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hairtna; .-. heorte heortan; .-. hjarta hjortu; ""
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-, "rowlock". ""

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Online Etymology Dictionare (OED) .

. ,
, ., 2, 3, "",
"" ..

1.
) . uk; . n-uk; . ik, .-. ik, .-. ic, .-. ek; . ego, .-.
[ego];
) . es; . a, . es; .-. ; .-. aham, . azm, .-. adam;
, (),
, [g] [k] (,
, ). ,
, , ( ).

2.
) . kuish; . quis; . hwas, .-. hwa;
) .-. ; . pwy;
) .-. kah (Skt); . kas; .-. . ; . ko; .-. ; . ce.
, ,
. [p] ,
: .-. [po] > . [ko], .-. [pe] > . [te].

3.
) OED, many: O.E. monig, manig "many, many a, much," from P.Gmc. *managaz (cf. O.S. manag,
Swedish mngen, O.Fris. manich, Du. menig, O.H.G. manag, Ger. manch, Goth. manags), from PIE
*menegh- "copious" (cf. O.C.S. munogu "much, many," O.Ir. menicc, Welsh mynych "frequent," O.Ir.
magham "gift"). .
"" "".
) , all: . humant-; . omnes, omnia; . {iumjns} "";
.
"" ),
) ), ) ,
.

4.
OED, long: O.E. lang "long," from P.Gmc. *langgaz (cf. Old Frisian, Old Saxon lang, O.H.G., German
lang, O.N. langr, M.Du. lanc, Dutch lang, Gothic laggs "long"), perhaps from PIE *dlonghos- (cf. L.
longus, Old Persian darga-, Persian dirang, Skt. dirghah, Gk. dolikhos "long," Gk. endelekhes
"perpetual," L. indulgere "to indulge") long.
long: .-. drang, . dirang, .-. "",
OED, . longus, . gjat (dial. gljat).
:
) . daluki- ( : daluga-); .-. ; .-. , . d ugi;
, , OED "long" .-. ",
" . indulgere ", ";
) .-. drgha-, . dar ga, .-. darga-;
) . ilga-, . ilgs ( );
) , . indulgere, : .
tulgus ", ", .-. tulge ", ", .-. tulgo "".
. , long, length.
(
).

5.
5.1. OED, fire: O.E. fyr, from P.Gmc. *fuir (cf. O.S., O.Fris. fiur, O.N. frr, M.Du., Du. vuur,
O.H.G. fiur, Ger. Feuer), from PIE *perjos, from root *paewr- (cf. Armenian hur "fire, torch,"
Czech pyr "hot ashes," Gk. pyr, Umbrian pir, Skt. pu, Hittite pahhur "fire").
. . pahhur, . hauri "",
. hur. , .
5.2. : . agnish, .-. agni, . ignis, .-. ungnis, . uguns, .-. .
. ,
(. . 7.2).
. yangn "" "" ,
, .-, .

6.
) . newash, . newidd, .-. , .-. neowe, .-. niuwi, . niujis;
"n" , ,
;
) .-. navya-, . nava-, . naujas;
) . nor, .-. nr, . nu, . nuwe, . ne; . novus, .-.

7.

) . watar, .-. watar, .-. wter, . wato, .-. vatn, w t


, [vat], ;
;
) . yot 'vital fluid, broth', t, . yt;
) .-. udaka-, . vaii- "", . vanduo, . u
dens, . unda "", .-.
, ved, vd; . udun "";
) .-. , . utur, . dwr; . jour;
) . vesi, . viz, wit;
) . u(i)sce, . uj, . , . su, . shui
,
"":

) . aqua, . ahwa "", .-. aha "", .-. a ", ", .-.
"";
) . b, . .
aqua ,
, .
"": . *akele, . .

8.
. haster, .-. [(h)aster], . ast()l, . stella, . , . stairno, .. sterro, .-. steorra, .-. stjarna, . s(t)eren, .-. str
nas .., . starasa .., .-. setre, . sre (pl. sren) . scirye.
, , ; , ([r] > [l]); , ( ), () ()

: .-. , . gwiazda, . vaigd, .


zvaizde, zvaigzne.
. , -, "": "",
"" "" (, , ). "", ,
"", , .-. "stauros" .-. "steor" ("", "") .-.
"(h)aster".
- : .-. rtglu, . ralta, ,
. , . , . yldz, . yll. ,
uisce "", .
""
.

9.
: . hassa- "", . *azg, .-. sce, xe, .-. aska, .-. sa-, . aiun,
.-. ", ", . , s- "", . reo ""; .
( = wood, = wooden), , . hai.
. "" = "ash-tree"; ,
. "", "". "
". . . .-. askr "" aska "", . hirit "" hiri "", . hi
"" aiun "".
"" , ,
(!) , hassa "",
[(h)adzo] areo ", ".

10.
) : . suwanis; .-. s(u)v, gen. sunah (: c
v, c
un
as); . uo, gen. uns, .
suns, gen. sun
a; . sp, gen. sn, spaka-; . un, gen. an; : .-. sabah,
. ; .-. ;
) . canis, .-. ; . , ku, . . kon; .-. c, gen. con, . ci, pl. cwn;
., . ki;
) . hunds, .-. hundr, .-., .-. hund.
,
.
, (
[k] > [h]), . , ,
,
( ). ,
.

11.
. suwais; . avis, . oiseau (?). ,
.
" ()": ) . harassa (: hara(n)) "", . ara "", .-. earn "", .. arn "";
) .-. "", .-. orn "";
) . oror "", .-. irar ""; .-. erer "", . eryr "";
) .-. "", . erelis, . rglis.
.
, OED, eagle:
from O.Fr. egle, from Old Provenal aigla, from L. aquila "black eagle," fem. of aquilus, often
explained as "dark colored" (bird); see aquiline. The native term was erne (: earn?).
. Adler , . Adler .-. aigla ,
. Adler .-. arn, . . ,
aquilus "-"?

