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OptiX OSN 550 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System V100R005C01

Product Description

Issue Date

01 2011-06-30

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2011. All rights reserved.


No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Trademarks and Perm issions


and other Huawei trademarks are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective holders.

Notice
The purchased products, services and features are stipulated by the contract made between Huawei and the customer. All or part of the products, services and features described in this document may not be within the purchase scope or the usage scope. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, all statements, information, and recommendations in this document are provided "AS IS" without warranties, guarantees or representations of any kind, either express or implied. The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all statements, information, and recommendations in this document do not constitute the warranty of any kind, express or implied.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


Address: Huawei Industrial Base Bantian, Longgang Shenzhen 518129 People's Republic of China Website: Email: http://www.huawei.com support@huawei.com

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OptiX OSN 550 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

About This Document

About This Document


Product Version
The following table lists the product versions applicable to this documentation. Product Name OptiX OSN 550 iManager U2000 Product Version V100R005C01 V100R005

Intended Audience
This document describes the OptiX OSN 550 in terms of network application, function, hardware architecture, software architecture, features, and technical specifications. This document is intended for the following engineers: Network planning engineers Data configuration engineers System maintenance engineers

Symbol Conventions
The symbols that may be found in this document are defined as follows. Symbol Description Indicates a hazard with a high level of risk, which if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury. Indicates a hazard with a medium or low level of risk, which if not avoided, could result in minor or moderate injury. Indicates a potentially hazardous situation, which if not avoided, could result in equipment damage, data loss, performance degradation, or unexpected results.

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OptiX OSN 550 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

About This Document

Symbol

Description Indicates a tip that may help you solve a problem or save time. Provides additional information to emphasize or supplement important points of the main text.

GUI Conventions
Convention Boldface > Meaning Buttons, menus, parameters, tabs, window, and dialog titles are in boldface. For example, click OK. Multi-level menus are in boldface and separated by the ">" signs. For example, choose File > Create > Folder.

Change History
Updates between document issues are cumulative. Therefore, the latest document issue contains all updates made in previous issues.

Updates in Issue 01 (2011-06-30)


Initial formal release.

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OptiX OSN 550 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

Contents

Contents
About This Document.................................................................................................................... ii 1 Product Positioning and Features .............................................................................................. 1
1.1 Product Positioning.................................................................................................................... 1

2 Quick Reference ............................................................................................................................ 3 3 Product Architecture................................................................................................................... 11

1.2 Product Characteristics ............................................................................................................... 1

3.1 System Architecture ..................................................................................................................11 3.2 Hardware Structure ...................................................................................................................12 3.3 Software Architectu re................................................................................................................20 3.3.1 Overview of Software Architecture.......................................................................................21 3.3.2 Communication Protocols and Interfaces ...............................................................................21 3.3.3 Board Software ................................................................................................................22 3.3.4 NE Software ....................................................................................................................22 3.3.5 NMS Software .................................................................................................................23

4 Packet Functions and Features ................................................................................................. 24

4.1 Packet-Domain Access Capacity .................................................................................................24 4.2 Service Support........................................................................................................................24 4.2.1 Native Ethernet Services ....................................................................................................25 4.2.2 ETH PWE3 Services .........................................................................................................34 4.2.3 CES Services ...................................................................................................................35 4.2.4 A TM/IMA Services ...........................................................................................................37 4.3 Protection Support....................................................................................................................38 4.3.1 MPLS APS ......................................................................................................................38 4.3.2 PW APS..........................................................................................................................40 4.3.3 LPT................................................................................................................................41 4.3.4 LAG...............................................................................................................................42 4.4 Maintenance............................................................................................................................43 4.4.1 MPLS OAM ....................................................................................................................44 4.4.2 ETH-OAM ......................................................................................................................44 4.4.3 A TM OAM......................................................................................................................46 4.4.4 RMON ...........................................................................................................................46

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Contents

4.4.5 PRBS .............................................................................................................................47 4.4.6 CES Alarm Transmission....................................................................................................47 4.5 Synchronization .......................................................................................................................49 4.5.1 Synchronous Ethernet Clock ...............................................................................................49 4.5.2 CES ACR ........................................................................................................................49

5 TDM Functions and Features ................................................................................................... 51

5.1 TDM-Domain Access Capacity ...................................................................................................51 5.2 Service Support........................................................................................................................51 5.3 Protection Support....................................................................................................................52 5.3.1 SNCP .............................................................................................................................52 5.3.2 Ring MSP........................................................................................................................53 5.3.3 Linear MSP .....................................................................................................................55 5.4 Maintenance............................................................................................................................57 5.5 Synchronization .......................................................................................................................58

6 Networking and Application Scenarios ................................................................................. 59

6.1 Basic Network Topologies..........................................................................................................59 6.2 Typical Application of Hybrid Networking ....................................................................................60 6.3 Typical Application of Pure Packet Networking ..............................................................................61 6.4 Typical Application of TDM Networking ......................................................................................63

7 Security Management................................................................................................................. 65

7.1 Authentication Management .......................................................................................................65 7.2 Authorization Management ........................................................................................................65 7.3 Network Security Management ...................................................................................................66 7.4 System Security Management .....................................................................................................67 7.5 Log Management .....................................................................................................................67

8 Operation and Maintenance ..................................................................................................... 69

8.1 DCN......................................................................................................................................69 8.2 Equipment Maintenance ............................................................................................................70 8.3 Upgrade Methods .....................................................................................................................72 8.4 License Control........................................................................................................................74

9 Technical Specifications ............................................................................................................ 75

9.1 General Speci fications ...............................................................................................................75 9.2 Packet Performan ce Indicators ....................................................................................................76 9.3 TDM Perfo rmance Indicators ......................................................................................................81 9.4 Power Consumption and Weight of Each Board ..............................................................................82 9.5 Optical Port Specifications .........................................................................................................82 9.6 Electrical Port Specifications ......................................................................................................87 9.7 Auxiliary Port Specifications ......................................................................................................89 9.8 Optical Module Specifications ....................................................................................................91 9.9 Indicator Status Explanation .......................................................................................................93

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Contents

9.10 Safety Certifi cation .................................................................................................................96 9.11 Environmental Specifications ....................................................................................................96 9.11.1 Storage Environment........................................................................................................97 9.11.2 Transportation Environment ..............................................................................................99 9.11.3 Operation Environment .................................................................................................. 101

10 Energy Saving and Environmental Protection .................................................................. 104

11 Standard Compliance ............................................................................................................. 105


11.1 ITU-T Recommendations ....................................................................................................... 105 11.2 IETF Standards..................................................................................................................... 108 11.3 IEEE Standards .................................................................................................................... 110 11.4 Environment Related Standards ............................................................................................... 111 11.5 MEF Standards..................................................................................................................... 112

A Glossary and Acronyms.......................................................................................................... 113

A.1 Numerics ............................................................................................................................. 114 A.2 A ........................................................................................................................................ 114 A.3 B ........................................................................................................................................ 117 A.4 C ........................................................................................................................................ 118 A.5 D........................................................................................................................................ 121 A.6 E ........................................................................................................................................ 123 A.7 F ........................................................................................................................................ 125 A.8 G........................................................................................................................................ 127 A.9 H........................................................................................................................................ 128 A.10 I ....................................................................................................................................... 129 A.11 J ....................................................................................................................................... 130 A.12 L....................................................................................................................................... 130 A.13 M...................................................................................................................................... 132 A.14 N ...................................................................................................................................... 134 A.15 O ...................................................................................................................................... 135 A.16 P....................................................................................................................................... 136 A.17 Q ...................................................................................................................................... 139 A.18 R ...................................................................................................................................... 139 A.19 S....................................................................................................................................... 141 A.20 T....................................................................................................................................... 145 A.21 U ...................................................................................................................................... 146 A.22 V ...................................................................................................................................... 147 A.23 W...................................................................................................................................... 147

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Figures

Figures
Figure 1-1 Product positioning and typical application of the OptiX OSN 550........................................... 1 Figure 3-1 Block diagram...............................................................................................................11 Figure 3-2 Ventilation design of the OptiX OSN 550 ...........................................................................19 Figure 3-3 General architecture o f software .......................................................................................21 Figure 4-1 Typical application of service model 1 ...............................................................................26 Figure 4-2 Model of VLAN-bas ed E-Line services ..............................................................................27 Figure 4-3 Typical application of service model 1 ...............................................................................29 Figure 4-4 Typical application of service model 2 ...............................................................................29 Figure 4-5 Typical application of service model 3 ...............................................................................30 Figure 4-6 Typical application of service model 4 ...............................................................................30 Figure 4-7 Model of E-LAN services based on the 802.1d bridge...........................................................31 Figure 4-8 Model of E-LAN services based on 802.1q bridge................................................................32 Figure 4-9 Model of E-LAN services based on 802.1ad bridge ..............................................................34 Figure 4-10 E-Line services carried by PWs.......................................................................................35 Figure 4-11 UNI-UNI CES services..................................................................................................36 Figure 4-12 UNI-NNI CES services .................................................................................................36 Figure 4-13 Typical application of ATM PWE3 (in the one-to-one encapsulation mode) .............................37 Figure 4-14 Typical application of ATM PWE3 (in the N-to-one encapsulation mode)................................38 Figure 4-15 Application example of MPLS APS .................................................................................40 Figure 4-16 Application example of PW APS .....................................................................................41 Figure 4-17 Typical application of LPT .............................................................................................42 Figure 4-18 Link aggregation group .................................................................................................43 Figure 4-19 Application of IEEE 802.1ag and IEEE 802.3ah .................................................................45 Figure 4-20 Typical application of ATM OAM ...................................................................................46 Figure 4-21 CES alarm transparent transmission between AC sides ........................................................48 Figure 4-22 CES alarm transparent transmission from the NNI side to the AC side....................................48

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Figures

Figure 4-23 CES ACR clock solution................................................................................................50 Figure 5-1 Application of the SNCP .................................................................................................53 Figure 5-2 Two-fiber unidirectional ring MSP ....................................................................................54 Figure 5-3 Two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP ......................................................................................55 Figure 5-4 1+1 linear MSP .............................................................................................................56 Figure 5-5 1:N linear MSP..............................................................................................................57 Figure 6-1 Hybrid ring network .......................................................................................................60 Figure 6-2 Board configurations on each NE of the Hybrid ring network .................................................61 Figure 6-3 Pure packet network .......................................................................................................62 Figure 6-4 Board configurations on each NE of the pure packet network .................................................62 Figure 6-5 TDM network ...............................................................................................................63 Figure 6-6 Board configurations on each NE of the TDM network .........................................................64 Figure 7-1 Log transmission of the Syslog protocol .............................................................................68

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Tables

Tables
Table 2-1 Overview of the OptiX OSN 550......................................................................................... 3 Table 2-2 OptiX OSN 550 packet fun ctions and features ........................................................................ 5 Table 2-3 OptiX OSN 550 TDM functions and features ......................................................................... 9 Table 3-1 Function units of the OptiX OSN 550..................................................................................11 Table 3-2 Boards that the OptiX OSN 550 supports .............................................................................13 Table 3-3 Description of labels ........................................................................................................19 Table 4-1 Packet-domain access cap acity o f the OptiX OSN 550............................................................24 Table 4-2 Point-to-point transparently transmitted E-Line service model ..................................................25 Table 4-3 Models of VLAN-b ased E-Line servi ces ..............................................................................26 Table 4-4 Models of QinQ-bas ed E-Line Services ...............................................................................27 Table 4-5 Model of E-LAN servi ces based on the 802.1d bridge ............................................................31 Table 4-6 Model of E-LAN servi ces based on 802.1q bridge .................................................................32 Table 4-7 Models of E-LAN servi ces based on 802.1ad bridge...............................................................33 Table 5-1 TDM-domain access capacity of the OptiX OSN 550 .............................................................51 Table 5-2 Service types supported by the OptiX OSN 550 in the TDM domain .........................................51 Table 6-1 Network topologies supported by OptiX OSN 550s and corresponding legends ...........................59 Table 8-1 DCN solutions that the OptiX OSN 550 supports...................................................................69 Table 8-2 Maintenance fun ctions that the OptiX OSN 550 supports ........................................................70 Table 8-3 Upgrade methods available for the OptiX OSN 550 ...............................................................73 Table 9-1 General speci fications of the OptiX OSN 550 .......................................................................75 Table 9-2 OptiX OSN 550 packet fun ctions and features .......................................................................76 Table 9-3 OptiX OSN 550 TDM functions and features ........................................................................81 Table 9-4 Power consumption and weight of boards supported by the OptiX OSN 550...............................82 Table 9-5 Specifi cations of OptiX OSN 550's STM-1 optical ports .........................................................83 Table 9-6 Specifi cations of OptiX OSN 550's STM-4 optical ports .........................................................83 Table 9-7 Specifi cations of OptiX OSN 550's STM-16 optical ports........................................................84

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Tables

Table 9-8 Specifi cations of FE optical ports of the OptiX OSN 550 ........................................................85 Table 9-9 Specifi cations of OptiX OSN 550's GE optical ports ..............................................................86 Table 9-10 Specifi cations of 10GE optical ports of the OptiX OSN 550...................................................86 Table 9-11 Specifications of OptiX OSN 550's E1/T1 electrical ports ......................................................87 Table 9-12 Specifi cations of OptiX OSN 550's E3/T3 electrical ports......................................................88 Table 9-13 Specifi cations of OptiX OSN 550's CES/A TM/IMA service electri cal ports...............................88 Table 9-14 Specifi cations of OptiX OSN 550's Ethernet electrical ports ...................................................89 Table 9-15 Specifi cations of external clock ports supported by the OptiX OSN 550 ...................................89 Table 9-16 Specifi cations of synch ronous data ports supported by the OptiX OSN 550...............................90 Table 9-17 Specifi cations of asyn chronous data ports supported by the OptiX OSN 550 .............................90 Table 9-18 Specifi cations of ord erwire ports supported by the OptiX OSN 550.........................................90 Table 9-19 Outdoor cabinet monitoring ports supported by the OptiX OSN 550........................................91 Table 9-20 SFP/eSFP Optical Modules That the OptiX OSN 550 Supports...............................................91 Table 9-21 XFP Optical Modules That the OptiX OSN 550 Supports ......................................................92 Table 9-22 Definitions of indicators supported by the boards on the OptiX OSN 550 .................................93 Table 9-23 Safety certi fications that the OptiX OSN 550 has passed .......................................................96 Table 9-24 Climate requirements for the storage envi ronment ................................................................97 Table 9-25 Density requirements for mechani cal active substances during storage .....................................98 Table 9-26 Density requirements for chemically active substances during storage......................................98 Table 9-27 Limitations for mech anical stress during storage ..................................................................98 Table 9-28 Climate requirements for the transport ation environment .......................................................99 Table 9-29 Density limitations for mechanically active substances during transportation ........................... 100 Table 9-30 Density limitations for chemically active substances ........................................................... 100 Table 9-31 Mechanical stress requirements for the transportation environment ........................................ 100 Table 9-32 Requirements for temperature and humidity...................................................................... 101 Table 9-33 Other climate requirements ............................................................................................ 102 Table 9-34 Density limitations for mechanically active substances during operation ................................. 102 Table 9-35 Density limitations for chemically active substances ........................................................... 103 Table 9-36 Limitations for mech anical stress during operation ............................................................. 103 Table 11-1 ITU-T recommendations ............................................................................................... 105 Table 11-2 IETF standards ............................................................................................................ 108 Table 11-3 IEEE standards ............................................................................................................ 110 Table 11-4 Environment related standards ........................................................................................ 111

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OptiX OSN 550 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

Tables

Table 11-5 MEF standards ............................................................................................................ 112

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1 Product Positioning and Features

Product Positioning and Features

1.1 Product Positioning


This section describes the product positioning and networking application. The OptiX OSN 550 is used at the access layer of a transmission network, supporting MPLS-TP technology and a variety of service network topologies in the TDM and packet domains. For its product positioning and typical application, see Figure 1-1. Figure 1-1 Product positioning and typical application of the OptiX OSN 550
Access layer Convergence node Convergence/ Back bone layer

E1/T1 FE E1/T1 FE

E1/T1 STM-1/ STM-4 E1/T1 TDM netw ork STM-1/ STM-4 FE/ GE FE/ GE Pack et n etwo rk FE/GE

ATM/IMA E1 ATM/IMA E1 ATM/IMA E1 FE FE

OptiX OSN 550

OptiX OSN 3500

NodeB

BTS

RNC

BSC

1.2 Product Characteristics


This section describes the equipment characteristics in terms of structure, technology, and networking.

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OptiX OSN 550 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

1 Product Positioning and Features

Simple Structure and High Integration


The OptiX OSN 550 is a chassis whose dimensions (H x W x D) are 88 mm x 442 mm x 220 mm. Of simple structure and high integration, the OptiX OSN 550 can be installed in the following ways: Mounting in an European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ET SI) cabinet or a 19-inch cabinet) Mounting on the wall Mounting on the desk Mounting in an APM30 outdoor cabinet Mounting in an open rack

"CO Dual Core" Architecture and Multi-Service Transmission


The OptiX OSN 550 allows service transmission in the time division multiplexing and packet domains, achieving smooth and gradual evolution from the TDM domain to the packet domain.

ATM E1/IMA E1/TDM E1 Service Support and Flexible Networking


The OptiX OSN 550 supports the circuit emulation service (CES) technology, allowing direct transmission of TDM E1 services in the packet domain. ATM is a connection-oriented, fast packet switching technology. Integrating the advantages of circuit switching with those of packet switching, ATM is a standard broadband integrated services digital network (B-ISDN) transfer mode. Inverse multiplexing for ATM (IMA) is a technology that implements inverse multiplexing for asynchronous transfer mode (ATM).

Various Types of Power Inputs


The OptiX OSN 550 supports the following types of power input: -48 V/-60 V DC power input 110 V/220 V AC power input

High Temperature Tolerance


The OptiX OSN 550 can tolerate high temperature. For example, the equipment tolerates an extended operating temperature of -5 C to +65 C when installed in an outdoor cabinet.
Extended operating indicates that the successive operating time of the equipment does not exceed 4 hours, and the accumulated operating time per year does not exceed 90 days.

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OptiX OSN 550 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

2 Quick Referen ce

2
Table 2-1 lists the overview of the OptiX OSN 550. Table 2-1 Overview of the OptiX OSN 550 Item Appearance Description

Quick Reference

This section describes the product overview, including product photos, hardware, software, and functions and features.

Board Packet Function and Feature TDM Function and Feature Switching Capacity Cross-connec t capacity Equipment-L evel Protection

PCX/MD1/EM6T /EM6F/EF8F/SL1D/SL4D/SL1Q/SP3D/PL3T/AUX/PIU /APIU/FAN See T able 2-2.

See T able 2-3.

60/40/20 Gbit/s Higher order cross-connect capacity: 20 Gbit/s Lower order cross-connect capacity: 5 Gbit/s 1+1 backup for power supply 1+1 backup between active and standby system control, switching, and timing boards LAG protection of the ports on Ethernet boards Fan protection (The failure of a single fan does not affect the operation of the other fans.)

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Item Intelligent fans

Description Intellectual adjustment of the fan speed. When the working temperature of the equipment is lower than the threshold (determined by the measured ambient temperature and the current fan speed), the fan speed automatically reduces to the lowest. Interface Type Clock port Description 120-ohm external clock port, which can work in 2048 kbit/s mode or 2048 kHz mode. Power supply port connecting to one -48/-60 V DC power supply T wo 100/240 V AC power supply ports Network management port Alarm input/output port 64 kbit/s synchronous data or orderwire byte transparent transmission port/19.2 kbit/s asynchronous data or orderwire byte transparent transmission port Orderwire phone port Ethernet NM port/NM serial port, which is connected to the network management system (NMS) Alarm input/output Connector RJ-45

Management ports and auxiliary ports

Power supply port

2 mm HM connector

Three-phase socket RJ-45

RJ-45

One 64 kbit/s synchronous serial port, and one F2 transparent data port, which transparently transmits one channel of data services.

RJ-45

Used to provide voice communication for operation personnel or maintenance personnel at different workstations.

RJ-45

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Table 2-2 OptiX OSN 550 packet functions and features Item MPLS suppo rt capab ility Description The packet switching unit of the PCX board works with a service board to implement MPLS functions. Setup mode: static LSPs Protection: 1:1 MPLS tunnel APS OAM: Supports MPLS OAM that complies with ITU-T Y.1711. Supports LSP ping and LSP traceroute functions. The packet switching unit of the PCX board works with a service board to implement PWE3 functions. Service categories TDM PWE3 (CES) services ATM PWE3 services ETH PWE3 services Setup mode: static PWs Protection: 1:1 PW APS OAM: Support the ping and traceroute commands of PWs, the virtual circuit connectivity verification (VCCV) command. Supports PW OAM that complies with ITU-T Y.1711. Supports MS-PWs. Service Type Description Maximum Re ceiving Capability FE (electrical port): 36 FE (optical port): 48 Service Port Descriptio n Connector

PWE3 suppo rt capab ility

Servic e

Etherne Supports Native ETH t and ETH PWE3 service services. Format of Ethernet data frames: IEEE

10/100BAS RJ-45 E-TX 100Base-F X LC

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OptiX OSN 550 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

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Item

Description 802.3 and Ethernet 10GE II (optical Jumbo frames port) MTU length: 1518 PCXLX/ bytes to 9600 bytes PCXX: 2 (1620 bytes, by default) MPLS function support VLAN function support. The VLAN IDs range from 1 to 4094. QinQ support Size of a MAC address table: 16 KB (including static entries) GE (optical port) PCXLG/ PCXGA/ PCXGB: 14 GE (electrical port): 12 CES service Service type: 192xE1 point-to-point service Encapsulation types: CESoPSN SAToP Compression of idle timeslots: supported (only for CESoPSN encapsulation) Jitter compensation buffering time: 375 us to 16000 us Packet loading time: 125 us to 5000 us CES ACR: supported Retiming: supported 10GBAS E-LR (LAN) 10GBAS E-LW (WAN) 10GBAS E-ER (LAN) 10GBAS E-EW (WAN) 10GBAS E-ZR (LAN) 10GBAS E-ZW (WAN) 1000Base -LX 1000Base -VX 1000Base -ZX 10/100/100 0BASE-TX 75/120-oh m smart E1 port LC

LC

RJ-45

Anea 96

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Item

Description ATM/I MA service Number of ATM connections: 256 ATM traffic management ATM encapsulation format N-to-one VPC N-to-one VCC One-to-one VPC One-to-one VCC Maximum number of concatenated ATM cells: 31 ATM OAM: F4 (VP layer) and F5 (VC layer) Maximum number of IMA groups: 32 Maximum number of members in an IMA group: 16 192xE1 75/120-oh m smart E1 port Anea 96

Protec tion

MPLS APS

Maximum number of protection groups: 64 Switching duration not more than 100 ms
NOTE MP LS AP S and P W AP S share 64 protection group resources.

PW APS

Maximum number of protection groups: 64 Switching duration not more than 100 ms
NOTE MP LS AP S and P W AP S share 64 protection group resources.

MSTP

Supports the MSTP protocol that generates only the CIST . The MSTP protocol provides functions equivalent to that of the RSTP protocol. Point-point and point-multipoint LPT Switching duration not more than 5s Intra-board LAG and inter-board LAG A maximum of 16 LAGs. Each LAG has a maximum of 8 members. Switching duration not more than 500 ms T unnel OAM and PW OAM Maximum number of MPLS OAM resources: 128
NOTE MP LS OAM and P W OAM share 128 OAM resources.

LPT LAG

Maint enanc e

MPLS OAM

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Item

Description ETH-O AM Supports the following IEEE 802.1ag OAM functions: Management of OAM maintenance points Continuity check (CC) Loopback (LB) Link trace (LT) Supports the following IEEE 802.3ah OAM functions: OAM auto-discovery Link performance monitoring Fault detection Loopback at the remote end Self-loop detection and self-looped port blocking Number of MD/MA/MEP: 64

ATM OAM RMON

Maximum number of ATM connections: 256 Supports port-level and service-level RMON functions, in compliance with RFC 2819. Supports four RMON management groups: Ethernet statistics group, Ethernet history group, Ethernet alarm group, and Ethernet history control group. Port level: Basic Ethernet performance Extended Ethernet performance Service level: L2VPN T unnel PW Synchronous Ethernet that complies with ITU-T G.8261 and ITU-T G.8262. Port receiving/transmitting synchronous Ethernet clocks: FE/GE/10GE Input/Output of SSM packets Clock frequency stability (hold-over mode): less than 50 ppb Maximum number of CES ACR clocks: 4 The clock performance complies with the ITU-T G.823 Traffic template. Tributary retiming.

Synch roniza tion

Synchr onous Etherne t clock

CES ACR

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Item Other s

Description QoS DiffServ Supports simple traffic classification by specifying PHB service classes for service flows based on their QoS information (C-VLAN priorities, S-VLAN priorities, DSCP values, or MPLS EXP values) carried by the packets. Complex traffic classification Supports traffic classification based on C-VLAN IDs, S-VLAN IDs, C-VLAN priorities, S-VLAN priorities, C-VLAN IDs + C-VLAN priorities, S-VLAN IDs + S-VLAN priorities, or DSCP values carried by packets. CAR Provides the CAR function for the traffic flows at ports. Shaping Supports traffic shaping for a specific port, prioritized queue, or traffic flow. Queue scheduling policies SP WRR

SP+WRR

Table 2-3 OptiX OSN 550 TDM functions and features Item Service Description Service Type Re ceiving Capability 26xSTM-1 Service Port Description S-1.1, L-1.1 and L-1.2 optical ports S-4.1, L-4.1 and L-4.2 optical ports S-16.1, L-16.1 and L-16.2 optical ports E1(75/120-oh m)/T1(100-oh m)electrical port Connector LC

SDH service

14xSTM-4

LC

14xSTM-16

LC

PDH service

252xE1/T1

Anea 96

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Item Protection

Description SNCP SNCP at the VC-12/VC-3/VC-4 levels Maximum number of protection groups: 1032 Switching duration not more than 50 ms MSP Ring at the STM-1, ST M-4 and STM-16 levels Maximum number of protection groups: 13 Switching duration not more than 50 ms Linear MSP at the STM-1, STM-4 and STM-16 levels Maximum number of 1+1/1:1 Linear MSP protection groups: 13 Switching duration not more than 50 ms Supported

MSP Ring

Linear MSP

Maintena nce Synchroni zation

PRBS

Physical layer clocks, including line clocks, tributary clocks, and two-input and two-output external clocks. The port impedance is 120 ohms or 75 ohms (a converter can be used to provide a 75-ohm clock port). Non-synchronization status message (SSM), standard SSM, and extended SSM protocols Tributary retiming Tracing mode, hold-over mode, and free-run mode

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3
3.1 System Architecture
Figure 3-1 Block diagram

Product Architecture

The OptiX OSN 550 is a dual-domain (TDM and packet domains) device. This section describes its function units and the relationship between these units. The OptiX OSN 550 consists of the following function units: service interface unit, timeslot cross-connect unit, packet switching unit, control unit, clock unit, auxiliary interface unit, fan unit, and power supply unit.

