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3.

3.1. .

, .
.
,
, . , , .
.
-
.
: , ,
, .
(3.1)
ma = F ,
F - , , a - , m - , .
: , , .
, (3.1) ,
2

1 = 1/c .
3.2.

(3.1) .
- r . ,
, - r , dr
(, ) t.
V =
dt
,
(3.1)
d 2r
m 2 = F (r , V , t ) .
(3.2)
dt
52

. (3.2) ,
:
m&x& = Fx , m&y& = Fy , m&z& = Fz ,
(3.3)
&x&, &y&, &z& - ,
Fx , Fy , Fz - .

(3.2)
mat = Ft , man = Fn , mab = Fb ,
(3.4)
Ft , Fn , Fb - , .
,
ds
V2
at =
, an =
, ab = 0 .
dt
r
(3.4)
V2
d 2s
(3.5)
= Fn , 0 = Fn .
m 2 = Ft , m
r
dt
3.3.

, .
n

, , M = mk , mk - k =1

k, n - .

, , , - r

rC =

1 n
mk rk ,
M k =1

(3.6)


1 n
1 n
1 n
xC =
( 3.7)
mk xk , yC = mk yk , zC = mk zk .
M k =1
M k =1
M k =1
,
(3.6), (3.7), .
,
53

, . (3.6) g,
1 n
rC =
m k grk .
Mg k =1
Mg = P, , mk g = Pk , ,
1 n
rC = Pk rk ,
P k =1
- .
3.4.


m
h :
J z = mh2 .

(3.8)


:
n

J z = mk hk2 .

(3.9)

k =1


.
.

2 .

l z,

(. 3.2,),
1
J Oz = Ml 2
(3.10)
3
, (. 3.2,),

54

1
Ml 2 .
3.11)
12

R z, (. 3.3),
1
J Cz = MR 2 .
(3.12)
2
(. 3.4) z
1
J z = MR 2 ,
(3.13)
2
- , R - .
J Cz =

. , ,


,
,
.

Oz 1 - ,
(. 3.5), Cz - , ,
.
J Oz 1 = J Cz + Md 2 ,
(3.14)

d - .

55

. ,
, R
(. 3.6):
J z1 = J Cz + MR 2 ,

1
J Cz = MR 2 ,
2
1
3
J z1 = MR2 + MR2 = MR2 .
2
2
3.5. .
.

F , (. 3.7).
F V a . F

M1 , M 2

S = M 1 , M 2
,
A1,2 = F S cos a .
(3.15)
:
A1, 2 = F S ,
(3.16)
S = M 1M 2 - .
,
1 = 1.
(3.9) (3.10) , , ,
.

dA = F cos a dS ,
(3.17)
dS - . 56

dS - dr ,
dS = dr,
dA = Fdr cos a

(3.18)
dA = F dr ,

dA = Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz .
(3.19)
N F

DA dA
=
dt
Dt 0 Dt

N = lim

(3.20)

dr
= F V ,
(3.21)
dt
N F V . C
, 1=1/.
N =F

3.6. ,

. ,
, M O ( x0 , y0, , z0 )

M 1 ( x1 , y1 , z1 ) (. 3.8).

x = 0 , Py = 0 , Pz = - P .
(3.19),
z1

A = - P dz = P ( z0 - z1 ) .
z0

57

M 0 M 1 , z0 - z1 = h , h
; M 0 M 1 , z0 - z1 = - h .

A = Ph = mgh .
(3.22)
,

, . , - .


.
. , C (. 3.9). , , , F . ,
:
F = c BB1 ,
- .
x ,

. F
Fx = - cx .
, (3.19):
dA = Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz .
:
Fx = - cx ;
Fy = 0 ;

Fz = 0 ,

dA = -cxdx ,
B1B2 = h

ch 2
.
A1, 2 = -c xdx = (3.23)
2
0
, , h

58

, ,
.
, .
F , z
h (. 3.10).

h. F
Ft , Fn , Fb . Fn
Fb ,
. ,
F e .

dA = Ft d s = Ft hd j ,
ds = hdj -
, dj -
. , F t h F ,
dA = M z dj .
(3.24)
, ,
,
. F

j

A = M z dj ,
j0

(3.25)

j0 j - .
, z = const ,

A = M z (j - j0 ) .
(3.26)
(3.24) dt
, :
dA
= N , N = M z wz .
(3.27)
dt
F , ,
M z
w z .
59

3.7.

