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rAaBa TpeTa

rpl1rop BOHKOB
C'b,llBATA HA PA3AOlKKATA KOTAOBHHA
B YCAOBHRTA HA OCMAHCKA BAACT
(XVI-XIX B.)
BbB BII3aHTllnCKllTe II CJIaB5IHCKllTe, KaKTO II B rrO-KbCHllTe OCMaHCKll
HapaTllBHll ll3TOqHllUll, JIllrrCBa KaTerOpllqHa llH<p0pMaUll5I, K05ITO ,Ua rr03BO-
JIll rrpeUll3HO ,UaTllpaHe Ha OCMaHCKOTO 3aBOeBaHlle Ha Pa3JIor II rrpllJIe)l(a-
IUllTe My ceJIa, KoeTO Bep05ITHO ce ,UbJI)l(ll Ha OTCbCTBlleTO Ha 3HaqllMll TBbp-
,UllHll B panOHa. Bce rraK, C rOJI5IMa ,U03a YBepeHOCT MO)l(eM ,Ua rrpe.urrOJIO-
)KllM, qe OBJIa,U5IBaHeTO Ha Pa3JIO)KKaTa KOTJIOBllHa Tp5I6Ba ,Ua ce e CJIYQHJIO B
rO,UllHllTe rrpe.ull 6llTKaTa rrpll 4epHoMeH (1371 r.), a BOnCKllTe Ha 3aBoeBa-
TeJIllTe ca 6llJIll rrpe,UBO)K,UaHll OT rrOKOpllTeJI5I Ha rOpHa TpaKll5I II npbB 6en-
JIep6en Ha PYMeJIll5I ]laJIa illaXllH nama. OCMaHCKll5IT XPOHllCT l1.upllc-H
bllTJIllCH, QllllTO CBe.ueHll5I ca 3allMCTBaHll II npll,U06llBaT nO-rOJI5IMa nony-
JI5IPHOCT Qpe3 XpOHllKaTa Ha XO,U)Ka Ca,Ue.u,UllH "KopoHa Ha llCTOpllllTe",
CBll,UeTeJICTBa 3a TOBa, Qe YCTaHOBllJIll5IT ce BbB <DllJIH6e (IlJIOB.ullB) ]lana
illaXllH, B caMOTO H ~ Q a n O T O Ha 70-Te rO,UllHH Ha XIV B. rrpe.urrplleMa 3aBoe-
BaTeJIHa KaMrraHH5I B nOCOKa ceBep03arra,U, B K05ITO ycrr5IBa .ua OBJIa.uee npo-
xo,Ua Tpa5IHOBll BpaTa II panOHa Ha rp. CaMOKOB.) TBbp,Ue Bep05ITHO e Pa3-
JIor, 3ae,UHO CbC CeJIaTa OKOJIO Hero, ,Ua e na.uHan B OCMaHCKll pbue TbKMO no
BpeMe Ha Ta3ll KaMrraHll5I Ha PYMeJIHnCKll5I 6enJIep6en.
2
OCTaBa n:a ra,UaeM
,Uanll CJIe,U na.uaHeTO Ha CaMOKOB HaCeJIeHlleTO Ha Pa3JIO)l(KO ce npe,UaBa Ha
3aBOeBaTeJIHTe llJIll OKa3Ba H5IKaKBa CbrrpOTllBa. KaKbBTo II ,Ua e CJIYQa5IT,
OCMaHCKHTe a.uMllHllCTpaTllBHll ,UOKYMeHTll OT nO-KbCHO BpeMe CBll,UeTeJIC-
TBaT 3a HeHapymeHocTTa Ha cpe,UHOBeKOBHaTa CeJIllIUHa Mpe)l(a, KoeTO no,U-
CKa3Ba, Qe CbTpeCeHll5ITa OKOJIO OCMaHCKOTO OBJIa,U5IBaHe Ha Pa3JIO)KKO ca
6llJIll He3HaQllTeJIHll.
AKO CBe.ueHll5ITa 3a 3aBJIa.u5IBaHeTO ca OCKb.uHll, TO 3a nepllo,Ua OT
TOBa cb6llTHe ,UO HaQanOTO Ha XVI B., KoraTO ceJIllU,aTa OT panOHa ce rr05I-
B5IBaT B OCMaHCKllTe perllCTpll, TaKllBa HanbJIHO JIllnCBaT. TaKa ce 0<pOPM5I
XllaTYc OT OKOJIO BeK II nOJIOBllHa, 3a KonTO He pa3nOJIaraMe C HllKaKBa llH-
I KCL7Ul/UH, M. KopOHa Ha I1cTopHIHe Ha Xon)Ka Canennl1H. IlbpBa 4acT, BeJlI1KO TbPHOBO,
2000, c. 186.
2 3a 0630p Ha cb6l1TI151Ta B)K. inalclk, H. "Murad I" B Tiirkiye Diyanet Vakfi islam
Ansiklopedisi. B)K. CblllO Koea'-lee, P. CaMOKOB 11 CaMOKOBCKaTa Ka3a npe3 XVI BeK cnopen
onl1cl1 OT I1cTaH6YJlcKI151 OCMaHCKI1 apXI1B, C., 2001; CeMepOJICUee, Xp. CaMoKoB 11 OKOJIHO-
CTTa My. Ilpl1HOC KbM MI1HaJlOTO 11M OT TypCKOTO 3aBOeBaHI1e no OCBo6o)KneHl1eTO, COQHl5l,
1913; TeAteJ7CKU, Xp. CaMoKoB npe3 Bb3pa)J<naHeTo, C., 2000.
<popMaU)UI OTHOCHO cliTyaUIUITa II rrpOueCIITe B Pa3JIO)KKaTa KOTJIOBIIHa.
E,UIIHCTBeHO Ha6a3aTa Ha rrO-KbCHIITe OCMaHCKII 113TOqHIIUIl 611XMe MOrJIll
,Ua rrpe,UrrOJIO)KIIM, qe rrpeXO,UbT KbM OCMaHCKa BJIaCT e 06mo B3eTO rrJIaBeH II
rrOCJIe,UCTBIl5ITa OT pa3pYIlIeHIl5ITa, ,UOKOJIKOTO e IIMaJIO TaKIIBa, ca rrpeo,Uo-
JIeHll, 3amOTO B TOBa BpeMe pailOHbT ycrr5IBa ,Ua ce Bb3CTaHOBII HarrbJIHO.
CbmeCTBYBa JJ:bJIra Cepll5I OT TeMaTllqHO II XpOHOJIOrllqHO rrO,U6paHII
apXIIBHIl ,UOKYMeHTll, CbXpaH5IBaHII B I1cTaH6YJICKIl5I OCMaHCKII apXIIB II
OplleHTaJICKIl5I OT,UeJI Ha HapO,UHaTa 6116JIIIOTeKa B CO<pIl5I, KOIITO Hail-06mo
rrOKpIIBaT 06IlIllPHIl5I rrepIIO,U OT rrbpBIITe rOJJ:IIHII Ha XVI )];0 Cpe)];aTa Ha XIX
B. T0311 rroJJ:6paH 113BOPOB MaTepllaJI rrpe)];JIara COJIll)];Ha OCHOBa 3a 3a)];bJI60-
qeHII Ha6JIID,UeHIl5I BbPXY )];eMOrpa<pcKoTo II COUllaJIHO-IIKOHOMllqeCKOTO
pa3BIITlle Ha Pa3JIor II rrpllJIe)KamliTe My CeJIa rrpe3 rrO-rOJI5IMara qaCT OT
rrepIIO,Ua Ha OCMaHCKa BJIaCT B pailOHa. I1H<p0pMaUIl5ITa, Cb,U'hp)Kama ce B
HerO, e C BIICOKO HIIBO Ha ,UOCTOBepHOCT II rrpe)];OCTaB5I Ha 113CJIe)];OBaTeJIIITe
Bb3MO)KHOCT ,Ua II3rpa)];5IT OTHOCIITeJIHO rrJIbTHa KapTIIHa Ha Pa3JIor II Hace-
JIeHlleTO My rrpe3 XVI-XIX B., KaKTO II )];a rrpOCJIe)];5IT )];IlHaMIIKaTa Ha rrpo-
MeHIITe B pa3BIITlleTO Ha Pa3JIO)KKaTa KOTJIOBIIHa.
Cepll5ITa OT OCMaHCKII apXIIBHIl ,UOKYMeHTII BKJIIDLIBa )];Ba)];eCeT II
qeTllpli Pa3JIllqHll rro Bll,U II BpeMe Ha T5IXHOTO CbCTaB5IHe orrllCHII perllCTpll,
KOIITO ca Cb3.ua)];eHII 3a HY)K)];IlTe Ha ueHTpaJIHaTa IIMrrepCKa a)];MIIHIICTpaUIl5I
II OCBeH ueHHII CBe.ueHIl5I 3a 6p05I Ha XPIICTIl5IHIITe II MIDCIDJIMaHIITe, Hace-
JI5IBamli pailOHa, Cb)];bp)Ka II pe)];llua rrO)];aTKII 3a )];aHbqHIITe 3a.ubJI)KeHIl5I Ha
HaCeJIeHlleTO TaM. Hail-paHHII rro XpOHOJIOrII5I ca TaKa HapeqeHIITe Tarry Tax-
pllp perllCTpli B T5IXHaTa Pa3HOBll)];HOCT Ha CbKpaTeHII II rro,Up06Hll orrIICll,
KOIITO ca OCHOBeH 113BOP 3a 113CJIe)];BaHeTO Ha )];eMOrpa<pCKaTa II COUllaJIHO-
llKOHOMllqeCKaTa llCTOPIl5I Ha OCMaHCKaTa IIMrrepll5I rrpe3 XV II XVI B. KbM
T5IX MoraT .ua 6b.uaT )];06aBeHII )];Ba rrO)];p06Hll orrllca Ha HaCeJIeHlleTO, BKJIID-
qeHO B 3eMIITe II Ha rrpIIXO)];IlTe, 3aqllCJIeHII KbM IIMrrepcKIITe 6JIarOTBOpll-
TeJIHII <poH.uaUllli (BaKb<pll), KOIITO Ha CBoil pe.u rrpe)];CTaBJI5IBaT OCHOBeH 113-
TOqHIIK 3a OHa311 qaCT OT HaCeJIeHlleTO Ha Pa3JIO)KKO, K05ITO He e BKJIIDqeHa B
perllCTpIITe Ha .uaHbqHaTa CIICTeMa. 3a nepIIO)];a CJIe)]; HaqaJIOTO Ha XVII B.
)];0 cpe.uaTa Ha XIX B. HaIlIIITe Ha6JIID,UeHIl5I rrOqllBaT Ha 113KJIIDLIIITeJIHO Ba-
)KHIITe perllcTpli 3a cb611paHeTo Ha rrOrOJIOBHIl5I )];aHbK cpe,U HeMIDCIDJIMaHll-
Te ()];)KIl311e) , OT KOIITO IIMaMe Ha pa3rrOJIo)J{eHlle Cepll5I OT oceM )];OKYMeHTa,
H5IKOll OT KOIITO rry6JIIIKYBaHII B rrOpe)];lluaTa "TYPCKII 113BOPII 3a 6bJIrapCKa-
Ta llCTOPIl5I". OCBeH 6po5I Ha nJIaTUIITe Ha )];)KIl311e, Te3II .uoKYMeHTII Cb)];bP-
)KaT II pe.ullua JIID60rrllTHII II Ba)KHII rrOJJ:p06HOCTll, KaTO <p1l311qeCKO orrllca-
Hlle Ha OT.ueJIHIITe 06JIO)KeHII JIIIua llJIII T5IXHOTO MOMeHTHO <pllHaHCOBO CbC-
T05IHlle, crrope)]; KoeTO Te ca pa3)];eJIeHII Ha Tpll rpyrrll - BIICIlIa, Cpe)];Ha II
HIICIlIa. Te CbOTBeTCTBaT Ha JIIIua CbC 3aBll)];HO 6JIarOCbCT05IHlle, T.e. 60raTll;
Ha TaKIIBa, qllliTO )];OXO.ull He ca rOJIeMll, HO IIM rr03BOJI5IBaT rro.u.ubp)KaHeTO
54
Ha CpaBHIITeJIHO CrrOKOeH )KllBOT; II Ha JJ:aHbKOrrJIaTUli C He3aBllJJ:HO <pllHaH-
COBO CbCT05IHlle, 06eJJ:llHeHll B rpyrraTa Ha 6eJJ:H5IUliTe.
)::{orrbJIHllTeJIHll CBeJJ:eHll5I 3a HaCeJIeHlleTO Ha Pa3JIO)KKaTa KOTJIOBliHa
ca 113BJIeqeHll OT MaJIKO rr03HaT, HO 113KJIIOqllTeJIHO 3HaqllM 113BOP OT Kpa5I Ha
XVIII B. - perliCThpbT Ha rapaHTliTe (Ke<paJIeT JJ:e<pTepll). TIocTaBeHa rrpeJJ:
rOJIeMliTe 113rrllTaHll5I Ha aHapXll5ITa, 06XBaHaJIa eBporreMcKliTe rrpOBliHUlili
Ha OCMaHcKaTa llMrrepll5I B Kpa5I Ha XVIII II HaqaJIOTO Ha XIX B. (T.Hap. Kbp-
JJ:)I(aJIliMCKli BpeMeHa), ueHTpaJIHaTa BJIaCT rrpeJJ:rrplieMa pe,Ullua CTbrrKli B
orrllTliTe Cll ,Ua OrpaHllqll IlIlipemaTa ce rrpeCTbrrHOCT II 6e33aKoHlle.