VC-4 signal FE/GE E1 (TDM/CES/ATM/IMA) STM-1/4 Ethernet signal Service interface unit

Timeslot cro ssconnect unit

Packet switching unit

Contro l and overhead bus

Orderwire External alarm Synchrono us/Asynchronous data

Auxiliary interface unit

Clo ck unit

Co ntro l unit

Fan unit

Power supply unit

NM data

-48 V/-60 V DC

Table 3-1 Function units of the OptiX OSN 550 Function Unit Service interface unit Function Transmits/Receives TDM E1/T1/E3/T3 signals. Transmits/Receives ATM/IMA E1 signals. Transmits/Receives STM-1/4/16 signals. Transmits/Receives Ethernet signals. Performs E1/ATM/Ethernet PWE3 emulation.

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Function Unit Timeslot cross-connect unit Packet switching unit

Function Provides the cross-connect function and grooms TDM services. Processes Ethernet services and forwards packets. Processes MPLS labels and forwards packets. Processes PW labels and forwards packets. Performs system communication and control. Configures and manages the system. Collects alarms and monitors performance. Processes overhead bytes. Traces clock sources and provides clock signals for the system. Provides the input/output port for external clocks. Provides the orderwire phone port. Provides the synchronous/asynchronous data port. Provides the external alarm input/output port. Connects to -48 V/-60 V DC power supplies. Connects to 110 to 220 V AC power supplies. Cools the NE.

Control unit

Clock unit Auxiliary interface unit

Power supply unit Fan unit

3.2 Hardware Structure


This section describes the structure of the chassis, applicable boards, and equipment labels.

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Chassis Structure and Board Installation Area

H D W

Board installation a rea

SLOT SLOT 10 91 SLOT (PI U) SLOT (PIU) 93 11 SLOT (FAN) SLOT (FA N) 92 9 (PI U) (PIU)

SLOT 7 7 (PCX) SLOT (CS T/CSH) SLOT 5 (EX(EXT) SLOT 5 T) SLOT 3 (EX (EXT) SLOT 3 T) SLOT 1 (EXT ) SLOT 1 ( EXT)

S LOT (CST/CSH) SLOT88 (PCX)

SLOT 6 (EX T) SLOT 6 (EXT)


SLOT 4 (EXT) SLOT 4 (E XT) SLOT 2 ( EXT) SLOT 2 (EX T )

2 3

1 Power supply boards 2 Fan board

3 4

Ext ended boards S ystem con trol, switching, a nd timing bo ards

Boards
Table 3-2 lists the boards that the OptiX OSN 550 supports. Table 3-2 Boards that the OptiX OSN 550 supports Board Classif ication Board Acron ym Board Name Cross-co nnect, timing and line board Function Service Type Port Type Valid Slot Slots 7 and 8

System TNM1 control, PCXL switchin X g, and timing board

Supports the 60 Gbit/s packet switching function. Supports the 20 Gbit/s higher

Native Ethernet services Point-to-point transparently transmitted E-Line service VLAN-based E-Line service QinQ-based E-Line

One Ethernet NM port/NM serial port (sharing one RJ45 port) One ST M-1/STM-4/STM-1 6 SFP optical port. The optical port type can be S-1.1, L-1.1, S-4.1, L-4.1, S-16.1, L-16.1, or L-16.2.

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Board Classif ication

Board Acron ym

Board Name

Function

Service Type

Port Type

Valid Slot

order cross-conn ect capacity, 5 Gbit/s lower order cross-conn ect capacity. Performs system communic ation and control. TNM1 PCXX Cross-co nnect, timing, system control, and line board Supports the 60 Gbit/s packet switching function. Supports the 20 Gbit/s higher order cross-conn ect capacity, 5 Gbit/s lower order cross-conn ect capacity. Performs system communic ation and control. Supports the 40 Gbit/s packet switching function. Supports the 20

service E-LAN service based on IEEE 802.1d bridges E-LAN service based on IEEE 802.1q bridges E-LAN service based on IEEE 802.1ad bridges ETH PWE3 services ST M-1/STM-4/STM -16 services Native Ethernet services Point-to-point transparently transmitted E-Line service VLAN-based E-Line service QinQ-based E-Line service E-LAN service based on IEEE 802.1d bridges E-LAN service based on IEEE 802.1q bridges E-LAN service based on IEEE 802.1ad bridges ETH PWE3 services

One 10GE (XFP) optical port 10GBASE-LR (LAN)/10GBASE-LW (WAN)/10GBASE-ER (LAN)/10GBASE-EW (WAN)/10GBASE-ZR (LAN)/10GBASE-ZW (WAN)

One Ethernet NM port/NM serial port (sharing one RJ45 port) One 10GE (XFP) optical port 10GBASE-LR (LAN)/10GBASE-LW (WAN)/10GBASE-ER (LAN)/10GBASE-EW (WAN)/10GBASE-ZR (LAN)/10GBASE-ZW (WAN)

Slots 7 and 8

TNM1 PCXL G

Cross-co nnect, timing, system control, and line board

Native Ethernet services Point-to-point transparently transmitted E-Line service VLAN-based E-Line service

One Ethernet NM port/NM serial port (sharing one RJ45 port) One ST M-1/STM-4/STM-1 6 SFP optical port. The optical port type can be S-1.1, L-1.1, S-4.1,

Slots 7 and 8

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Board Classif ication

Board Acron ym

Board Name

Function

Service Type

Port Type

Valid Slot

Gbit/s higher order cross-conn ect capacity, 5 Gbit/s lower order cross-conn ect capacity. Performs system communic ation and control. TNM1 PCXG A Cross-co nnect, timing, system control, and line board Supports the 40 Gbit/s packet switching function. Supports the 20 Gbit/s higher order cross-conn ect capacity, 5 Gbit/s lower order cross-conn ect capacity. Performs system communic ation and control. Supports the 20 Gbit/s packet switching function.

QinQ-based E-Line service E-LAN service based on IEEE 802.1d bridges E-LAN service based on IEEE 802.1q bridges E-LAN service based on IEEE 802.1ad bridges ETH PWE3 services ST M-1/STM-4/STM -16 services

L-4.1, S-16.1, L-16.1, or L-16.2. One GE (SFP) optical port 1000BASE-LX/VX/ZX

Native Ethernet services Point-to-point transparently transmitted E-Line service VLAN-based E-Line service QinQ-based E-Line service E-LAN service based on IEEE 802.1d bridges E-LAN service based on IEEE 802.1q bridges E-LAN service based on IEEE 802.1ad bridges ETH PWE3 services

One Ethernet NM port/NM serial port (sharing one RJ45 port) One GE (SFP) optical port 1000BASE-LX/VX/ZX

Slots 7 and 8

TNM1 PCXG B

Cross-co nnect, timing, system control, and line

Native Ethernet services Point-to-point transparently transmitted E-Line service

One Ethernet NM port/NM serial port (sharing one RJ45 port) One GE (SFP) optical port 1000BASE-LX/VX/ZX

Slots 7 and 8

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Board Classif ication

Board Acron ym

Board Name board

Function

Service Type

Port Type

Valid Slot

Supports the 20 Gbit/s higher order cross-conn ect capacity, 5 Gbit/s lower order cross-conn ect capacity. Performs system communic ation and control.

VLAN-based E-Line service QinQ-based E-Line service E-LAN service based on IEEE 802.1d bridges E-LAN service based on IEEE 802.1q bridges E-LAN service based on IEEE 802.1ad bridges ETH PWE3 services

Packet processi ng board

TNM1 MD1

32xSmar t E1 service processi ng board 6xRJ45 FE/GE processi ng board

Transmits/R eceives E1 signals.

CES E1 ATM/IMA E1

75/120-ohm E1 port

Slots 1 to 6

TNM1 EM6T

TNM1 EM6F

4xRJ45 and 2xSFP FE/GE processi ng board

Transmits/R eceives FE/GE service signals and works with the packet switching unit to process the received FE/GE service signals.

Native Ethernet services Point-to-point transparently transmitted E-Line service VLAN-based E-Line service QinQ-based E-Line service E-LAN service based on IEEE 802.1d bridges E-LAN service based on IEEE 802.1q bridges E-LAN service based on IEEE 802.1ad bridges ETH PWE3 services Native Ethernet services

Four FE electrical Slots 1 ports: 10/100BASE-TX to 6 T wo GE electrical ports (compatible with FE electrical ports): 10/100/1000BASE-TX Four FE electrical ports: 10/100BASE-TX Provides two ports through the SFP module. The types of SFP module include 1000BASE-LX/VX/ZX . Slots 1 to 6

TNM1 EF8F

8xFE Ethernet

Transmits/R eceives FE

8xFE optical port: 100BASE-FX

Slots 1 to 6

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Board Classif ication

Board Acron ym

Board Name processi ng board

Function

Service Type

Port Type

Valid Slot

service signals and works with the packet switching unit to process the received FE service signals.

Point-to-point transparently transmitted E-Line service VLAN-based E-Line service QinQ-based E-Line service E-LAN service based on IEEE 802.1d bridges E-LAN service based on IEEE 802.1q bridges E-LAN service based on IEEE 802.1ad bridges ETH PWE3 services

SDH board

TNH2S 2xSTML1D 1 interface board TNH2S 2xSTML4D 4 interface board TNH2S 4xSTML1Q 1 interface board

Transmits/R eceives 2xSTM-1 optical signals. Transmits/R eceives 2xSTM-4 optical signals. Transmits/R eceives 4xSTM-1 optical signals. Transmits/R eceives E1/T1 signals. Transmits/R eceives E3/T3 signals. Provides the system with one orderwire

ST M-1 service

2xSTM-1 optical ports

Slots 1 to 6

ST M-4 service

2xSTM-4 optical ports

Slots 1 and 6

ST M-1 service

4xSTM-1 optical ports

Slots 1 to 6

PDH board

TNH2S 42xE1/T P3D 1 tributary board TNH2P L3T 3xE3/T3 tributary board Auxiliar y interface

E1/T1 service

42x75-/120-ohm E1 ports or 42x100-ohm T1 ports

Slots 1 to 6

E3/T3 service

3x75-ohm E3/T3 ports

Slots 1 to 6

Auxiliar y board

TNM1 AUX

Orderwire phone Asynchronous data service

One orderwire phone port One asynchronous data

Slots 1 to 6

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Board Classif ication

Board Acron ym

Board Name board

Function

Service Type

Port Type

Valid Slot

phone port, one synchronous data port, one asynchronou s data port, and one 6-input/2-ou tput external alarm port. Provides one N/A -48 V/-60 V DC power supply. Connects to 110-220 V AC power supplies. N/A

port One asynchronous data port 4-input/2-output external alarm port

Power supply board

TND1P IU

Power supply board Power supply board

Provides -48 V/-60 V DC power supply ports.

Slots 91 and 92 Slots 2 and 4 Slots 4 and 6 (reco mme nded ) Slot 93

TNF1A PIU

Provides 100/240 V AC power supply ports.

Fan board

TNM1 FAN

Fan board

Cools the NE.

N/A

N/A

Ventilation Design
The case of the OptiX OSN 550 is densely covered with small air holes. Through these holes, air is let in from the left and out from the right by fans.
Ensure the smooth flow of air inside and around the equipment. Do not block the air inlet and air outlet of the subrack when cabling. Keep the top of subrack clean.

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Figure 3-2 Ventilation design of the OptiX OSN 550

AIR OUT

AIR IN

Description of Labels
Table 3-3 lists the description of the labels on the chassis and the boards in the chassis. The actual labels may be different depending on the configurations of the chassis and boards. Table 3-3 Description of labels Label Label Name ESD protection label Description Indicates that the equipment is sensitive to static electricity. Indicates the grounding position of the chassis. Indicates that the fan leaves cannot be touched when the fan is rotating. Indicates that you must read the operation instructions before connecting a power cable.

Grounding label

Fan warning label

Power port warning label

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Label
/QU ALIFICA TION CA RD

Label Name Qualification card

Description Indicates that the equipment is qualified. Indicates that the equipment contains certain hazardous substances specified in RoHS. The equipment needs to be recycled after the environment-frien dly use period of 50 years expires. Indicates the product name and certification.

HUAWEI

HUAW EI TECHNOL OGI S CO. L TD. E ,

MADE NC HI A I N

RoHS label

50

Product nameplate label

DC power

AC power

3.3 Software Architecture


This section describes the system's general software architecture, as well as the functions of each software module. 3.3.1 Overview of Software Architecture The software system is of a modular structure. The modules accomplish the corresponding functions and interoperate with each other. 3.3.2 Communication Protocols and Interfaces

The communication interfaces on the equipment are mainly Qx interfaces. For the description of the protocol stacks and messages on the Qx interfaces, see ITU-T G.773, ITU-T Q.811, and ITU-T Q.812. 3.3.3 Board Software

This section describes the software architecture of the OptiX OSN 550.

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3.3.4 NE Software The NE software manages, monitors, and controls the running of boards in the NE. In addition, the NE software serves as the service unit for the communication between the NMS and boards. In this manner, the NMS can control and manage the NE. 3.3.5 NMS Software Like other optical transmission equipment, the OptiX OSN 550 is managed by the iManager series NMS.

3.3.1 Overview of Software Architecture


The software system is of a modular structure. The modules accomplish the corresponding functions and interoperate with each other. The software modules fall into three types: the board software that runs on a variety of functional boards, the NE software that runs on the system control and communication board, and the network management software that runs on the network management computer. The software system is of layered design. That is, each layer performs specific functions and serves its upper layer. Figure 3-3 shows the general structure of software. All the modules except the network management system and the board software are NE software. Figure 3-3 General architecture of software
Network Management System

High Level Communication Module Real-time multi-task operating system Network side Module Equipment Management Module Communication Module NE software Database Management Module

Board Software

3.3.2 Communication Protocols and Interfaces


The communication interfaces on the equipment are mainly Qx interfaces. For the description of the protocol stacks and messages on the Qx interfaces, see ITU-T G.773, ITU-T Q.811, and ITU-T Q.812.

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A Qx interface mainly connects a mediation device (MD), Q adaptation (QA), or network element (NE) with an operations system (OS) through the local communication network (LCN). A QA interface is provided at the NE management layer, and an MD and OS are provided at the network management layer. As specified in the Recommendation, a Qx interface is developed in compliance with the Connectionless Network LayerService (CLNS1) based on T CP/IP. A Qx interface supports the remote access of NMS through a modem, and the IP layer uses the Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) accordingly.

3.3.3 Board Software


This section describes the software architecture of the OptiX OSN 550.

3.3.4 NE Software
The NE software manages, monitors, and controls the running of boards in the NE. In addition, the NE software serves as the service unit for the communication between the NMS and boards. In this manner, the NMS can control and manage the NE. In compliance with ITU-T M.3010, the NE software belongs to the element management layer in the telecommunications management network (TMN), and provides NE functions, some coordination functions, and operations system functions at the network element layer. The data communication function (DCF) provides communication functions between the NE and other components (including mediation devices, NMS, and other NEs). Real-time multi-task operating system The real-time multi-task operating system of the NE software is responsible for the management of public resources and supports applications. This system provides an application execution environment that is independent of the processor hardware, to separate applications from the processor. Communication and control module The Communication and control module is the interface module between the NE software and the board software. According to the corresponding communication protocol, the communication and control module achieves the communication between the NE software and the board software. In this manner, the information can be exchanged and the equipment can be maintained. On one hand, the communication and control module issues the maintenance operation commands of the NE software to the boards. On the other hand, it reports the status, alarms, and performance events of the boards to the NE software. Network side (NS) module The network side (NS) module is between the communication module and equipment management module. It converts the data format between the user operation side on the application layer and the NE equipment management layer, and provides security control for the NE layer. The NS module can be subdivided into three submodules in terms of function: Qx interface module, command line interface module, and security management module. Equipment management module The equipment management module (AM) is the kernel of the NE software. It implements NE management, and includes the Manager and the Agent. The Manager sends network management operation commands and receives event information. The Agent responds to the network management operation commands sent by the Manager, performs operations to managed objects, and reports events according to the status change of the managed objects. Communication module

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This module fulfills the message communication function (MCF) of the functional blocks of the transmission network equipment. Through the hardware interface provided by the SCB board, the communication module transmits the OAM&P information and exchanges management information between the NMS and NEs, and between NEs themselves. The communication module consists of network communication module, serial communication module, and ECC communication module. Database management module The database management module is a principal component of the NE software. It consists of the data and the programs. The data, organized by database form, consists of the network database, alarm database, performance database, and equipment database. The program manages and accesses the data in the databases.

3.3.5 NMS Software


Like other optical transmission equipment, the OptiX OSN 550 is managed by the iManager series NMS. The NMS manages the optical transport network, and maintains all the OSN, SDH, Metro, and DWDM equipment on networks. The NMS, which complies with the ITU-T Recommendations, adopts a standard management information model and the object-oriented management technology. The NMS exchanges information with the NE software through the communication module to monitor and manage the network equipment. The NMS software runs on a workstation or PC. It manages the equipment and the transmission network. The NMS software provides the operation and maintenance function for the transmission equipment, and also provides the management capability for the transmission network. The NMS software has the following management functions: Alarm management: collects, prompts, filters, browses, acknowledges, checks, clears, counts alarms in real time, inserts alarms, analyzes alarm correlation, and diagnoses faults. Performance management: sets performance monitoring; browses, analyses and prints performance data; forecasts medium- and long-term performance; resets the performance register. Configuration management: configures and manages the ports, clocks, services, trails, subnets, and time. Security management: NM user management; NE user management; NE login management; NE login lockout; NE setting lockout; and local craft terminal (LCT) access control. Maintenance management: performs loopbacks; resets boards; automatically shuts down lasers; detects fiber power; collects equipment data. In this manner, the maintenance personnel can locate and rectify equipment faults more quickly.

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4
Board

Packet Functions and Features

4.1 Packet-Domain Access Capacity


This section provides the packet-domain access capacities when different system control, switching, and timing boards are configured in the OptiX OSN 550. Table 4-1 lists the packet-domain access capacities when different system control, switching, and timing boards are configured in the OptiX OSN 550. Table 4-1 Packet-domain access capacity of the OptiX OSN 550 10xGE (Optical Port) 2 2 0 0 0 GE (Optical Port) 12 12 14 14 14 GE (Electrica l Port) 12 12 12 12 12 FE (Optical Port) 48 48 48 48 48 FE ATM/IM (Electrica A/E1 CES l Port) 36 36 36 36 36 192 192 192 192 192

PCXLX PCXX PCXLG PCXGA PCXGB

4.2 Service Support


This section describes Ethernet services, CES services, and ATM/IMA services in the packet domain. 4.2.1 Native Ethernet Services Based on the packet plane, Native Ethernet services are classified into six types. 4.2.2 ETH PWE3 Services In the topology, the E-Line services are point-to-point services. The E-Line services realize the point-to-point transmission of Ethernet services.

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4.2.3

CES Services

CES: By using the PWE3 technology, PWE3 packet headers are added to TDM traffic to create circuit emulation services (CES). PWE3 packet headers carry the frame format information, alarm information, signaling information, and synchronization and timing information of the TDM traffic. The encapsulated PW packets are transmitted over the MPLS tunnel on the PSN. After being decapsulated at the PW egress, the TDM circuit switched service traffic is re-created. On a packet switching network, the transmit and receive ends of a CES service maintain clock synchronization by means of adaptive clock recovery (ACR). 4.2.4 ATM/IMA Services This section provides the definition of ATM PWE3 and describes its purpose.

4.2.1 Native Ethernet Services


Based on the packet plane, Native Ethernet services are classified into six types.

Point-to-Point Transparently Transmitted E-Line Service


The point-to-point transparently transmitted E-Line services are the basic E-Line model. Point-to-point transmission does not involve service bandwidth sharing, service isolation, or service distinguishing; instead, Ethernet services are transparently transmitted between two service access points.

Service Model
Table 4-2 describes the point-to-point transparently transmitted E-Line service model. Table 4-2 Point-to-point transparently transmitted E-Line service model Service Model Model 1 Encapsulation Type Null (source) Null (sink) Service Direction UNI-UNI Traffic Flow PORT (source) PORT (sink) PORT (source) PORT (sink) Description The source port transparently transmits all the received Ethernet frames to the sink port. The source port processes the incoming Ethernet frames based on its TAG attribute, and then sends the processed Ethernet frames to the sink port. The sink port processes the Ethernet frames based on its TAG attribute, and then exports the processed Ethernet frames.

Model 2

802.1Q (source) 802.1Q (sink)

UNI-UNI

In service model 2, ports process the received Ethernet frames according to their TAG attributes. Therefore, service model 2 is not a real transparent transmission model and is not recommended.

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Typical Application
Figure 4-1 shows the typical application of service model 1. Figure 4-1 Typical application of service model 1
NE 1 Port 1 Service 1 Servic e 2 Port 2 E-Line E-Line Port 4 Port 3 Transmission Network Port 4 Port 3 NE 2 E-Line E-Line Port 2 Port 1 Service 1 Servic e 2

In service model 1, Ethernet service 1 and Ethernet service 2, which carry no VLAN ID or carry unknown VLAN IDs, are accessed to NE1 through port 1 and port 2 respectively. Port 1 and port 2 transparently transmit Ethernet service 1 and Ethernet service 2 to port 3 and port 4, respectively. Port 3 and port 4 then transmit Ethernet service 1 and Ethernet service 2 to NE2. Service processing on NE2 is the same as on NE1. In service model 2, Ethernet service 1 and Ethernet service 2, which carry no VLAN ID or carry unknown VLAN IDs, are accessed to NE1 through port 1 and port 2 respectively. Port 1 and Port 2 process the incoming packets based on their TAG attributes. Then, Port 1 and Port 2 send Ethernet service 1 and Ethernet service 2 to Port 3 and Port 4 respectively. Port 3 and Port 4 process the incoming packets based on their TAG attributes. Then, Port 3 and Port 4 send Ethernet service 1 and Ethernet service 2 to NE2. Service processing on NE2 is the same as on NE1.

VLAN-based E-Line Services


VLANs can be used to separate E-Line services. With the VLAN technology, multiple E-Line services can share one physical channel. These services are VLAN-based E-Line services.

Models of Services
Table 4-3 shows the models of VLAN-based E-Line services. Table 4-3 Models of VLAN-based E-Line services Type of Service VLAN-based E-Line services Encapsulation Mode of Port 802.1Q (source) 802.1Q (sink) Direction of Flow of Service Description of Service Service UNI-UNI The source port processes the incoming Ethernet frames based on its TAG attribute, and then sends the Ethernet frames with a specific VLAN NOTE ID to the sink port. The sink The VLAN ID of port processes the Ethernet the source and the frames based on its TAG VLAN ID of the attribute, and then exports the sink must be the processed Ethernet frames. same. PORT +VLAN (source) PORT +VLAN (sink)

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Typical Applications
Figure 4-2 shows the typical application of VLAN-based E-Line services. Service 1 and Service 2 carry different VLAN IDs. Therefore, after the two Ethernet services are accessed to NE1 through Port 1 and Port 2 respectively, they can share the same transmission channel at Port 3. On NE1, Port 1 and Port 2 process the incoming packets based on their own TAG attributes. Then, Port 1 and Port 2 send Service 1 and Service 2 to Port 3. Port 3 processes all the outgoing packets based on its TAG attribute, and then sends Service 1 and Service 2 to NE2. Due to the different VLAN IDs, Service 1 and Service 2 can be transmitted through Port 3 at the same time. NE2 processes Service 1 and Service 2 in the same manner as NE1. Figure 4-2 Model of VLAN-based E-Line services
NE 1 Service 1 VLAN ID: 100 Service 2 VLAN ID: 200 Po rt 1
E-Line

NE 2 Port 1 Po rt 3 Transmission Ne twork Po rt 3 Service 1 VLAN ID: 100 Se rvice 2 VLAN I D: 200
E- Lin e

Service 1 VLAN ID: 100

Port 2

e E- Lin

Service 1 VLAN ID: 100 Service 2 VLAN ID: 2 00

E-Lin e

Service 2 Port 2 VLAN ID: 2 00

QinQ-Based E-Line Services


S-VLAN tags can be used to isolate E-Line services. Therefore, multiple E-Line services can share one physical channel. These services are QinQ-based E-Line services.
E-Line Services Carried on P Ws describes QinQ-based E-Line services carried by P Ws.

Model of Service
Table 4-4 shows the models of QinQ-based E-Line services. Table 4-4 Models of QinQ-based E-Line Services Model of Service Model 1 Encapsulation Mode of a Port Null (source) QinQ (sink) Direction UNI-NNI Flow of Service Description of Service PORT (source) QinQ link (sink) The source port adds the S-VLAN tag that corresponds to the QinQ link to all the Ethernet frames, and then transmits the Ethernet frames to the sink port where the QinQ link is configured.

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Model of Service Model 2

Encapsulation Mode of a Port 802.1Q (source) a QinQ (sink)

Direction UNI-NNI

Flow of Service Description of Service PORT (source) QinQ link (sink) The source port accesses only the Ethernet frames that carry C-VLAN tags. It adds the S-VLAN tag that corresponds to the QinQ link to all the Ethernet frames, and then transmits the Ethernet frames to the sink port where the QinQ link is configured. The source port adds the S-VLAN tag that corresponds to the QinQ link to all the Ethernet frames that carry specific C-VLAN tags, and then transmits the Ethernet frames to the sink port where the QinQ link is configured. The source port transmits the Ethernet frames that carry the S-VLAN tag to the sink port where the sink QinQ link is configured. The S-VLAN tag carried in the Ethernet frames corresponds to the source QinQ link. If the source and sink QinQ links correspond to different S-VLAN tags, the S-VLAN tags carried in the Ethernet frames are exchanged.

Model 3

802.1Q (source) a QinQ (sink)

UNI-NNI

PORT +C-VLAN (source) QinQ link (sink)

Model 4

QinQ (sink) QinQ (sink)

NNI-NNI

QinQ link (source) QinQ link (sink)

a: Set TAG to Tag Aware.

Typical Applications
Figure 4-3 shows the typical application of service model 1. Service 1 and Service 2 include tagged frames and untagged frames. Service 1 is accessed to NE1 through Port 1, and Service 2 is accessed to NE1 through Port 2. Port 1 adds the corresponding S-VLAN tag to Service 1, and Port 2 adds the corresponding S-VLAN tag to Service 2. Then, Service 1 and Service 2 are transmitted to Port 3. Port 3 transmits Service 1 and Service 2 to NE2. NE2 processes Service 1 and Service 2 in the same manner as NE1.

