . . " Arithmetic and Algebra . . . . . . " 1875-6 Rhetoric and Poetry . . . . Excellent French . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Geometry and Trigonometry . . . " 1876-7 Philosophy 1 . . . . . . . . . Excellent Mineralogy and Chemistry . . . . . " Philosophy 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Physics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " Botany and Zoology. . . . . . . . . " Bachelor in Arts. . . . . . . . . . . . "

He was as good as he was brilliant. The Jesuits called

him "a child excellent in religious sentiments, customs and application, with progress worthy of his signal talent. Because of all this and because of his good conduct throughout his stay at the Ateneo, he succeeded in being admitted to the Marian Congregation in which he gradually rose until he became Secretary.

It was during the summer vacation in 1874 in Calamba when Rizal began to take interest in reading romantic novels. As a normal teenager, he became interested in love stories and romantic tales.

Thanks to the schedule Jos was following, he had time for extra

reading. The first foreign book he read, (03) The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexander Dumas, reminded him of the sufferings of his mother in prison and of his motherland. All over the Philippines were conditions worse than those which Dumas had described.

On Commencement Day, March 23, 1877 Rizal, who

was 16 years old, received from his Alma Mater, Ateneo Municipal the degree of Bachelor of Arts, with highest honors. But to Rizal, like all graduates, Commencement Day was a time of bitter sweetness, a joy mellowed with poignancy.

Rizal excelled in Extra-Curricular Activities, he

surpassed academic triumphs. He was the emperor inside the classroom, he was a campus leader, he was the secretary of a religious society, he was also a member of the Academy of Spanish Lit. and Natural Science.

Rizal's delightful account of "What happened between

April and December, 1877", throws so much light upon his boyish heart that it ought not be omitted. It is an account of his first love at sixteen, that painful experience which comes to nearly all adolescents. He writes the story three years later -- the youth of nineteen laughing at himself at sixteen.

After graduation with the highest position in Ateneo,

Rizal had to go the University of Santo Tomas in order to prepare him self to a private career. The Bachelor of arts degree during Spanish times was equivalent to a high school diploma today. It merely qualified its holder to enter a university.

It was during the school term (1978-79) that Rizal took up

medicine, enrolling simultaneously in preparatory medical course and the regular first year medical course. The reason why he studied medicine were: 1.) He wanted to be a physician so that he may cure his mothers failing eyesight. 2.) The Father Recto of the University, whom he consulted for a choice of career, finally answered his letter, and recommended medicine.

University of Santo Tomas (1877 78, Rizal also

studied in Ateneo, he took the vocational course leading to a title of porito agrimensor (expert surveyor)). In those days it should be remembered, the college for boys in Manila offered vocational courses in agriculture, commerce, mechanics and surveying.

Rizals unhappy days at UST. Rizals Ateneo boy

wonder, found the atmosphere at the UST a suffocating to his sensitive spirit. He was unhappy of this Dominican Institution of high learning because (1) the Dominican processors were hostile to him, (2) the filipino students were racially discriminated, and (3) the method of teachings were obsolete and repressive.

Unfold, oh timid flower! Lift up your radiant brow, This day, Youth of my native strand! Your abounding talents show Resplendently and grand, Fair hope of my Motherland! Soar high, oh genius great, And with noble thoughts fill their mind; The honor's glorious seat, May their virgin mind fly and find More rapidly than the wind. Descend with the pleasing light Of the arts and sciences to the plain, Oh Youth, and break forthright The links of the heavy chain That your poetic genius enchain. See that in the ardent zone, The Spaniard, where shadows stand, Doth offer a shining crown, With wise and merciful hand To the son of this Indian land. You, who heavenward rise On wings of your rich fantasy, Seek in the Olympian skies The tenderest poesy,

More sweet than divine honey; You of heavenly harmony, On a calm unperturbed night, Philomel's match in melody, That in varied symphony Dissipate man's sorrow's blight; You at th' impulse of your mind The hard rock animate And your mind with great pow'r consigned Transformed into immortal state The pure mem'ry of genius great; And you, who with magic brush On canvas plain capture The varied charm of Phoebus, Loved by the divine Apelles, And the mantle of Nature; Run ! For genius' sacred flame Awaits the artist's crowning Spreading far and wide the fame Throughout the sphere proclaiming With trumpet the mortal's name Oh, joyful, joyful day, The Almighty blessed be Who, with loving eagerness Sends you luck and happiness.

In the year 1879 the Liceo Artistico-Literario of Manila,

a society of literary men and artists, held a literary contest. Rizal who was 18 then won the contest. The judges were very impressed because of the inspiring poem and its flawless form.

Rizal was the champion of the Filipino students in

their frequent fights against the arrogant Spanish students, who were often surpassed by the Filipino in class work and who insultingly call their brown classmates Indio, chongo! In retaliation, the Filipino students called them Kastila,bangus! Hostility between these two groups of students often exploded in angry street rumbles.

Rizal participated in these student brawls. Owing to

his skills in fencing, his prowess in wrestling, and his indomitable courage. In 1880 he founded a secret society of Filipino students in UST called Compaerismo

Rizal, Ateneos boy wonder, found the atmosphere at

UST suffocating to his sensitive spirit. He was unhappy at this Dominican institution of higher learning. In his novel, El Fili, he described how the Filipino students were humiliated and insulted by their Dominican professors and how backward the method of instruction was, especially in the teaching of the natural sciences.

He related in Chapter XIII, The Class in Physics, that

his science subject was taught without laboratory instruments/experiments. Because of the unfriendly attitude of his professors, Rizal the most brilliant graduate of the Ateneo, failed to win high scholastic honors. Although his grades in the first year of Philosophy were all excellent, they were not impressive in the four years of his medical course.

Although his grades in the first year of the philosophy

course were all excellent, they were not impressive in the four years of his medical course. His scholastic records in the UST (1879-82)

1877-78(Philosophy and Letters)

Private Hygiene- Good Public Hygiene- Good

Cosmology and metaphysics- Excellent

Theodicy- Excellent
History of Philosophy- Excellent

1880-1881( Medicine)- 3rd Year

General Pathology- Fair Therapeutics- Excellent Surgery- Good

1878-1879( Medicine) 1st Year

Physics- Fair

Chemistry- Excellent
Natural History- Good Anatomy I- Good Dissection- Good

1881-1882( Medicine)- 4th Year

Medical Pathology- Very Good Surgical Pathology- Very Good Obstetrics- Very Good Siphilography- Very Good

1879-1880( Medicine)- 2nd Year

Anatomy 2- Good
Dissection 2- Good Physiology- Good

After finishing the fourth year of his medical course,

Rizal decided to study in Spain. He could no longer endure the rampant bigotry, discrimination, and hostility in UST.