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TRUYN SNG V TUYN

Truyn sng v tuyn

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Trc tip Phn x Tng i lu Qua tng in ly Chuyn tip qua v tinh Sng mt (sng t)

Tng i lu (troposphere): vng thp ca kh quyn (thp hn 10km) Tng in ly (ionosphere): t 50 km n 1000km nh hng n sng: phn x, khc x, nhiu x, tn x, suy hao, phn cc

Tng quan v cc hin tng nh hng n truyn sng v tuyn v ng dng


1. Sng trc tip (line of sight): a s radar, tuyn (SHF) t mt t n v tinh

2. Sng trc tip cng vi phn x ca mt t: VHF UHF broadcast, ground to air, air to air

3. Sng mt (sng t) : AM broadcast, thng tin hng hi tm ngn

4. Bc nhy tng in ly : MF HF broadcast , communication

5. Dn sng nh tng in ly : VLF LF communication

Mode bc nhy hay mode dn sng nh tng in ly phn bit bi m hnh ton hn l qu trnh vt l.

6. ng do tng i lu : tuyn microwave, over the horizon (OTH) radar and communication

7. Nhiu x mt t

8. Truyn sng tm thp v b mt

Truyn sng v tuyn khi xt theo bng tn


VLF and LF (10 to 200 kHz) Ch ng dn sng gia mt t v lp D; sng mt vi khong cch ngn. LF to MF (200 kHz to 2 MHz) Chuyn tip gia sng t v sng tri (bc nhy tng in ly). Sng tri tri hn v m. HF (2 MHz to 30 MHz) Bc nhy tng in ly. Truyn thng khong cch xa vi cng sut thp v anten n gin. Bng sng ngn. VHF (30 MHz to 100 MHz) Vi cng sut thp v anten nh, s dng ng trc tip cng vi ng phn x trn mt t; vi anten ln v cng sut cao, nh vo s tn x tng in ly. UHF (80 MHz to 500 MHz) - Trc tip: cc loi radar pht hin, truyn thng my bay v tinh, truyn thng v tinh v tinh. - Trc tip + phn x mt t: my bay mt t, truyn hnh c nh. - Tn x tng i lu: khi s dng anten ln nh hng cao v cng sut ln. SHF (500 MHz to 10 GHz) - Trc tip: a s radar, truyn thng v tinh. - Khc x tng i lu v nhiu x mt t: nh hng ln ti cc tuyn truyn thng viba v v tinh cao thp.

Truyn sng v tuyn khi xt theo hin tng


Trc tip Trc tip cng vi phn x mt t Sng mt (sng t) Qua tng i lu Ch ng dn sng Bc nhy tng in ly (lp E v F) Tn x tng i lu Tn x tng in ly Trong a s radar, tuyn link SHF t mt t n v tinh. UHF TV vi anten cao, cc tuyn thng tin t mt t khng v khng - khng Qung b AM, thng tin hng hi tm ngn Cc tuyn viba H thng VLF v LF vi khong cch truyn thng ln, thng tin hng hi. (ng dn sng : mt t lp D) Truyn thng qung b bng tn MF v HF (bao gm a s cc tuyn thng tin ng di, truyn thng nghip d) Tuyn truyn thng khong cch trung bnh di UHF. Truyn thng khong cch trung bnh khong tn thp ca di VHF

Thng tng

Tng in ly

Tng gia Bnh lu i lu

Phn x mt phng t

1. 2. 3. 4.

H s phn x: = .e j , vi 0 : 1 li anten pht: GT ( A ) cho ng trc tip, GT ( B ) cho ng phn x li anten thu: G R ( C ) cho ng trc tip, G R ( D ) cho ng phn x sai lch:

Gto: li ca anten pht theo hng cc i ( = 0 ), khi :


Etnorm : cng in trng chun ha.
Tng t cho anten thu:

Trng tng ti anten thu:

F=0: ng trc tip v phn x trit tiu nhau F=2: hai thnh phn trc tip v phn x tng cng trng pha thu Nu:

Nu:

Cng sut thu c bn pha anten thu t l:

|F| min ti:

|F| max ti:

li theo chiu cao: vi khong cch d c nh

example

S phn x ca sng trn mt phng t

S phn x sng tng kh quyn


S phn x tng kh quyn thp lm cho hng sng b b cong ngc v b mt tri t. s b cong hng sng c m t bi : nRe sin = Const . H s khc x n (= r ) thay i trong tng kh quyn.

S phn x c th l nguyn nhn chnh tm pht xa hn ng chn tri. Tia sng dng cung c th c thay th bi tia thng nu dng bn knh tng ng Re .

Khong cch t anten pht n ng chn tri:

Tng t cho anten thu:

Path gain factor:

Cng thc xp x: