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: 6 , 622

2006

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a A , a . b A b A
, b .
, .
:
N = {1, 2, 3} ;
N0 = {0, 1, 2, 3} ;
Z = {-2, -1, 0, 1, 2} - ;
p

Q = { q - , p Z, a q N } ;
R ( 0,999, );
I ;
C ;
, k N 0 ,
. - , |A|=k.
k N 0 k ,
: b1 B, b2 B,.., bk B...
A B : , ..
( ). , x A x B .
, - .
: A A; A : x, x x A .
( ):
, .
-:
x, x A , B , x B . .. B C , x C . ,
A C . ...
A B A B , A B - . A B
A , .
A = B A B B A .
: ={1}; B={{1},2}; C={{{1},2},3}. A B , B C A C
, .. .

1. : A={a,b,c}; B={1,2,3,...,100} ( )
2.
( )
n
, : A n3 = {3 | n Z} .
3.
: ={271, 828,182,845,} e.
1.

= { | A } :

2.

={ | xA } :

3.

3.

4.

\ ={x | xA xB} :

=(A\B)(B\A) :

= {x | xU\A } , U :

: =(AB) \ (A B).
: (A\B)(B\A)=(AB) \ (A B).
-: ={1, 2}; B={2, 3}. (AB)\(AB) ={1, 2, 3}\{2}={1, 3},
(A\B)(B\A)={1}{3}={1, 3}. ...
: , :
1) , , ;
2) b, bB, b A;
3) c, c c .
( ):
:
1.AB;
2.BA;
3.AB=;
4.AB.
-: , ,
:
1. AB => a, aA aB;
2. BA => b, bB bA;
3. AB => , A cB;
4. AB .
.. , .. 1,2,3 , AB. ...
I. ( ): ={X | XX};
II. ( B): B={X | XX}.
:
B (I) => BB => BB;
B (II) => BB => BB.

() .
=(a1, a2,... an). i () ; n
=(b1,b2,.., bn). =, i, a i = b i .
: ={(a,b) | aAn, bBn } .
1: ={a}; B={1, 2}; A B{(a,1),(a,2)}; B A={(1,a),(2,a)} => A B B A.
2: ={a,b}; A A={(a,a),(a,b),(b,a),(b,b)}
3: : ( )=( ) .
-: A=B=C, ( )=( ) . ( )=D. D=D . ( ) ( ) .
: A B={(x,y)| xA yB}
A1 A2 A3 An={(a1,a2an)| i aiAi}
5

( ):
.
|A1|= m1, |A2|= m2,...|An|=mn, | A1 A2 ... An |= m1*...*mn (1);
-:
1. n=1: |A1| = m1 ;
2. | A1 ... Ak|= m1* m2*...* mk;
3.
n=k+1: |A1 A2 ... Ak+1|= m1*m2*...*mk+1; (x1,..., xk, ak+1)
ak+1 (
) m1*...*mk. ak+1 mk+1 .
. , n.
.
=(a1, a2,... an) i i=i.
={ | =(a1, a2,... an)} iA={i=}.
, 2. ,
.

1. : P-1 ={(y,x)| (x,y)P};
2. () : PQ={(x,y) | a : (x,a)P (a,y)Q }
:
={(a,1),(b,2)}; Q={(1,),(3,)}.
Q-1={( ,1),(,3)}; PQ={a, }: (a,1) P, (1, ) Q.
QP=. , .
:
: (P-1)-1=P.
-: (x,y)(P-1)-1 (y,x)P-1 (x,y)P
: (PQ)-1=Q-1 P-1.
-: (x,y)(PQ)-1 (y,x)PQ a : (y, a)P (a, x)Q a : (x, a)Q-1 (a, y)P-1
(x,y)Q-1 P-1.
(PQ) T=P(Q T).
-: (x,y)P(QT) a : (x,a)P (a,y)QT a : b : (x,a)P (a,b)Q (b,y)T b:
(x,b)PQ (b,y)T (x,y)(PQ) T.