, , .
ma = F

dV
m
=F,
dt
F - ,
.
- dr :
dV
m
dr = F dr .
(3.28)
dt
, dA ,
.
dV
dr
d (mV 2 )
m
dr = m dV = mV dV =
,
dt
dt
2
, V V = V 2 . (3.28)
d (mV 2 )
(3.29)
= dA .
2

mV 2
(3.30)
=T
2
. (3.24) (3.29)
dT = dA
(3.31)

:

.
(3.31) dt,
dT
= N,
dt

60

(3.32)

dA
=N.
dt
, -


.

(.3.11)
M 1
M 2 . V1 V2
M 1 M 2

(3.29):
V2
mV 2
d
(
) = dA .

2
V1
M 1M 2
A1, 2 M 1M 2 . ,

mV22 mV12
= A1,2 ,
(3.33)
2
2
,

, , .
.
3.8.
,

mV 2
T=
,
2
m .

, ,
1 n
(3.34)
mk Vk2 .
2 k =1
Vk , .
T=

61

,
.
.
, Ox1 y1 z1 (. 3.12).
Cx 2 y 2 z 2 ,

,

M k - mk .
M k
- rk , - - rk .
- rC .
M k
Vk = Vek + Vrk ,
(3.35)
Vek - , Vrk - .
Cx 2 y 2 z 2 ,
Vc ,
Vk = V + Vrk ,
(3.36)
(3.36) (3.34),
1 n
T = m k (V + Vrk ) 2 .
2 k =1

n
1 n
1 n
2
T = m k V + m k VC V rk + m kV rk2
(3.37)
2 k =1
2 k =1
k =1
, ,
VC2 = VC2 ;
62

Vrk2 = Vrk2 .
1 n
mkVrk2 - Tr
2 k =1
.
VC2 ,
n
1 n
1
mkVC2 = VC2 mk .
2 k =1
2 k =1
n

mk ,
k =1

1
MVC2 ,
2
.
(3.37). VC
,
TC =

VC mkVrk .
k =1

,
n

mkVrk = 0 .

k =1

-
n

m r = m r ,
k =1

k =1

r k - -, k .
, Cx2 y2 z 2 , rc = 0 , ,
n

mk rk = 0 .

k =1

,
n
n
drk
= mkVrk .
mk
dt k =1
k =1
, (3.37)
63

T=

1
MVc2 + Tr .
2

(3.38)


1
2

( MVc2 ) , , , Tr
.
3.9.
, ,
, , m k dm.
(3.32)
1
T = V 2 dm ,
(3.39)
2
.

.
. . (3.39) V 2
,
1
1
T = V 2 dm = MV 2 ,
(3.40)
2
2
M = dm .
, -

, ,

.
. (. 3.13)

V = w hz ,
w - , hz -
z.
64

(3.40) V,
1
T = w 2 h z2 dm ,
2
, w2 , ,
1
T = w2 hz2 dm .
2
2
hz dm . z
J z .

J z = hz2dm .

(3.41)

1
T = J z w2 ,
(3.42)
2
, ,
.


.
. w
.
(3.38)
1
1
T = MVC2 + J z w2 ,
(3.43)
2
2
, J c , .
3.10.