12.
) : . salpa- " ( Hunde Kot)"; . slyp, . salype ""; .
salbn "", O.E. sealf (salf) "", sealfian "", .-. salvia, .-. salva "";
.-. sarpis- n., sarpi- n. " ", sr
pra- ", , ";
) .-. ", ", " "; . galp "".
; ,
, - ([l] > [r]).
, : " i. W (411), , : ...
... . ir iti . gr
", ", . "". ... , , ".
. .-. geir "".
: .-. "" O.E. lifer, O.N. lifr, O.Fris. livere,
M.Du. levere, Du. lever, O.H.G. lebara, Ger. Leber "liver"="" (, )
O.E. lifian (Anglian), O.N. lifa "to live, remain", O.Fris. libba, Ger. leben, Goth. liban "to
live"="".
"" , "", "",
"".

13.
: ) . karawar (r/n); .-. ; . corns; ., ., . karn "", .
karnon . . ", ", .-. cr "";
;
) . haurn, .-., .-., .-, .-. horn;
, [k] > [h];
) . sr-, srv- ", ".

14.
) OED, feather: Old English feer "feather," in plural, "wings," from P.Gmc. *fethro (cf. Old Saxon
fethara, Old Norse fior, Swedish fjder, Middle Dutch vedere, Dutch veder, Old High German
fedara, German Feder), from PIE *pet-ra-, from root *pet- "to rush, to fly" (see petition (n.)).
, feather: .-. fethere "", . : fjr, fjeder "";
) . pattar n. (r/n) "", piddai- .. ""; .-. patati, patayati ", ",
pattra- ", ", patan
ga- " ", pataga- ",
" ""?; . pataiti "", fra-pt r j
t- ""; .-. ",

, " (petomai
, petamai
, iptamai
, aor. ptnai
, ptz. pts, ptasthai
, ptesthai
, petasth
nai
, ft.
ptsomai
, pf. kat-eptka `fliegen'; pot f. `das Fliegen, der Flug', ptsi-s f. `id.'; ptno- `beflgelt, flgge',
potaomai`fliegen, flattre', ptaomai`id.', ptma (Suid.) `Flug'). . petere ",
; , ".
, : "... . srns ", (.)", . sprns , .-. parnam

", , ", . r n- "", .-.-. farn "". ,


(, Et. 238; RS 5, 10; .. 3, 987; , KZ 31, 427).
. ", ", "", .-. patram, pattram ", ", .-.-.
fedara """.
. . :
, , , , pattra-.
"" , [p] >
[f], (", "), (", "),
("") ("") .

15. , ,
) , foot: . pat- (pata-) ", " (?); . pts, . patsa "", . pem, .
paiyye ", "; .-. pd, acc. pdam, gen. padah; . pad- ", "; .
votk; .-. , ; .-., .-. ; . ftus, .-. f
tr; fet n.
"", .-. fiatur, .-. , .-. fot, . Fu ; . ps, gen. pedis, . per
i, persi;
. prpo ""; ;
) : , .-. "" .-. , .-. , .
, . , . .
, . et, . t, . t, . pie
ta, .-.
jt, .-. e
t, . o
t; . fundus ""; . pe
da, . pe
da", ", pe
de
" ()", . pe
ds . " ", pe
da ", "
.-. dam " , ", ) .. .
: . wind . ; . vanduo
. .
) , .

16. / ,
16.1.
) OED, knee: O.E. cneo, cneow "knee," from P.Gmc. *knewam (cf. O.N. kne, O.S. kneo,
O.Fris. kni, M.Du. cnie, Du. knie, O.H.G. kniu, Ger. Knie, Goth. kniu), from PIE root
*g(e)neu- (cf. Skt. janu, Avestan znum, Hittite genu "knee;" Gk. "knee," gonia "corner,
angle;" L. genu "knee").
: . genu, . genu, .-. , . keni, . kniu, .-. knio, .-. cneow,
.-. kne, . cunr;
) Skt. janu, Avestan znum, . .
"", : ,
, (), .
, . . kniu . .
16.2.
, : . halija " ", . kolye "", .
kolyi "", . kelis, . glun, . . glju, .-. " , .
", .-. / . ,
, , ,
. ""
.

17.

) . ker / kard, .-. , / , . hairto, .-. hjarta, .-. hr


d, .. heorte, . cor, . cride, . craidd. . 1 8,
, ,
, ;
;
) .-. , . z r d, . , .-. irdes, . sir
ds, . sirt.
. ,
"": . mkerd-, . m wed-, muod-, .
k d r-, kidir-, . yrek "".

18. ,
) . kuttar (r/n) " , ", . guttur ""; .-. guttas (pl.)
"; "; . "; "; . guxim ", ";
) . qius ", ", .-. cwi ", ", .-. kvir ", ,
" ( .-. ), .-.-. quiti "";
) kts, . ktso ", , , ";
) . botulus "", . bowel.
) ,
; ,
, . )
, ,
).

19. , ,
. istarna- ""; .-. "", .-. ""; .-.
steornede "", .-.-. stirna "". :
, , , , ,
, .
.-. "" .-. bc "" (. "").
. brusts "?", .-. ""; .-. brost
"", .-. brist; brust, burst, borst "", .-. brjst ""; .-. br, gen.
bronn "", bruinne "", . bru "", bronn ""; . bronn, bron "";
[bronhos] " , ",
: . . breast ""
breath "". , (
) .

20. ,
) : . pas- ""; .-. pti, inf. ptave, ptavai ""; pti- ""; pna- n.
", "; .-. "", ""; .-. (: .
, ; : ""?); . puota ""; . ptre
" "; . p "";
) . bibere ""; .-. ib- "", .-. iben ""; .-. pibati ""
(: . ).
, ,
, .
.
, OED, drink: O.E. drincan "to
drink," also "to swallow up, engulf" (class III strong verb; past tense dranc, pp. druncen), from P.Gmc.
*drengkan (cf. O.S. drinkan, O.Fris. drinka, Du. drinken, O.H.G. trinkan, Ger. trinken, O.N.

drekka, Goth. drigkan "to drink"), of uncertain origin, perhaps from a root meaning "to draw." Not
found outside Germanic.

