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1969 .


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1997

63.5
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97-01-16422

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90

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ISBN 5-02-018003-3
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98

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102

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103


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107

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108


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109



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126


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127

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129

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131

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132

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133

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134

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136

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137

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138

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139

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140

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141

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142


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144

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145

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146

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147


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148

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149

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1994, . 15]. . , ,
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150

. , [ , .451].

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151


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152


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153

[Ibid].
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154



[1984, .428].
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155

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,
[Ibid.,
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156

-; , "" , [-
, 1923, .37].
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157

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158

, ,
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.
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159

, ; 5) ; 6) [Lord, 1960. . 123; ,


1994, .141].
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.
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[ReicM, 1992,
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160

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162

[ , .59].
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A.C.
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163

.
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164

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165

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166

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..., 1885, c.XVIXVII].
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167

(.. ) , ,
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in performance. Composition , , , .
. , , , , , , , ,
. , (omision), (substitution),
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p.262-263].

168

, -, .
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[ , .636637].

169

. , , .. , . . ,
XIX .
,
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, . , [, 1986, .53
54].
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,
; , , (mind) [Reichl, 1992, .221].

, ,
, .
[Ibid., .222].
composition in performance, . : , (re-composes)
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,
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[Ibid., p.223].

170

,
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171

. ,

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172

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[Ibid., p.126].
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A.C. : ( ) // : . ., . 150- . 3031 1985 . , 1986.
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J.M.Folley. Columbus, 1981.

SUMMARY

The title of the book Epic skazitel'stvo: typology and specificity implies the word skazitel'stvo (an abstract noun, derived from
the word skaziteP) in the widened meaning. SkaziteF originally
meant a singer of Russian epic songs bylinas, but later became a
scientific term, denoting an epic singer of any tradition, of any ethnic milieu.
World science accumulated a considerable amount of material
concerning national tradition of skazitel'stvo for peoples of Europe,
Asia, Oceania and Africa. This created possibilities for comparative
study of the basic aspects of skazitel'stvo as a cultural phenomen, for
bringing out of general universalia and their various ethnic realizations. The book offers an attempt at such a typological study.
The first part is called SkaziteP and epic milieu. Its first section (p. 1244) is Teaching and training of an epic singer. One
should distinguish between the training proper (which ends with the
first performance) and the enlargement and perfection of a singer's
skill (which lasts through all his life). Different cultures have their
own types of training, but all of them have one feature in common:
the would-be singers belong to the milieu, where epic is created,
originally, from childhood (and childhood is a proper time to start
learning); an alien cannot become a skaziteP. There are two major
ways known of training a singer. The first, and the more widespread
one (typical of the South Slavs, Russian North, the Mongols, most
of Siberia) is primarily self-training. The children acquire skills of a
singers as naturally as household and working ones. From the earliest age they listen to performers, observe them handling, musical
instruments, memorize texts, music, movements of fingers, then
start to imitate them (sometimes performing for smaller children).
With this kind of training, a poetic atmosphere in the family is very
important, and skaziteP dynasties are very frequent. The second type

Summary

291

(typical of Ukraine and some Central Asian and Siberian regions) is


studying with a teacher. A professional singer finds (or chooses) his
own pupil, devotes special time to him, uses approved methods,
conducts him to a certain level and lets him graduate. There exist
close links between a teacher and a pupil, which do not terminate at
the end of study. The moment of becoming a trained, professional
singer is often accompanied by a certain initiation rite. Both kinds of
training have a lot of variants in different ethnic traditions and may
sometimes be combined. The result of training was not just an ability to reproduce a text, however long, by heart, by the knowledge of
epos as a whole and. the ability to reproduce this very knowledge.
The second section The myth of the miraculous gift (p.45
67) deals, first of all, with the popular concepts of acquiring the art
of epic performance. According to various traditions, it happens with
the help of supernatural power (often by their call or order, given in
a dream), with the help of famous dead singers. SkazitePs can be
considered the chosen of gods or spirits. The author claims, that
certain aspects of a skazitel's art (both in obtaining and functioning)
cannot be completely explained rationally. The traditional beliefs in
the miraculous acquirement of epic art naturally ascribed the miraculous power to it: the performance of epics is used to heal, to
placate or exorcize spirits, to ensure a good hunt or harvest, stop an
epidemic etc. This aspect manifests the deep typological and genetic
connection between an epic singer and a shaman.
The next section, A skazitel' after "school" (p.6877) deals
with the development of a singer after the end of the training. It
consisted mainly of enlargement of his repertoire, enriching his store
of epic instruments (formulas, loci communes etc.) and perfection
of narration technique. The high level of skazitel'stvo is kept by
professionals and masters, wholly devoted to their art. The principal
way of obtaining new epic pieces is oral, through listening to other
skazitel's. The best singers could memorize a new piece after one
hearing. In some traditions singers can borrow new texts from
books. This gives new impulses to the living epics, but, on the other
hand, puts an end to* historical study by oral tradition. The interpretation of a written text by a skazitel needs an experimental study.
The section Typology of performing art (p.78127) describes
the social aspects of performance, their occasions, places, seasons
and times of day (and corresponding restrictions), length, preparations and accompanying rites, waiting for inspiration, special kinds
of beginning the performance, the relations between the performer