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Figure 4-3 Typical application of service model 1


NE 1 Port 1 Service 1 Service 2 Port 2
E -L in e
e E- Lin

NE 2 Transmission Network
E- Lin e
E -L in e

Port 1 Service 1 Service 2 Port 2

Port 3

Port 3

Strip S-VLAN Label D ata( 1) Data (2)

Add S-VLAN Label S-VLAN(300) S-VLAN(400) Data(1) Data(2)

Add S-VLAN Label S-VLAN(300) S-VLAN(400) Data(1) Data(2)

Strip S-VLAN Label Data(1) D ata(2)

Figure 4-4 shows the typical application of service model 2. Service 1 and Service 2 carry different unknown C-VLAN tags. Service 1 is accessed to NE1 through Port 1, and Service 2 is accessed to NE1 through Port 2. Port 1 adds the corresponding S-VLAN tag to Service 1, and Port 2 adds the corresponding S-VLAN tag to Service 2. Then, Service 1 and Service 2 are transmitted to Port 3. Port 3 transmits Service 1 and Service 2 to NE2. NE2 processes Service 1 and Service 2 in the same manner as NE1. Figure 4-4 Typical application of service model 2
Strip S- VLAN Label C-V LAN C-V LAN Data( 1) Data(2) Add S-VLAN Label S-V LAN(300) S-V LAN(400) C-VLAN C-VLAN Data(1) Data(2)

NE 1 Port 1 Service 1 Unknown CVLAN Service 2 Unknown CVLAN Port 2


E -Li ne

NE 2 Port 1 Port 3 Transmission Network Port 3


E -Line

Service 1 U nknown CVLAN Port 2 Service 2 Unknown CVLAN

E -Lin

E -Lin

Add S-V LAN Label S -VLAN(300) S -VLAN(400) C- VLA N C-VLA N Data(1) Data(2)

S trip S-VLAN Label C- VLA N C- VLA N Data( 1) Data(2)

Figure 4-5 shows the typical application of service model 3. Service 1 and Service 2 carry different C-VLAN tags. Service 1 is accessed to NE1 through Port 1, and Service 2 is accessed to NE1 through Port 2. Port 1 adds the corresponding S-VLAN tag to Service 1, and Port 2 adds the corresponding S-VLAN tag to Service 2. Then, Service 1 and Service 2 are transmitted to Port 3. Port 3 transmits Service 1 and Service 2 to NE2. NE2 processes Service 1 and Service 2 in the same manner as NE1.

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Figure 4-5 Typical application of service model 3


Strip S-VLAN Label C-VLAN(100) C-VLAN(200) Data( 1) Data(2) Add S-VLAN L abel S-VLAN(300) S-VLAN(400) C-VLAN( 100) C-VLAN(200) Data(1) Data(2)

NE 1 Service 1 VLAN ID: 100 Service 2 VLAN ID: 200 Po rt 1


E-Line
e E- Lin

NE 2 Port 1 Po rt 3 Transmission Ne twork Po rt 3


E-Lin e
E-Lin e

Service 1 VLAN ID: 100

Port 2

Service 2 Port 2 VLAN ID: 2 00

Add S-VLAN Label S-VLAN(300) S-VLAN(400) C-VLAN( 100) C-VLAN(200) Data(1) Data(2)

Strip S-VLAN Label C- VLAN(100) C- VLAN(200) Data( 1) Data(2)

Figure 4-6 shows the typical application of service model 4. Service 1 and Service 2 carry a same S-VLAN tag. Service 1 is accessed to NE1 through Port 1, and Service 2 is accessed to NE1 through Port 2. Port 1 changes the S-VLAN tag carried in Service 1 and Port 2 changes the S-VLAN tag carried in Service 2 so that the S-VLAN tags carried in Service 1 and Service 2 are different. Port 3 transmits Service 1 and Service 2 to NE2. NE2 processes Service 1 and Service 2 in the same manner as NE1. Figure 4-6 Typical application of service model 4
Switching S- VLAN Label S- VLA N( 100) S- VLA N( 100) Data( 1) Data(2) S -VLAN(300) S -VLAN(400) Data(1) Data(2)

NE 1 Port 1 Service 1 S-VLAN ID : 100 Service 2 S-VLAN ID : 100 Port 2

NE 2 Port 3 Transmission Network Port 3

E- Line
E -Lin e

E -Line
E-Lin e

Port 1 Service 1 S-VLAN ID: 100 Service 2 Port 2 S-VLAN ID: 100

S witching S-VLAN Label S-VLAN(300) S-VLAN(400) Data( 1) Data(2) S-V LA N(100) S-V LA N(100) Data(1) Data( 2)

E-LAN Services Based on the 802.1d Bridge


In the case of E-LAN services, packets can be forwarded only based on the MAC address table. These E-LAN services are E-LAN services based on the 802.1d bridge.

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Model of Service
Table 4-5 shows the model of E-LAN services based on the 802.1d bridge. Table 4-5 Model of E-LAN services based on the 802.1d bridge Type of Service E-LAN services based on the 802.1d bridge Encapsulation Mode of Port Null Tag Attribute Tag-Transparent Type of Logical Port PORT Learning Mode SVL Sub-Switchin g Domain No division of sub-switching domains

Typical Application
Figure 4-7 shows the typical application of the model of service. The transmission network needs to carry the A services accessed from NE2 and NE3. The two A services are converged at the convergence node NE1. The services need not to be isolated. Therefore, an 802.1d bridge is used at NE1 to groom services. Figure 4-7 Model of E-LAN services based on the 802.1d bridge
NE 2

Port 2 NE 1 Transmission Network Port 2 Port 3 802.1d bridge Transmission Network NE 3

Port 1 User A2

Port 1 User A1

Port 2

Port 1 User A3

E-LAN Services Based on 802.1q Bridge


E-LAN services can be separated by setting VLANs. In this case, a bridge is divided into multiple sub-switching domains. Therefore, the E-LAN services separated by setting VLANs are E-LAN services based on 802.1q bridge.

Model of Service
Table 4-6 shows the models of E-LAN services based on 802.1q bridge.

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Table 4-6 Model of E-LAN services based on 802.1q bridge Type of Service E-LAN services based on 802.1q bridge Encapsulation Mode of Port 802.1q TAG Attribute Type of Logical Port C-Awared PORT +VLAN Learning Mode IVL Sub-Switchin g Domain Sub-switching domains are divided based on VLANs.

Typical Applications
Figure 4-8 shows the typical application of the model of E-LAN services based on 802.1q bridge. The transmission network needs to carry G and H services accessed from NE2 and NE3. Both types of services are converged on NE1. G and H services adopt different VLAN planning. Therefore, 802.1q bridge is used on NEs and sub-switching domains are divided based on VLANs, differentiating and separating the two types of services. Figure 4-8 Model of E-LAN services based on 802.1q bridge
NE 2 VLAN 100 Port 1 User G 2

NE 1
VLAN 100

P or t 3 VLAN 200 Transm i ss ion Network P ort 3 P ort 2 Us er H2

Port 1
User G 1

802.1q bri dge NE 3

VLAN 200 P ort 2 Us er H1 P ort 4 Transm i ss ion Network 802.1q bri dge

VLAN 100 P ort 1 User G 3

P ort 3

VLAN 200 P ort 2 Us er H3

802.1q bridge

You can configure VLAN-Based E-Line Services on NE2 and NE3 for service access.

E-LAN Services Based on 802.1ad Bridge


S-VLAN tags can be used to isolate E-LAN services. Therefore, a bridge is divided into multiple independent sub-switching domains. These services are E-LAN services based on 802.1ad bridge.

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Model of Service
Table 4-7 shows the models of E-LAN services based on 802.1ad bridge. Table 4-7 Models of E-LAN services based on 802.1ad bridge Type of Services E-LAN services based on 802.1ad bridge Encapsulation Mode of Port Tag Attribute Type of Logical Port PORT (The encapsulation mode of the UNI port is Null.) PORT or PORT +C-VLAN (The encapsulation mode of the UNI port is 802.1q.) Learning Mode IVL Sub-Switchin g Domain Sub-switching domains are divided based on S-VLAN tags.

Null or 802.1q S-Awared (UNI port) a QinQ (NNI port)

PORT +S-VLAN (NNI port)

a: When the encapsulation mode of port is 802.1q, the tag attribute must be Tag Aware.

Typical Applications
Figure 4-9 shows the typical application of the model of service. The transmission network needs to carry G and H services accessed from NE2 and NE3. The two types of services are converged on NE1. Since G and H services have a same C-VLAN tag, you need to add different S-VLAN tags to G and H services for service isolation.

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Figure 4-9 Model of E-LAN services based on 802.1ad bridge


NE 2 Add S-VLAN Label
S-VLAN(300) S-VLAN(400) C-VLAN(100) C-VLAN(100) Data(G) Data(H)

Strip S-VLAN Label


C-VLAN(100) C-VLAN(100) Data( G) Data(H)

NE 2 SVLAN 300 Port 1 User G 2 CVLAN 100 SVLA N 400 T ransm i ss ion Network Port 3 802.1ad bri dge SVLAN 400 Port 2 User H1 CVLAN 100 P or t 4 Tr ans m is si on Network SVLA N 400 P ort 2 Us er H2 CVLAN 100

Por t 3

NE 1
SVLAN 300

Port 1
User G 1 CVLAN 100

NE 3 SVLAN 300 P ort 1 User G 3 CVLAN 100 P ort 2 Us er H3 CVLAN 100 802.1ad bri dge

802.1ad bridge

NE 1 Strip S-VLAN Label


C-VLAN(100) C-VLAN(100) Data( G) Data(H) Add S -VLAN Label S-VLAN(300) S-VLAN(400) C-VLAN(100) C-VLAN(100) Data(G) Data(H)

Por t 3

NE 3 Add S-VLAN Label


S-VLA N(300) S-VLA N(400) C-VLA N(100) C-VLA N(100) Data(G) Data(H)

Strip S-VLAN Label


C-VLA N(100) C-VLA N(100) Data( G) Data(H)

You can configure QinQ-Based E-Line Services on NE2 and NE3 for service access.

4.2.2 ETH PWE3 Services


In the topology, the E-Line services are point-to-point services. The E-Line services realize the point-to-point transmission of Ethernet services. Figure 4-10 shows the networking diagram of the E-Line services carried by PWs. The branches of Company A and Company B are located in City 1 and City 2, and need to communicate with each other. The services of Company A and Company B need to be isolated from each other. In this case, you can configure the E-Line services that are carried by PWs and from the user side to the network side, to realize the communication between the branches of Company A or Company B. In addition, different services are carried by different PWs, therefore realizing the isolation of the services of Company A from the services of Company B. The services that are accessed from the user side are encapsulated and transmitted to the PWs. Then, the services are transmitted through the tunnel.

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The E-Line services of different companies are carried by different PWs and then to the same port on the network side. In this manner, the port resources on the network side are saved and the bandwidth utilization is increased. In the uplink direction of the user side, layered QoS configuration can be performed for data packets. Figure 4-10 E-Line services carried by PWs

NE1
Company A

PSN

NE2

Company A

Company B Company B

City2 UNI NNI NNI UNI

City 1

Tunnel PW

4.2.3 CES Services


CES: By using the PWE3 technology, PWE3 packet headers are added to TDM traffic to create circuit emulation services (CES). PWE3 packet headers carry the frame format information, alarm information, signaling information, and synchronization and timing information of the TDM traffic. The encapsulated PW packets are transmitted over the MPLS tunnel on the PSN. After being decapsulated at the PW egress, the TDM circuit switched service traffic is re-created. On a packet switching network, the transmit and receive ends of a CES service maintain clock synchronization by means of adaptive clock recovery (ACR).

Emulation Mode
The OptiX NG-SDH series equipment supports two types of CES services: structure-aware TDM circuit emulation service over packet switched network (CESoPSN) CES and structure-agnostic TDM over packet (SAToP) CES. In the case of CESoPSN CES: The equipment senses the frame format, frame alignment mode, and timeslot information in the TDM circuit. The equipment processes the overheads and extracts the payloads in TDM frames. Then, the equipment loads timeslots to the packet payload in a certain sequence. As a result, the services in each timeslot are fixed and visible in packets. In the case of SAToP CES: The equipment does not sense any format in the TDM signal. Instead, it considers TDM signals as bit flows at a constant rate, and therefore the entire bandwidth of TDM signals is emulated.

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The overheads and payloads in TDM signals are transparently transmitted.

Service Type
CES services are classified into UNI-UNI CES services and UNI-UNI CES services by service implementation point. UNI-UNI CES services As shown in Figure 4-11, a single OptiX OSN NE completes access of TDM services. Figure 4-11 UNI-UNI CES services

PSN

NE TDM link NodeB

BSC

UNI-NNI CES services As shown in Figure 4-12, the OptiX OSN NEs set UNI-NNI CES services. In the case of a UNI-NNI CES service, the OptiX OSN NEs access customer TDM services through E1 ports; CES PWs are created between the OptiX OSN NEs to emulate end-to-end TDM services. Figure 4-12 UNI-NNI CES services
NE NodeB1

NE PSN BSC

NE TDM link Nod eB2 PW Tun nel

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4.2.4 ATM/IMA Services


This section provides the definition of ATM PWE3 and describes its purpose.

Definition
The ATM PWE3 technology emulates the basic behaviors and characteristics of ATM services on a packet switched network (PSN) by using the PWE3 mechanism, so that the emulated ATM services can be transmitted on a PSN.

Purpose
Aided by the ATM PWE3 technology, conventional ATM networks can be connected by a PSN. Specifically, ATM PWE3 allows transmitting conventional ATM services over a PSN by emulating the ATM services. The networking type of ATM PWE3 can be one-to-one or N-to-one depending on the encapsulation type of ATM PWE3 packets. It is obvious that ATM PWE3 helps to transmit ATM services over the PSN, without adding ATM equipment or changing the configuration of the ATM CE equipment. Figure 4-13 Typical application of ATM PWE3 (in the one-to-one encapsulation mode)
PSN PW AC CE1 PE1 AC LSP PE2 CE2

ATM PWE3 1-to-1 ATM PWE3 service 1-to-1 ATM PWE3 service

Packet transmission equipment

NodeB

RNC

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Figure 4-14 Typical application of ATM PWE3 (in the N-to-one encapsulation mode)

CE1 PSN PW AC CE2 PE1 LSP PE2 AC CE4

ATM PWE3 N-to-1 ATM PWE3 service N-to-1 ATM PWE3 service

CE3

Packet transmission equipment

NodeB

RNC

The cell encapsulation modes at both ends of a P W must be the same.

4.3 Protection Support


This section describes protection schemes including MPLS APS, PW APS, MSTP, LPT, and LAG in the packet domain. 4.3.1 MPLS APS This section provides the definition of MPLS APS and describes its purpose. 4.3.2 PW APS This section provides the definition of PW APS and describes its purpose. 4.3.3 LPT This section provides the definition of LPT and describes its purpose. 4.3.4 LAG Link aggregation allows multiple links that are attached to the same equipment to be aggregated together to form a LAG so that the bandwidth increases and the reliability of the links is improved. The aggregated links can be considered as a single logical link.

4.3.1 MPLS APS


This section provides the definition of MPLS APS and describes its purpose.

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Definition
MPLS APS is a function that protects MPLS tunnels based on the APS protocol. With this function, when the working tunnel is faulty, the service can be switched to the preconfigured protection tunnel. The MPLS APS function supported by the OptiX OSN 550 has the following features: The MPLS APS provides end-to-end protection for tunnels. The working tunnel and protection tunnel have the same ingress and egress nodes. The protection tunnel in the MPLS APS protection pair does not carry extra traffic. In MPLS APS, the MPLS OAM mechanism is used to detect faults in tunnels, and the ingress and egress nodes exchange APS protocol packets to achieve protection switching.

Purpose
MPLS APS improves reliability for service transmission in tunnels. As shown in Figure 4-15, when the MPLS OAM mechanism detects a fault in the working tunnel, the service is switched to the protection tunnel for transmission.

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Figure 4-15 Application example of MPLS APS


Transit

Working Tun nel In gress Egress

Protectio n Tunnel

Transit Protect swi tching Transit

Working Tunnel In gress Egress

Protection Tunnel

Transit Service

Packet transmission equipment

4.3.2 PW APS
This section provides the definition of PW APS and describes its purpose.

Definition
PW APS is a function that protects PWs based on the APS protocol. With this function, when the working PW is faulty, the service can be switched to the preconfigured protection PW. The PW APS function supported by the OptiX OSN 550 has the following features: The PW APS function provides end-to-end protection for PWs. The working PW and protection PW are carried in different tunnels but have the same local and remote PEs. The protection PW in the PW APS protection pair does not carry extra traffic.

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In PW APS, the PW OAM mechanism is used to detect faults in PWs, and the PEs exchange APS protocol packets to achieve protection switching.

Purpose
PW APS improves reliability for service transmission in PWs. As shown in Figure 4-16, when the PW OAM mechanism detects a fault in the working PW, the service is switched to the protection PW for transmission. Figure 4-16 Application example of PW APS
PE2

Working PW PE1 PE4

Protection PW

PE 3 Protect swi tching PE2

Working PW PE1 PE4

Protection P W

PE 3 Service

Packet transmission equi pment

4.3.3 LPT
This section provides the definition of LPT and describes its purpose.

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Definition
Link State Pass Through (LPT) detects a fault that occurs at a service access node or on a service network, and then instructs the equipment at both ends of a service network to immediately start a backup network for communication. LPT ensures proper transmission of important data. As shown in Figure 4-17, LPT-enabled NE1 and NE2 will disconnect their access links from router A and router B if access link 1, access link 2, or the service network becomes faulty. As a result, router A and router B will immediately detect the link fault between them, and switch to backup networks for communication. Figure 4-17 Typical application of LPT

Backup network

Service network NE1 Router A Access link 1 Working link Protection link NE2 Access link 2 Router B

Purpose
With the LPT function enabled, access equipment will immediately detect link faults and switch to backup networks timely.

4.3.4 LAG
Link aggregation allows multiple links that are attached to the same equipment to be aggregated together to form a LAG so that the bandwidth increases and the reliability of the links is improved. The aggregated links can be considered as a single logical link. A LAG aggregates multiple physical links to form a logical link that is at a higher rate to transmit data. Link aggregation functions between adjacent equipment. Therefore, link aggregation is not related to the architecture of the entire network. Link aggregation is also called port aggregation because links correspond to ports one to one on an Ethernet network. As shown in Figure 4-18, the LAG provides the following functions: Increased bandwidth A LAG provides users with a cost-effective method for increasing the link bandwidth. Users obtain data links with higher bandwidths by combining multiple physical links into one logical link without upgrading the existing equipment. The bandwidth of the logical
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link is equal to the sum of the bandwidths of the physical links. The aggregation module distributes the traffic to different links by using the load sharing algorithm, therefore providing the load sharing function for links. Increased availability The links in a LAG dynamically back up each other. When a link fails, the other links in the LAG quickly take over. The process in which link aggregation starts the backup link is associated only with the links in the same LAG, and the links not in the LAG are not involved. Figure 4-18 Link aggregation group
Li nk 1 Li nk 2 E th ernet p ackets Li nk 3 E th ernet p ackets

LAG

4.4 Maintenance
This section describes the maintenance functions and features including MPLS OAM, ETH-OAM, ATM OAM, and RMON in the packet domain. 4.4.1 MPLS OAM The MPLS OAM mechanism supported by the equipment includes tunnel OAM and PW OAM. Tunnel OAM operates at the tunnel layer, and PW OAM operates at the PW layer. Tunnel OAM and PW OAM both provide the complete fault detection and locating mechanism. 4.4.2 ETH-OAM ETH-OAM enhances Ethernet Layer 2 maintenance functions and it strongly supports service continuity verification, service deployment commissioning, and network fault locating. 4.4.3 ATM OAM This section provides the definition of ATM OAM and describes its purpose. 4.4.4 RMON

By using the remote monitoring (RMON), you can transmit network monitoring data between different network sections. 4.4.5 PRBS Certain boards provide the PRBS functional module, which is used for testing and maintaining the network. You can determine whether the working path on a tributary port, in the line direction, or in the cross-connect direction is normal, depending on whether bit errors are detected in a PRBS test. 4.4.6 CES Alarm Transmission

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The OptiX OSN 550 uses the L/M and R fields in the control word to transparently transmit alarms.

4.4.1 MPLS OAM


The MPLS OAM mechanism supported by the equipment includes tunnel OAM and PW OAM. Tunnel OAM operates at the tunnel layer, and PW OAM operates at the PW layer. Tunnel OAM and PW OAM both provide the complete fault detection and locating mechanism.

Tunnel OAM
Description The tunnel OAM mechanism helps to effectively detect, identify, and locate internal defects at the tunnel layer of an MPLS network. The equipment triggers the protection switching based on the OAM detection status. Therefore, quick fault detection and service protection can be achieved. Objectives and benefits As a key bearer technology for the scalable next generation network (NGN), MPLS provides multi-service capabilities with ensured QoS. In addition, MPLS introduces a unique network layer (tunnel), which may cause some faults. Therefore, an MPLS network must have the OAM capability. By providing a tunnel OAM mechanism independent of any upper layer or lower layer, the tunnel OAM supports the following features: Provides query-on-demand and consecutive detections so that at any moment you can learn whether the monitored LSP has defects. Detects, analyzes, and locates any defect that occurs, and notifies the NMS of the relevant information. Triggers a protection switching immediately after a defect or fault occurs on a link. Monitors the performance events indicating packet loss ratio, delay, and jitter in real time and reports them to the NMS.

PW OAM
Description The PW OAM mechanism helps to effectively detect, identify, and locate internal defects at the PW layer of a network. The equipment triggers the protection switching based on the OAM detection status. Therefore, quick fault detection and service protection can be achieved. Objectives and benefits The equipment performs PW encapsulation on service packets, and then transmits the service packets over tunnels. The network consists of two layers: tunnel and PW. Tunnels use tunnel OAM for maintenance and management, and PWs use PW OAM for maintenance and management. Currently, the equipment can detect the connectivity of a certain PW through ping packets, and then reports the result to the NMS.

4.4.2 ETH-OAM
ETH-OAM enhances Ethernet Layer 2 maintenance functions and it strongly supports service continuity verification, service deployment commissioning, and network fault locating.

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Definition
With the continuous development of the Ethernet, especially when LANs evolve to WANs, operators pay more attention to equipment maintainability. Solutions to operations, administration and maintenance (OAM) in the transmission network are required urgently. Therefore, ETH-OAM is developed. ITU-T and IEEE have researches on ETH-OAM. Currently, Huawei Ethernet service processing boards have realized the ETH-OAM function, which complies with IEEE 802.1ag and IEEE 802.3ah. Wherein, IEEE 802.1ag define Ethernet service OAM standards, and IEEE 802.3ah defines Ethernet port OAM standards. As shown in Figure 4-19, the combination of IEEE 802.1ag and IEEE 802.3ah provides a complete Ethernet OAM solution. Figure 4-19 Application of IEEE 802.1ag and IEEE 802.3ah
IEEE 8 02.3ah IEEE 80 2.1ag I EEE 8 02.3ah

P Rou ter 1 CE1 PE1 CE2

P PE2 CE3 Router 3

P Router 2

CE4

Access layer Custom la yer

Acce ss layer Core layer Custom laye r OptiX NE

Ethernet service OAM focuses on the maintenance of end-to-end Ethernet links. Based on services, Ethernet service OAM implements end-to-end detection in the unit of "maintenance domain" and performs segmental management on each network segment that is involved in the same service on a network. Ethernet port OAM focuses on the maintenance of point-to-point Ethernet link between two directly-connected devices in Ethernet in the first mile (EFM). Ethernet port OAM does not focus on a specific service. It maintains the point-to-point Ethernet link by performing OAM auto-discovery, link performance monitoring, fault check, remote loopback, and selfloop check.

Purpose
Based on the MAC layer, the ETH-OAM protocol performs OAM operations for the Ethernet by transmitting OAM packets. This protocol is irrelevant to the transmission medium. The OAM packets are processed only at the MAC layer, having no impact on the other layers of the Ethernet. In addition, as a low-rate protocol, the ETH-OAM protocol occupies low bandwidths. Therefore, this protocol does not affect services carried on links. A comparison of ETH-OAM and existing OAM and fault locating methods is provided as follows:

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When a loopback is performed at a port, all packets on the port are looped back. Therefore, the loopback method cannot be used if only a specific service needs to be looped back. ETH-OAM can detect hardware faults. ETH-OAM can detect and locate faults automatically.

4.4.3 ATM OAM


This section provides the definition of ATM OAM and describes its purpose.

Definition
ATM OAM is used for detecting and locating ATM faults, and monitoring ATM performance. In this document, ATM OAM refers to OAM only at the ATM layer and implements various OAM functions by means of specific ATM OAM cells.

Purpose
ATM OAM provides segment-based ATM OAM between the CE and the PE and end-to-end-based ATM OAM between CEs. As shown in Figure 4-20, ATM OAM cells are transmitted and detected between the CE and the PE, or between the CEs to monitor the ATM link. Figure 4-20 Typical application of ATM OAM

CE1 (NodeB)

PE1

P E2

CE2 (RNC)

Segment check End-to-end check

Pa cket tra nsmission equipment

4.4.4 RMON
By using the remote monitoring (RMON), you can transmit network monitoring data between different network sections. Currently, the management of the Ethernet performance for transmission products is relevantly simple. In the case of the management of Ethernet ports, the management of the performance data of the ports is required. What's more, as the network is becoming complex, a method for managing network sections is required. Thus, the RMON emerges and the RMON should have the following features:

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All statistics data is saved at the agent and the out-of-service operation on the manager is supported. History data is saved for the fault diagnosis. Errors are detected and reported. Detailed data is provided. Multiple management stations are supported. Based on the preceding purposes, the RMON defines a serial of statistic formats and functions to realize the data exchange between the control stations and detection stations that complies with the RMON standards. To meet the requirements of different networks, the RMON provides flexible detection modes and control mechanism. What's more, the RMON provides error diagnosis, planning and information receiving of the performance events of the entire network.

4.4.5 PRBS
Certain boards provide the PRBS functional module, which is used for testing and maintaining the network. You can determine whether the working path on a tributary port, in the line direction, or in the cross-connect direction is normal, depending on whether bit errors are detected in a PRBS test. In the case of E1 services, T1 services or T3 services, the PRBS15 is transmitted. The PRBS function of the board is available in two types: lower-order PRBS function and higher-order PRBS function. Currently, the OptiX OSN equipment supports only the lower-order PRBS function. In the case of the lower-order PRBS function, the PRBS module is integrated with the tributary board. An NE that provides the PRBS function can be used as a simple instrument. You can determine whether a service path is faulty and can determine the location of the fault on fibers or relevant boards between the faulty NEs, depending on the bit errors detected on the NE. The PRBS function module can analyze the local NE and the entire network. Therefore, you can perform a test without using a real instrument during the deployment or fault locating.

4.4.6 CES Alarm Transmission


The OptiX OSN 550 uses the L/M and R fields in the control word to transparently transmit alarms. CES alarm transparent transmission involves transmitting local CES alarms to the remote end, and inserting corresponding alarms to notify the remote end of faults in the local end. Depending on the position where the alarm is generated, CES alarm transparent transmission can be between AC sides, and from the NNI side to the AC side.

CES Alarm Transparent Transmission Between AC Sides


Figure 4-21 shows the CES alarm transparent transmission can be between AC sides.

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Figure 4-21 CES alarm transparent transmission between AC sides

PSN
AC1 NodeB PW LSP AC2

PE1

PE2

RNC

Packe t transmission equip ment

The service alarms on the AC side are transparently transmitted through the PSN as follows: When receiving TDM signals carrying AIS/RAI alarms from AC1 side, PE1 uses the L or M field in the control word to respectively transmit AIS and RAI alarms to PE2. Then, PE2 inserts AIS/RAI alarms into AC2 based on the received L or M field.
The SAToP encapsulation mode does not support the M field, and therefore cannot transparently transmit the RAI alarm.

The fault information on the AC link or port is transmitted through the PSN as follows: When detecting an AC link fault or E1 port fault in AC1, PE1 uses the L or M field in the control word to transmit the fault information to PE2. Then, PE2 inserts alarms into AC2 based on the received L or M fields.

CES Alarm Transparent Transmission from the NNI Side to the AC Side
Figure 4-22 shows the CES alarm transparent transmission from the NNI side to the AC side. Figure 4-22 CES alarm transparent transmission from the NNI side to the AC side

PSN
AC1 NodeB PW LSP AC2

PE1

PE2

RNC

Packe t transmission equip ment

When detecting that packet loss ratio continuously beyond the preset threshold, PE2 inserts the AIS alarm into AC2, and uses the R field in the control word to transmit the information to PE1. Then, PE1 reports the RDI alarm based on the R field, and inserts the RAI alarm into the AC1 side.

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4.5 Synchronization
This section describes synchronization features including synchronous Ethernet clock, and CES ACR in the packet domain. 4.5.1 Synchronous Ethernet Clock

The synchronous Ethernet clock is a technology that extracts the clock from the serial bit stream on the Ethernet line, and transmits data through the extracted clock to realize the transfer of clocks. 4.5.2 CES ACR

This section provides the definition of CES ACR and describes its purpose.

4.5.1 Synchronous Ethernet Clock


The synchronous Ethernet clock is a technology that extracts the clock from the serial bit stream on the Ethernet line, and transmits data through the extracted clock to realize the transfer of clocks.

Definition
The synchronous Ethernet clock is a technology of frequency synchronization over the physical layer. The system directly extracts the clock signal from the serial bit stream on the Ethernet line, and transmits the data to each board by using the clock signal to realize the transfer of clock information.

Purpose
As the network is increasingly based on the Ethernet transfer technology, the large-scale network at the carrier-class level requires the synchronous Ethernet to transmit the clock and introduces the networkwide synchronous timing transmission idea of the SDH system to the Ethernet design. Therefore, the clock signal can be transmitted from the core to the edge by using the Ethernet physical layer, to provide ensured timing for various real-time services.

4.5.2 CES ACR


This section provides the definition of CES ACR and describes its purpose.

Definition
CES ACR is a function that uses the adaptive clock recovery (ACR) technology to recover clock synchronization information carried by CES packets. In the standard CES ACR solution, the source end (Master) considers the local clock as the timestamp in the Real-time Transport Protocol (R TP) packet header and encapsulates it in the CES packet; the sink end (Slave) recovers the clock according to the timestamp in the packet. In this manner, signal impairment during the transmission is prevented. The OptiX OSN 550 adopts the enhanced timestamp clock solution. That is, clocks can be recovered based on SN in CES packets rather than timestamps in R packet headers. See TP Figure 4-23.

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Figure 4-23 CES ACR clock solution


Slave
SN

Master
SN

E1

Processing

CE S

CES

Processing

E1

Primary reference clock

PSN
E1 CES E1

BTS

P E1

PE 2

BSC

Packet transmissi on equipment

SN: Sequnce Number

Purpose
In the packet domain, CES ACR is mainly used to transparently transmit E1 clocks in the PSN. For details, see CES ACR Clock Transparent Transmission Solution.

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5 TDM Functions and Features

5
Board PCXLX PCXX PCXLG PCXGA PCXGB

TDM Functions and Features

5.1 TDM-Domain Access Capacity


This section provides the TDM-domain access capacities when different system control, switching, and timing boards are configured in the OptiX OSN 550. Table 5-1 lists the TDM-domain access capacities when different system control, switching, and timing boards are configured in the OptiX OSN 550. Table 5-1 TDM-domain access capacity of the OptiX OSN 550 STM-1 26 24 26 24 24 STM-4 14 12 14 12 12 STM-16 2 0 2 0 0 E1/T1 252 252 252 252 252 E3/T3 18 18 18 18 18

5.2 Service Support


This section describes the service support in the TDM domain. The OptiX OSN 550 can process SDH services and PDH services. Table 5-2 lists the supported service types. Table 5-2 Service types supported by the OptiX OSN 550 in the TDM domain Service Type SDH service Description SDH standard services: ST M-1/STM-4/STM-16

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Service Type PDH service

Description E1/T1, E3/T3services

5.3 Protection Support


This section describes the protection schemes including SNCP and linear MSP in the TDM domain. 5.3.1 SNCP

The SNCP scheme, which requires one working subnet and one protection subnet, is to select one service from the dually transmitted services. 5.3.2 Ring MSP

Ring MSP uses the multiplex section overhead (MSOH) bytes K1 and K2 to implement automatic protection switching of services. 5.3.3 Linear MSP The linear MSP uses the K1 and K2 bytes in the multiplex section overhead to realize automatic protection switching. The OptiX OSN equipment supports 1+1 and 1:N linear MSP.

5.3.1 SNCP
The SNCP scheme, which requires one working subnet and one protection subnet, is to select one service from the dually transmitted services. The SNCP scheme, which requires one working subnet and one protection subnet, is to select one service from the dually transmitted services. If the working subnet fails to be connected or if its performance fails to meet certain requirements, the connection of the protection subnet takes over. Figure 5-1 shows the application of the SNCP.

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Figure 5-1 Application of the SNCP


Worki ng SNC Sou rce end Si nk end

NE A Pro tection SNC Protection switchin g Working SNC Sou rce end

NE B

Sin k e nd

NE A Pro tection SNC

NE B

5.3.2 Ring MSP


Ring MSP uses the multiplex section overhead (MSOH) bytes K1 and K2 to implement automatic protection switching of services.

Two-Fiber Unidirectional Ring MSP


On a two-fiber unidirectional ring MSP, one of the bidirectional STM-N lines is the working line, and the other is the protection line. As shown in Figure 5-2, the services on the two-fiber unidirectional ring MSP are on diverse routes. Before the protection switching, the signal flow of the services from NE A to NE C is NE ANE BNE C, and the signal flow of the services from NE C to NE A is NE CNE DNE A. In normal cases, services are transmitted on the working line. When a fiber cut occurs and the working line becomes unavailable, the services on the two ends of the faulty point are both switched from the working line of the faulty fiber to the protection line of the reverse directional fiber for transmission. Figure 5-2 shows the application of the two-fiber unidirectional ring MSP. After the protection switching, the signal flow of the services from NE A to NE C is NE ANE DNE CNE BNE C, and the signal flow of the services from NE C to NE A continues to be NE CNE DNE A.

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Figure 5-2 Two-fiber unidirectional ring MSP

Before protection switching


East West

West NE B East

NE A Two-fiber unidirectional MSP ring NE C

East NE D West

West

East

Protection switching

After protection switching


East West

NE A West NE B East NE C Two-fiber unidirectional MSP ring NE D West East

West

East Signal flow of services

Two-Fiber Bidirectional Ring MSP


On a two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP, the first half of VC-4s on each ST M-N line is allocated to the working channel, and the other half of VC-4s is allocated to the protection channel. As shown in Figure 5-3, the services on the two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP are on uniform routes. Before the protection switching, the signal flow of the services from NE A to NE C is NE ANE BNE C, and the signal flow of the services from NE C to NE A is NE CNE BNE A. In normal cases, services are transmitted on the working channel. The services transmitted on two fibers flow in inverse directions. When a fiber cut occurs and the working channel becomes unavailable, the services on the two ends of the faulty point are both switched from
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5 TDM Functions and Features

the working channel of the faulty fiber to the protection channel of the reverse directional fiber for transmission. Figure 5-3 shows the application of the two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP. After the protection switching, the signal flow of the services from NE A to NE C is NE ANE DNE CNE BNE C, and the signal flow of the services from NE C to NE A is NE CNE BNE CNE DNE A. Figure 5-3 Two-fiber bidirectional ring MSP

Before protection switching


East West

NE A West NE B East NE C Two-fiber bidirectional M SP ring NE D West East

West

East

Protection switching

After protection switching


East West

NE A West NE B East NE C Two-fiber bidirectional M SP ring NE D West East

West

East Signal flow of services

5.3.3 Linear MSP


The linear MSP uses the K1 and K2 bytes in the multiplex section overhead to realize automatic protection switching. The OptiX OSN equipment supports 1+1 and 1:N linear MSP.

1+1 Linear MSP


The 1+1 linear MSP requires one working channel and one protection channel. At the source node, the service is dually fed to the working channel and protection channel. At the sink node, the service is received from the working channel. When the working channel becomes faulty,

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the service is received from the protection channel. Figure 5-4 shows the application of the 1+1 linear MSP. Figure 5-4 1+1 linear MSP
NE A
Working channel

NE B

Protection channel

Protecti on switching NE A Working channel NE B

Protection channel

No extra traffic can be configured in the protection channel in a 1+1 linear MSP group.

1:N linear MSP


The 1:N linear MSP requires N working channels and one protection channel. Common services are transmitted on the working channels, and extra traffic is transmitted on the protection channel. When a working channel becomes faulty, the service on the channel is switched to the protection channel. Therefore, the extra traffic is interrupted. Figure 5-5 shows the application of the 1:N linear MSP.

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Figure 5-5 1:N linear MSP


NE A Common service 1 ... Working channel N Common service N Protection channel Extra traffic Extra traffic Common servic e N ... Working channel 1 NE B Common servic e 1

Protection s witching NE A Common service 1 ... Working channel N Common service N Protection channel Extra traffic Extra traffic Common service N ... Working channel 1 NE B Common servic e 1

Purpose
The LMSP scheme uses the MSOH bytes K1 and K2 to implement automatic protection switching once the working path fails, and therefore to protect services.

5.4 Maintenance
Certain boards provide the PRBS functional module, which is used for testing and maintaining the network. You can determine whether the working path on a tributary port, in the line direction, or in the cross-connect direction is normal, depending on whether bit errors are detected in a PRBS test. In the case of E1 services, T1 services or T3 services, the PRBS15 is transmitted. The PRBS function of the board is available in two types: lower-order PRBS function and higher-order PRBS function. Currently, the OptiX OSN equipment supports only the lower-order PRBS function. In the case of the lower-order PRBS function, the PRBS module is integrated with the tributary board. An NE that provides the PRBS function can be used as a simple instrument. You can determine whether a service path is faulty and can determine the location of the fault on fibers or relevant boards between the faulty NEs, depending on the bit errors detected on the NE. The PRBS function module can analyze the local NE and the entire network. Therefore, you can perform a test without using a real instrument during the deployment or fault locating.

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5.5 Synchronization
Clock synchronization on the entire network helps to transmit services normally.

Definition
Clock: The electronic circuit in a computer that generates a steady stream of timing pulses.

Purpose
Clock synchronization ensures that all the digital devices on a communications network work at the same nominal frequency, and therefore minimizes the impacts of slips, burst bit errors, phase jumps, jitters, and wanders on digital communications systems. Clock synchronization also minimizes pointer justifications on SDH devices. Therefore, clock synchronization is the precondition and basis for the normal operation of a network.

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6 Networking and Application Scenarios

Networking and Application Scenarios

6.1 Basic Network Topologies


OptiX OSN 550s can form the following network topologies: chain, ring, tangent rings, and ring with chain. The OptiX OSN 550 supports separate and combined configuration of the following types: terminal multiplexer (TM), add/drop multiplexer (ADM), and multiple add/drop multiplexer (MADM). OptiX OSN 550s can form the following network topologies: chain, ring, tangent rings, and ring with chain. In addition, OptiX OSN 550s can be interconnected with other OptiX OSN equipment, OptiX DWDM equipment, and OptiX Metro equipment to provide a complete transport network solution. See Table 6-1. Table 6-1 Network topologies supported by OptiX OSN 550s and corresponding legends Network Topology Chain Legend

Ring

Tangent rings

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Network Topology Ring with chain

Legend

6.2 Typical Application of Hybrid Networking


In Hybrid networking mode, the OptiX OSN 550 receives and transmits packet services and time division multiplex (TDM) services at the same time. Figure 6-1 shows a Hybrid ring network, and Figure 6-2 shows the board configurations on each NE of the network, on which the following base station services are transmitted: 2G base station services (transmitted in Native E1 mode) 3G base station services (transmitted in ETH PWE3 or ATM/IMAPWE3 mode) Figure 6-1 Hybrid ring network

FE TDM E1

FE NE 1 TDM E1

NE 2 NE 3 FE Node B NE 4

A TM/IMA E1

Packet domain

TDM domain

No de B

BTS

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Figure 6-2 Board configurations on each NE of the Hybrid ring network


PCXLG PCXLG

NE6 EM6T SP3D NE 2 FE NE 1 PCXLG NE6 EM6T E1 PCXLG SP3D FE

E1

NE 3 PCXLG PCXLG NE6 EF8F

FE NE 4 PCXLG PCXLG NE6 MD1 ATM/IMA E1

Packet domain

TDM domain

Node B

BTS

6.3 Typical Application of Pure Packet Networking


This section describes the typical application of pure packet networking. Figure 6-3 shows a pure packet network, and Figure 6-4 shows the board configurations on each NE of the pure packet network, on which the following base station services are transmitted: 2G base station services (transmitted in CES mode) 3G base station services (transmitted in ETH PWE3 or ATM/IMA/CES E1 mode)

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Figure 6-3 Pure packet network

FE

NE 5

ATM/IMA E 1 GE NE 1 TDM E1 GE NE 4 NE 2

FE GE

NE 3 GE

FE

TDM E 1

Nod e B

BTS

Figure 6-4 Board configurations on each NE of the pure packet network


NE 5 PCXGB FE NE6 EF8F MD1 A TM/IMA E1 PCXGB NE6 EM 6F NE 1 P CXGB NE6 MD1 E1 NE 2 PCXGB FE

PCXGB FE NE 4 PCXGB ISU2 MD1 E1 PCXGB GE

NE 3 PCXGB NE6 EM 6F FE

PCXGB

Node B

BTS

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6.4 Typical Application of TDM Networking


This section describes the typical application of time division multiplex (TDM) networking. Figure 6-5 shows a TDM network, and Figure 6-6 shows the board configurations on each NE of the TDM network, on which the following base station services are transmitted: 2G base station services (transmitted in E1/T1 mode) Figure 6-5 TDM network

TDM E1

NE1

TDM E1

TDM E1

TDM E 1 NE 2 NE 3 TDM E1 NE4

BTS

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Figure 6-6 Board configurations on each NE of the TDM network


NE1
PCXLG PCXLG SP3D

NE6

E1 E1 NE6
SP3D

NE2
PCXLG PCXLG

NE4
PCXLG PCXLG SP3D

NE6

E1

E1 NE3
PCXLG PCXLG

NE6
SP3D

E1 BTS

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7 Security Management

Security Management

7.1 Authentication Management


For security concerns, only an authenticated user can log in to an NE. NE login management: You can successfully log in to an NE only after entering the correct user name and password. NE user switching: One client allows only one user to operate the NE at a time. For this reason, if multiple NE users log in to an NE, the NE users need to be switched to ensure that the configuration data is unique. Forcibly logging other users out of the NE: To avoid errors owing to simultaneous configuration by multiple users, or to prevent other users from illegally logging in to the NE, one user can forcibly log a lower-level user out from the NE. NE login locking: After the locking function is enabled, a user whose level is lower than that of the current user is not allowed to log in to the NE. NE configuration locking: You can lock the function of configuring certain functional modules on an NE to prevent other users from configuring the modules. You can query users that are logged in to the NE.

7.2 Authorization Management


The authorization management allows different authorities for different users when they operate an NE. This effectively protects the NE against inappropriate operations. Management of NE users Five user authority levels are available in an ascending order: monitoring level, operation level, maintenance level, system level, and debugging level. Based on the network management system, NE users are classified into LCT NE users, EMS NE users, CMD NE users, and general NE users. You can create a user, assign an authority level for the user, and specify the user flag. You can change a user name, a password, an authority level, and a user flag. You can delete a user. Management of NE user groups:

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By default, five user groups are available with authorities in an ascending order: monitor group, operator group, maintenance personnel group, administrator group, and super administrator group. You can change the group to which a user belongs.

7.3 Network Security Management


The security of transmitting data between the NMS and NEs, and in the network, is the precondition for the NMS to manage the NEs. Communication between the NMS and NEs can be implemented based on Access Control List (ACL), Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), or Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS) protocol.

ACL Protocol
The ACL rules are configured to filter the received IP packets. This controls the data traffic on the network and protects against malicious attacks. You can set basic ACL rules or advanced ACL rules, based on the required system security level. For an NE that requires a low security level, you can configure the basic ACL rules so that the NE checks only the source addresses of received IP packets. For an NE that requires a high security level, you can configure the advanced ACL rules. In this case, the NE checks the source addresses, sink addresses, source ports, sink ports, and protocol types of the received IP packets. If both the advanced and basic ACL rules are configured, the NE uses only the advanced ACL rules to check the received IP packets. In addition, the ACL rules support the following operations: Queries of the ACL rules Modification of the ACL rules Deletion of the ACL rules

SSL Protocol
The SSL protocol is used to protect the integrity and security of data.

RADIUS Protocol
RADIUS provides a complete network security solution. After the RADIUS server verifies that the user name and password of a user are valid, the server allows a certain authority for the user, and provides services to the user. The RADIUS server of the carrier manages all the user accounts and user attributes of the OptiX OSN 550. To log in to the OptiX OSN 550, you must apply for a user account to the carrier. When you try to log in to the OptiX OSN 550, the RADIUS server verifies the user name and password that you have entered. If the verification fails, a login error is reported. The OptiX OSN 550 supports the shielding function when being connected to the network port management device. That is, when being connected to the network port on an OptiX

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OSN 550, the network port management device manages only the connected OptiX OSN 550, and cannot access the other devices that are connected to the OptiX OSN 550 through the ECCs. With this function, even if an OptiX OSN 550 NE in the insecure domain is accessed illegally, the NEs that are connected to the OptiX OSN 550 will not be illegally operated.

7.4 System Security Management


The system provides necessary security policies that are executed forcibly. Querying and setting the Warning Screen information of an NE Querying and setting the Warning Screen switch of an NE to determine whether to report an alarm after a user logs in to the NE Querying and setting the earliest expire time and the latest expire time of a password Checking whether a password is unique on an NE

7.5 Log Management


Log management involves system security log management and Syslog management.

System Security Log Management


The system security log of an NE records all operations and operation results on the NE. By querying the system security log, the administrator can trace and check operations of users. You can query the system security log of an NE. You can forward the system security log to the Syslog server.

Syslog Management
The Syslog service is used for the security management of NEs. Different information is transmitted to the Syslog server in a format compliant with the Syslog protocol so that the maintenance personnel can monitor NEs easily. The OptiX OSN 550 supports the following functions related to the Syslog protocol: Enabling and disabling the Syslog protocol. Setting the transmission mode of the Syslog protocol to UDP (by default) or T CP. Adding or deleting Syslog servers. Configuration of multiple Syslog servers and transmission of logs to multiple servers at the same time. Reporting relevant alarms when the Syslog server fails to communicate with NEs. Figure 7-1 illustrates the log transmission of the the Syslog protocol on a network. To ensure the security of system logs, at least two Syslog servers are required on a transmission network. NEs communicate with Syslog servers by running the IP protocol. NEs communicates with each other in many modes, such as ECC and IP over DCC.

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Figure 7-1 Log transmission of the Syslog protocol


NE B

NMS

NE A (client) ECC/ IP OVER DCC TCP/IP real tim e security log

NE C (clie nt)

Syslo g Server B

Syslog Serve r A

NE D

A Syslog server is a work station or server that stores the system logs of all NEs on a network. Forwarding gateway NEs receive system logs from other NEs, and then forward these system logs to Syslog servers. For example, NE A and NE C in Figure 7-1.

When NEs communicate in IP mode, each NE can directly communicate with two different Syslog servers by running the IP protocol. Hence, you need to configure the IP addresses and port numbers of the Syslog servers on an NE. The NE transmits the system log to two Syslog servers by using the automatic routing function of the IP protocol. You need not configure any forwarding gateway NE. When NEs communicate in ECC mode, the NEs that are not directly connected to Syslog servers cannot communicate with Syslog servers. The logs of these NEs need to be transmitted to the gateway NEs that can communicate with Syslog servers directly. Then, the gateway NEs forward the logs to Syslog servers. Therefore, you need to configure forwarding gateway NEs. For example, you can configure NE A as the forwarding NE of NE D.

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8 Operation and Maintenance

8
8.1 DCN
Item Purpose and Benefit

Operation and Maintenance

Reliable network management ensures proper running of a network, and therefore transmission of network management data becomes very critical. The data communication network (DCN) is a network management data communication channel, with which users can remotely manage and maintain NEs. Table 8-1 lists the DCN solutions that the OptiX OSN 550 supports. Table 8-1 DCN solutions that the OptiX OSN 550 supports Inband DCN NM information is transmitted on the service channels provided by managed equipment. Therefore, no other equipment and DCN are required. This reduces operating cost. Flexible networking: NM information is encapsulated into Ethernet frames and carries a fixed VLAN ID to get separated from the service data. The NM information is transmitted with services on service channels. Configurable VLAN priorities for inband DCN packets Outband DCN NM information is transmitted on non-service channels. High reliability: Outband DCN uses dedicated maintenance channels. Therefore, the NMC can construct a DCN network with managed equipment in various ways, such as E1 private lines and Ethernet; in addition, you can obtain NM information in time even when faults occur on service channels. HW ECC IP OSI TDM network

Feature

Networking Technology

Identifying FE/GE service ports with VLAN IDs

Application Scenario

Packet network

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Item Resource Allocation Mode

Inband DCN N/A

Outband DCN Channel type: D1-D3 and D4-D12 Running mode: Mode 1: 32 channels of D1-D3 bytes Mode 2: 12 channels of D1-D3 bytes or 6 channels of D4-D12 bytes

8.2 Equipment Maintenance


To ensure the proper running of a network, routine maintenance and troubleshooting for equipment are a must. The OptiX OSN 550 is of strong maintainability. Table 8-2 lists the maintenance functions that the OptiX OSN 550 supports. Table 8-2 Maintenance functions that the OptiX OSN 550 supports Applicati Function on Scenario Routine maintenan ce Alarm and performance management Description

Provides audible and visual alarms in case of emergency, assisting the network administrator in taking prompt measures. Provides running status indicators and alarm indicators on each board, assisting the administrator in locating and handling faults promptly. Provides the alarm input and output function, therefore facilitating the collection of equipment alarms. Dynamically monitors the equipment operation and alarm status of all stations on the NMS. Detects alarms and performance of a standby system control board. As for the 15-minute monitoring period, the equipment can store sixteen 15-minute history performance, that is, four hours of 15-minute history performance. As for the 24-hour monitoring period, the equipment can store 6x24-hour history performance, that is, six days of history performance. Monitors the data on a transmission network located in different network segments. RMON is a supplement to simple Ethernet performance management means, and can be used for a wide range of networks.

RMON

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Applicati Function on Scenario Upgrade and loading of board software and NE software

Description

Supports in-service upgrades and loading of board software and NE software. Supports remote loading of board software and field programmable gate array (FPGA). Supports error-loading-proof and resumable loading. Measures the input voltage and detects the undervoltage and overvoltage states. Supports the fiber auto-discovery function on the NMS.

Voltage check Automatic search for optical fibers Queries of port impedance Queries of information about optical modules Monitoring the outdoor cabinet Power consumption control

Supports the query of port impedance on the NMS. Allows information about optical modules to be queried on the NMS, including the single-mode/multi-mode, rate level, vendor, production date, and wavelength. Monitors the outdoor cabinet by means of the monitoring port on the AUX board. Computes and reports the system power consumption. Monitors the total system power consumption, and reports alarms if the total system power consumption is about to exceed or is higher than the rated NE power consumption. Detects and monitors the connectivity and performance of service trails by using outband packets. During the process, services are not affected. Complies with IEEE 802.1ag and IEEE 802.3ah. Detects and locates ATM faults, and monitors ATM performance. Detects and locates faults within an MPLS network, and works with MPLS APS to protect services. MPLS OAM mechanisms include tunnel OAM and PW OAM. Tunnel OAM operates at the tunnel layer, and PW OAM operates at the PW layer.

OAM

ETH OAM

ATM OAM MPLS OAM

Fault locating

One-click data collection

Provides the one-click data collection function to collect fault data, which shortens data collection time before service recovery. Users can collect fault data selectively, and can stop a collection process manually. Service boards support inloops and outloops on ports, which facilitates fault locating.

Loopback

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Applicati Function on Scenario Remote maintenance PRBS

Description

If the equipment becomes faulty, the maintenance personnel can use a public telephone network to remotely maintain the OptiX OSN 550 systems. An NE enabled with the PRBS function can be used as a simple instrument that transmits and receives unframed services in order to analyze whether service paths are faulty. An NE enabled with the PRBS function can be used to analyze itself or the entire network. The PRBS function is a substitute for a test instrument during a deployment or fault localization. The system control, switching, and timing boards and service boards support warm and cold resets. Warm resets do not affect services. The system control, switching, and timing boards, service boards, fan boards, and power supply boards support hot swap. Pluggable optical modules can be hot-swapped. Service cables and auxiliary cables can be hot-swapped.

Warm/Cold resets Hot swap

8.3 Upgrade Methods


If the current version of the OptiX OSN 550 cannot meet customer requirements, upgrade the equipment to a higher version. The available upgrade methods are package loading, package diffusion, and hot patch loading. Table 8-3 lists the upgrade methods available for the OptiX OSN 550.

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Table 8-3 Upgrade methods available for the OptiX OSN 550 Upgrade Method Definition Package Loading With a software package description file, the software package functions as a logical package of the required software. This logical package can be uploaded to upgrade the entire NE. Package Diffusion With a software package description file, the software package functions as a logical package of the required software. The logical package is diffused and almost synchronously loaded to all NEs on a network. This upgrade method is more efficient. More than one NE needs to be upgraded. The system control board and other boards must support package loading. There is a CF card on the system control board. All the boards on an NE can be upgraded on a unified GUI. There is no need to care about which board to upgrade or which files to update. The software package is diffused. Network load and network bandwidth are both shared. Versions of V100R003C00 and later support this upgrade method. Hot Patch Loading During hot patch loading, new software codes substitute for running software codes, which do not interrupt services but rectify a software defect or implement a new requirement. These new software codes are codes in a hot patch. Services are not interrupted during the upgrade.

Application Scenario

One NE needs to be upgraded. The system control board and other boards must support package loading. There is a CF card on the system control board. All the boards on an NE can be upgraded on a unified GUI. There is no need to care about which board to upgrade or which files to update.

Characteristic

Services are not interrupted during the upgrade. Hot patches decrease the number of product versions, therefore avoiding frequent version upgrades. Hot patches can be loaded remotely. Version rollback is supported after a hot patch is loaded, reducing upgrade risks. Versions of V100R005C01 and later support this upgrade method.

Applicable Version

Versions of V100R003C00 and later support this upgrade method.

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8 Operation and Maintenance

8.4 License Control


Packet features are available only if the appropriate license files have been purchased.

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9 Technical Specifications

9
9.1 General Specifications
Item Description

Technical Specifications

This section describes the chassis dimensions, weight, power consumption, heat consumption, power supply performance, electromagnetic compatibility, and reliability. Table 9-1 lists the general specifications of the OptiX OSN 550. Table 9-1 General specifications of the OptiX OSN 550

Dimensions 88 mm x 442 mm x 220 mm (H x W x D) Weight Power Consumpti on 10 kg Maximum power consumption: 240 W Typical power consumption: 142 W Board configuration for typical power consumption: 2 x PCXLX + 3 x EM6F + 1 x MD1 + FAN + 2 x PIU, as shown in the figure.
SL OT SLO T 10 10 (PIU) S LOT (PI U) SLOT 11 11 SL OT (FAN) SLO T (FAN) 9 9 (PI U) (PIU) SL OT 7 (C ST/CSH ) SLOT 7 (CSH) SL OT 5 (EX T) SL OT 3 (EX T) SLOT 3 (MD1 SLOT 1 (EXT ) SLOT 1 (MD1)

SLOT 8 (CSH) SL OT 8 (C ST/CSH)


SL OT 6 (EXT) SL OT (EM6F) SLOT 4 4 (E XT) SL OT (EF6F) SLO T 2 2 (EXT )

Heat Consumpti on Power Supply Performanc e

Maximum heat consumption: 819 BTU/h Typical heat consumption: 485 BTU/h DC power supply Rated voltage: -48 V or -60 V Voltage range: -38.4 V to -72 V AC power supply Rated voltage: 110/220 V Voltage range: 100 V to 240 V

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9 Technical Specifications

Item Fuse Capacity

Description DC power supply: 20A AC power supply: 5A

Electromag Complies with EMC Class A. netic Compatibili ty Reliability System availability: 0.9999965 Average annual repair rate: < 1.5% Mean time to repair (MTTR): 1 hour Mean time between failures (MT BF): 33.08 years

9.2 Packet Performance Indicators


This section describes the equipment's packet performance indicators. Table 9-2 lists the OptiX OSN 550's packet performance indicators. Table 9-2 OptiX OSN 550 packet functions and features Item MPLS suppo rt capab ility Description The packet switching unit of the PCX board works with a service board to implement MPLS functions. Setup mode: static LSPs Protection: 1:1 MPLS tunnel APS OAM: Supports MPLS OAM that complies with ITU-T Y.1711. Supports LSP ping and LSP traceroute functions. The packet switching unit of the PCX board works with a service board to implement PWE3 functions. Service categories TDM PWE3 (CES) services ATM PWE3 services ETH PWE3 services Setup mode: static PWs Protection: 1:1 PW APS OAM: Support the ping and traceroute commands of PWs, the virtual circuit connectivity verification (VCCV) command. Supports PW OAM that complies with ITU-T Y.1711. Supports MS-PWs.

PWE3 suppo rt capab ility

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Item Servic e

Description Service Type Description Maximum Re ceiving Capability FE (electrical port): 36 FE (optical port): 48 10GE (optical port) PCXLX/ PCXX: 2 Service Port Description 10/100BASETX 100Base-FX 10GBASELR (LAN) 10GBASELW (WAN) 10GBASEER (LAN) 10GBASEEW (WAN) 10GBASEZR (LAN) 10GBASEZW (WAN) Connector RJ-45

Etherne Supports Native ETH t and ETH PWE3 service services. Format of Ethernet data frames: IEEE 802.3 and Ethernet II Jumbo frames MTU length: 1518 bytes to 9600 bytes (1620 bytes, by default) MPLS function support VLAN function support. The VLAN IDs range from 1 to 4094.

LC LC

QinQ support GE (optical Size of a MAC port) address table: 16 KB PCXLG/ (including static PCXGA/ entries) PCXGB: 14 GE (electrical port): 12

1000Base-L LC X 1000Base-V X 1000Base-Z X 10/100/1000B RJ-45 ASE-TX

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Item

Description CES service Service type: 192xE1 point-to-point service Encapsulation types: CESoPSN SAToP Compression of idle timeslots: supported (only for CESoPSN encapsulation) Jitter compensation buffering time: 375 us to 16000 us Packet loading time: 125 us to 5000 us CES ACR: supported Retiming: supported ATM/I MA service Number of ATM connections: 256 ATM traffic management ATM encapsulation format N-to-one VPC N-to-one VCC One-to-one VPC One-to-one VCC Maximum number of concatenated ATM cells: 31 ATM OAM: F4 (VP layer) and F5 (VC layer) Maximum number of IMA groups: 32 Maximum number of members in an IMA group: 16 192xE1 75/120-ohm smart E1 port Anea 96 75/120-ohm smart E1 port Anea 96

Protec tion

MPLS APS

Maximum number of protection groups: 64 Switching duration not more than 100 ms
NOTE MP LS AP S and P W AP S share 64 protection group resources.

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Item

Description PW APS Maximum number of protection groups: 64 Switching duration not more than 100 ms
NOTE MP LS AP S and P W AP S share 64 protection group resources.

MSTP

Supports the MSTP protocol that generates only the CIST . The MSTP protocol provides functions equivalent to that of the RSTP protocol. Point-point and point-multipoint LPT Switching duration not more than 5s Intra-board LAG and inter-board LAG A maximum of 16 LAGs. Each LAG has a maximum of 8 members. Switching duration not more than 500 ms T unnel OAM and PW OAM Maximum number of MPLS OAM resources: 128
NOTE MP LS OAM and P W OAM share 128 OAM resources.

LPT LAG

Maint enanc e

MPLS OAM

ETH-O AM

Supports the following IEEE 802.1ag OAM functions: Management of OAM maintenance points Continuity check (CC) Loopback (LB) Link trace (LT) Supports the following IEEE 802.3ah OAM functions: OAM auto-discovery Link performance monitoring Fault detection Loopback at the remote end Self-loop detection and self-looped port blocking Number of MD/MA/MEP: 64 Maximum number of ATM connections: 256

ATM OAM

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Item

Description RMON Supports port-level and service-level RMON functions, in compliance with RFC 2819. Supports four RMON management groups: Ethernet statistics group, Ethernet history group, Ethernet alarm group, and Ethernet history control group. Port level: Basic Ethernet performance Extended Ethernet performance Service level: L2VPN T unnel PW

Synch roniza tion

Synchr onous Etherne t clock

Synchronous Ethernet that complies with ITU-T G.8261 and ITU-T G.8262. Port receiving/transmitting synchronous Ethernet clocks: FE/GE/10GE Input/Output of SSM packets Clock frequency stability (hold-over mode): less than 50 ppb Maximum number of CES ACR clocks: 4 The clock performance complies with the ITU-T G.823 Traffic template. Tributary retiming. DiffServ Supports simple traffic classification by specifying PHB service classes for service flows based on their QoS information (C-VLAN priorities, S-VLAN priorities, DSCP values, or MPLS EXP values) carried by the packets. Complex traffic classification Supports traffic classification based on C-VLAN IDs, S-VLAN IDs, C-VLAN priorities, S-VLAN priorities, C-VLAN IDs + C-VLAN priorities, S-VLAN IDs + S-VLAN priorities, or DSCP values carried by packets. CAR Provides the CAR function for the traffic flows at ports. Shaping Supports traffic shaping for a specific port, prioritized queue, or traffic flow. Queue scheduling policies SP WRR SP+WRR

CES ACR

Other s

QoS

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9.3 TDM Performance Indicators


This section describes the OptiX OSN 550's TDM performance indicators. Table 9-3 lists the OptiX OSN 550's TDM performance indicators. Table 9-3 OptiX OSN 550 TDM functions and features Item Service Description Service Type Re ceiving Capability 26xSTM-1 Service Port Description S-1.1, L-1.1 and L-1.2 optical ports S-4.1, L-4.1 and L-4.2 optical ports S-16.1, L-16.1 and L-16.2 optical ports E1(75/120-ohm )/T1(100-ohm) electrical port Connector LC

SDH service

14xSTM-4

LC

14xSTM-16

LC

PDH service

252xE1/T1

Anea 96

Protection

SNCP

SNCP at the VC-12/VC-3/VC-4 levels Maximum number of protection groups: 1032 Switching duration not more than 50 ms MSP Ring at the STM-1, ST M-4 and STM-16 levels Maximum number of protection groups: 13 Switching duration not more than 50 ms Linear MSP at the STM-1, STM-4 and STM-16 levels Maximum number of 1+1/1:1 Linear MSP protection groups: 13 Switching duration not more than 50 ms Supported

MSP Ring

Linear MSP

Maintena nce Synchroni zation

PRBS

Physical layer clocks, including line clocks, tributary clocks, and two-input and two-output external clocks. The port impedance is 120 ohms or 75 ohms (a converter can be used to provide a 75-ohm clock port). Non-synchronization status message (SSM), standard SSM, and extended SSM protocols Tributary retiming Tracing mode, hold-over mode, and free-run mode

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9.4 Power Consumption and Weight of Each Board


This section describes the power consumption and weight of each board supported by the equipment. Table 9-4 lists the power consumption and weight of the boards supported by the OptiX OSN 550. Table 9-4 Power consumption and weight of boards supported by the OptiX OSN 550 Board PCX MD1 EM6T EM6F EF8F SL1D SL4D SL1Q SP3D PL3T AUX PIU APIU FAN Power Consumption (W) 45 12.2 10.4 11.3 23 4.12 4.7 4.3 11.5 5.0 2.5 0.5 Room temperature (25):20.0 High temperature (55):30.0 Room temperature (25):12.0 High temperature (55):29.6 Weight (kg) 0.80 0.50 0.37 0.40 0.55 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.85 0.30 0.30 0.12 1.93 0.30

9.5 Optical Port Specifications


This section describes the specifications of OptiX OSN 550's STM-1/STM-4/STM-16 optical ports and GE optical ports.

Specifications of STM-1 Optical Ports


Table 9-5 lists the specifications of OptiX OSN 550's ST M-1 optical ports.

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Table 9-5 Specifications of OptiX OSN 550's STM-1 optical ports Item Nominal bit rate Optical port type Transmission distance (km) Operating wavelength range (nm) Optical fiber type Launched optical power range (dBm) Receiver sensitivity (dBm) Minimum overload (dBm) Minimum extinction ratio (dB) Value 155520 kbit/s S-1.1 2 to 15 1261 to 1360 Single-mode LC -15 to -8 -28 -8 8.2 L-1.1 20 to 40 1263 to 1360 Single-mode LC -5 to 0 -34 -10 10 L-1.2 60 to 80 1480 to 1580 Single-mode LC -5 to 0 -34 0 10

NOTE Format of optical port type is defined as follows: transmission distance-signal rate.fiber type Explanation for optical port type "S-1.1" is as follows: "S" represents short distance; the first digit "1" represents STM-1 signals; the second digit "1" represents ITU-T G.652 fibers (1310 nm). Explanation for optical port type "L-1.1" is as follows: "L" represents long distance; the first digit "1" represents STM-1 signals; the second digit "1" represents ITU-T G.652 fibers (1310 nm). Explanation for optical port type "L-1.2" is as follows: "L" represents long distance; the first digit "1" represents STM-1 signals; the second digit "2" represents ITU-T G.652 fibers (1550 nm)..

Specifications of STM-4 Optical Ports


Table 9-6 lists the specifications of OptiX OSN 550's ST M-4 optical ports. Table 9-6 Specifications of OptiX OSN 550's STM-4 optical ports Item Nominal bit rate Optical port type Transmission distance (km) Operating wavelength range (nm) Optical fiber type Value 622080 kbit/s S-4.1 2 to 15 1274 to 1356 L-4.1 20 to 40 1280 to 1335 L-4.2 50 to 80 1480 to 1580

Single-mode LC

Single-mode LC

Single-mode LC

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Item Launched optical power range (dBm) Receiver sensitivity (dBm) Minimum overload (dBm) Minimum extinction ratio (dB)

Value -15 to -8 -28 -8 8.2 -3 to +2 -28 -8 10 -3 to +2 -28 -8 10

NOTE Format of optical port type is defined as follows: transmission distance-signal rate.fiber type Explanation for optical port type "S-4.1" is as follows: "S" represents short distance; the first digit "4" represents STM-4 signals; the second digit "1" represents ITU-T G.652 fibers (1310 nm). Explanation for optical port type "L-4.1" is as follows: "L" represents long distance; the first digit "4" represents STM-4 signals; the second digit "1" represents ITU-T G.652 fibers (1310 nm). Explanation for optical port type "L-4.2" is as follows: "L" represents long distance; the first digit "4" represents STM-4 signals; the second digit "2" represents ITU-T G.652 fibers (1550 nm).

Specifications of STM-16 Optical Ports


Table 9-7 lists the specifications of OptiX OSN 550's ST M-16 optical ports. Table 9-7 Specifications of OptiX OSN 550's STM-16 optical ports Item Nominal bit rate Optical port type Transmission distance (km) Operating wavelength range (nm) Optical fiber type Launched optical power range (dBm) Receiver sensitivity (dBm) Minimum overload (dBm) Minimum extinction ratio (dB) Value 2488320 kbit/s S-16.1 2 to 15 1274 to 1356 L-16.1 20 to 40 1280 to 1335 L-16.2 50 to 80 1500 to 1580

Single-mode LC -5 to 0 -18 0 8.2

Single-mode LC -2 to +3 -27 -9 8.2

Single-mode LC -2 to +3 -28 -9 8.2

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Item

Value

NOTE Format of optical port type is defined as follows: transmission distance-signal rate.fiber type Explanation for optical port type "S-16.1" is as follows: "S" represents short distance; the first two digits "16" represent STM-16 signals; the third digit "1" represents ITU-T G.652 fibers (1310 nm). Explanation for optical port type "L-16.1" is as follows: "L" represents long distance; the first two digits "16" represent STM-16 signals; the third digit "1" represents ITU-T G.652 fibers (1310 nm). Explanation for optical port type "L-16.2" is as follows: "L" represents long distance; the first two digits "16" represent STM-16 signals; the third digit "2" represents ITU-T G.652 fibers (1550 nm).

Specifications of FE Optical Ports


Table 9-8 lists the main specifications of FE optical ports of the OptiX OSN 550. Table 9-8 Specifications of FE optical ports of the OptiX OSN 550 Item Optical port type Optical fiber type Transmission distance (km) Operating wavelength (nm) Mean launched power (dBm) Receiver minimum sensitivity (dBm) Minimum overload (dBm) Minimum extinction ratio (dB) Value 100Base-FX Single-mode LC 15 1261 to 1360 -15 to -8 -28 100Base-FX Single-mode LC 40 1263 to 1360 -5 to 0 -34 100Base-FX Single-mode LC 80 1480 to 1580 -5 to 0 -34

-8 8.2

-10 10

-10 10

Specifications of GE Optical Ports


Table 9-9 lists the main specifications of GE optical ports of the OptiX OSN 550.

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Table 9-9 Specifications of OptiX OSN 550's GE optical ports Item Nominal bit rate (Mbit/s) Optical port type Optical fiber type Transmission distance (km) Operating wavelength (nm) Mean launched power (dBm) Receiver minimum sensitivity (dBm) Minimum overload (dBm) Minimum extinction ratio (dB) Value 1000 1000BASE-LX Single-mode LC 10 1270 to 1355 -9 to -3 -20 1000BASE-VX Single-mode LC 40 1270 to 1355 -5 to 0 -23 1000BASE-ZX Single-mode LC 80 1500 to 1580 -2 to +5 -23

-3 9

-3 9

-3 9

With different SFP modules, the equipment provides GE optical ports with different types and transmission distances.

Specifications of 10GE Optical Ports


Table 9-10 lists the main specifications of 10GE optical ports of the OptiX OSN 550. Table 9-10 Specifications of 10GE optical ports of the OptiX OSN 550 Item Optical port type Performance 10GBASE-LR (LAN) 10GBASE-LW (WAN) Single-mode LC 10 1260 to 1330 10GBASE-ER (LAN) 10GBASE-EW (WAN) Single-mode LC 40 1530 to 1565 10GBASE-ZR (LAN) 10GBASE-ZW (WAN) Single-mode LC 80 1530 to 1565

Optical fiber type Transmission distance (km) Operating wavelength (nm)

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Item Mean launched power (dBm) Receiver minimum sensitivity (dBm) Minimum overload (dBm) Minimum extinction ratio (dB)

Performance -6 to -1 -11 -1 to +2 -15 0 to 4 -24

0.5 6

-1 8.2

-7 9

9.6 Electrical Port Specifications


This section describes the equipment's electrical port specifications. The equipment's electrical ports include PDH electrical ports, CES/ATM/IMA service electrical ports, and Ethernet electrical ports.

E1/T1 Electrical Ports


Table 9-11 lists the specifications of OptiX OSN 550's E1/T1 electrical ports. Table 9-11 Specifications of OptiX OSN 550's E1/T1 electrical ports Electrical Port Type Code pattern Waveform at the output port Signal bit rate at the output port Allowed attenuation at the input port Permitted frequency deviation at the input port Input jitter tolerance Anti-interference capability at the input port Reflection attenuation at the input and output ports Output jitter Mapping jitter Complies with ITU-T G.823. Complies with ITU-T G.824. Complies with ITU-T G.823. Complies with ITU-T G.703. Complies with ITU-T G.703. 1544 kbit/s B8ZS code, AMI code 2048 kbit/s HDB3 code

Complies with ITU-T G.703.

Complies with ITU-T G.823 and G.824. Complies with ITU-T G.783.

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Electrical Port Type Combined jitter Jitter transfer function Port type

1544 kbit/s

2048 kbit/s

Anea 96

Complies with ITU-T G.742.

E3/T3 Electrical Ports


Table 9-12 lists the specifications of OptiX OSN 550's E3/T3 electrical ports. Table 9-12 Specifications of OptiX OSN 550's E3/T3 electrical ports Parameter Bit rate Number of ports Code pattern Connector Impedance (ohm) Signal bit rate at the output port Permitted frequency deviation at the input port Allowed attenuation at the input port Input jitter tolerance Complies with ITU-T G.823. Complies with ITU-T G.824. Nominal Value 34368 kbit/s 3xE3/T3 HDB3 SMB 75 Complies with ITU-T G.703. B3ZS SMB 75 44736 kbit/s

CES/ATM/IMA Service Electrical Ports


Table 9-13 lists the specifications of OptiX OSN 550's CES/ATM/IMA service electrical ports. Table 9-13 Specifications of OptiX OSN 550's CES/ATM/IMA service electrical ports Item Standard compliance Nominal bit rate (kbit/s) Code pattern Performance ITU-T G.703/G.823 2048 HDB3

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Item Impedance (ohm) Pair in each direction Port type

Performance 75 One coaxial pair Anea 96 120 One symmetrical pair

Ethernet Electrical Ports


Table 9-14 lists the specifications of OptiX OSN 550's Ethernet electrical ports. Table 9-14 Specifications of OptiX OSN 550's Ethernet electrical ports Service Port GE/FE electrical port GE/FE electrical port GE electrical port Port Rate 10BASE-T 100BASE-TX 1000BASE-T Code Pattern Manchester coding signals MLT-3 coding signal 4D-PAM5 coding signal Port Type RJ-45

9.7 Auxiliary Port Specifications


This section describes the specifications of auxiliary ports including synchronous data ports, asynchronous data ports, orderwire ports, and external clock.

External Clock
Table 9-15 Specifications of external clock ports supported by the OptiX OSN 550 Item External synchronous source Frequency accuracy Pull-in or pull-out range Noise generation Noise toleration Noise transfer Transient response and holdover performance Performance 2048 kbit/s (in compliance with ITU-T G.703) or 2048 kHz (in compliance with ITU-T G.703) Complies with ITU-T G.813

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Item Synchronization clock transfer accuracy

Performance < 50 ppb

Synchronous Data Ports


Table 9-16 Specifications of synchronous data ports supported by the OptiX OSN 550 Item Transmission channel Bit rate (kbit/s) Port type Characteristics of ports Performance Byte F1 in the SDH overhead 64 Codirectional Complies with ITU-T G.703

Asynchronous Data Ports


Table 9-17 Specifications of asynchronous data ports supported by the OptiX OSN 550 Item Transmission channel Bit rate (kbit/s) Characteristics of ports Performance User-defined byte in the SDH overhead 19.2 Complies with RS-232

Orderwire Ports
Table 9-18 Specifications of orderwire ports supported by the OptiX OSN 550 Item Transmission channel Orderwire type Pair in each direction Impedance (ohm) Performance Bytes E1 and E2 in the SDH overhead Addressing call One symmetrical pair 600

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Outdoor cabinet monitoring ports


Table 9-19 Outdoor cabinet monitoring ports supported by the OptiX OSN 550 Item Characteristics of ports Performance Complies with RS-485

9.8 Optical Module Specifications


This section describes the BOMs of optical modules, as well as corresponding information and port types. Table 9-20 provides the specifications for small form-factor pluggable/enhanced small form-factor pluggable (SFP/eSFP) optical modules on the OptiX OSN 550. Table 9-20 SFP/eSFP Optical Modules That the OptiX OSN 550 Supports Part Number 34060473 Name 1.25 Gbit/s eSFP optical module 1.25 Gbit/s eSFP optical module 1.25 Gbit/s eSFP optical module 1.25 Gbit/s single-fiber bidirectional eSFP optical module 1.25 Gbit/s single-fiber bidirectional eSFP optical module 155 Mbit/s eSFP optical module Specification Optical transceiver, eSFP, 1310 nm, 1.25 Gbit/s, -9 dBm, -3 dBm, -20 dBm, LC, SM, 10 km Applicable Board EM6F/PCXLG/PCX GA/PCXGB

34060298

Optical transceiver, eSFP, 1310 EM6F/PCXLG/PCX nm, 1.25 Gbit/s, -5 dBm, 0 dBm, GA/PCXGB -23 dBm, LC, SM, 40 km Optical transceiver, eSFP, 1550 EM6F/PCXLG/PCX nm, 1.25 Gbit/s, -2 dBm, 5 dBm, GA/PCXGB -23 dBm, LC, SM, 80 km Optical transceiver, SFP, Tx 1310 nm/Rx 1490 nm, 1.25 Gbit/s, -9 dBm, -3 dBm, -19.5 dBm, LC, SM, 10 km Optical transceiver, SFP,Tx1490 nm/Rx1310 nm, 1.25 Gbit/s, -3 dBm, -9 dBm, -19.5 dBm, LC, SM,10 km Optical transceiver, eSFP, 1310 nm, STM-1, -15 dBm, -8 dBm, -31 dBm, LC, SM, 15 km Optical transceiver, eSFP, 1310 nm, STM-1, -5 dBm, 0 dBm, -37 dBm, LC, SM, 40 km EM6F/PCXLG/PCX GA/PCXGB

34060360

34060470

34060475

EM6F/PCXLG/PCX GA/PCXGB

34060276

EF8F

34060281

EF8F

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Part Number 34060282

Name

Specification Optical transceiver, eSFP, 1550 nm, STM-1, -5 dBm, 0 dBm, -37 dBm, LC, SM, 80 km Optical transceiver, eSFP(industry), 1310 nm, ST M-1, -15 dBm, -8 dBm, -31 dBm, LC, SM, 15 km Optical transceiver, eSFP(industry), 1310 nm, ST M-1, -5 dBm, 0 dBm, -37 dBm, LC, SM, 40 km Optical transceiver, eSFP(industry), 1550 nm, ST M-1, -5 dBm, 0 dBm, -37 dBm, LC, SM, 80 km Optical transceiver, eSFP, Tx 1310 nm/Rx 1550 nm, ST M-1, -15 dBm, -8 dBm, -32 dBm, LC/PC, SM, 15 km Optical transceiver, eSFP, Tx 1550 nm/Rx 1310 nm, ST M-1, -15 dBm, -8 dBm, -32 dBm, LC/PC, SM, 15 km Optical transceiver, eSFP, Tx 1310 nm/Rx 1550 nm, ST M-1, -5 dBm, 0 dBm, -32 dBm, LC/PC, SM, 40 km Optical transceiver, eSFP, Tx 1550 nm/Rx 1310 nm, ST M-1, -5 dBm, 0 dBm, -32 dBm, LC/PC, SM, 40 km

Applicable Board EF8F

34060307

EF8F

34060308

EF8F

34060309

EF8F

34060363

EF8F

34060364

EF8F

34060328

EF8F

34060329

EF8F

Table 9-21 provides the specifications for 10-Gigabit small form-factor pluggable transceiver (XFP) optical modules on the OptiX OSN 550. Table 9-21 XFP Optical Modules That the OptiX OSN 550 Supports Part Number 34060313 Name Specification Applicable Board PCXLX/PCXX

9.95 Gbit/s to Optical transceiver, XFP, 1310 10.71 Gbit/s XFP nm, 9.95 Gbit/s to 10.71 optical module Gbit/s, -6 dBm, -1 dBm, -14.4 dBm, LC, SM, 10 km

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Part Number 34060322

Name 9.95 Gbit/s to 11.1 Gbit/s XFP optical module 9.95 Gbit/s to 11.1 Gbit/s XFP optical module

Specification Optical transceiver, XFP, 1550 nm, 9.95 Gbit/s to 11.1 Gbit/s, -1 dBm, 2 dBm, -15 dBm, LC, SM, 40 km Optical transceiver, XFP, 1550 nm, 9.95 Gbit/s to 11.1 Gbit/s, 0 dBm, 4 dBm, -24 dBm, LC, SM, 80 km

Applicable Board PCXLX/PCXX

34060361

PCXLX/PCXX

9.9 Indicator Status Explanation


This section describes the definitions of indicators supported by the OptiX OSN 550.
There is no indicator on the OptiX OSN 550 chassis.

Table 9-22 lists the definitions of indicators supported by the boards on the OptiX OSN 550. Table 9-22 Definitions of indicators supported by the boards on the OptiX OSN 550 Indicator ST AT State On (green) On (red) Off Meaning The board is working properly. The board hardware is faulty. The board is not working or created. There is no power supplied to the system. When the board is being powered on or reset, the software is being loaded. When the board is being powered on or reset, the board software is in BIOS boot state. Applicable Board PCX (PCXLX/PCXX/PC XLG/PCXGA/PCX GB)/MD1/EM6T/E M6F/EF8F/SL1D/S L4D/SL1Q/SP3D/P L3T/AUX PCX (PCXLX/PCXX/PC XLG/PCXGA/PCX GB)/EM6T/EM6F

PROG

Blinks on (green) and off at 100 ms intervals Blinks on (green) and off at 300 ms intervals

Blinks on (red) and When the board is being off at 100 ms powered on or reset, the intervals BOOT ROM self-check fails. On (green) The upper layer software is being initialized.

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Indicator

State On (red)

Meaning When the board is being powered or reset, the memory self-check fails or loading upper layer software fails. When the board is running, the logic file or upper layer software is lost. The pluggable storage card is faulty. The software is running normally. The clock is normal. The clock source is lost or is switched. The system/service is working properly. A critical or major alarm occurs in the system/services. A minor or remote alarm occurs in the system/services. For the PCX board, there is no power supplied to the system. The board is standby under 1+1 protection. For the service board, no service is configured.

Applicable Board

Off SYNC On (green) On (red) SRV On (green) On (red) On (yellow) Off

PCX (PCXLX/PCXX/PC XLG/PCXGA/PCX GB) PCX (PCXLX/PCXX/PC XLG/PCXGA/PCX GB)/MD1/EM6T/E M6F/EF8F/SL1D/S L4D/SP3D/AUX

ACT

On (green)

The board is active under 1+1 protection. The board is already activated under no protection. The board is standby under 1+1 protection. The board is not activated under no protection. The GE port is connected correctly, and is not receiving or transmitting data. The GE port is receiving or transmitting data.

PCX (PCXLX/PCXX/PC XLG/PCXGA/PCX GB)

Off

LINK1/LIN K2

On (green)

EM6F

Blinking (yellow)

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Indicator

State Off

Meaning The GE port is connected correctly or is abnormal. The optical port on the board reports the R_LOS alarm. The optical port on the board receives too strong power. The optical port on the board receives too weak power. The optical port on the board reports the MS_RDI alarm. The optical port on the board is not reporting the R_LOS alarm. The port is physically connected (link up) but is not receiving or transmitting data The port on the board receives too strong power.

Applicable Board

LOS/LOS1/ LOS2

On (red) Blinking (red) three times every second Blinking (red) one time every second Blinking (red) three times every second Off

PCX (PCXLX/PCXLG)/S L1D/SL4D

L/A

On (green)

Blinking (red) three times every second, 300 ms on and 300 ms off Blinking (red) three times every second, 300 ms on and 700 ms off Blinking (orange)

PCX (PCXLX/PCXX/PC XLG/PCXGA/PCX GB)/EF8F

The port on the board receives too weak power.

The port is normal (link up) and is receiving and transmitting data. The optical fiber is disconnected from the port or the port is abnormal (link down/LOS). Power is being supplied. Power is off or power supplies are connected incorrectly. The fan board is working properly. The fan board is faulty. The fan board is not powered on or is not installed. FAN PIU

Off

PWR

On (green) Off

FAN

On (green) On (red) Off

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Indicator CRIT /MAJ/ MIN

State On (red)

Meaning The NE has critical/major/minor alarms.

Applicable Board FAN

9.10 Safety Certification


The OptiX OSN 550 has passed many safety certifications. Table 9-23 lists the safety certifications that the OptiX OSN 550 has passed. Table 9-23 Safety certifications that the OptiX OSN 550 has passed Item Electromagnetic compatibility Standard CE certification ET SI EN 301 489-1 ET SI EN 301 489-4 CISPR 22 EN 55022 Surge protection Safety ITU-T K.27 ET SI EN 300 253 CE certification ET SI EN 60215 ET SI EN 60950 IEC 60825 GB 4943 Environmental protection RoHS

9.11 Environmental Specifications


The OptiX OSN 550 requires proper environment for storage, transportation, and operation. 9.11.1 Storage Environment This section provides the requirements on the storage environment for the OptiX OSN 550. 9.11.2 Transportation Environment This section provides the requirements on the transportation environment for the OptiX OSN 550. 9.11.3 Operation Environment

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This section provides the requirements on the operation environment for the OptiX OSN 550.

9.11.1 Storage Environment


This section provides the requirements on the storage environment for the OptiX OSN 550.

Climate
Table 9-24 lists the climate requirements for the storage environment. Table 9-24 Climate requirements for the storage environment Item Altitude Atmospheric pressure Temperature Temperature change rate Relative humidity Solar radiation Heat radiation Wind speed Range 4000 m 70-106 kPa -40C to +70C 1C/min 5% to 100% 1120 W/s2 600 W/s2 30 m/s

Waterproofing Requirements
Requirements for storing equipment on site: Generally, the equipment must be stored indoors. No water should remain on the floor or leak into the equipment crate. The equipment should be placed away from areas where water leakage is possible (for example, do not place near automatic fire-fighting extinguishing and heating systems. Ensure all the following four conditions if the equipment is stored outdoors: The crate is intact. Proper rain-proofing measures are taken to prevent water from entering the crate. No water is on the ground where the crate is placed and water is not seeped into the crate. The carton is not exposed to direct sunlight.

Biological Environment
Avoid multiplication of microbes (such as eumycete and mycete). Control and exclude rodents (such as mice).

Air Cleanliness
The air must be free from explosive, electric-conductive, magnetic-conductive or corrosive dust.
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Table 9-25 lists the density limitations for mechanically active substances during storage. Table 9-25 Density requirements for mechanical active substances during storage Mechanical Active Substance Suspended dust Precipitable dust Sand particles Content 5.00 mg/m3 20.0 mg/m h 300 mg/m 3

Table 9-26 lists the density requirements for chemically active substances. Table 9-26 Density requirements for chemically active substances during storage Chemically Active Substance SO2 H2 S NO2 NH3 CL2 HCL HF O3 Content 0.30 mg/m3 0.10 mg/m3 0.50 mg/m3 1.00 mg/m3 0.10 mg/m3 0.10 mg/m3 0.01 mg/m3 0.05 mg/m3

Mechanical Stress
Table 9-27 lists the limitations for mechanical stress during storage. Table 9-27 Limitations for mechanical stress during storage Item Sinusoidal vibration Sub-Item Displacement Acceleration Frequency range Static load Static pressure Range 1.5 mm 5 m/s2 2-9 Hz 9-200 Hz

Static pressure = Product weight x (Maximum number of stacked layers that is specified on the product package - 1) x 5 x 9.8 (N)

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Item

Sub-Item

Range

NOTE Static load is the pressure from the upside that the packaged equipment can tolerate when equipment is stacked in the specified manner.

9.11.2 Transportation Environment


This section provides the requirements on the transportation environment for the OptiX OSN 550.

Climate
Table 9-28 lists the climate requirements for the transportation environment. Table 9-28 Climate requirements for the transportation environment Item Altitude Aire pressure Temperature Temperature change rate Relative humidity Solar radiation Heat radiation Wind speed Range 4000 m 70-106 kPa -40C to +70C 1C/min 5% to 100% 1120 W/s2 600 W/s2 30 m/s

Waterproofing Requirement
Ensure the following conditions are met when transporting the equipment: The crate is intact. Proper rain-proofing measures are taken on the vehicle to prevent water from entering the crate. No water is present in the vehicle.

Biological Environment
Avoid multiplication of microbes (such as eumycete and mycete). Keep rodents such as mice away.

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Air Cleanliness
The air must be free from explosive, electric-conductive, magnetic-conductive or corrosive dust. Table 9-29 lists the density limitations for mechanically active substances during transportation. Table 9-29 Density limitations for mechanically active substances during transportation Mechanically Active Substance Suspended dust Precipitable dust Sand particles Content No requirement 3.0 mg/m2 h 100 mg/m 3

Table 9-30 lists the density limitations for chemically active substances. Table 9-30 Density limitations for chemically active substances Chemically Active Substance SO2 H2 S NOx NH3 CL2 HCL HF O3 Content 1.00 mg/m3 0.50 mg/m3 1.00 mg/m3 3.00 mg/m3 0.50 mg/m3 0.03 mg/m3 0.10 mg/m3

Mechanical Stress
Table 9-31 lists the mechanical stress requirements for the transportation environment. Table 9-31 Mechanical stress requirements for the transportation environment Item Random vibration Sub-Item Acceleration spectral density Frequency range Range 1 m 2/s3 5-20 Hz -3 dBA 20-200 Hz

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Item Impact

Sub-Item Response spectrum I (weight of sample > 50 kg) Response spectrum II (weight of sample 50 kg)

Range 100 m/s2 , 11 ms, 100 times for each panel

180 m/s2 , 6 ms, 100 times for each panel

Drop

Weight (kg) < 10 < 15 < 20 < 30 < 40 < 50 < 100 > 100

Height (m) 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.1 Static pressure = Product weight x (Maximum number of stacked layers that is specified on the product package - 1) x 5 x 9.8 (N)

Static load

Static pressure

NOTE Impact response spectrum: maxi mum acceleration response curve that the equipment generates when struck with the stipulated impact. Static load is the pressure from the upside that the packaged equipment can tolerate when equipment is stacked in the specified manner.

9.11.3 Operation Environment


This section provides the requirements on the operation environment for the OptiX OSN 550.

Climate
Table 9-32 and Table 9-33 list the climate requirements for the operation environment of the OptiX OSN 550. Table 9-32 Requirements for temperature and humidity Working Temperature Long-term operating temperature: -5C to +55C Extended operating temperature: -5C to +65C Relative Humidity 5% to 95%

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Working Temperature

Relative Humidity

NOTE The temperature and humidity values are tested at 1.5 m above the floor and 0.4 m in front of the equipment. Extended operating indicates that the successive operating time of the equipment does not exceed 4 hours, and the accumulated operating time per year does not exceed 90 days.

Table 9-33 Other climate requirements Item Altitude Air pressure Temperature change rate Solar radiation Heat radiation Wind speed Range 4000 m 70-106 kPa 30C/h 700 W/s2 600 W/s2 5 m/s

Biological Environment
Avoid multiplication of microbes (such as eumycete and mycete). Keep rodents such as mice away.

Air Cleanliness
The air must be free from explosive, electric-conductive, magnetic-conductive or corrosive dust. Table 9-34 lists the density limitations for mechanically active substances during operation. Table 9-34 Density limitations for mechanically active substances during operation Mechanically Active Substance Dust particle Suspended dust Precipitable dust Sand particles Content 3x10 5 /m3 0.2 mg/m3 1.5 mg/m .h 20 mg/m 3

Table 9-35 lists the density limitations for chemically active substances.

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Table 9-35 Density limitations for chemically active substances Chemically Active Substance SO2 H2 S NH3 CL2 HCL HF O3 NOx Content 0.30 mg/m3 0.10 mg/m3 1.00 mg/m3 0.10 mg/m3 0.10 mg/m3 0.01 mg/m3 0.05 mg/m3 0.50 mg/m3

Mechanical Stress
Table 9-36 lists the limitations for mechanical stress during operation. Table 9-36 Limitations for mechanical stress during operation Item Sinusoidal vibration Sub-Item Velocity Acceleration Frequency range Non-steady impact Impact response spectrum Range 5 mm/s 5-62 Hz 2 m/s 62-200 Hz

Half-sine wave, 30 m/s2 , 11 ms, three times for each panel

NOTE Impact response spectrum: maxi mum acceleration response curve that the equipment generates when struck with the stipulated impact.

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10
Energy Conservation

Energy Saving and Environmental Protection

The OptiX 550 complies with RoHS directive (2002/96/CE) and WEEE directive (2002/95/CE)

The OptiX OSN 550 adopts a variety of technologies to reduce equipment energy. Uses an easy scheme for board design. Replaces ordinary chips with ASIC chips that require low power consumption. Uses highly efficient power modules.

Environmental Protection
The is designed according to the requirements of environmental protection. The product complies with RoHS directive. The equipment is amply packaged while materials as conserved. The size of the package containing the equipment and accessories is at most three times the size of the net equipment. The product is also designed for easy unpacking. All hazardous substances contained in the packaging decompose easily. Every plastic component that weighs over 25 g is labeled according to the standards of ISO 11469 and ISO 1043-1 to ISO 1043-4. All components and packages of the equipment are provided with standard labels for recycling. Plugs and connectors are easy to find, and the associated operations can be performed by using simple tools. All the attached materials, such as labels, are easy to remove. Certain types of identifying information, such as silkscreens, are printed on the front panel or subrack.

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11.1 ITU-T Recommendations
Table 11-1 ITU-T recommendations Recommendation ITU-T G.664 ITU-T G.702 ITU-T G.703 ITU-T G.704 ITU-T G.706 ITU-T G.707 ITU-T G.773 ITU-T G.774 ITU-T G.774.1 ITU-T G.774.2 ITU-T G.774.3 ITU-T G.774.4 Description

Standard Compliance

This section provides the ITU-T Recommendations that the OptiX OSN 550 complies with.

Optical safety procedures and requirements for optical transport systems Digital hierarchy bit rates Physical/electrical characteristics of hierarchical digital interfaces Synchronous frame structures used at 1544, 6312, 2048, 8448 and 44,736 kbit/s hierarchical levels Frame alignment and cyclic redundancy check(CRC) procedures relating to basic frame structures defined in Recommendation G.704 Network node interface for the synchronous digital hierarchy(SDH) Protocol suites for Q-interfaces for management of transmission systems Synchronous digital hierarchy(SDH) management information model for the network element view Synchronous Digital Hierarchy(SDH) performance monitoring for the network element view Synchronous digital hierarchy(SDH) configuration of the payload structure for the network element view Synchronous digital hierarchy(SDH) management of multiplex-section protection for the network element view Synchronous digital hierarchy(SDH) management of the sub-network connection protection for the network element view

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Recommendation ITU-T G.774.5 ITU-T G.774.6 ITU-T G.774.7 ITU-T G.774.9 ITU-T G.774.10 ITU-T G.775

Description Synchronous digital hierarchy(SDH) management of connection supervision functionality(HCS/LCS) for the network element view Synchronous digital hierarchy(SDH) unidirectional performance monitoring for the network element view Synchronous digital hierarchy(SDH) management of lower order path trace and interface labeling for the network element view Synchronous digital hierarchy(SDH) configuration of linear multiplex section protection for the network element view Synchronous digital hierarchy(SDH) configuration of linear multiplex section protection for the network element view Loss of Signal(LOS), Alarm Indication Signal(AIS) and Remote Defect Indication(RDI) defect detection and clearance criteria for PDH signals Common equipment management function requirements Vocabulary of terms for synchronous digital hierarchy(SDH) networks and equipment Synchronization layer functions Characteristics of synchronous digital hierarchy(SDH) equipment functional blocks Synchronous digital hierarchy(SDH) management Architecture of transport networks based on the synchronous digital hierarchy(SDH) Generic functional architecture of transport networks Characteristics of transport equipment - Description methodology and generic functionality Generic protection switching - Linear trail and sub-network protection Definitions and terminology for synchronization networks Timing characteristics of primary reference clocks Timing requirements of slave clocks suitable for use as node clocks in synchronization networks Timing characteristics of SDH equipment slave clocks(SEC) Error performance of an international digital connection operating at a bit rate below the primary rate and forming part of an integrated services digital network Controlled slip rate objectives on an international digital connection

ITU-T G.7710 ITU-T G.780 ITU-T G.781 ITU-T G.783 ITU-T G.784 ITU-T G.803 ITU-T G.805 ITU-T G.806 ITU-T G.808.1 ITU-T G.810 ITU-T G.811 ITU-T G.812 ITU-T G.813 ITU-T G.821

ITU-T G.822

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Recommendation ITU-T G.823 ITU-T G.825 ITU-T G.826 ITU-T G.828 ITU-T G.829 ITU-T G.831 ITU-T G.832 ITU-T G.841 ITU-T G.842 ITU-T G.957 ITU-T G.958 ITU-T G.7043/Y.1343 ITU-T G.8010 ITU-T G.8011 ITU-T G.8011.1 ITU-T G.8011.2 ITU-T G.8012 ITU-T G.8021 ITU-T G.8110 ITU-T G.8110.1 ITU-T G.8121 ITU-T G.8112 ITU-T G.8131

Description The control of jitter and wander within digital networks which are based on the 2048 kbit/s hierarchy The control of jitter and wander within digital networks which are based on the synchronous digital hierarchy(SDH) Error performance parameters and objectives for international, constant bit rate digital paths at or above the primary rate Error performance parameters and objectives for international, constant bit rate synchronous digital paths Error performance events for SDH multiplex and regenerator sections Management capabilities of transport networks based on the synchronous digital hierarchy(SDH) Transport of SDH elements on PDH networks - Frame and multiplexing structures Types and characteristics of SDH network protection architectures Inter-working of SDH network protection architectures Optical interfaces for equipments and systems relating to the synchronous digital hierarchy Digital line systems based on the synchronous digital hierarchy for use on optical fiber cables Virtual concatenation of Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) signals Architecture of Ethernet layer networks Ethernet over Transport - Ethernet services framework Ethernet private line service Ethernet virtual private line service Ethernet UNI and Ethernet over transport NNI Characteristics of Ethernet transport network equipment functional blocks MPLS layer network architecture Application of MPLS in the transport network Characteristics of transport MPLS equipment functional blocks Interfaces for the transport MPLS (T-MPLS) hierarchy Protection switching for transport MPLS (T-MPLS) networks

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Recommendation ITU-T G.8261 ITU-T G.8262 ITU-T G.8264 ITU-T Y.1541 ITU-T Y.1710 ITU-T Y.1730 ITU-T Y.1711 ITU-T Y.1720 ITU-T I.610 ITU-T Y.1291

Description Timing and synchronization aspects in packet networks Timing characteristics of synchronous Ethernet equipment slave clock (EEC) Timing distribution through packet networks Network performance objectives for IP-based services Requirements for OAM functionality for MPLS networks Requirements for OAM functions in Ethernet based networks and Ethernet services Operation & Maintenance mechanism for MPLS networks Protection switching for MPLS networks B-ISDN operation and maintenance principles and functions An architectural framework for support of quality of service (QoS) in packet networks

11.2 IETF Standards


This section provides the IETF standards that the OptiX OSN 550 complies with. Table 11-2 IETF standards Standard RFC 2819 draft-ietf-l2vpn-oam -req-frmk-05 RFC 4664 RFC 3031 RFC 3469 RFC 3811 RFC 3813 RFC 3814 Description Remote Network Monitoring Management Information Base L2VPN OAM requirements and framework Framework for layer 2 virtual private networks (L2VPNs) MPLS architecture Framework for multi-protocol label switching (MPLS)-based recovery Definitions of textual conventions for multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) management Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) label switching router (LSR) management information base Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) forwarding equivalence class to next hop label forwarding entry (FEC-To-NHLFE) management information base

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Standard RFC 4221 RFC 4377 RFC 4378 RFC 3032 RFC 3443 RFC 3916 RFC 3985 RFC 4197 RFC 4385 RFC 4446 RFC 0826 RFC 3270 RFC 4448 RFC 4553 RFC 5085 RFC 5086 RFC 4717 RFC 4816 RFC 4385 RFC 5254 draft-ietf-pwe3-seg mented-pw-03

Description Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) management overview Operations and management (OAM) requirements for multi-protocol label switched (MPLS) networks A framework for multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) operations and management (OAM) MPLS label stack encoding Time to live (TTL) processing in multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) networks Requirements for pseudo-wire emulation edge-to-edge (PWE3) Pseudo wire emulation edge-to-edge (PWE3) architecture Requirements for edge-to-edge emulation of time division multiplexed (TDM) circuits over packet switching networks Pseudowire emulation edge-to-edge (PWE3) control word for use over an MPLS PSN IANA allocations for pseudowire edge to edge emulation (PWE3) Ethernet address resolution protocol Multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) support of differentiated services Encapsulation methods for transport of Ethernet over MPLS networks Structure-agnostic time division multiplexing (TDM) over packet (SAT oP) Pseudo wire virtual circuit connectivity verification (VCCV) Structure-Aware Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) Circuit Emulation Service over Packet Switched Network (CESoPSN) Encapsulation Methods for Transport of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) over MPLS Networks Pseudowire Emulation Edge-to-Edge (PWE3) Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Transparent Cell Transport Service Pseudowire emulation edge-to-edge (PWE3) control word for use over an MPLS PSN Requirements for Multi-Segment Pseudowire Emulation Edge-to-Edge (PWE3) Segmented pseudo wire

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Standard

Description

draft-ietf-pwe3-ms-p Requirements for inter domain pseudo-wires w-requirements-03 draft-ietf-pwe3-ms-p An architecture for multi-segment pseudo wire emulation w-arch-02 edge-to-edge RFC 3644 RFC 2212 RFC 2474 RFC 2475 RFC 2597 RFC 2698 RFC 3246 RFC 3270 Policy quality of service (QoS) Information model Specification of guaranteed quality of service Definition of the differentiated services field (DS Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6 headers An architecture for differentiated services Assured forwarding PHB group A two rate three color marker An expedited forwarding PHB (Per-hop behavior) Multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) support of differentiated services

11.3 IEEE Standards


This section provides the IEEE standards that the OptiX OSN 550 complies with. Table 11-3 IEEE standards Standard IEEE 802.1D IEEE 802.1Q IEEE 802.1ad IEEE 802.3ah Description Media Access Control (MAC) Bridges Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks Amendment 4: Provider Bridges Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications Amendment: Media Access Control Parameters, Physical Layers, and Management Parameters for Subscriber Access Networks Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks - Amendment 5: Connectivity Fault Management Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specifications Type 100BASE-T MAC parameters, Physical Layer, MAUs, and Repeater for 100 Mb/s Operation

IEEE 802.1ag IEEE 802.3 IEEE 802.3u

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Standard IEEE 802.3x

Description Full Duplex Operation and Type 100BASE-T2

11.4 Environment Related Standards


This section provides the environment related standards that the OptiX OSN 550 complies with. Table 11-4 Environment related standards Standard CISPR 22 EN 60950-1 UL 1950-1 IEC 60825-1 IEC 60825-2 IEC 60950-1 IEC 61000-4-2 Description Limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance characteristics of information Information technology equipment-Safety-Part 1:General requirements Information technology equipment-Safety-Part 1:General requirements Safety of laser products-Part 1:Equipment classification, requirements and user's guide Safety of laser products-Part 2:Safety of optical fiber communication systems(OFCS) Information technology equipment-Safety-Part 1:General requirements Electromagnetic compatibility(EMC) Part 2:Testing and measurement techniques Section 2:Electrostatic discharge immunity test Basic EMC Publication Electromagnetic compatibility; Part 3:Testing and measurement techniques Section 3 radio frequency electromagnetic fields; immunity test. Electromagnetic compatibility(EMC) Part 4:Testing and measurement techniques Section 4:Electrical fast transient/burst immunity test Basic EMC publication Electromagnetic compatibility(EMC) Part 5:Testing and measurement techniques Section 5:Sruge immunity test Electromagnetic compatibility: Part 6:Testing and measurement techniques: Section 6 conducted disturbances induced by radio-frequency fields; immunity test Environmental conditions and environmental tests for telecommunications equipment; Equipment Engineering (EE);Acoustic noise emitted by telecommunications equipment

IEC 61000-4-3

IEC 61000-4-4

IEC 61000-4-5 IEC 61000-4-6

ET SI EN 300 019-1-3 ET S 300 753

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Standard IEC 60825 IEC 60297

Description Safety of laser products Dimensions of mechanical structures of the 482.6 mm (19 in) series

11.5 MEF Standards


This section provides the MEF standards that the OptiX OSN 550 complies with. Table 11-5 MEF standards Standard MEF 2 MEF 4 MEF 9 MEF 10 MEF 14 Description Requirements and framework for Ethernet service protection in metro Ethernet networks Metro Ethernet network architecture framework - Part 1: generic framework Abstract Test Suite for Ethernet Services at the UNI Ethernet services attributes phase 1 Abstract Test Suite for Traffic Management Phase 1

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A Glossary and Acronyms

A
A.1 A.2 A.3 A.4 A.5 Numerics A B C D A.6 E A.7 A.8 A.9 F G H

Glossary and Acronyms

Terms and abbreviations are listed in an alphabetical order.

A.10 I A.11 J

A.12 L A.13 M A.14 N A.15 O A.16 P A.17 Q A.18 R A.19 S A.20 T A.21 U A.22 V A.23 W

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A.1 Numerics
1+1 prote ction An architecture that has one normal traffic signal, one working SNC/trail, one protection SNC/trail and a permanent bridge. At the source end, the normal traffic signal is permanently bridged to both the working and protection SNC/trail. At the sink end, the normal traffic signal is selected from the better of the two SNCs/trails. Due to the permanent bridging, the 1+1 architecture does not allow an extra unprotected traffic signal to be provided. IEEE 802.3 Physical Layer specification for a 100 Mb/s CSMA/CD local area network. IEEE 802.3 Physical Layer specification for a 100 Mb/s CSMA/CD local area network over two pairs of Category 5 unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) or shielded twisted-pair (STP) wire. An Ethernet specification that uses the twisted pair cable with the transmission speed as 10 Mbit/s and the transmission distance as 100 meters. An architecture that has N normal service signals, N working SNCs/trails, and one protection SNC/trail. It may have one extra service signal. Pulse per second, which, strictly speaking, is not a time synchronization signal. This is because 1PPS provides only the "gauge" corresponding to the UTC second, but does not provide the information about the day, month, or year. Therefore, 1PPS is used as the reference for frequency synchronization. On certain occasions, 1PPS can also be used on other interfaces for high precision timing. Reshaping, Retiming, Regenerating.

100BASE-T 100BASE-TX

10BASE-T

1:N prote ction

1PPS

3R

A.2 A
ABR AC ACAP Available Bit Rate Alternating Current A channel configuration method, which uses two adjacent channels (a horizontal polarization wave and a vertical polarization wave) to transmit two signals. The process in which the standby cross-connect board automatically takes the place of the active one. If there are two cross-connect boards on the SDH equipment, which are in hot back-up relation of each other, the operation reliability is improved. When both the cross-connect boards are in position, the one inserted first is in the working status. Unplug the active board, the standby one will run in the working status automatically. When the active cross-connect board fails in self-test, the board is pulled out, the board power supply fails or the board hardware operation fails, the standby cross-connect board can automatically take the place of the active one.

Active/Standby switching of cross-connect board

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add/drop multiplexer

Network elements that provide access to all or some subset of the constituent signals contained within an ST M-N signal. The constituent signals are added to (inserted), and/or dropped from (extracted) the STM-N signal as it passed through the ADM. See add/drop multiplexer The information structure which provides adaptation between the higher order path layer and the multiplex section layer. It consists of an information payload (the higher order VC) and a AU pointer which indicates the offset of the payload frame start relative to the multiplex section frame start. One or more administrative units occupying fixed, defined positions in an STM payload. An AUG consists of AU-4s. A user who has authority to access all the Management Domains of the product. He or she has access to the whole network and to all the management functionalities. The time to live before an object becomes invalid. Alarm Indication Signal A message reported when a fault is detected by a device or by the network management system during the process of polling devices. Each alarm corresponds to a recovery alarm. After a recovery alarm is received, the status of the corresponding alarm changes to cleared. A function wherein an alarm generated on the device side is immediately and automatically reported to the NMS. After an alarm is reported, an alarm panel prompts, and the user can view the details of the alarm. The cable for generation of visual or audio alarms. An alarm management method. Alarms are detected and reported to the NMS system, and whether the alarm information is displayed and saved is decided by the alarm filtering status. An alarm with the filtering status set to "Filter" is not displayed and saved on the NMS, but is monitored on the NE. A function that indicates the alarm status of an NE. On the cabinet of an NE, there are four indicators in different colors indicating the current alarm status of the NE. When the green indicator is on, the NE is powered on. When the red indicator is on, a critical alarm is generated. When the orange indicator is on, a major alarm is generated. When the yellow indicator is on, a minor alarm is generated. The ALM alarm indicator on the front panel of a board indicates the current status of the board. A code sent downstream in a digital network as an indication that an upstream failure has been detected and alarmed. It is associated with multiple transport layers.

ADM Administrative Unit

Administrative Unit Group Administrator

Aging time AIS Alarm

Alarm automatic re port

alarm cable alarm filte ring

alarm indication

Alarm indication signal

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Alarm inversion

For the port that has already been configured but has no service, this function can be used to avoid generating relevant alarm information, thus preventing alarm interference. The alarm report condition of the NE port is related to the alarm inverse mode (not inverse, automatic recovery and manual recovery) setting of the NE and the alarm inversion status (Enable and Disable) setting of the port. When the alarm inversion mode of NE is set to no inversion, alarms of the port will be reported as usual no matter whatever the inversion status of the port is. When the alarm inversion mode of the NE is set to automatic recovery, and the alarm inversion state of the port is set to Enabled, then the alarm of the port will be suppressed. The alarm inversion status of the port will automatically recover to "not inverse" after the alarm ends. For the port that has already been configured but not actually loaded with services, this function can be used to avoid generating relevant alarm information, thus preventing alarm interference. When the alarm inverse mode of the NE is set as "not automatic recovery", if the alarm inversion status of the port is set as Enable, the alarm of the port will be reported. An alarm management method. Alarms that are set to be masked are not displayed on the NMS or the NMS does not monitor unimportant alarms. The significance of a change in system performance or events. According to ITU-T recommendations, an alarm can have one of the following severities: Critical, Major, Minor, Warning. An alarm management method. Alarms that are set to be suppressed are not reported from NEs any more. See Automatic laser shutdown See Automatic Protection Switching Pertaining to, being, or characteristic of something that is not dependent on timing. A protocol for the transmission of a variety of digital signals using uniform 53 byte cells. A transfer mode in which the information is organized into cells; it is asynchronous in the sense that the recurrence of cells depends on the required or instantaneous bit rate. Statistical and deterministic values may also be used to qualify the transfer mode. See Asynchronous Transfer Mode See Automatic Transmit Power Control Reduction of signal magnitude or signal loss, usually expressed in decibels. See Administrative Unit See Administrative Unit Group An optional function of the IEEE 802.3u Fast Ethernet standard that enables devices to automatically exchange information over a link about speed and duplex abilities..

Alarm Masking

Alarm Se verity

Alarm suppression ALS APS asynchronous Asynchronous Transfe r Mode

ATM ATPC attenuation AU AUG auto-negotiation

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Automatic laser shutdown Automatic Protection Switching Automatic Transmit Power Control

A technique (procedure) to automatically shutdown the output power of laser transmitters and optical amplifiers to avoid exposure to hazardous levels. Capability of a transmission system to detect a failure on a working facility and to switch to a standby facility to recover the traffic. A method of adjusting the transmit power based on fading of the transmit signal detected at the receiver.

A.3 B
backplane An electronic circuit board containing circuits and sockets into which additional electronic devices on other circuit boards or cards can be plugged. A periodic operation performed on the data stored in the database for the purposes of database recovery in case that the database is faulty. The backup also refers to data synchronization between active and standby boards. A range of transmission frequencies that a transmission line or channel can carry in a network. In fact, it is the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies the transmission line or channel. The greater the bandwidth, the faster the data transfer rate. Backward Defect Indicator See Bit Error Rate Used to measure the bit error rate (BER) of signals during transmission. The binding strap is 12.7 mm wide, with one hook side (made of transparent polypropylene material) and one mat side (made of black nylon material). A method of error monitoring. With even parity an X-bit code is generated by equipment at the transmit end over a specified portion of the signal in such a manner that the first bit of the code provides even parity over the first bit of all X-bit sequences in the covered portion of the signal, the second bit provides even parity over the second bit of all X-bit sequences within the specified portion, and so on. Even parity is generated by setting the BIP-X bits so that there is an even number of 1s in each monitored partition of the signal. A monitored partition comprises all bits which are in the same bit position within the X-bit sequences in the covered portion of the signal. The covered portion includes the BIP-X. An incompatibility between a bit in a transmitted digital signal and the corresponding bit in the received digital signal. Ratio of received bits that contain errors. BER is an important index used to measure the communications quality of a network. See Building Integrated T iming Supply

backup

bandwidth

BDI BER BER tester Binding strap

BIP

Bit error Bit Error Rate BITS

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bound path BPDU BPS bridge

A parallel path with several serial paths bundled together. It improves the data throughput capacity. See Bridge Protocol Data Unit Board Protection Switching A device that connects two or more networks and forwards packets among them. Bridges operate at the physical network level. Bridges differs from repeaters because bridges store and forward complete packets, while repeaters forward all electrical signals. Bridges differ from routers because bridges use physical addresses, while routers use IP addresses. The data messages that are exchanged across the switches within an extended LAN that uses a spanning tree protocol (STP) topology. BPDU packets contain information on ports, addresses, priorities and costs and ensure that the data ends up where it was intended to go. BPDU messages are exchanged across bridges to detect loops in a network topology. The loops are then removed by shutting down selected bridges interfaces and placing redundant switch ports in a backup, or blocked, state. The process of sending packets from a source to multiple destinations. All the ports of the nodes in the network can receive packets. A means of delivering information to all members in a network. The broadcast range is determined by the broadcast address. Base Station Controller Base Station Subsystem A function which integrates some simple WDM systems into products that belong to the OSN series. That is, the OSN products can add or drop several wavelengths directly. In the situation of multiple synchronous nodes or communication devices, one can use a device to set up a clock system on the hinge of telecom network to connect the synchronous network as a whole, and provide satisfactory synchronous base signals to the building integrated device. This device is called BIT S. Backbone WDM System

Bridge Protocol Data Unit

broadcast Broadcast BSC BSS Build-in WDM

Building Integrated Timing Supply

BWS

A.4 C
cabling cable trough captive nut CAR CAS CBR The method by which a group of insulated conductors is mechanically assembled or twisted together. The trough which is used for cable routing in the cabinet. See Floating nut See committed access rate Channel Associated Signaling See Constant Bit Rate

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CBS CCDP CCM CDR CDVT Cell Delay Variation Tolerance Centralized alarm system CE S CFM Chain network channel

Committed Burst Size Co-Channel Dual Polarization Continuity Check Message Clock and Data Recovery See Cell Delay Variation Tolerance This parameter measures the tolerance level a network interface has to aggressive sending (back-to-back or very closely spaced cells) by a connected device, and does not apply to end-systems. The system that gathers all the information about alarms into a certain terminal console. See circuit emulation service Connectivity Fault Management One type of network that all network nodes are connected one after one to be in series. A telecommunication path of a specific capacity and/or at a specific speed between two or more locations in a network. Channels can be established through wire, radio (microwave), fiber or a combination of the three. The amount of information transmitted per second in a channel is the information transmission speed, expressed in bits per second. For example, b/s, kb/s, Mb/s, Gb/s, and T b/s. Committed Information Rate A combination of two transmission channels permitting transmission in both directions between two points. A function with which the E1/T1 data can be transmitted through ATM networks. At the transmission end, the interface module packs timeslot data into ATM cells. These ATM cells are sent to the reception end through the ATM network. At the reception end, the interface module re-assigns the data in these ATM cells to E1/T1 timeslots. The CES technology guarantees that the data in E1/T1 timeslots can be recovered to the original sequence at the reception end. Common and Internal Spanning Tree CoS is a rule for queuing. It classifies the packets according to the service type field or the tag in packets, and specifies different priorities for them. All the nodes in DiffServ domain forwards the packets according to their priorities. A device that sends requests, receives responses, and obtains services from the server. Also called frequency synchronization. The signal frequency traces the reference frequency, but the start point does not need to be consistent. The method to keep the time on each node being synchronized with a clock source in a network.

CIR Circuit circuit emulation service

CIST Class of Service

client Clock Synchronization Clock tracing

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CLP CM committe d access rate

Cell Loss Priority See Configuration Management A traffic control method that uses a set of rate limits to be applied to a router interface. CAR is a configurable method by which incoming and outgoing packets can be classified into Quality of Service (QoS) groups, and by which the input or output transmission rate can be defined. A process that combines multiple virtual containers. The combined capacities can be used a single capacity. The concatenation also keeps the integrity of bit sequence. A command file defining hardware configurations of an NE. With this file, an NE can collaborate with other NEs in an entire network. Configuration data is the key factor for normal running of an entire network. A network management function defined by the International Standards Organization (ISO). It involves installing, reinitializing & modifying hardware & software. To set the basic parameters of an operation object. An extra intra-network or inter-network traffic resulting in decreasing network service efficiency. A reference point where the output of a trail termination source or a connection is bound to the input of another connection, or where the output of a connection is bound to the input of a trail termination sink or another connection. The connection point is characterized by the information which passes across it. A bidirectional connection point is formed by the association of a contradirectional pair. A kind of service categories defined by the ATM forum. CBR transfers cells based on the constant bandwidth. It is applicable to service connections that depend on precise clocking to ensure undistorted transmission. A process in which multiple channels of low-rate signals are multiplexed into one or several channels of required signals. It refers to the speed and capability for a group of networking devices to run a specific routing protocol. It functions to keep the network topology consistent. A service that provides enhancements to an underlying service in order to meet the specific requirements of users. Used to protect optical fibers. See Class of Service Central Processing Unit See Cyclic Redundancy Check An alarm not handled or not acknowledged after being handled.

Concatenation

Configuration Data

Configuration Management Configure congestion Connection point

Constant Bit Rate

Convergence

Convergence service corrugate d tube CoS CPU CRC current alarm

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Current Pe rformance Data

Performance data stored currently in a register. An NE provides two types of registers, namely, 15-minute register and 24-hour register, to store performance parameters of a performance monitoring entity. The two types of registers stores performance data only in the specified monitoring period. A procedure used in checking for errors in data transmission. CRC error checking uses a complex calculation to generate a number based on the data transmitted. The sending device performs the calculation before transmission and includes it in the packet that it sends to the receiving device. The receiving device repeats the same calculation after transmission. If both devices obtain the same result, it is assumed that the transmission was error free. The procedure is known as a redundancy check because each transmission includes not only data but extra (redundant) error-checking values.

Cyclic Re dundancy Check

A.5 D
Data Communication Ne twork Digital Data Ne twork DC DCC DCD DCE DCN DDF DDN De fect Delay Measurement A communication network used in a TMN or between TMNs to support the data communication function. A high-quality data transport tunnel that combines the digital channel (such as fiber channel, digital microwave channel, or satellite channel) and the cross multiplex technology. Direct Current Data Communication Channel Data Carrier Detect Data Circuit-terminal Equipment See Data Communication Network See Digital Distribution Frame See Digital Data Network A limited interruption in the ability of an item to perform a required function. The time elapsed since the start of transmission of the first bit of the frame by a source node until the reception of the last bit of the loopbacked frame by the same source node, when the loopback is performed at the frame's destination node. A process applied to a composite signal formed by multiplexing, for recovering the original independent signals, or groups of these signals.

Demultiplexing

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De vice se t

A collection of multiple managed devices. By dividing managed devices into different device sets, users can manage the devices by using the U2000 in an easier way. If an operation authority over one device set is assigned to a user (user group), the authority over all the devices in the device set is assigned to the user (user group), thus making it unnecessary to set the operation authority over all the devices in a device set separately. It is recommended to configure device set by geographical region, network level, device type, or another criterion. A marker in the header of each IP packet that prompts network routers to apply differentiated grades of service to various packet streams. It is specified by the DiffServ policy proposed by the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force). This allows Internet and other IP-based network service providers to offer different levels of service to customers. A service architecture that provides the end-to-end QoS function. It consists of a series of functional units implemented at the network nodes, including a small group of per-hop forwarding behaviors, packet classification functions, and traffic conditioning functions such as metering, marking, shaping and policing. A type of equipment used between the transmission equipment and the exchange with transmission rate of 2 to 155 Mbit/s to provide the functions such as cables connection, cable patching, and test of loops that transmitting digital signals. A signal in which information is represented by a limited number of discrete states number of discrete states (for example, high and low voltages) rather than by fluctuating levels in a continuous stream, as in an analog signal. In the pulse code modulation (PCM) technology, the 8 kHz sampling frequency is used and a byte contains 8 bits in length. Therefore, a digital signal is also referred to as a byte-based code stream. Digital signals, with simple structures and broad bandwidth, are easy to shape or regenerate, and are not easily affected by external interference. A board-level port protection technology used to detect unidirectional fiber cuts and to negotiate with the opposite end. Once a link down failure occurs on a port or a hardware failure occurs on a board, the services can automatically be switched to the slave board, achieving 1+1 protection for the inter-board ports. See Distributed Link Aggregation Group See Delay Measurement See Dual Node Interconnection A logical subscriber group based on which the subscriber rights are controlled. See Differentiated Services Code Point Digital Subscriber Line Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer

Diffe rentiate d Services Code Point

DiffSe rv

Digital Distribution Frame digital signal

Distributed Link Aggregation Group

DLAG DM DNI domain DSCP DSL DSLAM

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DSR DTE DTR Dual Node Inte rconnection DVB-ASI DVMRP DWDM

Data Set Ready Data T erminal Equipments Data T erminal Ready DNI provides an alternative physical interconnection point, between the rings, in case of an interconnection failure scenario. Digital Video Broadcast- Asynchronous Serial Interface Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing

A.6 E
E-AGGR Ear bracket ECC EFM E-LAN ElectroStatic Discharge E-Line Embe dded Control Channel EMS encapsulation See Ethernet aggregation A piece of angle plate with holes in it on a rack. It is used to fix network elements or components. See Embedded Control Channel Ethernet in the First Mile A type of Ethernet service that is based on a multipoint-to-multipoint EVC (Ethernet virtual connection). The sudden and momentary electric current that flows between two objects at different electrical potentials caused by direct contact or induced by an electrostatic field. A type of Ethernet service that is based on a point-to-point EVC (Ethernet virtual connection). A logical channel that uses a data communications channel (DCC) as its physical layer, to enable transmission of operation, administration, and maintenance (OAM) information between NEs. Element Management System A technology for layered protocols, in which a lower-level protocol accepts a message from a higher-level protocol and places it in the data portion of the lower-level frame. Protocol A's packets have complete header information, and are carried by protocol B as data. Packets that encapsulate protocol A have a B header, an A header, followed by the information that protocol A is carrying. Note that A could equal to B, as in IP inside IP. A path protocol which connects the host with various control units in a storage system. It is a serial bit stream transmission protocol. The transmission rate is 200 Mbit/s. A part, device, subsystem, functional unit, equipment, or system that can be considered individually. See Ethernet over Dual Domains See Ethernet Private Line

Ente rprise System Connection Entity EoD EPL

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A Glossary and Acronyms

EPLAN Equipment Serial Number ESCON ESD ESD jack ESD wrist strap ESN Ethe rnet

See Ethernet virtual private LAN service A string of characters that identify a piece of equipment and ensures correct allocation of a license file to the specified equipment. It is also called "equipment fingerprint". See Enterprise System Connection See ElectroStatic Discharge Electrostatic discharge jack. A hole in the cabinet or shelf, which connect the shelf or cabinet to the insertion of ESD wrist strap. Used to prevent the ElectroStatic Discharge (ESD) when you touch or operate a device or component. See Equipment Serial Number A LAN technology that uses Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection. The speed of an Ethernet interface can be 10 Mbit/s, 100 Mbit/s, 1000 Mbit/s or 10000 Mbit/s. An Ethernet network features high reliability and is easy to maintain. A type of Ethernet service that is based on a multipoint-to-point EVC (Ethernet virtual connection). The Ethernet alarm group periodically obtain the statistics value to compare with the configured threshold. If the value exceeds the threshold, an event is reported. A type of boards. EoD boards bridge the PSN and TDM networks, enabling Ethernet service transmission across PSN and TDM networks. A type of Ethernet service provided by SDH, PDH, ATM, or MPLS networks. This service is carried over a dedicated bridge and point-to-multipoint connections. A type of Ethernet service that is provided with dedicated bandwidth and point-to-point connections on an SDH, PDH, ATM, or MPLS server layer network. A type of Ethernet service provided by SDH, PDH, ATM, or MPLS networks. This service is carried over a shared bridge and point-to-multipoint connections. A type of Ethernet service provided by SDH, PDH, ATM, or MPLS networks. This service is carried over a shared bridge and point-to-point connections. European Telecommunications Standards Institute See Ethernet virtual private line See Ethernet virtual private LAN service An operation to check whether the protection switching protocol functions properly. The protection switching is not really performed.

Ethe rnet aggregation Ethe rnet Alarm Group Ethe rnet over Dual Domains Ethe rnet Private LAN service Ethe rnet Private Line Ethe rnet virtual private LAN service Ethe rnet virtual private line ETSI EVPL EVPLAN Exe rcise Switching

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A Glossary and Acronyms

Exe rcise r - Ring

This command exercises ring protection switching of the requested channel without completing the actual bridge and switch. The command is issued and the responses are checked, but no working traffic is affected. The number of the subnet that an NE belongs to, for identifying different network segments in a WAN. The physical ID of an NE is comprised of the NE ID and extended ID. The traffic that is carried over the protection channels when that capacity is not used for the protection of working traffic. Extra traffic is not protected.

Extende d ID

extra traffic

A.7 F
Failure If the fault persists long enough to consider the ability of an item with a required function to be terminated. The item may be considered as having failed; a fault has now been detected. A feature in which for any link specified in a ring network, the source node is provided with certain bandwidth capacities if the data packets transmitted by the source node are constrained by the fairness algorithm. An algorithm designed to ensure the fair sharing of bandwidth among stations in the case of congestion or overloading. A failure to implement the function while the specified operations are performed. A fault does not involve the failure caused by preventive maintenance, insufficiency of external resources or intentional settings. See Fiber Channel See frequency diversity See fiber distributed data interface Forward Defect Indicator See Frame Delay Variation Fast Ethernet Code used to select/activate a service feature (for example, forwarding, using two or three digit codes preceded by * or 11 or #, and which may precede subsequent digit selection). See forwarding equivalence class See Forward Error Correction A kind of fiber used for connections between the subrack and the ODF, and for connections between subracks or inside a subrack.

Fairness

fairness algorithm fault

FC FD FDDI FDI FDV FE feature code

FEC FEC fibe r patch cord

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Fiber Channel

A high-speed transport technology used to build storage area networks (SANs). Fiber channel can be on the networks carrying ATM and IP traffic. It is primarily used for transporting SCSI traffic from servers to disk arrays. Fiber channel supports single-mode and multi-mode fiber connections. Fiber channel signaling can run on both twisted pair copper wires and coaxial cables. Fiber channel provides both connection-oriented and connectionless services. A new generation connection protocol which connects the host to various control units. It carries single byte command protocol through the physical path of fiber channel, and provides higher rate and better performance than ESCON. A device installed at the end of a fiber, optical source or receive unit. It is used to couple the optical wave to the fiber when connected to another device of the same type. A connector can either connect two fiber ends or connect a fiber end and a optical source (or a detector). A standard developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) for high-speed fiber-optic local area networks (LANs). FDDI provides specifications for transmission rates of 100 megabits (100 million bits) per second on networks based on the token ring network. General name of optical fiber and cable. It refers to the physical entities that connect the transmission equipment, carry transmission objects (user information and network management information) and perform the transmission function in the transmission network. The optical fiber transmits optical signal, while the cable transmits electrical signal. The fiber/cable between NEs represents the optical fiber connection or cable connection between NEs. The fiber/cable between SDH NEs represents the connection relationship between NEs. At this time, the fiber/cable is of optical fiber type. See Fiber Connect First In First Out Floating nuts (or as they are more correctly named, 't ee nuts') have a range of uses but are more commonly used in the hobby for engine fixing (securing engine mounts to the firewall), wing fixings, and undercarriage fixing. An aggregation of packets that have the same characteristics. On the network management system or NE software, flow is a group of classification rules. On boards, it is a group of packets that have the same quality of service (QoS) operation. See Frame loss ratio For normal traffic signals, switches normal traffic signal to the protection section, unless an equal or higher priority switch command is in effect or SF condition exists on the protection section, by issuing a forced switch request for that traffic signal. A bit error correction technology that adds the correction information to the payload at the transmit end. Based on the correction information, the bit errors generated during transmission are corrected at the receive end.

Fiber Connect

Fiber Connector

fibe r distribute d data interface

fibe r/cable

FICON FIFO Floating nut

Flow

FLR Forced switch

Forward Error Correction

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forwarding e quivalence class

A class-based forwarding technology that classifies the packets with the same forwarding mode. Packets with the same FEC are processed similarly on an MPLS network. The division of FECs is flexible, and can be a combination of the source address, destination address, source port, destination port, protocol type, and VPN. Field Programmable Gate Array A frame, starting with a header, is a string of bytes with a specified length. Frame length is represented by the sampling circle or the total number of bytes sampled during a circle. A header comprises one or a number of bytes with pre-specified values. In other words, a header is a code segment that reflects the distribution (diagram) of the elements pre-specified by the sending and receiving parties. A measurement of the variations in the frame delay between a pair of service frames, where the service frames belong to the same CoS instance on a point to point ETH connection. A ratio, is expressed as a percentage, of the number of service frames not delivered divided by the total number of service frames during time interval T, where the number of service frames not delivered is the difference between the number of service frames arriving at the ingress ETH flow point and the number of service frames delivered at the egress ETH flow point in a point-to-point ETH connection. An operating condition of a clock, the output signal of which is strongly influenced by the oscillating element and not controlled by servo phase-locking techniques. In this mode the clock has never had a network reference input, or the clock has lost external reference and has no access to stored data, that could be acquired from a previously connected external reference. Free-run begins when the clock output no longer reflects the influence of a connected external reference, or transition from it. Free-run terminates when the clock output has achieved lock to an external reference. A diversity scheme in which two or more microwave frequencies with a certain frequency interval are used to transmit/receive the same signal and selection is then performed between the two signals to ease the impact of fading. File Transfer Protocol A full-duplex, or sometimes double-duplex system, allows communication in both directions, and, unlike half-duplex, allows this to happen simultaneously. Land-line telephone networks are full-duplex, since they allow both callers to speak and be heard at the same time. A good analogy for a full-duplex system would be a two-lane road with one lane for each direction.

FPGA frame

Frame Delay Variation Frame loss ratio

Free-run mode

fre quency diversity

FTP full-duplex

A.8 G
Gain The difference between the optical power from the input optical interface of the optical amplifier and the optical power from the output optical interface of the jumper fiber, which expressed in dB.

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Gateway IP

When an NE accesses a remote network management system or NE, a router can be used to enable the TCP/IP communication. In this case, the IP address of the router is the gateway IP. Only the gateway NE requires the IP address. The IP address itself cannot identify the uniqueness of an NE. The same IP addresses may exist in different TCP/IP networks. An NE may have multiple IP addresses, for example, one IP address of the network and one IP address of the Ethernet port. A network element that is used for communication between the NE application layer and the NM application layer. Gigabit Ethernet A framing and encapsulation method which can be applied to any data type. It has been standardized by ITU-T SG15. See Generic Framing Procedure See Gateway Network Element Global Positioning System Global System for Mobile Communications Generic Traffic Shaping Graphic User Interface

Gateway Ne twork Element GE Generic Framing Procedure GFP GNE GPS GSM GTS GUI

A.9 H
half-duplex A transmitting mode in which a half-duplex system provides for communication in both directions, but only one direction at a time (not simultaneously). Typically, once a party begins receiving a signal, it must wait for the transmitter to stop transmitting, before replying. A connection mode in which a fiber jumper is used to connect the input optical interface to the output optical interface of a board to achieve signal loopback. High level Data Link Control See High Definition-Serial Digital Interface signal Header Error Control A type of QoS that controls the traffic of users and performs the scheduling according to the priority of user services. HQoS has an advanced traffic statistics function, and the administrator can monitor the usage of bandwidth of each service. Hence, the bandwidth can be allocated reasonably through traffic analysis. High definition video signal transported by serial digital interface.

Hardware loopback HDLC HD-SDI HEC Hierarchical Quality of Service

High De finition-Se rial Digital Inte rface signal

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History alarm Historical performance data HP HPT HQoS

The confirmed alarm that has been saved in the memory and other external memories. The performance data that is stored in the history register or that is automatically reported and stored on the NMS. Higher Order Path Higher Order Path Termination See Hierarchical Quality of Service

A.10 I
IC IDU IEEE IETF IF IGMP IGMP Snooping Integrated Circuit Indoor Unit Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Internet Engineering Task Force Intermediate Frequency See Internet Group Management Protocol A multicast constraint mechanism running on a layer 2 device. This protocol manages and controls the multicast group by listening to and analyzing Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) packets between hosts and Layer 3 devices. In this manner, the spread of the multicast data on layer 2 network can be prevented efficiently. See Inverse Multiplexing over ATM A control unit in the IMA protocol. It is a logical frame defined as M consecutive cells, numbered 0 to M-l, transmitted on each of the N links in an IMA group. The maximum amplitude of sinusoidal jitter at a given jitter frequency, which, when modulating the signal at an equipment input port, results in no more than two errored seconds cumulative, where these errored seconds are integrated over successive 30-second measurement intervals. A mechanism used to reduce the optical power of all the amplifiers in an adjacent regeneration section in the upstream to a safety level if the system detects the loss of optical signals on the link. If the fiber is broken, the device performance degrades, or the connector is not plugged well, the loss of optical signals may occur. With IPA, maintenance engineers will not be hurt by the laser sent out from the slice of broken fiber. The area for the interface boards on the subrack. The cables and optical fibers which are used for interconnecting electrical interfaces and optical interfaces within the cabinet.

IMA IMA frame

Input jitter tolerance

Intelligent powe r adjusting

Inte rface board area Inte rnal cable

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Inte rnet Group Management Protocol Inverse Multiplexing over ATM IP IP address

One of the TCP/IP protocols for managing the membership of Internet Protocol multicast groups. It is used by IP hosts and adjacent multicast routers to establish and maintain multicast group memberships. A technique that involves inverse multiplexing and de-multiplexing of ATM cells in a cyclical fashion among links grouped to form a higher bandwidth logical link whose rate is approximately the sum of the link rates. Internet Protocol A 32-bit (4-byte) binary digit that uniquely identifies a host (computer) connected to the Internet for communication with other hosts in the Internet by transferring packets. An IP address is expressed in dotted decimal notation, consisting of decimal values of its 4 bytes, separated by periods (,), for example, 127.0.0.1. The first three bytes of an IP address identify the network to which the host is connected, and the last byte identifies the host itself. A technology that enables a DCC channel to carry TCP/IP protocol packets. The IP over DCC technology provides the TCP/IP protocol without using any extra overheads or service resources to ensure interconnection of management channels. See Intelligent power adjusting Intermedia System-Intermedia System Integrated Services Digital Network International Standard Organization Internet Service Provider Internal Spanning Tree International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization

IP ove r DCC

IPA IS-IS ISDN ISO ISP IST ITU-T

A.11 J
Jitter jitte r tolerance Short waveform variations caused by vibration, voltage fluctuations, and control system instability. Jitter tolerance is defined as the peak-to-peak amplitude of sinusoidal jitter applied on the input ATM-PON signal that causes a 1 dB optical power penalty at the optical equipment.

A.12 L
Label A short identifier that is of fixed length and local significance. It is used to uniquely identify the FEC to which a packet belongs. It does not contain topology information. It is carried in the header of a packet and does not contain topology information. See Link Aggregation Control Protocol

LACP

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LAG LAN LAPS Lase r

See link aggregation group Local Area Network Link Access Procedure-SDH A component that generates directional optical waves of narrow wavelengths. The laser light has better coherence than ordinary light. The fiber system takes the semi-conductor laser as the light source. A concept used to allow the transport network functionality to be described hierarchically as successive levels; each layer being solely concerned with the generation and transfer of its characteristic information. A data forwarding method. In a LAN, a network bridge or 802.3 Ethernet switch transmits and distributes packet data based on the MAC address. Since the MAC address is at the second layer of the OSI model, this data forwarding method is called Layer 2 switch. See Loopback Loopback Message Loopback Reply Lucent Connector See Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme Liquid Crystal Display Local Craft Terminal A permission that the vendor provides for the user with a specific function, capacity, and duration of a product. A license can be a file or a serial number. Usually the license consists of encrypted codes. The operation authority granted varies with the level of the license. In the topology view, a link is used to identify the physical or logical connection between two topological nodes. A link is used to connect signaling points (SPs) and signaling transfer points (STPs) and transmit signaling messages. A method of bundling a group of physical interfaces together as a logical interface to increase bandwidth and reliability. For related protocols and standards, refer to IEEE 802.3ad. An aggregation that allows one or more links to be aggregated together to form a link aggregation group so that a MAC client can treat the link aggregation group as if it were a single link. LCAS in the virtual concatenation source and sink adaptation functions provides a control mechanism to hitless increase or decrease the capacity of a link to meet the bandwidth needs of the application. It also provides a means of removing member links that have experienced failure. The LCAS assumes that in cases of capacity initiation, increases or decreases, the construction or destruction of the end-to-end path is the responsibility of the network and element management systems.

Layer

laye r 2 switch

LB LBM LBR LC LCAS LCD LCT License

Link

Link Aggregation Control Protocol link aggregation group Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme

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LLC LM Locked switching

Logical Link Control See Loss Measurement When the switching condition is satisfied, this function disables the service from being switched from the working channel to the protection channel. When the service has been switched, the function enables the service to be restored from the protection channel to the working channel. Loss of Frame Loss of Multiframe A troubleshooting technique that returns a transmitted signal to its source so that the signal or message can be analyzed for errors. The loopback can be a inloop or outloop. Loss of Signal Loss measurement, a method used to collect counter values applicable for ingress and egress service frames where the counters maintain a count of transmitted and received data frames between a pair of MEPs. A lower performance limit which when exceeded by a performance event counter will trigger a threshold-crossing event. Lower Order Path Link State Pass Through Label Switched Path Label Switching Router Link Trace

LO F LO M Loopback

LOS Loss Measurement

Lower Threshold LP LPT LSP LSR LT

A.13 M
MA MAC Maintenance Association Maintenance Domain See Maintenance Association Medium Access Control TThat portion of a Service Instance, preferably all of it or as much as possible, the connectivity of which is maintained by CFM. It is also a full mesh of Maintenance Entities. The network or the part of the network for which connectivity is managed by connectivity fault management (CFM). The devices in a maintenance domain are managed by a single Internet service provider (ISP). See Metropolitan Area Network Switches normal traffic signal to the protection section, unless a failure condition exists on other sections (including the protection section) or an equal or higher priority switch command is in effect, by issuing a manual switch request for that normal traffic signal.

MAN Manual switch

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Mapping Marking-off template MBS MCF MCR MD Mean launched power MEP Metropolitan Area Ne twork

A procedure by which tributaries are adapted into virtual containers at the boundary of an SDH network. A quadrate cardboard with four holes. It is used to mark the positions of the installation holes for the cabinet. Maximum Burst Size Message Communication Function Minimum Cell Rate See Maintenance Domain The average power of a pseudo-random data sequence coupled into the fiber by the transmitter. Maintenance End Point A network that interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a large LAN but smaller than the area covered by an WAN. The term is applied to the interconnection of networks in a city into a single larger network (which may then also offer efficient connection to a wide area network). It is also used to mean the interconnection of several local area networks by bridging them with backbone lines. The latter usage is also sometimes referred to as a campus network. Management Information Base Maintenance Intermediate Point MOdulator-DEModulator Maintenance Point Maintenance Point Identification See Multiprotocol Label Switching Multiplex Section Multiplex Section Adaptation See Multiplex Section Overhead See Multiplex Section Protection Multiplex Section Termination Multiple Spanning Tree Instance See Multi-service transmission platform See Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol Maximum T ime Interval Error Maximum Transmission Unit

MIB MIP MO DEM MP MPID MPLS MS MSA MSOH MSP MST MSTI MSTP MSTP MTIE MTU

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Multiprotocol Label Switching

A technology that uses short tags of fixed length to encapsulate packets in different link layers, and provides connection-oriented switching for the network layer on the basis of IP routing and control protocols. It improves the cost performance and expandability of networks, and is beneficial to routing. A platform based on the SDH platform, capable of accessing, processing and transmitting TDM services, ATM services, and Ethernet services, and providing unified management of these services. A process of transmitting data packets from one source to many destinations. The destination address of the multicast packet uses Class D address, that is, the IP address ranges from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255. Each multicast address represents a multicast group rather than a host. A protocol that can be used in a loop network. Using an algorithm, the MSTP blocks redundant paths so that the loop network can be trimmed as a tree network. In this case, the proliferation and endless cycling of packets is avoided in the loop network. The protocol that introduces the mapping between VLANs and multiple spanning trees. This solves the problem that data cannot be normally forwarded in a VLAN because in STP/RSTP, only one spanning tree corresponds to all the VLANs. The overhead that comprises rows 5 to 9 of the SOH of the STM-N signal. See SOH definition. A function, which is performed to provide capability for switching a signal between and including two multiplex section termination (MST ) functions, from a "working" to a "protection" channel. A procedure by which multiple lower order path layer signals are adapted into a higher order path or the multiple higher order path layer signals are adapted into a multiplex section.

Multi-service transmission platform Multicast

Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol

Multiplex Se ction Ove rhead Multiplex Se ction Protection Multiplexing

A.14 N
NE NE Explorer See network element The main operation interface, of the network management system, which is used to manage the telecommunication equipment. In the NE Explorer, the user can query, manage and maintain the NE, boards, and ports on a per-NE basis. An NE contains both the hardware and the software running on it. One NE is at least equipped with one system control and communication(SCC) board which manages and monitors the entire network element. The NE software runs on the SCC board. The interface at a network node which is used to interconnect with another network node. A part of an Ethernet or other network, on which all message traffic is common to all nodes, that is, it is broadcast from one node on the segment and received by all others.

network element

network node inte rface network segment

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NLP NMS NNI NPC nrt-VBR NRZ NSAP NTP

Normal Link Pulse Network Management System See network node interface Network Parameter Control Non Real-T ime Variable Bit Rate Non Return to Zero code Network Service Access Point Network T ime Protocol

A.15 O
OA OADM OAM OAM auto-discove ry See Optical Amplifier See Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer Operations, Administration and Maintenance In the case of OAM auto-discovery, two interconnected ports, enabled with the Ethernet in the First Mile OAM (EFM OAM) function, negotiate to determine whether the mutual EFM OAM configuration match with each other by sending and responding to the OAM protocol data unit (OAMPDU). If the mutual EFM OAM configuration match, the two ports enter the EFM OAM handshake phase. In the handshake phase, the two ports regularly send the OAMPDU to maintain the neighborhood relation. See Optical Channel Protection See Optical Distribution Frame Outdoor Unit Out-of-frame Second Overhead Access Function Optical Line Terminal The capability of many programs and operating systems to display advice or instructions for using their features when so requested by the user. Optical Network Unit Out of Frame A device that can be used to add the optical signals of various wavelengths to one channel and drop the optical signals of various wavelengths from one channel. Devices or subsystems in which optical signals can be amplified by means of the stimulated emission taking place in a suitable active medium.

OCP ODF ODU O FS OHA OLT Online Help

ONU OO F Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer Optical Amplifie r

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Optical attenuator

A passive device that increases the attenuation in a fiber link. It is used to ensure that the optical power of the signals received at the receive end is not extremely high. It is available in two types: fixed attenuator and variable attenuator. In an optical transmission link that contains multiple wavelengths, when a certain wavelength goes faulty, the services at the wavelength can be protected if the optical channel protection is configured. A component normally attached to an optical cable or a piece of apparatus to provide frequent optical interconnection/disconnection of optical fibers or cables. A frame which is used to transfer and spool fibers.

Optical Channel Protection Optical Connector Optical Distribution Frame Optical Inte rface Optical Time Domain Re flectometer orderwire OSI OSN OSPF O TDR O TU Optical transponder unit Output optical power Ove rhead

A component that connects several transmit or receive units. A device that sends a very short pulse of light down a fiber optic communication system and measures the time history of the pulse reflection to measure the fiber length, the light loss and locate the fiber fault. A channel that provides voice communication between operation engineers or maintenance engineers of different stations. Open Systems Interconnection Optical Switch Node Open Shortest Path First See Optical T ime Domain Reflectometer See Optical transponder unit A device or subsystem that converts the accessed client signals into the G.694.1/G.694.2-compliant WDM wavelength. The ranger of optical energy level of output signals. Extra bits in a digital stream used to carry information besides traffic signals. Orderwire, for example, would be considered overhead information.

A.16 P
Paire d slots pass-through T wo slots of which the overheads can be passed through by using the bus on the backplane. The action of transmitting the same information that is being received for any given direction of transmission.

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Path

A performance resource object defined in the network management system. The left end of a path is a device node whose port needs to be specified and the right end of a path is a certain IP address which can be configured by the user. By defining a path in the network management system, a user can test the performance of a network path between a device port and an IP address. The tested performance may be the path delay, packet loss ratio or other aspects. Peak Burst Size Personal Computer Pulse Code Modulation Peak Cell Rate See Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy See Power distribution unit See provider edge The memory space for performance event counts, including 15-min current performance register, 24-hour current performance register, 15-min historical performance register, 24-hour historical performance register, UAT register and CSES register. The object of performance event monitoring is the board functional module, so every board functional module has a performance register. A performance register is used to count the performance events taking place within a period of operation time, so as to evaluate the quality of operation from the angle of statistics. A limit for generating an alarm for a selected entity. When the measurement result reaches or exceeds the preset alarm threshold, the performance management system generates a performance alarm. A connection between two ATM end hosts. The connection consists of PVPs between the ATM end hosts and their respective switches, and SVPs between the switches. Protection Ground A cable which connects the equipment and the protection grounding bar. Usually, one half of the cable is yellow, whereas the other half is green. Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode Peak Information Rate Qualifying two time-varying phenomena, time-scales, or signals in which corresponding significant instants occur at the same rate, any variations in rate being constrained within specified limits. Note: Corresponding significant instants are separated by time intervals having durations which may vary without limit. A multiplexing scheme of bit stuffing and byte interleaving. It multiplexes the minimum rate 64 kit/s into the 2 Mbit/s, 34 Mbit/s, 140 Mbit/s, and 565 Mbit/s rates.

PBS PC PCM PCR PDH PDU PE Pe rformance re gister

performance threshold Pe rmanent Virtual Connection PGND PGND cable

PIM-SM PIR plesiochronous

Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy

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PLL Pointer

Phase-Locked Loop An indicator whose value defines the frame offset of a virtual container with respect to the frame reference of the transport entity on which this pointer is supported. Packet Over SDH A direct current power distribution box at the upper part of a cabinet, which supplies power for the subracks in the cabinet. A unit that performs AC or DC power distribution. Point-to-Point Protocol See Pseudo Random Binary Sequence Primary Reference Clock In the hierarchy of signaling system No.7, when the upper layer applies for services from the lower layer or the lower layer transmits services to the upper layer, the data is exchanged between the user and the service provider. The data transmitted between adjacent layers is called primitive. A line, such as a subscriber cable and trunk cable, which are leased by the telecommunication carrier and are used to meet the special user requirements. A specific path that is part of a protection group and is labeled protection. A specific service that is part of a protection group and is labeled protection. In the NMS, the protection subnet becomes a concept of network level other than multiplex section rings or path protection rings. The protection sub-network involves NEs and fiber cable connections. The user interface, of the NMS, which is used to manage protection in the network. A device that is located in the backbone network of the MPLS VPN structure. A PE is responsible for managing VPN users, establishing LSPs between PEs, and exchanging routing information between sites of the same VPN. A PE performs the mapping and forwarding of packets between the private network and the public channel. A PE can be a UPE, an SPE, or an NPE. Packet Switched Power Spectral Density A sequence that is random in a sense that the value of an element is independent of the values of any of the other elements, similar to real random sequences.

POS Powe r box Powe r distribution unit PPP PRBS PRC Primitive

Private Line

Protection path Protection se rvice Protection subnet

Protection View provider edge

PS PSD Pseudo Random Binary Sequence

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Pseudo Wire

An emulated connection between two PEs for transmitting frames. The PW is established and maintained by PEs through signaling protocols. The status information of a PW is maintained by the two end PEs of a PW. An end-to-end Layer 2 transmission technology. It emulates the essential attributes of a telecommunication service such as ATM, FR or Ethernet in a packet switched network (PSN). PWE3 also emulates the essential attributes of low speed time division multiplexing (TDM) circuit and SONET/SDH. The simulation approximates to the real situation. See Permanent Virtual Connection See Pseudo Wire See Pseudo Sire Emulation edge-to-edge

Pseudo Sire Emulation e dge-to-e dge

PVC PW PWE3

A.17 Q
QinQ A layer 2 tunnel protocol based on IEEE 802.1Q encapsulation. It add a public VLAN tag to a frame with a private VLAN tag to allow the frame with double VLAN tags to be transmitted over the service providers backbone network based on the public VLAN tag. This provides a layer 2 VPN tunnel for customers and enables transparent transmission of packets over private VLANs. See Quality of Service A commonly-used performance indicator of a telecommunication system or channel. Depending on the specific system and service, it may relate to jitter, delay, packet loss ratio, bit error ratio, and signal-to-noise ratio. It functions to measure the quality of the transmission system and the effectiveness of the services, as well as the capability of a service provider to meet the demands of users.

QoS Quality of Service

A.18 R
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol RDI Re ceiver Sensitivity Re ference clock REG Regeneration An evolution of the Spanning Tree Protocol, providing for faster spanning tree convergence after a topology change. The RSTP protocol is backward compatible with the STP protocol. Remote Defect Indication The minimum acceptable value of average received power at point R to achieve a 1 x 10 -12 BER (The FEC is open). A kind of stable and high-precision autonous clock providing frequencies for other clocks for reference. A piece of equipment or device that regenerates electrical signals. The process of receiving and reconstructing a digital signal so that the amplitudes, waveforms and timing of its signal elements are constrained within specified limits.

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OptiX OSN 550 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission System Product Description

A Glossary and Acronyms

Regenerator section overhead Remote optical pumping amplifier Resilient Packet Ring RF RFA RFI ring network RNC ROPA route

The regenerator section overhead comprises rows 1 to 3 of the SOH of the STM-N signal. A remote optical amplifier subsystem designed for applications where power supply and monitoring systems are unavailable. The ROPA subsystem is a power compensation solution to the ultra-long distance long hop (LHP) transmission. A network topology being developed as a new standard for fiber optic rings. Radio Frequency Request For Announcement Request for Information A type of network topology in which each node connects to exactly two other nodes, forming a circular pathway for signals. Radio Network Controller See Remote optical pumping amplifier The path that network traffic takes from its source to its destination. In a TCP/IP network, each IP packet is routed independently. Routes can change dynamically. A device on the network layer that selects routes in the network. The router selects the optimal route according to the destination address of the received packet through a network and forwards the packet to the next router. The last router is responsible for sending the packet to the destination host. Can be used to connect a LAN to a LAN, a WAN to a WAN, or a LAN to the Internet. Rendezvous Point See Resilient Packet Ring A asynchronous transfer mode that does not involve hand-shaking signal. It can communicate with RS232 and RS422 of other stations in point-to-point mode and the transmission is transparent. Its highest speed is 19.2kbit/s. The specification that defines the electrical characteristics of balanced voltage digital interface circuits. The interface can change to RS232 via the hardware jumper and others are the same as RS232. See Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Radio Transmission Node Receiver

route r

RP RPR RS232

RS422

RSTP RTN RX

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A.19 S
S1 byte A byte to transmit network synchronization status information. On an SDH network, each NE traces hop by hop to the same clock reference source through a specific clock synchronization path, realizing synchronization on the entire network. If a clock reference source traced by an NE is missing, this NE will trace another clock reference source of a lower level. To implement protection switching of clocks in the whole network, the NE must learn about clock quality information of the clock reference source it traces. Therefore, ITU-T defines S1 byte to transmit network synchronization status information. It uses the lower four bits of the multiplex section overhead S1 byte to indicate 16 types of synchronization quality grades. Auto protection switching of clocks in a synchronous network can be implemented using S1 byte and a proper switching protocol. Storage Area Network Square Connector Sustainable Cell Rate See space diversity See Signal Degrade See Standard definition See Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Serious Disturbance Period See Standard definition-Serial Digital Interface signal SDH Equipment Clock The portion of a SONET transmission facility, including terminating points, between (i) a terminal network element and a regenerator or (ii) two regenerators. A terminating point is the point after signal regeneration at which performance monitoring is (or may be) done. A function of establishing a replacement connection by network without the network management connection function. When a connection failure occurs, the replacement connection is found by the network elements and rerouted depending on network resources available at that time. The ECC channel realized by means of serial port. A network device that provides services to network users by managing shared resources, often used in the context of a client-server architecture for a LAN. A measure that ensures that the services can be received at the receive end. Severely Errored Second Synchronous Equipment Timing Source

SAN SC SCR SD SD SD SDH SDP SD-SDI SE C Section

Self-healing

Serial port extended E CC serve r

Service prote ction SES SETS

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settings SF Signal Fail SFP SHDSL Side Mode Suppression Ratio signal cable Signal Degrade Signal Fail Simple Network Management Protocol

Parameters of a system or operation that can be selected by the user. See Signal Fail A signal indicating that associated data has failed in the sense that a near-end defect condition (non-degrade defect) is active. See Small Form-Factor Pluggable Single-line High speed Digital Subscriber Line The Side Mode Suppression Ratio (SMSR) is the ratio of the largest peak of the total source spectrum to the second largest peak. Common signal cables cover the E1 cable, network cable, and other non-subscriber signal cable. SD is a signal indicating the associated data has degraded in the sense that a degraded defect (e.g., dDEG) condition is active. SF is a signal indicating the associated data has failed in the sense that a near-end defect condition (not being the degraded defect) is active. A network management protocol of T CP/IP. It enables remote users to view and modify the management information of a network element. This protocol ensures the transmission of management information between any two points. The polling mechanism is adopted to provide basic function sets. According to SNMP, agents, which can be hardware as well as software, can monitor the activities of various devices on the network and report these activities to the network console workstation. Control information about each device is maintained by a management information block. Angle-bars on which shelves and chassis may slide and be supported within a cabinet or shelf. A specification for a new generation of optical modular transceivers.

slide rail Small Form-Factor Pluggable SMSR SNC SNCMP SNCP SNCP node

See Side Mode Suppression Ratio SubNetwork Connection See Subnetwork connection multipath protection See SubNetwork Connection Protection Set the SNC node on the protection sub-network to support sub-network connection protection that spans protection sub-networks. The SNCP node of the ring sub-network can support electric circuit dually feed and selectively receive a timeslot out of the ring, thus implementing sub-network connection protection. The SNCP node is generally set on the node on the line board with the path protection type of the dual fed and selectively received. See Subnetwork Connection T unnel Protection See Simple Network Management Protocol

SNCTP SNMP

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SNR space diversity

Signal Noise Ratio A diversity scheme that enables two or more antennas separated by a specific distance to transmit/receive the same signal and selection is then performed between the two signals to ease the impact of fading. Currently, only receive SD is used. STP is a protocol that is used in the LAN to remove the loop. STP applies to the redundant network to block some undesirable redundant paths through certain algorithms and prune a loop network into a loop-free tree network. Synchronous Physical Interface See Synchronization Status Message Synchronization Supply Unit A video format with the resolution below 720p. Standard definition video signal transported by serial digital interface.

Spanning Tree Protocol

SPI SSM SSU Standard definition Standard definition-Serial Digital Inte rface signal Statistical multiplexing

A multiplexing technique whereby information from multiple logical channels can be transmitted across a single physical channel. It dynamically allocates bandwidth only to active input channels, to make better use of available bandwidth and allow more devices to be connected than with other multiplexing techniques. SDH standard for transmission over optical fiber at 622.08 Mbit/s. See Spanning Tree Protocol A number used to differentiate network sections in a sub-network conference. A sub-network ID consists of the first several digits (one or two) of a user phone number. An order wire phone number consists of the sub-network ID and the user number. A type of smaller networks that form a larger network according to a rule, for example, according to different districts. This facilitates the management of the large network. The technique used by the IP protocol to determine which network segment packets are destined for. The subnet mask is a binary pattern that is stored in the client machine, server or router matches with the IP address. The only difference is that SNCP is of 1+1 protection and SNCMP is of N+1 protection. That is, several backup channels protect one active channel in SNCMP. A function, which allows a working subnetwork connection to be replaced by a protection subnetwork connection if the working subnetwork connection fails, or if its performance falls below a required level.

STM-4 STP Sub-network numbe r

subnet

subnet mask

Subnetwork connection multipath prote ction SubNetwork Connection Protection

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Subnetwork Connection Tunnel Protection Support

SNCTP provides a VC-4 level channel protection. When the working channel is faulty, the services of the entire VC-4 path can be switched over to the protection channel. A part used to support and fix a cabinet on the antistatic floor. It is made of welded steel plates and is used to block up the cabinets to facilitate floor layout and cabling. Before the whole set of equipment is grounded, insulation plates must be installed under the supports, and insulating coverings must be added to the expansion bolts to achieve good insulation performance. An attribute set to determine whether an NE monitors the alarm. Under suppression status, NE will not monitor the corresponding alarm conditions and the alarm will not occur even when the alarm conditions are met. Switching Virtual Connection A priority of a board that is defined for protection switching. When several protected boards need to be switched, a switching priority should be set for each board. If the switching priorities of the boards are the same, services on the board that fails later cannot be switched. Services on the board with higher priority can preempt the switching resources of that with lower priority. It refers to the period of time between the start of detecting and the moment when the line is switched back to the original status after protection switching occurs in the MSP sub-network. A message that carries quality levels of timing signals on a synchronous timing link. Nodes on an SDH network and a synchronization network acquire upstream clock information through this message. Then the nodes can perform proper operations on their clocks, such as tracing, switching, or converting to holdoff, and forward the synchronization information to downstream nodes. A transmission scheme that follows ITU-T G.707, G.708, and G.709. It defines the transmission features of digital signals such as frame structure, multiplexing mode, transmission rate level, and interface code. SDH is an important part of ISDN and B-ISDN. It interleaves the bytes of low-speed signals to multiplex the signals to high-speed counterparts, and the line coding of scrambling is used only for signals. SDH is suitable for the fiber communication system with high speed and a large capacity since it uses synchronous multiplexing and flexible mapping structure. A clock providing timing services to connected network elements. This would include clocks conforming to Recommendations G.811, G.812 and G.813.

Suppression state

SVC Switching priority

Switching restoration time Synchronization Status Message

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

Synchronous source

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A.20 T
Tandem Connection Monitor TCM TCP/IP TDM TIM Timeslot Time Synchronization TM TMN ToS TPS Trail management function In the SDH transport hierarchy, the TCM is located between the AU/TU management layer and HP/LP layer. It uses the N1/N2 byte of POH overhead to monitor the quality of the transport channels on a transmission section (TCM section). See T andem Connection Monitor See T ransmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Time Division Multiplexing Trace Identifier Mismatch Continuously repeating interval of time or a time period in which two devices are able to interconnect. Also called the moment synchronization, time synchronization means that the synchronization of the absolute time, which requires that the starting time of the signals keeps consistent with the UTC time. Terminal Multiplexer Telecommunications Management Network See Type of Service See T ributary Protection Switch A network level management function of the network management system. This function enables you to configure end-to-end services, view graphic interface and visual routes of a trail, query detailed information of a trail, filter, search and locate a trail quickly, manage and maintain trails in a centralized manner, manage alarms and performance data by trail, and print a trail report. A transmitter and receiver housed together in a single unit and having some circuits in common, often for portable or mobile use. Common name for the suite of protocols developed to support the construction of worldwide internetworks.

Transceive r Transmission Control Protocol/Inte rnet Protocol transparent transmission Tray Tributary loopback Tributary Protection Switch

A process during which the signaling protocol or data is not processed in the content but encapsulated in the format for the processing of the next phase. A component that can be installed in the cabinet for holding chassis or other devices. A fault can be located for each service path by performing loopback to each path of the tributary board. There are three kinds of loopback modes: no loopback, outloop, and inloop. A function that uses a standby tributary processing board to protect N tributary processing boards.

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Tributary unit

An information structure which provides adaptation between the lower order path layer and the higher order path layer. It consists of an information payload (the lower order VC) and a TU pointer which indicates the offset of the payload frame start relative to the higher order VC frame start. One or more Tributary Units, occupying fixed, defined positions in a higher order VC-n payload is termed a Tributary Unit Group (TUG). TUGs are defined in such a way that mixed capacity payloads made up of different size Tributary Units can be constructed to increase flexibility of the transport network. Time To Live Tributary Unit See T ributary Unit Group A channel on the packet switching network that transmits service traffic between PEs. In VPN, a tunnel is an information transmission channel between two entities. The tunnel ensures secure and transparent transmission of VPN information. In most cases, a tunnel is an MPLS tunnel. A field in an IP packet (IP datagram) used for quality of service (QoS). The TOS field has 8 bits in length, which is divided into five subfields.

Tributary Unit Group

TTL TU TUG Tunnel

Type of Service

A.21 U
UART UAS UBR underfloor cabling UNI Unprotecte d Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter Unavailable Second Unspecified Bit Rate The cables connected cabinets and other devices are routed underfloor. See User-to-Network Interface Pertaining to the transmission of the services that are not protected. The services cannot be switched to the protection channel if the working channel is faulty or the service is interrupted, because protection mechanism is not configured. A sub-network without any protection mechanism. The purpose of such configuration is to provide the basic data of trail protection for subsequent trail management. An operation to report some or all configuration data of an NE to the NMS. The configuration data then covers the configuration data stored at the NMS side. Uninterruptible Power Module TThe critical value that can induce unexpected events if exceeded. Uninterruptible Power Supply

Unprotecte d sub-network Upload

UPM Uppe r threshold UPS

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Upward cabling User

Cables or fibers connect the cabinet with other equipment from the top of the cabinet. Any entity external to the network which utilizes connections through the network for communication. A person or other entity authorized by a subscriber to use some or all of the services subscribed to by that subscriber. The interface between user equipment and private or public network equipment (for example, ATM switches). Universal T ime Coordinated

User-to-Network Inte rface UTC

A.22 V
VB VBR VC VC VCG VCI Virtual Container Virtual Bridge Variable Bit Rate Virtual Concatenation See Virtual Container Virtual Concatenation Group Virtual Channel Identifier The information structure used to support path layer connections in the SDH. It consists of information payload and path overhead (POH) information fields organized in a block frame structure which repeats every 125 or 500 s. A logical grouping of two or more nodes which are not necessarily on the same physical network segment but which share the same IP network number. This is often associated with switched Ethernet. A system configuration, where the subscriber is able to build a private network via connections to different network switches that may include private network capabilities. See Virtual local area network Virtual Path Virtual Path Identifier See Virtual Private Network

Virtual local area network Virtual Private Ne twork VLAN VP VPI VPN

A.23 W
Wait to Restore WAN Wande r The number of minutes to wait before services are switched back to the working line. Wide Area Network The long-term variations of the significant instants of a digital signal from their ideal position in time (where long-term implies that these variations are of frequency less than 10 Hz).

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washer Wavelength Division Multiplexing Wavelength prote ction group

A washer is a thin flat ring of metal or rubber which is placed over a bolt before the nut is screwed on. A technology that utilizes the characteristics of broad bandwidth and low attenuation of single mode optical fiber, uses multiple wavelengths as carriers, and allows multiple channels to transmit simultaneously in a single fiber. Data for describing the wavelength protection structure. Its function is similar to that of the protection subnet for SDH NEs. The wavelength path protection can work only with the correct configuration of the wavelength protection group. See Wavelength Division Multiplexing Weighted Fair Queuing A tool for fiber routing, which acts as the corrugated pipe. A path allocated to transport the normal traffic. Weighted Random Early Detection See Wait to Restore

WDM WFQ Winding pipe Working path WRED WTR

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