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2012107

Floor Slab in ETABS


When floor plate elements are modelled in ETABS, they can be either modelled as: (i) Plate element, which contains out-of-plane stiffness only; (ii) Membrane element, which contains in-plane stiffness only; (iii) Shell element, which contains both in-plane and out-of-plane stiffness; It shall be noted that if the shell element is adopted, in normal situation, all the loading would only be transmitted to the shell's node points instead of its supporting beam/wall elements. In order to allow gravity load transfer, the following modelling procedure shall be adopted (for normal floor slab): (1) Use Membrane Element: Model the floor slab as Membrane element; Assign rigid diaphram for lateral load transfer; In "Floor Meshing Options", choose "Default"; For the beams supporting the slab, choose "Use Line For Floor Meshing" (Especially important for using large slab element in model)

OR (2) Use Shell Element or Plate Element: Model the floor slab as shell element or plate element; Assign rigid diaphram for lateral load transfer; In "Floor Meshing Options", choose "Auto Mesh Object into Structural Elements" with small element size (say 1m);

For Transfer Plate, the following procedure should be adopted: (1) Define the transfer plate as a shell element using the actual thickness for "membrane" and "bending" properties. (2) Draw meshing lines using "NULL" lines. Make sure all the column that is being transferred are connected. (3) Go to Assign --> Shell/Area -->Area Object Mesh Options. Under Floor Meshing Options, choose Auto Mesh into structural elements and check mesh at beams and mesh at wall and ramp edges. Leave the other two unchecked.

Wilson 5:40 : Diaphram, ETABS, Floor Slab

2012627
Dynamic Response of Structure
For long span structure subject to periodic load (like human walking load), it is necessary to estimate the human comfort. Computer program like ETABS, SAP2000 can be adopted to estimate the slab/ beam acceleration under such load. The procedure is outlined as follow (using ETABS as an example): (1) Obtain the function of the periodic load from relevant code, like BS5400, PRC codes, etc; (2) Define load case for the periodic load; (3) Define Time History Function (say Sine Function) for the periodic load. Usually the amplitude for the function is taken as 1 for easy reference; (4) Define Time History Case Data, with scale factor same as the amplitude stipulated in relevant codes. The load case (under item 2 above) shall be selected; (5) Add loading on the floor elements under the load case in item 2 (Usually taken as 1 for easy reference); (6) Carry out the modal analysis (with mass defined); (7) After analysis, click "Display" -> "Show Time History Traces"; (8) Select the following: "Define Function..." -> Select the Joint concerned -> Click "Modify/Show TH Function"->Vector Type "Accel" -> Component "UZ"; The result is displayed as follow:

The acceleration shall then check against the code requirement.

Wilson 1:12 : Floor Acceleration, Human Comfort

2011818
Subgrade Modulus for Raft Analysis
The most important analysis parameter for raft on soil is the "Subgrade Modulus", the so-called K value.

In general, higher value of K represents soil with higher stiffness. Hence the settlement induced is smaller. Local concentration of bearing (high bearing pressure) under the loading point (columns/ walls) is expected. On the other hand, lower value of K represents weak soil and larger settlement is expected. The bearing pressure would be smaller as the loading will be "absorbed" by the deformation of raft and soil. The procedure of determine the value of K (in unit of kN/m 3) is as following (assuming soil without consolidation): (1) Obtain the Young Modulus of the Soil by Ground Investigation Works. (2) Build a computer model (say, by SAFE) with a first trial of K value (say, ranged from 10,000 to 50,000 for typical soil). (3) Input all the loading on top of the raft and have analysis of the raft. (4) Obtain the bearing stress profile for the raft. (5) Based on the computer output, estimate the settlement based on elastic theory. (6) Obtain a new value of K by K= stress/ settlement. (7) Have iteration of K value by repeating steps 2-6 until the results converged.

Wilson 7:42 : Raft, SAFE, Subgrade Modulus

2010105
Fire Protection and Corrosion Protection System for Structural Steel
Structural steel shall be protected against fire and corrosion.

Fire Protection System


Fire protection system shall include surface preparation, application of primer, fixing details, etc. There are mainly two type of fire protection system, the sprayed fire protection system and intumescent coating system. (i) Sprayed Fire Protection System

For interior structural steelwork.

For dry environment, the steel surface shall be blast cleaned (e.g. to Swedish Standard SIS055900 Sa2) and shall be thoroughly cleared of oil, grease, dirt or other foreign substrances which may impair the propoer adhesion of the fire protection to the substrate.

For high humidity location, the steel surface shall be: (1) blast cleaned (e.g. to Swedish Standard SIS055900 Sa 2.5); (2) provided with corrosion protection system using two pack epoxy based zinc rich primer (say, to BS4652) with a dry film thickness of 80m. (3) apply a bond coat to the primed surface (4) apply sprayed mineral fire coating to the surface

(ii) Intumescent Coating System

For both interior and exterior condition.

For Interior condition, all interior structural steelwork (including fasteners and welded connections) shall be blast cleaned to Swedish Standard SIS 055900 Sa 2 and with: (1) Primer: 2-pack epoxy based zinc rich primer with dry film thickness = 80m (2) Basement: protective fire coating with thickness depends on Hp/A and fire rating. (3) Finishing Coat: Compatible finishing coat with dry file thickness = 80m

For Exterior condition, all structural steelwork (including fasteners and welded connections) shall hot-dip galvanized to BSEN ISO 1461 with: (1) Pretreatment: Degrease and rinse, apply British Rail T-Wash. (2) Primer: Thickness and type to be recommended by the fire protection coating manufacturer. (3) Basement: protective fire coating with thickness depends on Hp/A and fire rating. (4) Finishing Coat: Compatible finishing coat with dry file thickness = 50m

Corrosion Protection System


(i) For Interior Environment (without FRP Requirement), either Hot-dip galvanized to BS EN ISO 1461 and receive the protective coating below:

(1) Pre-treatment: Degrease and rinse, apply British Rail T-Wash. (2) Finishing coat: 2-packed recoatable polyurethane finishing paint applied in 2 coats recommended as suitable by paint manufacturer for direct application to etched surface. Etched

surface shall be overcoated within 24 hours or the time limit by the manufacturer. Dry film thickness = 80m OR

Blast cleaned to Sa 2 and shall receive the protective coating as follows:

(1) Primer: 2-pack epoxy based zinc rich primer to BS 4652, dry film thickness = 80m (2) Undercoat: 2-pack epoxy based micaceous iron oxide paint, dry film thickness = 100m (3) Finishing coat: 2-pack recoatable polyurethane coat, applied in two coats, dry film thickness = 100m (4) Minimum overall dry film thickness = 280m

(ii) For External Environment (without FRP Requirement), Hot-dip galvanized to BS EN ISO 1461 and receive the protective coating below:

(1) Pre-treatment: Degrease and rinse, apply British Rail T-Wash. (2) Primer: 2-pack epoxy based zinc phosphate primer to BS4652 with dry film thickness = 40m (3) Undercoat: 2-pack epoxy based micaceous iron oxide paint, dry film thickness = 80m (4) Finishing coat: 2-packed recoatable polyurethane coat, applied in two coat with dry film thickness = 100m (5) Minimum overall dry film thickness = 220m

Wilson 3:05 : Corrosion, Fire Protection, Steel

2010419
Piezometer Vs Standpipe
Piezometer and standpipe are both used to measure the ground water level. A piezometer is a small-diameter observation well used to measure the hydraulic head of groundwater. Typical configuration of piezometer consists of filter tip surrounded by sand filter zone at the bottom. Above the tilter tip is bentonite seal and bentonite-cement grout.

As piezometer is used to measure the water pressure at the tip, long response time is required. Contrast to piezometer, standpipe is used to measure the water level directly and hence shorter response time is expected. The configuration of standpipe is similar to that of piezometer, except that the bentonite seal/ grout are replaced by sand/ gravel. Typical standpipe arrangement is as follow:

Wilson 10:14 : Geotechnical, GI Works, Piezometer, Standpipe

2010418
Standard Penetration Test (SPT)
SPT is a simple tool to check for the strength/ stiffness of soil. Number of blows to penentrate 75mm underground (total 6 segments with total length of 400mm) is measured. The 1st set and 2nd set of readings (i.e. from 0mm to 150mm) will not be used. The total number of blows for the sampler to penetrate each 75mm is the SPT value for the soil. The test in the 1st segment and 2nd segment will be stopped if the number of blows reaches 50. The counting of blows for other segments (for 3rd segment to 6th segment) will also be stopped if number of blows reaches 100.

Attached is a video of SPT testing procedure:

Wilson 10:29 : Field Test, Geotechnical, SPT

2009628
Lateral Loading on Piles
For piling foundation, the lateral force on the pile head is resisted by the surrounding soil. Simplified calculation can be carried out in accordance with recommendation by Tomlinson, M.J.. On the other hand, the pile and the surrounding soil could be modelled as frame elements with soil spring supports (ie. subgrade reaction method). The soil spring could be determined in accordance with Figure 9 ofGeoguide 1 (2nd Edition) published by Geotechnical Engineering Office (GEO). The spring constant (ksj) is given by ksj = nhzjzj, where nh = Constants of horizontal subgrade reaction zj = Depth of spring zj = Length of pile served by spring Hence we can observed that the soil spring is depended on (i) nhvalue of the soil; (ii) depth of soil spring; and (iii) distance between soil spring. It shall be noted that the value of soil spring is independent of the pile dimension. Typical value of nh value can refer to Table 6.11 of GEO Publication No. 1/2006Foundation Design and Construction (2006) . The reaction on the surrounding soil is assumed to be within the soil capacity, provided that maximum deflection of the pile/ surrounding soil is within 25mm. The model can be carried out by linear analysis as the piles are surrounded by soil in all direction. If sheet piling/ pipe piling are analyzed with soil spring, non-linear analysis is required such that the soil element on the un-excavated side could only take up compression.