292

Summary

and the audience. It also deals with the process of performance itself. It is a theatre of one actor, differing between ethnic traditions, separate schools and individual performers. There are different
correlations between recitation and singing, between verse and
prose; the role of instrumental accompaniment can also vary. The
voice of a skaziteF is capable of a great intonational variety, it must
have a great tembre scale and great strength. Musical instruments
were often considered sacred and the process of their making magical. There are different traditions of mimic and altogether expressive
accompaniment, some demanding perfect calmness and repose,
some requiring a lot of gesticulation and emotionality.
The concluding section of the first part is Concerning the social
status of the singen> (p.128142); it deals with kinds of remuneration (in various traditions and according to the degree of professionally epic art can be either basic means of livelihood or coincide with
ordinary occupations; sometimes feasting, honour and glory were
the only reward), with social belonging of skazitel's and ideology of
different types of epos in different traditions and epochs, with relations between singers and aristocracy. The author claims, that, contrary to Marxist and other sociological dogmas, epic ideas have a
generally national character, and epic was a part of national consciousness in general.
The second part is called The skazitel' and the epic text. Its
first section is The state of the problem (p.143151). The basic
questions in study of epics are: what is the text in consciousness and
empirical activity of a singer? How does he absorb the epic texts,
what and how does he hold in memory? Is the process of performance a purely artistic act or something else? What can be the difference between acts of performance of the same piece by the same
singer? Etc, etc. It was the Russian school in folkloristics, which
asked these questions first and tried to find the answers. The author
reviews critically the ideas of different Russian scientists and analyses in detail the Parry-Lord theory, which he considres leading in
current science.
The section Tracing the living traditions (p.152173) gives a
detailed history of folkloristic field work, which was, done by many
scientists in various ethnic milieus, concerning the questions above,
especially concerning the degree of improvisation in epic art and its
role.
The last section of the second part is Schools of skazitel'stvo
(p. 174177). The concept school has two meanings in folklore

Summary

293

studies: the succession of pupils' traditions and the complex of


common regional specific features. The first meaning is usually applied to those traditions, where the training of singers was professional. Altogether, it is difficult sometimes to trace the schools in
the first sense and to distinguish them from schools in the second.
The third part is called Bylina skazitel's. The Russian (mainly
North Russian) skazitel'stvo provides us with a great amount of
material: a lot of texts, taken by a lot of collectors from a lot of
singers of various regions during 90 years. Now the living epic tradition on the Russian North is completely xtint, and scholars of today, with their new methods and ideas, can appreciate both the extraordinary value of this inheritance and its inevitable drawbacks.
The task of the Russian folklorists, who will never work in the field,
is to study everything left by their predecessors and to read all the
available texts anew.
The first section is Varying of bylina texts and the epic verse
(p. 185211). The author analyses bylina texts by an outstanding
dynasty of the Ryabinins. Their texts are extremely stable as to
compositions and succession of episodes. But the bylinas of the dynasty founder had no canon text, so, his successors had to notice
manifold variations, but could not learn them by heart. The texts by
the Ryabinins have a lot of varieties inside separate lines, phraseological or semantic units. Comparing different variants of the
same stanzas shows, that at each performance they sort of appeared
anew, and it is impossible to tell primary and secondary variants. Russian bylinas use plenty of formulae (or formula expressions), which can be easily inserted into various metric situations
and help in constructing a verse. It is not enough for a skazitel' to
keep many formulae in mind; he must be able to make them work,
to put them in a semantic and metrical context, i.e., to have a full
knowledge of the formula grammar. Different singers use formulae
to a different extent. The author considres the A. Gilferding theory
about the difference between the typical and transitive loci and
comes to the conclusion, that a singer has the same task in both
cases: to construct a verse and to connect it to others; he just have
more formulae at hand, when dealing with the typical loci.
Moreover, any epic situation, action, state, move can receive a formula expression and thus join the so called typical loci. The bylina
language is one, its grammar is one, and the laws of the verse construction are the same for the whole narration.

294

Summary

The second section is Typology of variability in the skazitel'


texts (p.212229). The author compares singers, who are liable to
making changes in quite a different degree, analyses the correlations
between the content and expressive means. The author considers a
skazitel' as a keeper of bearer of epic knowledge, which provides a
lot of possibilities for varying, but is restricted in more or less rigid
frame and ensures the life of epos.
The next section is Skazitel's "teacher" and "pupils" (or
"learners") (p.230276). Both words have a wide meaning: not
only a trainer and a trainee, but also the one, from whom a poem is
received, and the one, who received a poem from another. The relations between a teacher and a learnen> are basically the relations between a singer and the whole tradition/The author analyses
the cases, where the sources of available texts can be traced, and
demonstrates a large spectrum of correlations between the texts of
the teacher and the learnen> from the point of view of their
similarity and scale of differences.

12
12
45
68
78
128

:

*....

143
143
152
174

178
178
185
212
230

277

Summary

290




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