X,Y,G,
, , G
X Y (
).
=(X,,G), G(X Y)
G 1G. G 2G. (x,y) G, y
x, x y G.
X => () = {y | (x,y)G, xA};
BY => -1(B) = {x | (x,y)G, yB}.
: =({1,2,3},{a,b,c,d},{(1,a), (1,b), (2,c)}). ={1} => ()={a,b}. B={a,b,c,d} =>
=> -1(B) = {1,2}. 1G={1,2}; 2G={a,b,c}.
:
1. ,
.
2. , 2G=.
3. , X :
(x,y1) G (x,y2) G, y1=y2.
6

4. :
: (x1,y) G (x2,y) G, x1=x2.
. X , . 1,3.
. X Y ( 1,2,3)
. , 3,4.
. , 1-4.
:
. . : y .
: 1, 2, 3, 4 .
, ~.
: ||=|| ~.
( ):
, : A~B |A|=|B|.
:
1. .
|A|=|B|. , A~B.
A={a1,a2,,an}

B={b1,b2,,bn}
, i, ai bi. , 4
, .
2. .
A~B. , |A|=|B|; A~B, |A| |B|, A={a1,a2,,an}, B={b1,b2,
,bk}. k<n , , k>n
, , , A~B, |A|=|
B|. ...
: , () .
( ):
|A|=n |P(A)| = 2n.
: A={a1,a2,,an} A*A A*=(e1,e2,..en),
0, i A *
ei =
. ,
1, i A *

n.
n 2n. |P(A)|=2n (
). ...
, ,
.
: , :
, A~N.
( ):
( , *,
*, *~N).
:
a1A;
a2\{a1};
a3\{a1, a2};

an\{a1, a2,, an1}.


, => . .. *={a1, a2,, an,
}, A*A, A*~N. ...
( ): ,
, . *: *
*~A.
7

-:
1. .
, |A|=n, A*A. A*A, |A*|<n .
2. .
. M, MA M~N.
M={a1, a2,, an,}=>A=(A\M)M (1);
M*={a2, a4,, a2n,}=>A*=(A\M)M* (2); A*A, .. a2n+1*.
~*, (A\M)
, ~* . ...
( ):
: Q~N, Q={p/q | pZ, qN; p/q }.
-:

, , .
, , ..
Q~N. ...
: (0,1) .
: .
:
1=0, a11 a12 a13 a1n
2=0, a21 a22 a23 a2n

n=0, an1 an2 an3 ann, aij 0 9. , .


:
b1 a11, b1 9; b2 a22, b2 9,,bn ann, bn 9 =>
=0, b1 b2 bn , 1- .
(0,1) . ...
: ,
(0,1), .. .
: , . |B|>|C|
. , *, ~C.
. |A|>|B| A ~ B A*A : A*~B
( ):

: |P()|>||.
:
*={{a}|a} ; , *P()

A = { a |aA}, A*~A;
, A~P(A) => bB, cC;
, , .
Y={x | xX, xX}, YP(A), .. P(A);
Yy
, yY yY yY
, yY yY yY. . ...
.


. (a1, a2,... an) G, , ,
, n . =(,G), Gn.
1. n=1, .
2. n=2, .
A2 A={(x,x)|xA}.
:
=(,G) =(,F) =>
(x,y) G xy;
=(A,GF);
=(A,A2\G);
-1=(A,G-1);
=(A,GF);
\=(A,G\F);
=(A,GF).
:
1. . x (xx) A2G
;
2. x (xx) AG= -
;
3. xy(xyyx) G=G-1
;
4. . xy (xy yxx=y) xy (xy x y (y x))
GG-1 A , :
;
5. xy z(xy yz xz) GGG
;
6. xy(xy => xy yx) A2\AGG-1:

, 1,4,5;
, 2,4,5;
, 2,4,5,6;
, 1,3,5.
:
xy x y: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
: 3, 5, 1 - .
-:
, ={a,b,c} 1, 3, 5 :


.
m={{Ai}| Ai 0, i kAiAk=,
Ai=A}, .
, ,
.
( ):
.
:
m. m=xmy k : xAk yAk.
.
1: : x xmx , .. x ;
3: : x,y xmyymx ;
5: : xyz xmy ymzxmz Ai Ak .
...
m - , m; .
- .
( ):
, A, .
, .
-: [a]=a/={x | xa}, [b]= ,
. m={[a]|aA}
1. a[a] [a] 0;
2. [a] [b]. [a][b] 0, [a] c[b] ca cb ( ca ac)
ac b ( a b) b[a] ,
. ...
-.

f X Y, 12 f(1)=f(2); ,
X:
1. : x1 11 f(1)= f(1);
2. : x1x2 f(1)=f(2) f(2)=f(1);
3. x1x2x3 f(1)=f(2) f(2)=f(3) f(1)=f(3); x/
.
g x x/ ; g ,
. h: x/f(x) 1,2,3,4, .. h .
e(y)=y , e f(x) Y.
f=ghe.
:
X={a,b,c}; Y={1,2,3,4}; f(a)=f(c)=1; f(b)=3. X/ ={{a,c},{b}}.
g(a)=g(c)={a,c}; g(b)={b};
h({a,c})=1;
h({b})=3;
f(x)={1,3};
e(1)=1; e(3)=3.

,
.
, ,
; . a b
, a b a b. A BAB
10

1. A: A A;
4. AB: A B B A, A=B;
5. A B C: A B B C, A C.
:
x y , , N. :
1. : ;
4. ,: , =>x=y;
5. ,,z: , z =>xz.

().
,xA O x, .. . I
I,xA x I.
( () ):
() , .
-:
1. I I* .
.. I , I* I. I* , I I*.
I=I*. , .
2. * .
.. , *. * , * .
=*. , .
...
m M .
xA: m x=m;
xA: M x x=M.
:
m{1,4} ;
M{2,3} .
: 1, 4, 5, 6.
: R: x yx y. :
1. : ;
4. ,y: y, y x => x=y;
5. ,y,z: y, y z => x z;
6. ,y: y => y x x y.
: 2, 4, 5.
: 2, 4, 5, 6.

11

.
.
1. ; ;
2. ;
3. ( , );
4. ( );
5. ( );
6. .
.
: T=(A,S,,,), ={a1, a2,..., an}- ;
. S={ s0, s1,..., sm} , s0
, s1 . s0,
, , ..
.
: A S S ;
: A S A ;
: A S { ,, } ( , , ).
:
s1
s2
1, , s2
1, , s0
1 1, , s1 , , s1
, , , s1,
.
1 1 1, 1 1 1,
s1
s1
(121)=131.

1 1 1,
s2

1 1 1 1,
s2

1 1 1 ,
s2

1111
s0

1, ai, 2,
1 , ai , 2 () .
: x1, x2,..., xn (n2), xi{a,b},
x1 , x 2 = a
;
=
x1 , x 2 ,..., x n , b, b, x 2 = b
1
2
3
4
5

0 b5 b0
a a2 3 3 a4
b b2 b4 3 b4
abba:
abba abba abba abba
abba
abbab
1
2
4
4
4
5
bab:
bab
bab
bb
b b
1
2
3
3
0

abbabb
0


f(x1, x2,..., xn) ,
, 1x1+11x2+11xn+1, 1y+1,
y= f(x1, x2,..., xn).
: , f(x,y)=x+y (.. 1x+11y+1 1x+y+1).
1
2
3
4
12

12 3
1 11 12 4 0
x1=1, x2=2. , f(1,2)=3:
1 1111
1 1 111
11 111 111 1 11 1111 1 1 11111 1
1
1
1
2
2
2
1111 1 1111 .
4
0
4
1 =3.

111111
2

11111 1
3

.
{*,1},
. T=(A,S,,,); ,
:
A={a1,... an};
S={s0,s1...sm};
N()=1;
N()=12;
N{}=13;
N(s0)=14;
N(s1)=15;
...
N(sn)=1n+4;
N(a1)=1n+5;
...
N(am)=1n+m+4.
(si, ak)( aj, D, sp), D , aj , sp .
N(si, ak)= N(si)*N(ak)* N(aj)*N(D)*N(sp) .
N(T)= N(s1, a1)**N(s2, a1)**..**N(sn, am).
, , .
s0 .
.
:
- , ,
.
- L, N(T) ,
L 0, T , 1

( ):
L, .
-: , L . L L , L
L, s0 ,
L . : (s0,)(s0 ,,) (s0,1)(s0 ,,1).
L , :
1) ;
2) .
L . N(L ):
L , L L
, .
L L L
, .
, , . ...
13

.
:
- ,
, .
- L, N(T), N(T)
, , ,
L 0, T , 1 .
T1, x1, x2,, xn,
: x1, x2,, xn x1, x2,, xn,
.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

7
3 a4 4 6 b4 0
a a 2 a 2 a 3 a 4 a 5 a 6 a 7
b b 5 b 2 b 3 b 4 b 5 a 6 b 7
a
a1

b
b1

aba.
a ba
a b a
a b a
a b a
a b a a b a a
a b a
a b a a
a...
1
2
2
2
2
4
4
4
abaa
a b a a a b a a a b a a
a b a a
a b a a
ab a
a b a a

b
ab...
b
1
5
5
6
6
4
4
4
a b a a b a b a ab a b a a a b a a
aba a b
aba aba.. ab a aba a b a aba
b
b

.
1
2
3
3
3
4
4
1
a b a aba a b a aba a b a aba abaaba a baaba
7
7
7
7
0
( ):
L, .
-: L, .
L , L 1: L = 1 L ..
1, L.
N(T1) L : N(T1) N(T1) N(T1). , L
,
. , ,
L . ...

.
a1, a2,... ap, aiA.
P Q, Q Q= 1P2, 1, 2-, .
(,S), ,
., S .
P1 d1Q1

S = ...
P d Q
k k
k

di : .; i, Qi .

P1Q1 , - - Q.
P1.Q1 .
14


, ,
. , :
1. - ;
2.
.
: , x1, x2,..., xn
x1 , x 2 = a
.
x1 , x 2 ,..., x n , bb, x 2 = b

{a,b} =
a a
b b

a
b


b b

a a
b b

bb

abba baba.
1.
abba abba abba abba abba abba abbabb;
2.
babababa baba bba ba b b.

f : N 0n N 0 N = {0,1,...n}
; 0
(x1, x2,..., xn) = 1x1+1*1x2+1*...*1xn+1; (1)
, f(x1.. xn) ,
, (1)
. f(x1, x2,..., xn) , ,
1x1+1*1x2+1**1xn+1, 1y+1, y= f(x1, x2,..., xn).
: f(x,y)=x+3y;
* 1 111 *

111*

f(2,1): 111*11111111*1111111111*111111. , f(2,1)=5.


.
:
1. 0(x) 0 ;
2. S(x)=x+1 ;
3. I nm (x 1 ...x n ) = x m , (m n) - .
:
1. .
f(x1... xn);
g1(y1... yk);
g2(y1... yk);
...
gn(y1... yk).
h(y1...yn)=f (g1,g2,,gn). , h
gi. h ,
gi f .
k(x)=S(...S(O(x)))k .
2. . g(x1... xn-1), f(x1... xn), h(x1... xn-1). ,
f g h ,
:
f(x1... xn-1,0)=g(x1... xn-1);
f(x1... xn-1,y+1)=h(x1... xn-1,y,f(x1... xn-1,y)) .

15

-,

.
: .
1. const - : C(x1...xn)=S(...S( I1n (x 1 ...x n ) ))c
C;
2. f(x1,x2)=x1+x2:
g(x1)=f(x1,0)=x1=I11(x1);
f(x1,y+1) =h(x1,y,f(x1,y))=h(x1,y,x1+y) =x1+y+1, h(x1,x2,x3)=S(I33(x1,x2,x3));
x1+x2=f(x1,x2); g(x1)f(x1,0)=g(x1);
3. f(x1,x2)=x1 x2:
f(x1,0)=g(x1)=0=(x1);
f(x1,y+1)=h(x1,y,x1 y)=x1 (y+1)=x1 y+x1, h(x,y,z)=I33(x,y,z)+I13(x,y,z); ..
-, .
4. f(x1,x2)=x1x2 x1>0:
f(x1,0)=1=const (-);
f(x1,y+1)=x1y x1=h(x1,y,x1y),

h(x,y,z)=I33(x,y,z) I13(x,y,z),
..

-, -.
.
: My[f(x1... xn-1,y)= xn]
. f(x1... xn-1,y)= xn x1... xn-1, , y 0,1,2...
:
1. - , ,
x1...xn .
2. , ,
.
.
3. y 0,1,2y-1 ,
, y , y
x1xn.
- ,
,
.
( ): ,
,
.
-: .

16



, ,
(1) (0).
f(x), {0,1}.
P(x1..xn) 1, .
(x1..xn) 0, .
, , :
P(x1..xn)=1.

: , , , , , , , .
P(x1..xn). , :
- . P(x1..x n ) = 1 , P(x1..xn)=0;
- . P(x1..xn) Q(x1..xn). P Q
PQ, 0 , P(x1..xn)=1,
Q(x1..xn)=0;
- . - . - .
P(x,y1,y2yn), n+1 . xP(x,y1,y2
yn)=Q(y1,y2yn) Q(x1xn) 1, P(y,a1an) 1, . Q(a1an)=1
P(x,a1an) 1. P , P(x,y1,y2yn)=T(y1,y2
yn), T(a1an)=1 P(,a1an) , T(a1an)=0 P(x,a1an) 0.
.
: (x y=-1)=T(y).
T(1): x 1=-1 => T(1)=1;
T(0): x 0=-1 => T(0)=0;
( ):
P(x,y1,y2yn), x{a1ak}.
xP(x,y1,y2yn)=P(a1,y1,y2yn)P(a2, y1,y2yn)P(ak, y1,y2yn).
-: b1bn , .
: P(,b1bn)=1 P(,b1...bn) 1 P(a1,b1...bn)=1, P(a2,b1...bn)=1 P(ak,b1...bn)=1
P(a1,b1...bn)P(a2,b1...bn)P(ak,b1...bn)=1. .. , P(,b1...bn) 1
. ...
( ):
P(x,y1,y2yn), x{a1ak}.
xP(x,y1,y2yn)=P(a1,y1,y2yn)P(a2, y1,y2yn)P(ak, y1,y2yn).
-: b1bn , ,
. : P(,b1bn)=1 P(,b1...bn) P(a1,b1...bn)=0,
P(a2,b1...bn)=0,P(ai,b1...bn)=1,P(ak,b1...bn)=0 P(a1,b1...bn)P(a2,b1...bn)P(ak,b1...bn)=1. ...
( ): P(x,y1yn) 1
xP(x,y1yn) 1.
-: P(x,y1yn) 1 (a1,,an) P(x,a1an) 1 xP(x,a1
an)=1 xP(x,y1yn) 1 ( ) ...
( ): P(x,y1yn) 0
xP(x,y1yn) 0.
17

-: P(x,y1yn) 0 (a1,,an), P(x,a1an) 0


xP(x,a1an)=0 xP(x,y1yn) 0. ...
( ): P(x,y,z1zn).
:
xy P(x,y,z1zn)= y P(x,y,z1zn);
(1)
x y P(x,y,z1zn)= y x P(x,y,z1zn).
(2)
-(1): (a1an). xyP(x,y,a1an)=1 yP(x,y,a1
an)1 P(x,y, a1an) 1 x P(x,y, a1an) 1 xyP(x,y, a1an)=1. ...
-(2): (a1an) zi. x yP(x,y,a1an)=0
yP(x,y,a1an) 0 P(x,y,a1an) 0 xP(x,y,a1an) 0 x yP(x,y,a1an)=0. ...
( ): xy P(x,y,z1..zn) y x P(x,y, z1..zn) 1.
-: , (a1an), xy P(x,y, a1an)=1 y P(x,y, a1an)
x0, y P(x0,y, a1an)=1 P(x0,y, a1an) 1.
, y x P(x,y, a1an)=0 x P(x,y, a1an) / 1 y0 xP(x,y0,a1an)=0
P(x0,y,a1an) 0.
y=y0 P(x0,y0,a1an)=1;
x=x0 P(x0,y0,a1an)=0;
, , a1an . ...
( ): P(x,y1,y2yn), :
x P(x, y1 , y 2 ,..., y n ) = x P(x, y1 , y 2 ,..., y n )

(1)

x P(x, y1 , y 2 ,..., y n ) = x P(x, y1 , y 2 ,..., y n )

( 2)

-(1): (a1an) , x P(x, a 1 , a 2 ,..., a n ) = 0 xP(x,a1


an)=1 P(x, a1an) 1 P(x, a 1 , a 2 ,..., a n ) 0 x P(x, y1 , y 2 ,..., y n ) =0. ...
-(2): (a1an) , x P(x, a1 , a 2 ,..., a n ) = 0 xP(x,a1
an)=1 P(x, a1an) P(x, a 1 , a 2 ,..., a n ) - ,
x P(x, y1 , y 2 ,..., y n ) =0. ...
( ):
P(x, y1,y2yn) Q(x, y1,y2yn). :
x (P(x, y1,y2yn) Q(x, y1,y2yn)) = x P(x, y1,y2yn) x Q(x, y1,y2yn).
-: (a1..an), x (P(x, a1an) Q(x, a1an)) =1 P(x, a1an)
Q(x, a1an) 1 x P(x, a1an)=1 Q(x, a1an)=1 x P(x, a1an)=1, x Q(x, a1
an)=1 x P(x, a1an) x Q(x, a1an)=1. ...
( ):
P(x,y1,.,yn) Q(x,y1,..,yn). :
x ( P(x,y1,..,yn) Q(x,y1,..,yn) ) = x P(x,y1,..,yn) x Q(x,y1,..,yn).
-: (a1..an), x(P(x,a1,..,an)Q(x,a1,..,an))=0
P(x,a1,..,an)Q(x,a1,..,an)0 ( x) x P(x,a1,..,an)=0,
Q(x,a1,..,an)=0 xP(x,a1,..,an)=0, xQ(x,a1,..,an)=0
xP(x,a1,..,an) xQ(x,a1,..,an)=0. ...
( ):
x[P(x,y1,..,yn) Q(x, y1,..,yn)] x P(x, y1,..,yn) x Q(x, y1,..,yn) 1
-: (a1..an) , xP(x, a1..an) x Q(x, a1..an) 0 x P(x, a1..an)=0
xQ(x, a1..an)=0 P(x, a1..an) 0 Q(x, a1..an) 0 x (P(x, a1..an) Q(x, a1..an)) 0. ...
18

( ):
xP(x,y1,..,yn)xQ(x,y1,..,yn) x [P(x,y1,..,yn) Q(x,y1,..,yn)] =1
-: (a1an) , x P(x,a1an) x Q(x,a1an) 1 x P(x,a1an)=1
x Q(x,a1an)=1 P(x,a1an) 1 Q(x,a1an) 1 P(x,a1an)Q(x,a1an) 1 x
[P(x,y1,..,yn) Q(x,y1,..,yn)] =1. ...
.
P(x1..xn) ( ).
1) .
2) P Q , P, (QP), (QP), (QP), (QP), (QP), (QP), xP, xP -
.
: ( ), , , , , ,
, ,
, , , , , ,
.
:
xy= xy;
x / > y= xy;
x+y= xy xy;
xy= xy xy;
xy= (xy);
xy= (xy).

: :

(x y Q(x, y, z) T(x, y)) ) x R(x) =


= x P(x, y) ( x y Q(x, y, z) T(x, y)) x R(x) =
x P(x, y)

= x P(x, y) x y Q(x, y, z) T(x, y) x R(x) =


= x P(x, y) x y Q(x, y, z) T(x, y) x R(x).

, ,
: D u , D u ,..., D u (A) , D , ,
, .
: :
1

(x y P(y, z, t) | R(x, y, z)) y T(x, y, t) =

= x y P(y, z, t) R(x, y, z) y T(x, y, t) =

((

= x y y P(y1 , z, t) R(x, y, z) T(x, y 2 , t)


1

19



Ek={0,1,2k-1}.
k- : f : E nk E k .
n

(n)
(2)
k
3
- k- n-. Pk = k . k = 3 : P3 = 3 = 19683.
x1
x2
xn-1
xn
f
0
0

0
0
a1
0
0

0
1
a2
0
0

0
2
a3

...
0
0

0
k-1
ak
0
0

1
0

k-1 k-1 k-1 k-1 akn

Pk(n)

k- .
1) : f(x) C;
2) x : x =x+1 mod k. 0 = 1; 1 = 2; k 1 = 0.
3) ~x = k-1-;
4) x y- k: x y =(x y) mod k;
5) xy min{x,y};
6) k x+y=(x+y) mod k;
0, x i;

7) 1 ji (x) = 1, x = i; ;
8) 2

0, x i;
J i (x) =
k 1, x = i;

( );

x y, x y

9) : x y = k + x y, x < y;

x y, x y

10) : x y = 0, x < y

11) Vk ( x , y ) = x y - .
12) xy=max{x,y}.
k=3.
x y x
~y x y xy
xy
0 0
1
2
0
0
0
0 1
1
1
0
0
1
0 2
1
0
0
0
2
1 0
2
2
0
0
1
1 1
2
1
1
1
1
1 2
2
0
2
1
2
2 0
0
2
0
0
2
2 1
0
1
2
1
2
2 2
0
0
1
2
2

x+y

j1(x)

J2(y)

x-y

x y

V3(x,y)

0
1
2
1
2
0
2
0
1

0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0

0
0
2
0
0
2
0
0
2

0
2
1
1
0
2
2
1
0

0
0
0
1
0
0
2
1
0

1
2
0
2
2
0
0
0
0

: :

20

x ( x y ) = x y
1) x y
x ( x y ) = x 0 = x = min{x, y};
2) x > y
x ( x y ) = x ( x y ) = x ( x y ) = y = min{x, y}

:
~(xy)=(~x)(~y)
~(xy)=(~x)(~y)

(1)
(2)

1) x y
xy=y
~x= k-1-x
~y=k-1-y
(k-1-x)( k-1-y)= k-1-y.
2) x>y
xy=x
~x= k-1-x
~y=k-1-y
(k-1-x)( k-1-y)= k-1-x.
( k- 1 ): k :
f(x1 , x 2 ,..., x n ) = V J a ( x1 ) J a ( x 2 ) ... J a ( x n ) f(a1 , a 2 ,..., a n ) - kn (a ,..,a ).
1
n
a ,a ,...,a
-: (b1,..,bn).
1

f(b1 , b 2 ,..., b n ) = 0 0 ...0 J b (b1 ) J b (b 2 ) ... J b (b n ) f(b1 , b 2 ,..., b n ) =


1

= f(b1 , b 2 ,..., b n ) (k - 1) (k - 1) ... (k - 1) = f(b1 , b 2 ,..., b n ).

...
: f=~x; k=5;
~ x = V J a (x) (~ a) = J 0 (x) 4 J1 (x) 3 J 2 (x) 2 J 3 (x) 1 J 4 (x) 0;
0
1
2
3
4

~ 3 = 1 = 0 0 0 J 3 (3) 1 J 4 (x) 0.

k- ,
.
Pk k- . [m] (
). Pk=[m].
:
m={0,1,2...k-1,Ji(x),,}.
m1={ x, x y }. m1.
1) const

... k 1pa

x x x x ... x

2)

= k 1 ;

k 1 = 0; 0 = 1; 1 = 2; ... k - 3 = k - 2 ;
J i (x) = 1 + max {x + }
i + k 1

) x = i J i (i) = k 1; 1 + max {x + } =1 + k - 2 = k - 1;
i + k 1

) x i J i ( x) = 0; J i (i) = k 1; 1 + max {x + } = 1 + k - 1 = k = 0;
i + k 1

s, x = i

3) f s,i (x) = 0, x i ;

21

- .. k.

, fs,i(x) 1 .
g(x)= fg(0),0(x)fg(1),1(x)...fg(k-1),(k-1)(x);
g(a)= fg(0),0(x)fg(1),1(x)...fg(a),a(a)...fg(k-1),(k-1)(x)= g(a);
~x= fk-1,0(x)fk-2,1(x) ...f0,k-1(x);
~(~x)=x;
~(xy)=(~x)(~y);
( ).
Vk(x,y)= x y ;
Vk(x,x)= x x = x ;
xx =
x x =

- .

Vk (x, y) = x y + 2;
...

Vk (x, y)

}k 1

x y - ;

, .

22



:
1. ;
2. ( ) ;
3. ( );
4. (,
). G - n- .
(A1,A2An-1,B) G, , B
A1..An-1 G. A1..An-1 , B
.

A1 , A 2 ,..., A n 1
G A1 , A 2 ,..., A n 1
B;
B
G

. ,
B1,B2..Bm-1, , ,
.
. ={A1,A2Ap}, ( ),
1,2,..,m-1,, ,
, . ,
.

1. : ,
2. : ,,B ,C,B
1,2,..,m-1,B, ,,, ,C,.
3. : ,;
4. : , ;
-: , A1, A2,..,Am-1,A ,
,
, AB ,
1,2,.., k-1, , ,
, .
2 :
) Bi , ,
;
) i , 1,2..Am-1.
, .
5. : ,
-: , A1, A2,..,Am-1,A ,
,
, , , 1,2,.., k-1,
,
.
) Bi ,
) - Bi , 1,2..Am-1,
.

: , i, , , (, ).
:
1) ;
2) , , (), () . .
3) , :
23

1: () ;
2: (()) ((B)()) ;
3: ( ) (()) .
. ,
.
: A~CC; B~A A1: (CC)(A(CC))
.
4) .

A B, A
MP .
B

Modus Ponens (MP) ;

5) . ;
6) : .
-: , A1, A2,..,Am-1, ,
,
, . () - ,
MP .
: , : .
B1: 2, ~A B~(A): ((())((())() .
B2: A((AA) A) - A1 (B~AA);
B3: (A(AA)) (AA) B1 B2;
B4: A(AA) A1 B~A;
B5: AA B3, B4.
( ): ,B
-:
1. ,. 1,2,.., , ,
.. MP .
, , . ,
.
2. , , 1,2,..,m-1,,
,. 1,..,2,.., i,.., m. :
a) 1. B1 A: 1 , 1(
1), 1 ( ). 1=, A1A;
b) i-1, . i-1 : 1,..,i-1;
c) 1,..,i-1,...,ABi ,
Bi B1B2..Bn:
1) i , 2- i(i)( 1), Bi,
i( );
2) i=, ;
3) i Modus Ponens k=ji...j j,k<i. 2-
: ( (k i)) c , =i, =i, =x ((
x) (A i)) (*)- 2 j,x<iA j x
Modus Ponens j (*), ( k) ( i) (**).
(**) k 2- i.
i, m. . ...
: ,
-:
B1: ;
2: ;
3: ;
4: B MP 1,3;
5: ( Modus Ponens 2, 4);
24

AB, BC, AC ( ) AB, BC AC.


: (), ;
-:
B1: () ;
B2: ;
B3: ;
B4: ( MP 1, 3);
B5: ( MP 2, 4);
(), , ( ) (), ;

25

A (B C), B
AC

..