3
qacT OT
Te311 YCliJIll5I e CbCTaB5IHeTO Ha perllCTpli Ha HaCeJIeHlleTO rro MeCTa II 06BbP-
3BaHeTO My rro CliCTeMaTa Ha KOJIeKTllBHaTa OTrOBopHOCT, rrpll K05ITO )KllTe-
JIliTe II rrbpBeHUliTe Ha JJ:aJJ:eHll HaCeJIeHll MeCTa rapaHTlipaT eJJ:llH 3a ,Upyr, qe
H5IMa JJ:a ce aHra)l(llpaT B rrpOTllB03aKOHHa JJ:eMHOCT II ce 3aJJ:bJI)KaBaT JJ:a rrpe-
CJIeJJ:BaT II JJ:OKJIa,UBaT 3a BCllqKll rrpeCTbrrJIeHll5I, 113BbpIlIeHll OT qJIeHOBeTe
Ha 06mHOCTTa.
4
Pe3YJITaT OT Te311 MepKll ca perllCTpliTe Ha rapaHTllTe, KOliTO
CbJJ:bp)l(aT llMeHaTa II llH<popMaUll5I 3a Mb)KKOTO HaCeJIeHlle Ha eJJ:HO llJIli
JJ:pyro CeJIlime 6e3 orneJJ: Ha HerOBaTa peJIllrll03Ha rrpliHaJJ:JIe)KHOCT. I13rrOJI3-
BaHll5IT TyK perllCTbp OT 1797 r. e eJJ:llHCTBeHll5IT JJ:OCTbrreH Hll 113BOP, KOMTO
611 MOrbJI JJ:a rrpeJJ:ocTaBli JJ:aHHll He caMO 3a 6p05I Ha XPllCTll5IHllTe B Pa3JIO)K-
KO, HO CbmO TaKa II 3a rrpllCbCTBlieTO II pa3Mepa Ha 3HaqllTeJIHa rpyrra OT
MIOCIOJIMaHli TaM.
ITpeJJ:ll JJ:a rrpeMliHeM KbM pa3rJIe)l(JJ:aHe Ha llH<popMaUll5ITa, CbJJ:bp-
)Kama ce B OCMaHCKliTe JJ:OKYMeHTll, e pe)J:HO JJ:a HarrpaBliM H5IKOJIKO He06xo-
JJ:llMli yroBopKll OTHOCHO xapaKTepa Ha Te311 113BOpli. Te H5IMaT rrOTeHUllaJI 3a
113BbpIlIBaHe Ha MOJJ:epHli JJ:eMorpa<pCKli rrpoyqBaHll5I, 3amOTO ca CbCTaBeHll
rro rrOpbqKa Ha ueHTpaJIHaTa llMrrepcKa aJJ:MllHllcTpaUll5I II OTpa35IBaT eJJ:llHc-
TBeHO CbOTBeTHliTe Heo6xoJJ:llMOCTli Ha OCMaHCKaTa KaHueJIapll5I. B T0311
CMllCbJI Te He ca rrpe6pOllTeJIHll crrllCbUli Ha HaCeJIeHlleTO, rrOJJ:06Hll Ha MO-
JJ:epHliTe liM aHaJI0311, a rrpeJJ:JIaraT llH<popMaUll5I eJJ:llHCTBeHO 3a ,UaHbKOrrJIa-
TUliTe B CbOTBeTHOTO CeJIllme, KaTO TaKa ueJIli rpyrrll, KOliTO ca oCB060JJ:eHll
OT JJ:aHbqHll 3a,UbJI)KeHll5I KbM JJ:bp)KaBaTa, OCTaBaT 113BbH T5IX. Ta311 II ome
peJJ: JJ:pyrll oc06eHocTli Ha Pa3JIllqHllTe rro Bll,U OCMaHCKli perllcTpli 11311CKBaT
JJ:a ce rroJJ:xo)l(,Ua C oc06eHo BHllMaHlie II clicTeMaT1l311paHaTa OT T5IX llHCpOp-
MaUll5I JJ:a 6bJJ:e pa3rJIe)KJJ:aHa rro-cKopO KaTO 06mll TeHJJ:eHUlili B JJ:eMorpa<pC-
KliTe rrpouecll B perlioHa, OTKOJIKOTO KaTO a6COJIIOTHO TOqHll II KaTerOpllqHll
JJ:aHHll 3a HaCeJIeHlleTO Ha Pa3JIO)KKO rrpe3 eJJ:llH llJIli JJ:pyr rreplloJJ:.
3 nepHO,UbT Ha aHapXI151Ta B PYMeJlH5I e H3l.JepnaTeJlHO pa3rJle,UaH B MymacjJlIUeBa, B. - B.
Kbp,U)!{aJlI1HCKO BpeMe, c., 1977.
4 I1BaHoBa, CB. I1HCTI1TYTbT Ha KOJleKTHBHaTa oTroBopHoCT B 6bJlrapCKHTe rpa,UoBe npe3
XV-XVIII B. - I1cTOpHl.JeCKI1 nperJle,U, 1990, N ~ d , 33-44.
55
Han-paHHH5IT OT rrOpe,L(H[(aTa Tarry TaXpHp perHCTpH, B KOHTO IIMaMe
Bb3MO)KHOCTTa ,na OTKplIeM Pa3JIor II rrpIIJIe)Ka1[(HTe My ceJIa, ,L(aTlIpa OT
1516 r.
