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Alan Bentley D.

E Trainee

Basic Scaffolding Course Report

Scaffolding Course Description


Basic Scaffolding (Level 1) course is designed for all personnel with no or little knowledge in scaffolding and as a refresher course for those who involved in the erection of tubular and fitting type scaffolding. This course introduce basic scaffolding knowledge on scaffold components, fittings, practical aspect in carrying out pre-installation activities and erecting simple scaffold structure in accordance to legal requirement. Intermediate Scaffolding (Level 2) course is designed for experienced scaffolding personnel with basic scaffolding certificate and at least 6 months experience working with scaffolds. Level 2 is intended for participants to gain further knowledge and practical skills on methods of scaffolding modifications, acts and legislations governing modification regulations, heavy duty bridging, cantilever scaffolds, wire rope and tubular scaffolds and calculating back weight or counter balance. Advanced Scaffolding (Level 3) course is designed for experienced scaffolding personnel with intermediate scaffolding certificates with at least 12 months experience working with scaffolds. Participant will gain further knowledge and practical skills on scaling and interpretation of drawings, tubular drop scaffolding off steelwork raking and flying shores, two way and dead shores, temporary roof scaffolds and scaffolds and proprietary system false work.

2. Scaffold
Scaffold is a temporarily constructed structure material/equipment and as a safe working platform. to provide access egress, supporting

2.1 Relevant Legislation, Codes and Standards

These are the following legislation, codes and standards involving in scaffolding, where contractor/personnel working in Malaysia should apply to: 1. Occupational Safety and Health Act, Malaysia (OHSA) 1994 2. British Standard, BS 1139:1990 Specification for Metal Scaffolding 3. British Standard, BS 5973:1993 Code of Practice for Access and working Scaffold and special scaffold structure in steel.

Alan Bentley D.E Trainee

2.2 Scaffold Equipment and Main Fittings

Main component of scaffold used as standard, ledger, transom and brace. According to BS 1139 code OD 48.3 mm Wall Thickness 4.0 mm Mass 4.37kg/m Bent tube should not be used 15mm in 3m length Heat must not be applied either by welding, cutting etc. Unless in a controlled environment Corroded tube with 10% losses must not be used.

Scaffold Board (Timber)

Rough sawn finished on all surfaces and must be suitable for use. Boards must be capable of supporting a load of 670 Kg.m2 when supported at 1.2m center. The corners may be chamfered, round or square. The ends should be bound with hoop iron.

Base Plate
A metal plate with spigot for distributing the load from a standard or a racker or other load-bearing tube Size 150mm X 150mm Thickness 5mm Spigot 50mm Axial load 30 kN

Alan Bentley D.E Trainee

Right angle coupler

A coupler used to Join tubes at right angle (90 Degree) Must be inspected before use All moving parts must be free (grease may be applied but not too much) No visible corrosion that may weaken the integrity of the coupler Slip along tube SWL 6.25kN

Swivel Coupler
A coupler used for joining tubes at an angle other than right angle Must be inspected before use All moving parts must be free (grease may be applied but not too much) No visible corrosion that may weaken the integrity of the coupler Slip along tube SWL 6.25kN

Putlog Coupler
A coupler used for fixing a putlog or transom to a ledger Must be inspected before use All moving parts must be free (grease may be applied but not too much) No visible corrosion that may weaken the integrity of the coupler Force to pull the tube axially out of the coupler SWL 0.625 kN

Sleeve Coupler
An external coupler used to joining one tube to another coaxially Must be inspected before use All moving parts must be free (grease may be applied but not too much) No visible corrosion that may weaken the integrity of the coupler Tension - SWL 0.625 kN

Alan Bentley D.E Trainee

Join pin
An expanding fitting placed in the bore of a tube to connect one tube to another coaxially Must be inspected before use All moving parts must be free (grease may be applied but not too much) No visible corrosion that may weaken the integrity of the coupler Shear strength - SWL 0.625 kN

2.3 Scaffold Terminology and Definition

Alan Bentley D.E Trainee

Bay: The space between the center lines of two adjacent standards along the face of scaffold. Brace: A tube place diagonally with respect to the horizontal or vertical members of a scaffold and fixed to them to afford stability. Guardrail: A member incorporated in a structure to prevent the fall of a person from a platform. Ledger: A longitudinal tube normally fixed parallel to the face of a structure (building) in the direction of the larger dimension of the scaffold. It acts as a support for the transoms and putlogs and frequently for the tie tubes and ledger braces. Usually joined to the adjacent standards.

Lift: The assembly of ledgers and transoms forming each horizontal level of a scaffold. Putlog: A horizontal tube with a flattened end, to rest in or on part of the structure. Standard: A vertical or near vertical tube, which carries the scaffolds weight and loads imposed to the supporting structure. Tie: The components attached to an anchorage or the structure or framed around a part of the structure with a tie tube. Used to secure the scaffold to the structure. Transom: A tube spanning across ledgers to form the support for boards or units forming the working platform or to connect the outer standards to the inner standards. Working Platform: the deck from which works/operations are carried out.

