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EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHIES

By: Ludolf D. Nietes, RN, MAN (c) Melody Gonzales

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Definition of Terms
1. Educational Philosophy refers to a persons beliefs and values about education and serves as the foundation for his/her practice of his/her profession. 2. Perennialism a philosophy of education that focuses on teaching learners things considered to be lasting or enduring.
L D N Source: The Teaching Profession 2nd edition by Bilbao et. al

Definition of Terms
3. Essentialism a philosophy of education whose primary aim is for the learners to learn the basic skills of reading, writing, arithmetic and right conduct. 4. Existentialism a philosophy of education whose aim is to help students understand and appreciate themselves as unique individuals.
Source: The Teaching Profession 2nd edition by Bilbao et. al

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Definition of Terms
5. Progressivism a philosophy of education whose primary goal is to develop learners to become enlightened and intelligent citizens of a democratic society. 6. Behaviorism a philosophy of education whose aim is to change the learners behavior by providing them a favorable environment.
Source: The Teaching Profession 2nd edition by Bilbao et. al

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Definition of Terms
7. Constructivism a philosophy of education whose goal is to equip the learners with learning skills for them to construct knowledge and make meaning of them. 8. Linguistic Philosophy a philosophy of education whose goal is to develop the learners communication skills.
Source: The Teaching Profession 2nd edition by Bilbao et. al

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Definition of Terms
9. Christian Philosophy a philosophy of education whose goal is to impart Christs teachings to the learners. 10. Confucianism a major system of thought in Chinese philosophy, developed from the teachings of Confucius and his disciples, and concerned with the principles of good conduct, statecraft, practical wisdom, and proper social relationships.
L D N Confucianism", Microsoft Student 2009 [DVD]. Microsoft Corporation, 2008.

Perennialism
Man is a rational being. Schools must develop the students rational and moral powers. A perennialist curriculum is a universal one and is heavy on the humanities or general education. Vocational and technical education are not given so much emphasis.
L D N Source: The Teaching Profession 2nd edition by Bilbao et. al

Perennialism
Perennialist teachers base their teachings from the Great Books. Teacher-centered approach. Teachers do not allow students interests to dictate what they teach. Socratic dialogues are used to understand historys most timeless concepts.
L D N Source: The Teaching Profession 2nd edition by Bilbao et. al

Essentialism
Teachers teach for learners to acquire basic knowledge, skills and values. Teachers aim is to transmit the traditional moral values and intellectual knowledge that students need to become model citizens. Essentialist programs are academically rigorous. Traditional disciplines are given emphasis.
L D N Source: The Teaching Profession 2nd edition by Bilbao et. al

Essentialism
Essentialist teachers scowl upon vocational courses. Teacher-centered approach. Essentialist teachers give emphasis to mastery of the subject matter. Essentialist teachers are autocratic. They rely on the use of prescribed textbooks.
L D N Source: The Teaching Profession 2nd edition by Bilbao et. al

Existentialism
Jean Paul Sartre is the leading proponent of this philosophy. To achieve an authentic human existence, an individual must overcome the tendency to bad faith, recognize his or her own absolute freedom, and assume responsibility for any decisions made, unaided by society, traditional morality, or a belief in God.
L D N "Sartre, Jean-Paul", Microsoft Student 2009 [DVD]. Microsoft Corporation, 2008.

Existentialism
Freedom and acceptance of personal responsibility are the main values in life and that individuals must rely on their creative powers rather than on social or religious authority.

D N "Sartre, Jean-Paul", Microsoft Student 2009 [DVD]. Microsoft Corporation, 2008.

Existentialism
To help students understand and appreciate themselves as unique individuals who accept complete responsibility for their thoughts, feelings and actions is the primary goal of existentialist teachers. Existentialist teachers demand the education of the whole person, not just the mind.
D N Source: The Teaching Profession 2nd edition by Bilbao et. al

Existentialism
Students are given a wide variety of options from which to choose. Existentialist curriculum puts high emphasis on the humanities. Existentialist teachers focus upon the actions of historical individuals, each of whom provides models for the students own behavior.
L D N Source: The Teaching Profession 2nd edition by Bilbao et. al

Existentialism
Vocational education is regarded more as a means of teaching students about themselves rather than of earning a livelihood. Student-centered approach. Existentialist teachers use values clarification strategy in dealing with their students.
L D N Source: The Teaching Profession 2nd edition by Bilbao et. al

Progressivism
To develop learners into becoming enlightened and intelligent citizens of a democratic society is the ultimate goal of progressivist teachers. Progressivist teachers teach their students so they may live life fully today not to prepare them for adult life.
D N Source: The Teaching Profession 2nd edition by Bilbao et. al

Progressivism
Student-centered approach. A progressivist curriculum responds to students needs and relates to their personal lives and experiences. Progressivist teachers accept that the only permanent thing in this world is change. Natural and social sciences are given so much emphasis.
L D N Source: The Teaching Profession 2nd edition by Bilbao et. al

Progressivism
Teachers expose their students to various progress evident in ones society. Teachers use experiential approach through scientific method, field trips, thoughtprovoking games and puzzles to enhance students learning.

D N Source: The Teaching Profession 2nd edition by Bilbao et. al

Behaviorism
Behaviorist teachers believe that man is a product of his or her environment. Behaviorist teachers assert that learning occurs whenever there is a change in their students behavior. They teach their students how to respond positively to various stimuli in the environment.
L D N Source: The Teaching Profession 2nd edition by Bilbao et. al

Behaviorism
Behaviorist teachers really put emphasis on the importance of environment on their students learning process. They may employ reward and punishment to affect their students behavior.

D N Source: The Teaching Profession 2nd edition by Bilbao et. al

Constructivism
Teachers teach their students with learning skills necessary for them to construct knowledge and make meaning of them. Learning skills taught include researching, critiquing, reflecting, making meaning, drawing insights to name a few. Constructivist teachers promote interaction. The teachers are facilitators.
L D N Source: The Teaching Profession 2nd edition by Bilbao et. al

Linguistic Philosophy
The goal of which is to develop the communication skills of the learners. Teachers who use this philosophy of education teach their students the skill on how to send and receive messages clearly and effectively. Language and grammar are given so much emphasis.
L D N Source: The Teaching Profession 2nd edition by Bilbao et. al

References:
Books: 1. Bilbao, P.P. et. al. (2012). The Teaching Profession 2nd edition. 2. Duka, C.D. (2011). Reviewer for the Licensure Examination for Teachers 5th edition. 3. Microsoft Encarta 2009. 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Websites: 1. www.wikipedia.com 2. www.answers.com

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