5
Tp5l6Ba ,na ce oT6eJIe)KH, qe TOBa He e rrbpBlI5IT perlICTbp Ha 06JIaCT-
Ta 1I3061[(0, a e Han-paHH1I5IT 3arra3eH ,L(OKYMeHT OT T031I BII,L(. Pe,L(lI[(a rro,naT-
KII COqaT, qe rrpe,L(1I CbCTaB5IHeTO My e IIMano rrOHe ,L(Be IIJIII TpH rrpe,L(HlIlHII
perlICTpa[(1I1I Ha Pa3JIor II OKOJIHOCTTa MY, HO Te31I rro-paHHII orrlICII ca IIJIII
1I3ry6eHlI ,nHec, HJIII Herr03HaTlI 3a aBTopa Ha TOBa 1I3CJIe,L(BaHe. Tarry TaXplIp
ca 1I3rOTB5IHlI rro rrOpbqKa Ha [(eHTpanHaTa a,L(MIIHIICTpa[(1I5I II
rrpe,L(OCTaB5IT 3a pa3rrpe,L(eJIeHlIeTO Ha rrplIxo,nIITe OT rrpOBIIH-
UIIIITe, rrpe,nHa3HaqeHII 3a 1I3,L(pb)KKaTa Ha crraXlInCKaTa KOHHII[(a. Te ca rrbp-
BOKJIaCeH 1I3TOqHHK C BIICOKO HIIBO Ha ,L(OCTOBepHocT, HO rrplITe)KaBaT II H5I-
KOII HeII36e)l(HII OrpaHlIqeHlI5I. KaTo OTpa351BaT pa3rrpe,L(eJIeHlIeTO Ha rrplIxo-
,nIITe 3a 1I3,L(pb)KKaTa Ha apMlI5ITa, Te31I perlIcTplI YKa3BaT TOqHO rrplIxo,n01I3-
TOqHII[(HTe II 06JIO)KeHIITe C ,L(aHbK JIII[(a. B T031I CMHCbJI Te ca Ba)KeH II rro,L(-
p06eH 1I3BOP 3a ,L(aHbKOrrJIaTUIITe - XPlICTlI5IHlI II MIOCIOJIMaHII B panOHa Ha
Pa3JIor. TIo CIIJIaTa Ha Cb1[(eCTBYBa1[(1I5I rrOp5l,L(bK B IIMrreplI5ITa ce 1I3KJIIOqBaT
BClIqKII OHe31I JIII[(a, KOHTO ca OCB060,L(eHII OT rrJIa1[(aHeTO Ha ,naHbUII II Te He
ce rr05lB5IBaT B perlICTplITe - HarrplIMep KJIaCaTa Ha BoeHHIITe, BIICIIllITe IIC-
JI5IMCKII ,L(YXOBHII[(1I H T.H. 3aTOBa rrpI1 orrlITIITe 3a eBeHTyaJIHII 1I3QlICJIeHH5I
Ha HaCeJIeHlIeTO HeI13MeHHO 61I CJIe,L(BanO ,L(a ce rrpe,L(BII)K,L(a II H5IKaKBa He1I3-
BeCTHa QaCT, K05lTO ,e OCTaHana 1I3BbH CTaTIICTIIKa Ha OCMaHC-
KaTa a,L(MIIHIICTpa[(1I5I.
6
j:(aHHHTe OT perlICTbpa rrOKa3BaT, Qe rrpe3 1516 r. B panOHa Ha Pa3JIor
)KIIBee 3HaQlITeJIHa II KOMrraKTHa rpyrra OT 6bJIrapCKO XPlICTlI5IHCKO HaCeJIe-
HlIe. TYK ca perlIcTplIpaHII 061[(0 1 928 XPlICTlI5IHCKlI ,L(OMaKIIHCTBa, 26 He-
)KeHeHII 6bJIrapCKlI MJIa,L(e)KII, 28 ,L(OMaKIIHCTBa Ha XPlICTlI5IHCKlI B,L(OBIIUII II
e,L(Ba 10 ,L(OMaKHHCTBa Ha MIOCIOJIMaHII 3ae,L(HO C e,nIIH He)KeHeH MIOCIOJIMa-
HIIH. B rpy61I 1[(PIIXH TOBa 03HaQaBa, Qe B HaQanOTO Ha XVI B. OKO)10 ,L(ece-
TIIHa XIIJI5I,L(1I 6bJIrapH )KIIBe5lT B Pa3JIor II OKOJIHIITe My ceJIa naHCKO, naH5I,
naQeBO, neJIlIua II ManKa neJIlIua, fO,L(JIeBo, fopHO II j:(OJIHO j:(parJ1lI1[(e II
j:(06bpCKO. TIpe,nOCMaHCKaTa CeJIII1[(Ha Mpe)l(a 1I3rJIe)K,L(a cJIa60 3acerHaTa OT
5 Ba$bakanhk Osmanh Ar$ivi, istanbul (BOA), Tapu Tahrir Defterleri (=TD) 77.
6 OTHOCHO Hallima Ha CbCTaB5IHe Ha maxpup .ll.eq>TepI1Te, xapaKTepHI1Te 11M oco6eHOCTl1 11
Hel136e1KHI1Te OrpaHI111eHI15I BIK. npe.ll.rOBOpbT KbM inalczk, H. Hicrl 835 Tarihli S(tret-
iDejter-i Sancak-i Arvanid (Ankara: TUrk Tarih Kurumu, 1954); Beldiceanu, N. 11 If.
Beldiceanu-Steinherr. "Reglement ottoman concernant Ie recensement (premiere moitie du
XVI
e
siec1e)." Siidost-Forschungen 37 (1978): 1-40; Barkan, O. L. "Research on the
Ottoman Fiscal Surveys." B: Cook, M. A. (CbCT.), Studies in the Economic HistOlY of the
Middle East from the Rise of Islam to the Present Day (London: Oxford University Press,
1970), 163-171; LOWlY, H. "The Ottoman Tahrir Dejierleri as a Source for Social and
Economic History: Pitfalls and Limitations." B: idem, Studies in Dejier%gy: Ottoman
Society in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries (Istanbul: ISIS Press, 1992), 3-18.
56
3aBoeBaHMeTO, a cpaBHeHO C'bC C'bCe.IJ:Ha TpaKM5I, I"bCTOTaTa Ha HaceneHMeTO
M3rne)K,ua 3HallMTenHa.
HaH-rOn5lMOTO cenMIUe B paHOHa 6e3cnopHO e rpa,u Pa3nor (Mexo-
MMe), KOHTO MMa 580 XPMCTM5IHCKM ,uOMaKMHCTBa, 3ae,uHO C 11 He)KeHeHM M 8
B,uOBMUM M nOllTM He3a6ene)KMMO MIOCIOnMaHCKO ManUMHCTBO OT 5 ,uOMa-
KMHCTBa M 1 He)KeHeH MIOcIOnMaHMH.
7
C HaceneHMe OT OKono 2 500 - 3 000
,uyllIM TOH He caMO ce OTnMllaBa KaTO HaH-rOn5lMOTO cenMIUe B perMOHa, HO
C'bIUO TaKa no HMIUO He OTCT'bnBa Ha H5IKOM OT 3HallMMMTe ,uHec rpa,uOBe B
n'bJIrapM5I. 3a cpaBHeHMe MO)KeM ,ua oT6eJIe)KMM, lle Pa3JIor MHorOKpaTHO
npeB'b3XO)K,ua rp. Da3ap,u)KMK, KOHTO no TOBa BpeMe Ha6po5lBa e,uBa OKOJIO
200 ,uoMaKMHcTBa
8
M e HanpMMep ,uBOHHO nO-rOJI5IM OT Ba)KeH rpa,u KaTO yI3-
9
HMK (HMKe5l) B .IJ:H. TYPUM5I. DJIOB,uMB, rJIaBeH rpa.IJ: Ha perMoHa, npe3 1516 r.