.
: t 0 ,
, t .
k t 0
V 0 k , t - Vk .
65

(3.33):

m1V12 m1V 012


= A1 ,
2
2

m nVn2 m nV012
= An .
2
2
,
n
n
1 n
2 1
2
=
(3.44)
m
V
m
V
k k
k 0k An ,
2 k =1
2 k =1
k =1
, (3.34),

T - T0 = A ,
(3.45)
1 n
T0 = mkV02k - ,
2 k =1
1 n
T = m k Vk2 - ,
2 k =1
A - .
(3.45)
: -

() .
(3.45) :
dT dT0 dA
=
;
dt
dt
dt
T0 ,
dT0
= 0,
dt
dA

- ,
dt
dT
= N.
(3.46)
dt

: -

, .
66

. 1 m1 (. 3.14). 2 , M O . 3 2
J 3 , J 2 , - R r. 2 , 1
h. .
.

T - T0 = A ,
,
T0 = 0 ,

T = A,
- ,
- , .
T = T1 + T2 + T3 ,
T1 , T2 , T3 - , .
, (3.42)
1
T2 = J 2w22 ,
2
1
T3 = J 3w32 ,
2
w2 , w3 - . 67

V B = w 2 R . , .. VC = VB . VB ,

V
w3 = B ,
r

w R
VB = 2 .
r
,
1 R2 2
T3 = J 3 2 w .
2 r
1
V1 = VC = w2 R ,
.

1
T1 = m1 R 2 w 2 .
2
T1 , T2 , T3 ,
1
T = J w 22 ,
2


R2
J = J 2 + J 3 2 + m1 R 2 .
r
. , , .
:
A1 = - m1 gh .
(3.32)
A2 = M 0 j 2 ,

j 2 - , h R ; ,
A2 = M 0 h R .
, ,
h
A = A1 + A2 = - m1 gh + M 0 .
R
= ,
68

1
h
J w22 = M 0 - m1 gh ,
2
R

2 M0
w2 =
(
- m1 g )h .
J R
3.11. ( )

. . (3.1)
F + R + ( - ma ) = 0 .
- ma = ,
(3.47)
F + R + =0.
,

, .
(3.47) , . .

.
, (3.47),
R = - ( F + ) .
(3.47) , ,
:
Fx + Rx + x = 0;

Fy + Ry + y = 0;
Fz + Rz + z = 0
:
F + R + = 0;

(3.48)

(3.49)
Fn + Rn + n = 0.
,

. ,
69

.
, n .

mk ak = Fk + Rk , (k = 1,2, . . ., n)

Fk + Rk + k = 0 ,
(3.50)
k = - mk ak .
(3.50),
n

F + R +
k =1

k =1

k =1

= 0.

Fk F ,
k=1

.
n

Rk - R .
k =1
n

k - .
k =1

F + R + =0,

(3.51)


, .
, M k rk .
(3.50) rk
,
n

k =1

k =1

k =1

rk Fk + rk Rk + rk k = 0 .
M OF ,
, M OR
, M O
. ,
M OF + M OR + M O =0,
(3.52)

70

, .

(3.51), (3.52) :
Fx + R x + x = 0;
Fy + R y + y = 0;
Fz + Rz + z = 0;
(3.53)

M xF + M xR + M x = 0;
M yF + M yR + M y = 0;

F
R
M z + M z + M z = 0.

, ,
,
M O .

,
x , y , z
M x , y , z .
,
.
. m ,
a (. 3.15). a
, ?
.

. : mg -
71

, N - - ,
,
= ma a .
x, N , N .
x
cos - mg sin = 0 ,
,

= mg tg

ma = mg tg ,
a = g tg .
, ,
. , p 2 , .
.
1.
(. 3.16). m=300 , .
. , n = 1200 /.
.

. , , R1 A , R1B .
y:

R1 A + R1B - mg = 0 .
. , ,
:
72

R1 A = R1B =

mg
,
2

R1 A = R1B = 150 H .
R2 A , R2 B
, . ,
() a ,
2 OC .
w - ,
- .
, a , .
= m2 OC .

2 pn
w=
,
60

1200
=
= 40 / .
30
y
R2 A + R2 B - = 0 .
mg .
:

R2 A = R2 B = ,
2
1
R2 A = R2 B = m OC w2 ,
2
R2 A = R2 B = 2400 H .
, , 1,6 . ,
, .

73