21.
) . laggar, . legere, .-., , . lagjan "lay", .-. liggian, leggian, .-.
liggja, .-. licgan, . lake "", . leke "", . lige "";
) . "", .-. lyate (Skt), .-. , . lle "".
. yalan (. . )?
,
. , , ,
, ( "")

22. ,
OED, say: . shakiya "", .-. seggian, .-. segja, .-. secgian, .
insequo, . insce "", . sakyti, .-. "". ,
, , , .

23.
OED, see: . shakuwa, . saihwan, . sequor, .-. sehan, .-. seon, .-. sja.
, . saihwan
shakuwa, , .
, : .-. vindati, vitte "", .
paiti-vs m "", .-. , . vide, -re, . witan " ; OED: to know
"", .-. wsn "", .-. wtan "; OED: to know, ";
.-. [(h)ido].
.
1 .. , see, seek ,
, "" ( .-.).
2 ., . . "" "" "" " (. see, say,
show, . "-- ", "-" "-"). -,
"" "" .

24. , , ,
) : . kanes- ""; . knn- "", . nn- ", "; .
canauth ""; .-. "", ", , "; .
kunnan "", .-. kunna (kann) ", ", .-. cennan "", cnwan
", ", .-. kanna, kena ", ", .-. kunnan; kunst
"", .-. kund; kennan ""; . nsco (gnsco) ", "; .
noh "";
) .-. jnti "", jntar- ""; . zan-t_, zana
n "", zntar- ""; .. ; . inoti "", . zina
t "".
.

25.
: . suel-, suil- ""; .-. svyati "", sevana- ", ", stra- ",
", sci-, sc ""; .-. , ; . siti, siuvu "", . ut, uju ""
( . . um(m)anza "" .-. schumeno " "); . siujan, .. sja, .-. siowian, .-. si, .-. siuwian ""; . su, -ere, su, stum
"". , , . , . uu
i- ", , ", .. suvati " ", .

, , 1
. , . .

26. , ,
26.1.
) . nepis- ""; .-. nabhas- ", , ", nabha- ", "; .
nabah- " , "; .-. , ", "; .-. ,
; .-. neowol (nifol, nihol, nihold, nol, niwol) ", ,
", Old Norse: nifl-hel "", nifl-heimr "", nifl-vegr " "; njl, njla
", ", .-" neval "", Old Saxon: neval ", ", .-.-. nebul ""
(8..); . nebula ", ; , ; "; .-. nem "", nl, gen. niuil ",
", . neamh ""; . nef "", niwl, nifwl ", ", . nef "".
) . debesis "", . debess "".
, , , ,
.
26.2.
: . kammara- ", , " (Tischler 472-473 without convincing
etymologies); . himins, .-. himinn; .-. heofon, .-. himul, himel, .. himil; hevan "". ( . )
.

27.
OED, wind: Old English wind, from P.Gmc. *wendas (cf. Old Saxon, Old Frisian, Middle Dutch, Dutch
wind, Old Norse vindr, Old High German wind, German Wind, Gothic winds), from PIE *we-nt-o"blowing," from root *we- "to blow" (cf. Sanskrit va-, Greek aemi-, Gothic waian, Old English wawan,
Old High German wajan, German wehen, Old Church Slavonic vejati "to blow;" Sanskrit vatah,
Avestan vata-, Hittite huwantis, Latin ventus, Old Church Slavonic vetru, Lithuanian vejas "wind;"
Lithuanian vetra "tempest, storm;" Old Irish feth "air;" Welsh gwynt, Breton gwent "wind"). ,
huwantis, ventus () gwynt, gwent.

28. ,
28.1.
: ) . parku- "", pargatar (r/n) "", parkija-, park""; . , prk- ", "; . prkr, . prkare
""; .-. ", ";
) .-. br
hant- ", , "; . b r z- ", "; .-. burz
", "; , : . barjr "", .-. ", "; .
bairgahei ""; . bre ", ", . bri ""; . burg ", ".
OED, barrow: "mound," Old English beorg (West Saxon), berg (Anglian) "barrow, mountain, hill,
mound," from P.Gmc. *bergaz (cf. Old Saxon, Old Frisian, Old High German berg "mountain," Old
North bjarg "rock"), from PIE root *bheregh- "high, elevated" (cf. Old Church Slavonic bregu
"mountain, height," Old Irish brigh "mountain," Sanskrit b'rhant "high," Old Persian bard- "be high").
Obsolete except in place-names and southwest England dialect by 1400; revived by modern
archaeology.
,
..

29. ,
OED, warm:
) Old English wearm, from P.Gmc. *warmaz (cf. Old Saxon, Old Frisian, Middle Dutch, Old High
German, German warm, Old Norse varmr, Gothic warmjan "to warm"), Hittite war- "to burn"); OCS

varu "heat," variti "to cook, boil;" and Lithuanian verdu "to seethe.";
;
) from PIE *gwher- (cf. Sanskrit gharmah "heat;" Old Persian Garmapada-, name of the fourth
month, corresponding to June/July, from garma- "heat;" Armenian jerm "warm;" Old Irish fogeir
"heated"; the root also may be connected to that of Old Church Slavonic goriti "to burn";
) Greek thermos "warm;" Latin formus "warm," fornax "oven".

30. ,
: ) . karu " "; . , kwr- ""; .-. karl ", ",
.-. ceorl " ";
) .-. ""
) .-. ""; .-. jarati, jryati " , , ",
jarant- ", ", jras ""; . zarta- " "; . cer
"".
, .

31.
OED, far: O.E. feorr "far, remote, distant, to a great distance, long ago," from P.Gmc. *ferro (cf. O.S.
ferr, O.Fris. fer, O.N. fjarre, Du. ver, O.H.G. ferro, Ger. fern, Goth. fairra), from PIE *per- "through,
across, beyond" (cf. Skt. parah "farther, remote, ulterior," Hittite para "outside of," Gk. pera "across,
beyond," L. per "through," O.Ir. ire "farther").
( [p] > [f])
.

32.
: ) . laman-; . nom, . nem; .-. nman-; . na
man-, .-. nma;
. nam, . . nafn, .-. nama, .-. noma, .-., .-., .-.-.
namo; . nmen, . nome, numem; . nom(in)s;
) . anun; .-. ; .-. ainm n-, pl. anmann, .-., . hanow, .-.
hanff, hanu ("h" . .-. ?)
) .-. ; .-. emnes, emmens, . geg. em r, tosk. m n
, .

33.
OED, ice: Old English is "ice" (also the name of the rune for -i-), from P.Gmc. *isa- (cf. Old Norse iss,
Old Frisian is, Dutch ijs, German Eis), with no certain cognates beyond Germanic, though possible
relatives are Avestan aexa- "frost, ice," isu- "frosty, icy;" Afghan asai "frost."
OED ice .
yakh, yex, aej. .
: "This has parallels not only in Hitt. ega-,
agan ice, ekuna cold (IEW: 503), but also in Finn. j, Hung. jg, Liv. jej, Mord. jej, ej, Lapp.
jieg, Vogul. jk, also meaning ice" 14). , ,
, - .
,
.

,
26 33:
1

2 3?

11 12

14

16 17 18 19

21 22 23 24 25 26 27

29 30 31 32

17
( 15 - ):
1

2 3? 4

13 14

16 17 18

21 22 23

25 26 27

32

11
( 10 - ):
1

9 10

14

16 17

19

21

26


. 8 ( 7
- ):
1

10

12

16

21

24

30

32

(7 , - ):
8

12

14

17

26

31

(7 , 5 -
):
6

13

17

21

27 28

(6 , 5 -
):
3

19

22

26

28 29

(5 , 4 -
):
5

15 16


,
.
,
, (. 6
26 , 17
11 ).
,
,
. ,
,
.
, . . ,
, 15) ..
- , 16), ,
,
, ,
.

, 11
6
. ,

, ,
.
,
, . ,
,
.

34. ,
OED, all: Old English eall "all, every, entire," from P.Gmc. *alnaz (cf. Old Frisian, Old High German
al, Old Norse allr, Gothic alls), with no certain connection outside Germanic.
, .-. " , ", . "";
, , ,
.

35.
OED, broad: O.E. brad "broad, flat, open, extended," from P.Gmc. *braithaz (cf. Old Frisian bred, Old
Norse breir, Dutch breed, German breit, Gothic brous ( - - brais), of
unknown origin. Not found outside Germanic languages. No clear distinction in sense from wide.
"". , ,
, ""
, "". ,
( ) , ..
"", "",
, .

36.
OED, big: northern England dialect, "powerful, strong," of obscure origin, possibly from a
Scandinavian source (cf. Norwegian dialectal bugge "great man").
big ",
" , , i "",
"".
, : .-. , . i, . ba a, .-. baga-, .- bhagas ""...
. .,
( . ) , (.
53), ( 48, 278), .
. . . . . .
. (, ).

37.
OED, meat: O.E. mete "food, item of food" (paired with drink), from P.Gmc. *mati (cf. O.Fris. mete,
O.S. meti, O.N. matr, O.H.G. maz, Goth. mats "food," M.Du., Du. metworst, Ger. Mettwurst "type of
sausage"), from PIE *mad-i-, from root *mad- "moist, wet," also with reference to food qualities, (cf.
Skt. medas- "fat" (n.), O.Ir. mat "pig;" see mast (n.2)).
"" ", ",
maz mats (. ; . . .

, , . "", " ") ,


. "" "",
, , , ..
, , meat
.

, , : . wind
, sand , send si ..

38.
OED, neck: O.E. hnecca "neck, nape, back of the neck" (a fairly rare word) from P.Gmc. *khnekkon
"the nape of the neck" (cf. O.Fris. hnekka, M.Du. necke, Du. nek, O.N. hnakkr, O.H.G. hnach, Ger.
Nacken "neck"), with no certain cognates outside Germanic, though Klein's sources suggest PIE *knok"high point, ridge" (cf. O.Ir. cnocc, Welsh cnwch, Old Breton cnoch "hill")) ,
unk "".

39.
OED, back: Old English bc "back," from P.Gmc. *bakam (cf. Old Saxon and Middle Dutch bak, Old
Frisian bek, .-.-. bah), with no known connections outside
Germanic.
, .
, , ,
, , , back
. , . . . Stirn ""
(. ", , "). : "".

40. ,
,
, ,
(. .-. ancian "" dzikuj "", .-. akka
"" ""); . . big
"" ~ i "".
. .. "THINK"
, "",
"", "".

"; ; ".
xing ""; tng, tng ", "; "";"
"; ", ".
tng dng " (: )"; "[] ";
" ( )"; ", "; ", "
.-. ing, .-.-. ding ", ". . ,
, .

41.
: . die, dead, death , (di
""), (fnus "") (OIr duine " (?)", OIr dth
"", . dyn "") . .-. dead
" ", i, . dede
t,
de
du, dedju ", " ( ).

42.
OED, kill: perhaps from an unrecorded variant of O.E. cwellan "to kill" (see quell), but the earliest
sense suggests otherwise. . i "":
"". . . . llh "", , .

43. ,
OED, hunt "" *kend-, , *kend- "", .
, , . hunt "", hund
"" "", " ", ",
".

44.
OED, cut: possibly Scandinavian, from North Germanic *kut- (cf. Swedish dialectal kuta "to cut,"
kuta "knife," Old Norse kuti "knife"), or from Old French couteau "knife."
"" ( "ash"
).

45.
OED, stab: first attested in Scottish English, apparently a dialectal variant of Scottish stob "to pierce,
stab," of uncertain origin, perhaps a variant of stub (n.) ", ".
OED, , : "
" ( "").

46. ()
OED, dig: early 14c. (diggen), of uncertain origin, perhaps related to dike and ditch, either via Old
French diguer (ultimately from a Germanic source), or directly from an unrecorded Old English word.
Native words were deolfan (see delve), grafan (see grave (v.)).
OED, dagger: apparently from Old French dague "dagger," from Old Provenal dague or Italian daga,
of uncertain origin; perhaps Celtic, perhaps from Vulgar Latin *daca "Dacian knife," from the Roman
province in modern Romania.
, , "", , ;
spade
" / " bill " / ".

47. ,
OED, pull: O.E. pullian "to pluck or draw out," of unknown origin. ,
p ~ v, . spata- .-. sveta- "", . spenta- .-.
"", . spark "" . ?

48.
48.1.
OED, sing: Old English singan "to chant, sing, tell in song," also used of birds (class III
strong verb; past tense sang, pp. sungen), from P.Gmc. *sengwanan (cf. Old Frisian sionga,
Middle Dutch singhen, Old High German singan, German singen, Gothic siggwan, Old Norse
syngva, Swedish sjunga), from PIE root *sengwh- "to sing, make an incantation."
No related forms in other languages, unless perhaps it is connected to Greek omphe "voice"
(especially of a god), "oracle;" and Welsh dehongli "explain, interpret."
: sng ", , " sing "", song ""
48.2.
The typical Indo-European root is represented by Latin canere (see chant (v.)); : .. canim "", . canu ""; .-. ", ", . kankls ".
, ".

49.
OED, play: O.E. plegan, plegian "move rapidly, occupy or busy oneself, exercise; frolic; make sport of,
mock; perform music," from W.Gmc. *plegan "occupy oneself about" (cf. O.S. plegan "vouch for, take
charge of," O.Fris. plega "tend to," M.Du. pleyen "to rejoice, be glad," Ger. pflegen "take care of,

cultivate"), from PIE root *dlegh- "to engage oneself," forming words in Celtic, Germanic, Slavic, and
possibly Latin. : *plegan "
" i "", lg "".

50. /
OED, sea: O.E. s "sheet of water, sea, lake," from P.Gmc. *saiwaz (cf. O.S. seo, O.Fris. se, M.Du.
see), of unknown origin, outside connections "wholly doubtful" [Buck].
: hi "/", .-. [dzeo] ",
, (. .)" . . saiws, O.E. s, O.S. seo.

51.
"" "".
) OED, sand: O.E. sand, from P.Gmc. *sanda- (cf. O.N. sandr, O.Fris. sond, M.Du. sant, Ger. Sand,
not recorded in Gothic), from PIE root *samatha- (cf. Gk. psammos "sand," L. sabulum);
) OED, soda: late 15c., "sodium carbonate," an alkaline substance extracted from certain ashes (now
made artificially), from It. sida (or M.L. soda) "a kind of saltwort," from which soda is obtained,
perhaps from Arabic suwwad;
) OED, soot: Old English sot, from P.Gmc. *sotam "soot" (cf. Old Norse sot, Old Dutch soet, North
Frisian sutt), lit. "what settles," from PIE *sodo- (cf. Old Church Slavonic sazda, Lithuanian suodziai,
Old Irish suide, Breton huzel "soot"), from root *sod-/*sed- "to sit" (see sedentary).
sand soda: ,
soot, (sediment, . . sida . ).
. sand sia
sc "".
.-. send ", " si ", " (OED).

52.
52.1.
OED, earth: Old English eore "ground, soil, dry land," also used (along with
middangeard) for "the (material) world" (as opposed to the heavens or the underworld), from
P.Gmc. *ertho (cf. Old Frisian erthe "earth," Old Saxon ertha, Old Norse jr, Middle Dutch
eerde, Dutch aarde, Old High German erda, German Erde, Gothic aira), from PIE root *er(2) "earth, ground" (cf. Middle Irish -ert "earth").
.
, aarde, aira ..: ard ardhi
"".
52.2.
OED, ground: O.E. grund "bottom, foundation, ground, surface of the earth," especially
"bottom of the sea" (a sense preserved in run aground), from P.Gmc. *grundus, which seems to
have meant "deep place" (cf. O.Fris., O.S., Danish, Swedish grund, Du. grond, O.H.G. grunt,
Ger. Grund "ground, soil, bottom;" O.N. grunn "a shallow place," grund "field, plain," grunnr
"bottom"). No known cognates outside Germanic.
ground Old English grindan "to rub together, grate, scrape,"
forgrindan "destroy by crushing " (class III strong verb; past tense grand, pp. grunden .
grund) "" gro
da " " (.
"", .. ,
OED "ground", ., . ""). Ground
, , .
52.3.
" "
- , . . solum
"ground, soil", of unknown origin (OED).

53.

OED, black: Old English blc "dark," from P.Gmc. *blakaz "burned" (cf. Old Norse blakkr "dark,"
Old High German blah "black," Swedish blck "ink," Dutch blaken "to burn"), from PIE *bhleg- "to
burn, gleam, shine, flash" (cf. Greek phlegein "to burn, scorch," Latin flagrare "to blaze, glow, burn"),
from root *bhel- (1) "to shine, flash, burn;" see bleach (v.).
" ".
"" "" black ,
, (: . .. c
ymas ", "),
( ).
, , ,
*blank "" -
.

54.
OED, night: Old English niht (West Saxon neaht, Anglian nht, neht) "night, darkness;" the vowel
indicating that the modern word derives from oblique cases (genitive nihte, dative niht), from P.Gmc.
*nakht- (cf. Old Saxon and Old High German naht, Old Frisian and Dutch nacht, German Nacht, Old
Norse natt, Gothic nahts).

(i ~ a): . .-. niht . nahts
(i, ~ ): . . i, . n . .

55.
OED, bad: c.1200, "inferior in quality;" early 13c., "wicked, evil, vicious," a mystery word with no
apparent relatives in other languages.* Possibly from Old English derogatory term bddel and its dim.
bdling "effeminate man, hermaphrodite, pederast," probably related to bdan "to defile." A rare word
before 1400, and evil was more common in this sense until c.1700...
*Farsi has bad in more or less the same sense as the English word, but this is regarded by linguists as a
coincidence. The forms of the words diverge as they are traced back in time (Farsi bad comes from
Middle Persian vat), and such accidental convergences exist across many languages, given the vast
number of words in each and the limited range of sounds humans can make to signify them. Among
other coincidental matches with English are Korean mani "many," Chinese pei "pay," Nahuatl (Aztecan)
huel "well," Maya hol "hole."
. bad ,
vat, .
. ()
- . 2 . .. ( ) 7 . .. vat
"" 2 1 . .. (
II ): "" vat. ,
"" : - bad, bed, - bd. -
.
, , . ,
, . , ,
/ ,
(?) .
vat > bad,
, , , ( )
.

56. ,

OED, dirt: 15c. metathesis of Middle English drit, drytt "mud, dirt, dung" (c.1300), from Old Norse
drit, cognate with Old English dritan "to void excrement," from P.Gmc. *dritanan (cf. Dutch drijten,
Old High German trizan). , .
, . , : . , . , , . ,
. ,
, . dri
sk "", dri
st , dristati, driskati, . dristati,
dr
izdati, . dryzdac, drystac, drzystac, .-. dristac; .-. drita "cacare",
. dritan; . dirt ", " ( *drit), . dreet,
. dri t "".
, , .

57.
OED, round: rota, rotundus. , kra
g, . . kre
gu
", "; .-. hringr, .-.-., . hring "".
"" ( "",
"" ""), . kre
giel "", , ""
"".
: . range, read, , . .

58.
, ""
:
FDW ( ), ,
fidwor;
fir, fay ; , ,
"" R1b.

59.
59.1.
, .. ..
""
- "": hunk'a;
Xunk', Xik'; ""
: I- "", "" (. ""), ,
, "".
59.2.
, "" "pat",
pes be.
25 :
- 6 ;
- 13 , ,
;
- 4 (-
);
, ,
, - ,
, .
. . .. quinque "" ( .
"", ""), - "" (. .
quinque, . finger "" Xik', Xunk', "") 17).

,
, . .
"" ""
( 1, 2 3
) , -,
, .
. "
".
-/, -, -
-- ,
:
: . hawas .*aus, sf. (gen. *awais)
: . as(u)was, . equus, . aihws, .-. asva- m., asv f., . aspa- m., asp f.;
. e
: . happin-ant- . gabigs (?), O.N.happ "" > . happy ""
: .-. nefos, . nebula; nimbus, . nibls, .-. nabhas, .-. "".
: .-. i "", . aeternus, . aiws ""
(): . itar, . ytr, . ytrye ", " . iter ", ".
,
, ,
- . ,
. ,
, , ,
. ,
, "" ,
.
Online
Etymology Dictionary (OED, by Douglas Parker) " ".
(
), .
,

:
- brim "" (obscure origin) - ", , , ";
- gaile "" (origin uncertain) - "";
- segne "" (a West Germanic borrowing) - ", ";
- sponge, spunge "" (borrowed from an unknown source) - [spongos], .
[sfongos] "" ( 6 5 . .. ""
[p] > [f ]?!);
- heron "" (perhaps imitative of its cry) - [(h)ero:dios] "";
- carp "" (possibly Gothic *karpa. A Danube fish) [karpos] "",
"" (, , ).
,
, OED:

- anger "", "" (from Old Norse angr "distress, grief. sorrow, affliction")
angra- ", ", . - " " (,
", "); ,
"", "",
, "";
- bad "" (a mystery word with no apparent relatives in other languages) :
., bad, . bed, . bd, .-. . vat "", . "";
- better "" (from boot "profit, use") behtar "";
- best "" (from boot "profit, use") behest " ( )";
- dark ", " (O.E. deorc, ) . , . , taro,
tarik ", ";
- ice, . Eis "" (O.E. is, with no certain cognates beyond Germanic))... : .
aexa- ", ", . asai "", . yex, yakh "" (
.-. jaki; aej ""
- , , , ,
, , . 14);
- steer, . Stier "" (O.E. steor, perhaps from PIE *steu-ro-, a root denoting "strength,
sturdiness" (see taurus)) staora- " ", . stro, sutur
""; .-. steor "" .-. steorra ""
, . " ";
- squat " ; , " (from es- "out" (from L. ex-) + O.Fr. quatir "press
down, flatten," from V.L. *coactire "press together, force," from L. coactus, pp. of cogere "to compel,
curdle, collect") "" ""
", " *coactire ,
", ";
- nga- "" . snake "" ( .. ,
; *nagis > . angis "" ,

) ,
"snake-naked", - " ";
- bhaga ", , " . bag "" (O.E. bagge, not found
in other Germanic languages, perhaps ultimately of Celtic origin), . ""
"";
- butter, . Butter "" (from bous "ox, cow" + tyros "cheese;" but this might be a folk
etymology of a Scythian word. The product was used from an early date in India, Iran and northern
Europe, but not in ancient Greece and Rome. Herodotus described it (along with cannabis) among the
oddities of the Scythians.) "" 18);
- path ", " (O.E. pa, p "path, track,"... (cf. O.Fris. path, M.Du. pat, Du. pad,
O.H.G. pfad, Ger. Pfad "path"), of unknown origin. The original initial -p- in a Germanic word is an
etymological puzzle. Watkins says the word is "probably borrowed (? via Scythian) from Iranian *path-"
from PIE root *pent- "to tread, go, pass" (cf. Avestan patha "way;" see find (v.)), but this is too much of
a stretch for OED and others.) , ,
, ( . ,
path find, . Pfad ),
.

( , , ),
.
-
:

heel "" (O.E. hela, from PIE *kenk- "heel, bend of the knee": hela
*kenk , );
"" cut "" (possibly Scandinavian, from N.Gmc. *kut- (cf. Swedish dialectal
kuta "to cut," kuta "knife," O.N. kuti "knife"), or from O.Fr. couteau "knife.");
guts ", " (O.E. guttas (pl.) "bowels, entrails," related to geotan "to pour,"
from PIE *gheu- "pour" OED , ,
, "");
"", . ""; "" .-. ", ,
", . kalba "", . call ", , " (from PIE root *gal- "to call,
scream, shriek, shout");
"", , "" hurry "" (perhaps a variant of
harry (v.), or perhaps a West Midlands sense of Middle English hurren "to vibrate rapidly, buzz," from
P.Gmc. *hurza "to move with haste" (cf. M.H.G. hurren "to whir, move fast," Old Swedish hurra "to
whirl round"), which also perhaps is the root of hurl) hurry courir;
", " yarl, earl (O.E. eorl) "" (of uncertain origin);
""; . "" ash ""; ash-tree "" (from PIE root *as- "to
burn, glow"; "", = wooden).
( )
:
- kvarn, kvrn
kvern, cweorn . ( -
"");
- "", ""

( . skjegg "" hige "",
: . hage "", . hake "" "");
- "", ,
,
(. . ild, . eldur, . eld . . , . tuli),
. albus . baltas- "", .-. ert . terra
"";
- "" . hirse "" ( ,
);
- , "" .-. (.-.) fill "" ( .
fila "": .-. ngas ", ",
. nga ", ", nagaja "" : Schlange
"" "");
- "" . dig "" (of uncertain origin, perhaps related to dike and
ditch, either via O.Fr. diguer (ultimately from a Germanic source), or directly from an unrecorded Old
English word. Native words were deolfan, grafan); . dagger "" (apparently from O.Fr.
dague "dagger," from Old Provenal dague or Italian daga, of uncertain origin);
spade " / " bill
" / ".
- "" soap "" (O.E. sape "soap" (originally a reddish hair dye used by
Germanic warriors to give a frightening appearance), from W.Gmc. *saipo- "dripping thing, resin" (cf.
M.L.G. sepe, W.Fris. sjippe, Du. zeep, O.H.G. seiffa, Ger. seife "soap," O.H.G. seifar "foam," O.E.
sipian "to drip"), from PIE root *seib- "to pour out, drip, trickle" (cf. L. sebum "tallow, suet, grease")
sebum
sape).
I "", "" chin "" (O.E.
cin, cinn, a general Germanic word (cf. Old Saxon, Old High German kinni; Old Norse kinn; German

Kinn "chin;" Gothic kinnus "cheek"), from PIE root *genu- "chin, jawbone" (cf. Sanskrit hanuh,
Avestan zanu- "chin;" Armenian cnawt "jawbone, cheek;" Greek genus "lower jaw," geneion "chin;"
Old Irish gin "mouth")
); ""
: ene.
- (, ,
, 3 2 ..):
- sng ", , " . sing "", song "";
- tin "" . dangus ""; . cyan "-"
" " , OED;
- hi "/" . saiws, O.E. s, O.S. seo "/"; , .
", , (. .)";
- shu "" . , . []; .-. uisce [] "";
- wshn "" . wash (O.E. wascan, wscan - " ()" - from P.Gmc.
*watskanan (cf. O.N. vaska, M.Du. wasscen, Du. wassen, Ger. waschen), from stem *wat-, the source
of water OED , , ""
" " , .-. wascan
. waschen wshn);
- lun, lu " " "" - : Spanish liendre, Portuguese, Galician l'endea, Catalan ll'emena, French
lente, Latin lens ..; lus lleuen ""
. - ,
, lens, lleuen lun .

"", "".
.
"", "", "", ""
.. , ,
, .
, , ,
- ,
(, . ; . Stute . stud/steed/stallion; . kal, hamshor .
cal, armasor) .
:
- (.
"", "
", beor, , -
); "" mrum,
mru (.-. );
- equus ( . e
"", "" "");
- Pferd;
- ( ).
, ,
.
.
,
(. m, .-. ma
r , . mal),
, :
-
.
marc, mearh, merr 19).
equus
as(u)was ee, . .- eva ""
asva-"", yakwe "" equus "", ",
, " ebol "", ech, eoh
jor, asa-, , ""
. , at (), () ..
. : "" aihws.
paard Pferd (Online Etymology Dictionary
, gorwydd ""),
( , ) :
"", farasi, * "", perdum
prd "".
, ,
, (kumele) ""
, ( ) ,
. ( ) -

hevonen (.), hobune (.) heboine () , ,


.
.
/ "equus" "".
: "equus", "", "" +
caseg "" ,
"" kisrak "".
, "equus" ""
paard Pferd (Online
Etymology Dictionary , gorwydd ""),
"" * "" (
perdum prd ""), ,
hors, (.-. , . , .-. ,).
. ,
. , ,
"" (at, .) "" (ate, .).
(, , )
Pferd, paard . . Hengst, hest ("", .
.) caseg. , hestr
kisrak .
, , ,
"equus" . , .
ava "equus" "" +
"" - .
"" "" ().
, , -
"". gong-ma "" ( - " ")
.-. "hengst-mare".
,
,
:
- "" ;
- "equus" : , , ,
;
- "Pferd" ;
- "" : , -
(, - ).
:
-
"";
"equus"; ""
caseg;

- ,
, ,
"" ( ),
, , horse Pferd;
, .

,
, perdum
Pherd. , :
- . Erde, . earth, . aira "" (O.E. eore, from PIE root *er- (2) "earth, ground"
OED ert,
) . ard, ardhi "";
- . neck "" . "";
- OED, meat: O.E. mete "food, item of food" (paired with drink), from P.Gmc. *mati (cf. O.Fris.
mete, O.S. meti, O.N. matr, O.H.G. maz, Goth. mats "food," M.Du., Du. metworst, Ger. Mettwurst
"type of sausage"), from PIE *mad-i-, from root *mad- "moist, wet," also with reference to food
qualities, (cf. Skt. medas- "fat" (n.), O.Ir. mat "pig;" see mast (n.2)) , ;
, , ;
- .-. fenester, . Fenster, . . Fnschter, fenster, . fnster ""
. fenestra (others see in it an Etruscan borrowing, based on the suffix -(s)tra, as in Latin loanwords aplustre "the carved stern of a ship with its ornaments,"); . , . panjara,
. pnjereh, . pencere, . , . fereastr, . ffenestr, . prenestr,
fuinneog, , , , panas ""
/ ""; , -,
.-. OED, .
; ""
"", . " ", . window;
; (langas logs) fenestra;
"" , . . auga-dauro (" ", O.E. eagduru, lit. "eye-door."; O.E.
eagyrl, . " ").
"", ,
fenestra .
("")
, - ,
.
, fenestra ,
, , "P" ,
, .
- , ,
"" . panas ", ".
"" - ( ): :
*, panas [P] > [F].
"": ,
[P] > [F],
. fenestra "F", , ,
.-. .
, , .
" , ", ",
". , ,

" " ,
20),
, .
, ( gut-thiuda ) .
,
, -.
, , , ,
. , (Baal, Thor),
" ?". ()
:
( , ) ciw "", Ziu
- (. . Tyr, . . Tiu).
, :
- , ,
, ,
; , ,
"", "", "", "" , ;
- , . ,
;
, , ,
, ;
- , , ,
, , ,
;
- , ", , "
,
: ;
- , .. ,
( ", " ..)
. (,
), ( , ) (, , . ..
"- ", 15).
, ,
.
.
,
.
,
, , ( ):
- "n" ( , , );
- "n" ( );
- ( );
- ( , ),
, (, .) ;
- (
, , . ).

,
. , , 3 ..,

. ,
, , ,
.
,

. , 2 ..
, .
.


1)

^ -n,
* >
(*-m > -an). -.
-om -um
- ( 2001).
, (.
-m, -tam 1976: 339340; 1982: 363).
pratram c - -om/-um
( 1976: 340). ,

-en(-n) ( 2001: 153).

2)

^ ..
, C.. " " (http://www.biblicalstudies.ru/OT/Lyosov01.pdf).

3)

^ ..
" (
)" (http://www.vestnik-mgou.ru/mag/2010/ling/1/st27.pdf).

4)

^ "... , e, -en : ich


mache , wir machen ..." .., ..,
" : , : -
, 2010 (http://elibrary.finec.ru/materials_files/333470980.pdf).

5)

^ "
" "- " ..
, 1958.

6)

^ [p] , , , ,
, [f], .: "fa- on-, upon [Slavic po-, Lithuanian pa-]" Lydian Concise Dictionary; "fratinid does, effects", . . practices.

7)

^ .., , "
", . 1928. III (
, ,
):
"... . , ,
-, ,
, - (. 26); .
, , (
, ). .
. (),
, ,
, , ,
: . , ,
. ,
. . ; , ,
."
, , ,
,
, . ,

, ,
.
:
" .., -
1076 . . , .. ..,
.. .. ,
. , . ,
, .."
8)

^ "
, .
(50001800
..), (1800500 ..).
...
,
1923 , .
I .. ,
, , .
...
,
.

. , ,
.
. ,
(?) .
. . ,
, ,
( , ). , ,
, , , ,
.
...
, ,
(
).
...
,
: , , .
8000 ..,
(1800500 . ..). 1300-
.. . , .
.
...

, .
, 5 .
, :

.
,
, .

- .
...

, , , ,
." , ., . "
".
9)

^ "137. , , [122].

, , . , , ,
, .
,
[123]. , ,
[124],
. -
. , , [125].
, , .
(
). ,
, . .
,
. , ,
, ,
, . , ,
[126]. ." ,
"", "". , , ,
.

10) ^ " , ,
;
; ,
,
." , "", , 5.
11) ^ " , , , ,
. , ,
; C. 291 ,
;
.
- - ,
[],
.
,
." , "",
VII, I, 3.
12) ^ " ,
,
,
( ) . .
, .
...
(),
, IV - III . . . ,
. "

.. " "
13) ^ "47. . 102 ,
, , .
;
, .
,
,
,
103...
. 106,
, ;
, ;
, , -
, .
, , ,
, ." ,
"", III.
14) ^
, ,
"" : Tatyana A. Mikhailova
(Moscow State University, Russia), "Macc, Cailn and Cile an Altaic Element in Celtic?"
15) ^ "
*-es-,
, *-es- : -essarj, -esn(. ) -asti-.
-asti- *-ost-,
: . *dlgost > no. dlugosc . dalugasti ", , .
, -". ,
; ,

,
. , *-os-ti- *-es-ti , , ,
, ." .. , "
- ",
" ", . , .
. .. , 1957.
16) ^ "
... ,
- ,
...,
..., ( (11) (12))
. ,
.
-
- ,
.
- , ."
.. , " ", 4.2.4.

17) ^

.. , "- ".
18) ^ " " (.. "", ,
1947, 2, . 298).
19) ^ *morV *mark-
: Tatyana A. Mikhailova (Moscow State University,
Russia), "Macc, Cailn and Cile an Altaic Element in Celtic?".
: "This idea was developed by T. Gamkrelidze and V. Ivanov, who had seen in it a
borrowing from an Altaic language (or dialect). Indeed, Celto-Germanic *mark- has parallels with
Altaic *morV- (Mong. morin, Kalm. morin horse; cf. Russ. merin old horse, gelding, a late
borrowing from Mong., cf. also Chin. ma < *mra, Tamil m). Gamkrelidze and Ivanov explain this
borrowing by early contacts of IE tribes with Altaic tribes. Moreover, they propose that this
represents evidence of early migrations of IE tribes from the East to the West through Asia Minor
( (Gamkrelidze), (Ivanov) 1984: 939). But why in this case should this word
be preserved only in Celtic and Germanic, that is in West IE languages?"
" ", , ,
,
( ) , .
20) ^ "
, .
, (), , .
, ,
, .
, , . ,
, , ,
4, ,
.
,
. , . ,
, , ,
, ,
, ." , ".
", . III,
; http://www.istorya.ru/book/arii/index.php.