HMa e,uBa OKono 300 ,uOMaKMHCTBa B nOBelle OT Pa3nor, HO XPMCTM5IHCKaTa
06IUHOCT TaM e 3HallMTeJIHO nO-Man06poHHa.
1O
Do TOBa BpeMe rpa,u'bT e pa3-
,ueJIeij Ha lleTMpM MaxanM, HoceIUM MMeHaTa Ha CBeIUeHOCJIY)KMTeJIMTe, KOMTO
rH OrJIaB5IBaT - non HoaH, non HMKOJIa, non HJIM5I M non To.IJ:op, a o6mo B
Hero ca 3anHcaHM oceM npaKTHKYBamM CBemeHMUM. KaTo rJIaBHO H HaH-
rOJI5IMO CeJIMme B OKOJIHOCTTa rpa,u'bT HOCM Ha OCMaHCKaTa xa3Ha H HaH-
rOJI5IM npMXO.IJ: - 3HallMTenHaTa cYMa OT 26 343 aKlleTa.
11
,upyrM CeJIMma B paHOHa npe3 1516 r. ce M3npaB5IT KaTO ,uOCTOH-
HH KOHKypeHTH Ha M C TelleHMe Ha BpeMeTo pa3BMTMeTo MM me ,uoro-
HH H ,uOpM M3npeBapM HerOBOTO. Do TOBa BpeMe naHcKo e M3U5IJIO 6'bJIrapCKO
H MMa 361 XPMCTM5IHCKM ,uOMaKHHCTBa H 3 B,uOBMllIKM, o6cnY)KBaHH OT ,uBaMa
CBemeHMKa, a 06mM5IT npHxo,u B'b3nM3a Ha 20 790 aKlleTa. 3HallMMO
CeJIHme B perMoHa e nenMua, B K05lTO npe3 1516 r. )KMBe5lT 342 6'bJIrapCKH -
XPHCTH5IHCKM H 4 MIOCIOnMaHCKH ,uOMaKHHCTBa. DpoM3xo,u'bT Ha MIOCIOJIMa-
HMTe B EeJIHua no BC5IKa Bep05lTHOCT Tp5l6Ba ,ua e MeCTeH, T'bH KaTO 3a ,uBaMa
OT o6mo lleTMpMTe rJIaBH Ha ,uOMaKHHCTBa e oT6eJI5I3aHO, lle ca n'bpBO nOKO-
7 BOA TD 77, pp. 612-617; CpaBHI1 c npeBona Ha nOKYMeHTa y KOBa4eB, P. CaMoKoBcKaTa
Ka3a ... , 123-200.
8 B)l(. EOHKOB, rp. TaTap Da3apn)l(I1K OT OCHOBaBaHeTO Ha rpana no Kpa51 Ha XVII BeK. 1'13-
CJIenBaHI151 11 nOKYMeHTI1. c., 2008, c. 111.
9 Lowry, H. "Ottoman iznik (Nicaea): Through the Eyes of Travelers & as Recorded in
Administrative Documents, 1331-1923" B idem. Dejterology Revisited: Studies on the /5
'h
&
/6
th
Century Ottoman Society, Istanbul: ISIS Pres, 2008, 121.
10 EOHKOB, rp. ETHOpeJIl1rI103HI151T 06JIl1K Ha OCMaHCKI151 rpan cDl1JIl16e - Kpa51 Ha XV-
Ha'"IaJIOTO Ha XVI BeK. - B: E. PanyweB 11 CT. cDeTBan)l(l1eBa (CbCT.), EaJIKaHCKI1 I1neHTI14-
HOCTI1, T. III. COQ)J151, 2003, c. 147. ):(onbJIHI1TeJIHa I1HcpopMaUI151 3a npyrl1 rpanoBe no EaJI-
KaHI1Te y Barkan, O. L. "Quelques remarques sur la constitution sociale et demographique
des villes balkaniques au cours des XV
e
et XVI
e
siec1es." B: Istanbul a la jonction des
cultures balkaniques, mediterraneennes, slaves et orientales, (lUX XVle-XIXe sieeles
(Bucarest: Association Internationale d' Etudes du Sud-Est Europeen, 1977), 279-301.
II BOA TD 77, p. 617.
57
JIeHlIe MIOCIOJIMaHlI, T.e. 06pbmeHUli B lICJI5IMa.
12
EeJIlIua CbmO HOCli 3HaqlI-
TeJIeH nplIXO)], Ha )],bp)l{aBHaTa Xa3Ha OT 17 433 aKqeTa 13 1I e 06CJIY)l{BaHa OT
nOHe )],BaMa CBemeHlIKa. B HenOCpe,n:CTBeHa 6JI1I30CT )],0 He5I ce HaMlipa ce-
JIOTO EeJIlIqe-li KIOqIOK lIJIli MaJIKa EeJIlIua, KOeTO npe3 XVII B. ce nplICbe-
,n:lIH5IBa KbM nO-rOJI5IMaTa EeJIlIua 1I 06pa3YBaT e,n:HO 06mo CeJIlime. CllOpe,n:
)J,aHHlITe OT perlICTbpa OT 1516 r. MaJIKa EeJIlIua liMa 46 )],OMaKlIHCTBa lIJIli
OKOJIO 200-250 )KlITeJIlI, ,n:o e,n:lIH XPliCTlI5IHlI.
14
OCMaHCKlI5IT perlIcTpaTop e
oT6eJI5I3aJI, qe B npe,n:lIIIIHlI5I EeJIlIua e CbCTaBeHa OT Tpli qaCTlI,
KOliTO ca ce CJIeJIli B ceraIIIHlITe ,n:Be qaCTli - EeJIlIqe 1I EeJIlIqe-li KIOqIOK.
IS
EaH5I,16 EaqeBO, rO,n:JIeBO 1I ca nOqTlI paBHlI no 6pOH )KlI-
TeJIli - OKOJIO 120-150 XPliCTlI5IHCKli )J,OMaKlIHCTBa, KaTO e,n:lIHCTBeHO B
6bPCKO, 06CJIY)KBaHO OT qeTlipliMa CBemeHlIUlI, liMa perlICTplipaHO e,n:HO
e,n:lIHCTBeHO ,n:OMaKlIHCTBO Ha MIOCIOJIMaHlI, HaH-Bep05ITHO MeCTHli 06Pb-
meHUli B lICJI5IMa. HaH-MaJI06pOHHlI llpe3 1516 r. ca pa3nOJIO)KeHlITe B 6JIlI-
30CT e,n:HO ,n:o ,n:pyro ceJIa rOpHO 1I KOliTO OCBeH qe ca 1I3-
U5IJIO XPliCTlI5IHCKlI, ca 1l0qTlI paBHlI no 6p05I Ha )I{lITeJIliTe Cli - OKOJIO oceM-
,n:eceT-)],eBeT,n:eceT )],OMaKlIHCTBa. 17 3a oT6eJI5I3BaHe e, qe B cpaBHlITeJIHO MaJI-
KOTO no HaCeJIeHlIe CeJIlime KaTO ca perlICTplipaHli ueJIli
neTliMa CBemeHlIUli - aKT, KOHTO no,n:CKa3Ba 3a HaJIlIqlIeTO Ha IIIKOJIa lIJIli
18
,n:pyr npliTeraTeJIeH XPliCTlI5IHCKli UeHTbp B CeJIOTO.
CJIe)],BamlI5IT XpOHOJIOrlIqeCKli perlICTbp e CbKpaTeH (lI)],)KMaJI) ,n:e-
Tep 1I )],aTlipa OT e,n:Ba H5IKOJIKO ro,n:lIHlI nO-KbCHO, KaTO e CbCTaBeH HaH-
19
Bep05ITHO B caMOTO HaqaJIO Ha 20-Te ro,n:lIHlI Ha XVI B. 113MeHeHlI5ITa npe3
T031I KpaTbK neplIo,n: Me)l{,n:y ,n:BeTe perlIcTpaUlIlI, KaKTO MO)Ke ,n:a ce OqaKBa,
ca He3HaqlITeJIHlI, HO Bce llaK ce 3a6eJI5I3Ba, qe HaCeJIeHlIeTO Ha Pa3JIor,
1I e JIeKO HapaCHaJIO, ,n:OKaTO B OCTaHaJIliTe ce-
JIlima ce Ha6JIIO)],aBa MaJIbK cna,n:. TOBa HaB5IpHO 61I MOrJIO )],a 6b,n:e 065ICHeHO
C BbTpeiliHa MlirpaUlI5I 1I pa3MeCTBaHe 1I3 perlIoHa.
20
IlPlIxo,n:lITe OT Pa3JIO)l{-
KO OCTaBaT HenpoMeHeHlI, KoeTO no,n:CKa3Ba, qe MO)Ke 61I lICKaJIHaTa qaCT B
12 B I1CTOpllOrpaqHulTa OT)l.aBHa e npl1eTO, 4e J1I1uaTa, OmlCaHI1 B perl1CTpl1Te KaTO "CI1H Ha
A6)l.Yflflax" ca 06pbllleHUl1 B I1Cfl5lMa nbpBO nOKOfleHl1e. A6)l.Yflflax B CflY4a51 e "cflY)f{e6eH"
naTpOHI1M, )l.aBaH Ha HeoqmTI1Te OT OCMaHCKaTa a)l.MI1HI1CTpaUI151.
13 CpaBHI1 C Koeal.Jee, P. U,I1T. Cb4., c. 175 - rpewHo 18443.
14 B)f{. Dpl1flO)f{eHl1e I.
15 BOA TD 77, p.
16 CeflO EaH5I e 3anl1CaHO Ha )l.Be pa3fll14Hl1 MeCTa B perl1CTbpa, KaTO e oT6efl5l3aHO, 4e 4aCT
OT )f{I1Tefll1Te My B MI1HaflOTO ca 6l1fll1 flOB)l.)f{i'Il1, HO cera ca BKfl104eHl1 KbM TI1MapCKaTa
CI1CTeMa. BOA TD 77, p. 630.
17 B)f{. DpHflO)f{eHHe I.
18 BOA TD 77, p. 797-798.
19BOA TD 73.
20 BOA TD 73, p. 106; npl1flO)f{eHl1e I.
58
perlICTbpa e 3alIMCTBaHa OT rrpe,uXO,uHII5I perlICTbp? 1 TPIi CeJIlima - naH5I,
naqeBO II MaJIKa neJIlIua, He <PlIryplipaT B T031I ,uOKYMeHT.
TIbpBIiTe rrO-3Haq1IMII 1I3MeHeHII5I ce 3a6eJI5I3BaT B perlICTbpa OT 1525
r.
22
TOH rrpe,uocTaB5I rro,upo6Ha IIH<p0pMaUII5I KaKTO 3a 1I3MeHeHII5ITa B )J(1I-
TeJICKII5I CbCTaB Ha Pa3JIO)KKO, TaKa II 3a rrpOM5IHaTa B CYMIITe, cb6lIpaHli OT
,uaHbKOrrJIaTUIITe, KOIiTO ca aKTYaJIlI3lIpaHli Cbo6pa3HO MOMeHTHOTO CbCT05I-
Hlie Ha ,ua,ueHOTO CeJIlime. Ome Ha rrpbB rrorJIe,u ce 3a6eJI5I3Ba, qe 06mOTO
qlICJIO Ha HaCeJIeHlIeTO B paHOHa e HaMaJI5IJIO qYBCTBIITeJIHO. B KpaTKII5I rre-
PIIO,u Me)K,uy ,uBeTe perlICTpaUli1i rOJIeMIiTe CeJIlima KaTO Pa3JIor II neJIlIua ca
3ary6lIJIli Me)J(,n:y rreT,ueceT II CTO ,uOMaKIIHCTBa.
23
TIO,u06HO pe,uYUlipaHe Ha
HaCeJIeHlIeTO 61I MOrJIO ,ua liMa KaTaCTpO<paJIHII rrOCJIe,uIIUIi 3a pa3BIITlieTO Ha
3acerHaTOTO CeJIlime. 3a rreplIO,u OT OKOJIO qeTlIplI-rreT ro,uIIHII ueHTbpbT Ha
perliOHa rp. Pa3JIor ry61I 6JIlI30 e,uHa qeTBbpT OT CBOIiTe )KIITeJIII, KaTO Ha-
MaJIeHlIeTO Ha XPIiCTII5IHIITe He e 3a CMeTKa Ha YBeJIlIqeHlIeTO Ha MIOCIOJIMa-
HIITe?4 Ta31I rrpOM5IHa liMa TpaeH HeranIBeH e<peKT BbPXY pa3BIITlieTO My II
,uo Kpa5I Ha XVI B. Pa3JIor rrpo,ubJI)KaBa ,ua ce CMaJI5IBa. 3a CbmlI5I rreplIo,u
EeJIlIu'a ry6H rrporrOpUIiOHaJIHO ,uBOHHO rrO-MaJIKO OT CBOHTe )KHTeJIH - <paKT,
KOHTO rrpe,uorrpe,ueJI5I Bb3CTaHOB5IBaHeTO Ha CeJIOTO B rrO-KpaTKII cpOKOBe.
Crra,ubT B rrO-MaJIKIITe CeJIlima Me)l(,uy ,uBeTe perHCTpaUIiH e rro-cJIa60 oce3a-
eM. KaTo U5IJIO, 3a CbBceM KpaTKo BpeMe o6moTO HaCeJIeHHe Ha Pa3JIO)KKO ce
r
CBIIBa C OKOJIO 18%. )
Tpy,uHO e ,ua ce rrOCOqlI TOqHaTa rrpHqHHa 3a rro,n:06Ho He6JIarOrrpH5I-
THO pa3BHTlIe, HO HaH-Bep05ITHOTO 065ICHeHHe Tp5I6Ba ,ua ce TbPCH B MHrpa-
UII5ITa KbM rrO-HHCKIiTe paBHHHHII paHOHIi II HaH-Beqe KbM TpaKII5I. TBbp,ue
Bb3MO)KHO e Te3H rrpoueCII ,n:a ca qaCT OT rOJI5IMa KaMrraHII5I Ha ueHTpaJIHaTa
BJIaCT, K05ITO ueJIIi rrpepa3rrpe,ueJI5IHe Ha HaCeJIeHlIeTO B eBporreHCKIiTe rrpo-
BHHUIiIi Ha IIMrreplI5ITa H OCHryp5IBaHeTO Ha 3aCeJIHlIUli B HOB03aBJIa,n:eHIITe
TepHTopHII Ha 3arra,u. TIO,u06HII Tpy,uHO 065ICHIiMII pe3KlI crra,uOBe MoraT ,ua
6b,uaT Ha6JIIO,uaBaHH H B pe,ulIua CeJIIiLUa Ha rOpHa TpaKII5I rrpe3 CbLUII5I rre-
PIIO,u. CbLUeCTBYBa Bep05ITHOCT qaCT OT HeHHOTO HaCeJIeHlIe ,ua e HaCOqeHO
Ha 3arra,u, a Ha HerOBO M5ICTO B paBHIIHaTa ,n:a ca ~ p e C e J I e H I I )KIITeJIIi OT rrJIa-
J I
- S)K. DpHflOiKeHHe IV. )l.aHHHTe B perHCTbpa OT 1520 r. ce pa3flHyaBaT ellHHCTBeHO 3a c. r.
)l.parnHIll.e.
22 BOA MAD 519.
J'
-j Do He5lCHa npHYHHa naHCKO He e BKflfOyeHO B pemCTbpa HflH e 6HflO onHcaHO Ha CTpaHH-
UH, KOHTO nO-KbCHO ca 6HflH H3ry6eHH.
24 06ll1,OTO HacefleHHe Ha Pa3flor B nepHolla 1520-1525 r. ce CBHBa C 20%, KoeTO e 3HaYHTe-
fleH cnall. BbnpeKH, ye 06ll1,OTO HacefleHHe Ha Pa3flor HaMaJ151Ba, perHCTbpbT oT6efl5l3Ba no-
BHCOKa cyMa KaTO 06ll1, npHxoll OT CeflHllI,eTO. TIpOM5IHaTa ce llbfl)KH Ha YBeflHyaBaHe Ha
npHxollHTe OT 3bpHeHH xpaHH.
25 TbH KaTO naHCKO flHnCBa B perHCTbpa OT 1525 r., npH cpaBHeHHeTo ca H3nOfl3BaHH llaH-
HHTe 3a naHcKo OT 1530 r.
59
HHHCKHTe paliOHH KaTO Pa3rrO)KKO. Pa3BHTHeTO Ha rp. TIa3ap)J)KHK rrpe3 T03H
nepHO,n 6H MOrrrO ,[(a rrOTB'bp,nH rro,n06Ho rrpe,nrrOrrO)KeHHe. TIpe3 1525 r. TyK
3a rrp'bB rr'bT ce n05IB5IBa XPHCTH5IHCKa Maxarra, K05ITO e H3U5IrrO C'bCTaBeHa OT
npHIlI'brrUH. OCMaHCKH5IT perHcTpaTop qeCTO oT6err5I3Ba OTK'b,ne ca ,nOllirrH
HOBorr05IBHrrHTe ce B rpa,na XPHCTH5IHH, KaTO TaKa HH OCTaB5I Ba)KHO CBH,ne-
TerrCTBO, qe B rOrr5IMaTa CH qaCT Te rrpOH3XO)l(,naT OT pai1:oHa Ha Pa3rror. TaKa
H3Me)K,ny 3arrHcaHHTe rr'bpBH XPHCTH5IHCKH )l(HTerrH Ha TIa3ap,n)KHK HMa H,L(-
BamH OT fo,nrreBO, EerrHua H 5IKopy,na.
26
TOBa Ba)KHO cBe,neHHe 6H Morrro ,na
e rrOKa3aTerrHO 3a ,neMorpacpCKHTe npouecH B Pa3rrO)KKO rrpe3 rr'bpBaTa norro-
BHHa Ha XVI B. 5IBHO pai1:oH'bT e C'bC corrH,neH rrpHpaCT, KOMTO CKOPO ce npe-
Bp'bma B H3rrHIlI'bK. Toi1: OT CB05I CTpaHa e TrraCHaT OT ueHTparrHaTa BrraCT
K'bM paBHHHHHTe pai1:oHH, a Bep05ITHO H e,nHa qaCT OT HacerreHHeTO MHrpHpa
,n06pOBorrHO B npceHe Ha rro-6rrarOrrpH5ITHH B'b3MO)KHOCTH 3a pa60Ta H rrpe-
xpaHa. fpa,nOBe KaTO TIrrOB,nHB H TIa3ap,n)l(HK Ha ceBep H Cepec, ,UpaMa H
,UeMHpXHcap Ha lOr ca eCTeCTBeH rrpHTeraTerreH UeHT'bP 3a MH03HHa, ,nOKaTO
,npyrH rrpe,nrrOqHTaT OKorrHHTe cerra, K'b,neTO Bce ome HMa cB060,nHa 06pa60-
TBaeMa 3eM5I.
27
TIpOUeC'bT Ha MHrpaUH5I K'bM paBHHHHTe qaCTH MO)Ke ,na 6'b,ne 5ICHO
3aCBH,neTerrCTBaH H OT crre,nBamH5I perHCT'bp. TIo BCHqKO rrHqH, LIe npe3 1530
r. cna,n'bT Ha XPHCTH5IHCKOTO HacerreHHe Ha Pa3rror H OKorrHHTe My cerra rrpo-
,n'brr)l(aBa. TaKa 3a LIeTHpHHai1:ceTTe ro,nHHH Me)K,ny 1516 J:I 1530 rp. Pa3rror
ce CBHBa nOqTH HarrorroBHHa: OT 580 XPHCTH5IHCKH ,nOMaKHHCTBa Ha e,nBa
314.