2.4 General Sequence of Erection and Dismantling of Independent Scaffold

Alan Bentley D.E Trainee

1. Install Standard

2. Install Ledger

3. Install Transom 5. Install Ledger 7. Install Transom 9. Mark up for 1st Lift, Install and Level Ledger

4. Install Standard & Level Transom no.3 6. Install Standard & Level Ledger no.5 8. Install Standard and Level Transom no.7

10&11. Install Ledger Brace on both end and Plumb Standards no. 4 & 6 12. Install and Level Front Ledger 15&16. Install Intermediate Standard 21. Fix Sway Brace. 22. Plumb all Standards 13&14. Fix Transom and Plumb Front Standards no. 1& 8 17, 18, 19&20. Install Transom Next. Install Ladder, Boards and Guardrails

*Dismantling follows the opposite sequence of erecting the scaffold. Prior to dismantling, the scaffold should be inspected and a safe procedure for dismantling be establish by competent scaffolder.

3. General Guidelines for Standard Scaffolding

Un-sheeted scaffolds up to 50m high may be constructed without being specifically designed, provided they comply with the requirements outlined below:-

1. Firm Foundation:
All scaffolds shall be erected on a firm level and consolidated base.

Alan Bentley D.E Trainee Base plates shall be used below each standard on surfaces where there is the possibility of standards deforming the surface.

2. Fixing of Ledgers to Standards and Transom:

Ledgers shall be fixed to standards with right angle couplers. A transom shall be fixed adjacent to every standard in every lift of a scaffold by means of right angle couplers.

3. Bracing:
Bracing shall be in the form of ledger/cross bracing and longitudinal bracing. Ledger bracing shall run from a ledger in one lift to the diagonally opposite ledger the lift above. Longitudinal bracing shall be in the form of: a continuous tube running from the bottom to the top of scaffold at an angle of between 35 and 55 to the horizontal, or in the form of a zig-zag arrangement of tubes running from the bottom to the top of the scaffold between a pair of adjacent standards. Bracing assemblies shall be fixed along the face of scaffold at intervals not exceeding 30m.

4. Stability:
The prevention of inward and outward movement of a scaffold shall be achieved by the use of ties being in place every 4m rise and 6m horizontal. Ties shall be staggered in location wherever the building surface permits.

5. Safe working platforms:

All boards which make up the platform shall rest squarely and evenly on correct spaced transoms, and be secured to prevent accidental displacement. All board shall be of the same thickness. Each board shall have at least three supports unless its thickness or span is enough to prevent sagging under load. Toe-board shall be fixed on the inside of standards and shall be at least 150mm high.

Alan Bentley D.E Trainee Guardrails and toe-boards shall be positioned at every edge from which a person is liable to fall more than 2m. Guardrails shall be fixed on the inside of standards at a height of between 0.91m and 1.15m above the level of platform. The distance between guardrails and toe-boards shall not exceed 765mm. Widths of access and working platform. (Refer attachment )

6. Ladder:
Straight ladders and extension ladders shall be placed at a slope of 4:1 (for every 4 m of vertical rise, the base set 1 m out) or approximately 75 to the horizontal to minimize slipping outward. Ladder should be secured to prevent slip, usually tied at the top. Only the stiles should be lashed and each stile should be lashed separately. Access ladder should extend about 1m above the working platform to provide a handhold for people getting on and off.

4. Safe Use of Scaffolds

1. Scafftag and Inspection A specific card holder and card that when fixed to a scaffold, identifies the status of the scaffold, details with respect to its use and inspection detail. Scafftags are to be signed/inspected either by the scaffold supervisor, inspector and competent person. Scaffold must be checked every 7 days, then update the scafftag as possible.

Alan Bentley D.E Trainee Identification of scaffold condition: a. Scafftag with Red colour Scaffold unsafe or under construction. b. Scafftag with Green colour For user information or scaffold need repair. c. Scafftag with Yellow colour Inspection record or approved for use. 2. Make sure that the scaffolding is only used for its intended purpose. It shall never be overloaded. 3. If handrails are remove by any reason, temporary rope or wire replacement must be in place, capable of preventing people from falling, or a full body safety harness be worn by persons working on the scaffolding. 4. Personnel must wear the required personal protective equipment at all time. Must wear safety harness working at height 2m and above. 5. Welding of scaffold joints is not permitted. 6. Ensure small tools, equipment, bolts and other loose material are kept in containers to prevent them from falling off the scaffold. Parts of staging, tools or other equipment shall be carefully lowered and not thrown down from height. 7. Personnel shall not work underneath scaffold unless absolutely necessary and if only overhead protection is provided. 8. Keep scaffolding free from rubbish and obstructions.