28
Cxo,[(Ha, HO He TaKa ,npaMaTHqHa e KapTHHaTa H B OCTaHarrHTe cerrH-
6
29 L'
ma - EerrHua ce CMarr5IBa Ha 289 ,nOMaKHHCTBa rrpH 342 rrpe3 151 , vaHCKO
C'bmO 3ary6Ba rreT,neceTHHa ,nOMaKHHCTBa. Cpe,n Hai1:-3acerHaTHTe MoraT
C'bmO ,na 6'b,naT rrOCOqeHH H f. ,UparrrHme, fo,nrreBo H ,U06'bPCKO, KOHTO 3a
LIeTHpHHai1:ceT ro,nHHH ry65IT OKorro 300/0 OT HacerreHHeTO CH.
30
B rro-crra6a
CTerreH Te3H rrpoueCH ce OTHaC5IT 3a EaH5I, Ea'(IeBo H ,U. ,UparrrHme, qHeTO
HacerreHHe HaMarr5IBa Me)K,ny 1516 H 1530 r. C 15-200/0.
3l
B ro,nHHHTe crre,n 1530 r. ce crryqBaT H5IKOH 3HaLIHTerrHH npoMeHH B
a,nMHHHcTpaTHBHH5I cTaTYT Ha Pa3rrO)l(KaTa KOTrrOBHHa, KOHTO HMaT TpaMHH
nocrre,nHUH B'bpXy pa3BHTHeTo Ha cerrHIUaTa B perHoHa. Ha n'bpBO M5ICTO
26 bOHKOB, rp. TaTap Oa3apLl)KHK, c. 164.
27 )l,)l<H3He perHcTpHTe OT XIX B., KOHTO oT6eJU13BaT J1HIJ,aTa OT paHOHa Ha Pa3J10r OTCbCT-
BaLUH nOpa)lH 3aeTOCTIa CH B ce30HHa pa60Ta no npyrH MeCTa, MoraT na nOCJ1Y)l{aT KaTO
T04eH HH)lHKaTOp 3a nOCOKaTa, noeTa OT HMHrpaHTHTe - HaH-4eCTO TOBa ca paHOHHTe Ha
rOJ1eMHTe rpa)lOBe B EreHCKa H rOpHa TpaKH5I H OKOJ1HHTe HM ceJ1a.
28 BOA TD 370, p. 116. 06LUH5IT cna)l OT 46% (3,3% rO)lHWeH) e KaTacTpocpaneH 3a npoc-
nepHTeTa Ha BC5IKO CeJ1HLUe.
29 BOA TD 370, p. 116.
30 BOA TD 370, p. 116.
31 B)l{. OpHJ10)l{eHHe I.
60
CaMOKOBCKaTa Ka3a, KbM K05ITO Crra,UaT Pa3rrOr 11 rrpl1rre)J(aml1Te My cerra, e
113Ba,UeHa OT CbCTaBa Ha caH,n)J(aKa Ilama 11 e 3aql1CrreHa KbM COCPI1HCKI15I
caH,n)J(aK 11 crre,n 1570 r. Beqe ce rr05IB5IBa B HerOBI1Te perl1CTpl1. Ilo-
3Haql1MaTa rrpOM5IHa 06aqe e cBbp3BaHa CbC 3aBbpmBaHeTO rrpe3 1557 r. Ha
e,UI1H OT HaH-Mama6HI1Te CTpOI1TerrHI1 rrpOeKTI1, rrpe,Urrpl1eMaHI1 H5IKora OT
OCMaHCKI1Te Brra,UeTerrl1 - ,U)J(aMI15ITa 11 KOMrrrreKCbT CIOrreHMaHl1e B l1cTaH-
6yrr32. Ilo,n06Ha I1HCTI1TYUI15I ce HY)l(,Uae OT OrpOMHI1 rrpl1xo,nl1, KOI1TO ,Ua
rrocrrY)J(aT 3a 113rrrramaHeTO Ha 3arrrraTI1Te Ha MHor06pOHHI1Te crrY)J(I1Terrl1 B
KOMrrrreKca, HerOBaTa rro,n,npb)KKa 11 Hel13MeHHaTa 6rrarOTBOpl1TerrHa ,UeH-
HOCT, 113pa3eHa qpe3 KyXHI1 3a 6e,UHI1Te, 60rrHI1lJ,11 11 ,np. Ilopa,n11 TOBa OTKPI1-
BaHeTO Ha KOMrrrreKca e CbrrpOBo,UeHO 11 C OCHOBaBaHeTO Ha Mama6Ha 6rraro-
TBOpl1TerrHa cpoH,naUI15I - BaKbcp, pa60Tema B HerOBa rrorr3a, K05ITO 06xBama
rrpl1Xo,nI1Te OT CTOTI1UI1 cerra B PYMerrl15I.
33
Ce,UeM OT pa3rrO)J(KI1Te cerra, a I1MeHHO EaqeBO, r Orr5IMa 11 ManKa Ee-
rrl1lJ,a, rO,nrreBO, rOpHO 11 ,IJ,OJIHO ,IJ,parrrl1me 11 ,IJ,06bPCKO ca 113Ba,UeHI1 OT TI1-
MapCKaTa CI1CTeMal1 ca 3aQl1CrreHI1 KbM OrpOMHI15I BaKbcp Ha CIOrreHMaHl1e.
34
,IJ,orrHo ,IJ,parrrl1me rrpe,nCTaBrr5IBa rro-oc06eH crrYQaH, 3amOTO MO)l(e ,Ua 6b,ne
OTKPI1TO KaKTO B Tarry TaXl1p perl1CTpl1Te 3ae,UHO C Pa3rror, EaHCKO 11 EaH5I,
TaKa 11 BbB BaKbcpCKI1Te perl1CTpH, 3ae,UHO C OCTaHanHTe pa3rrO)J(KH cerra, KO-
I1TO crra,UaT KbM Hero. T0311 cpaKT rrO,UCKa3Ba, Qe HaH-Bep05ITHO ,IJ,orrHo ,IJ,par-
JIl1me e caMO QaCTI1QHO BKrrIOQeHO KbM BaKbcpa, KaTO QaCT OT HerOBI1Te )KI1-
Terrl1 rrpo,nbrr)J(aBaT ,Ua rrrramaT ,UaHbUHTe CI1 Ha CrraXI1HCKI15I ,Ubp)J(aTerr Ha
35
TI1Mapa 11 rro Ta311 rrpl1QI1Ha ce rr05IB5IBa 11 B ,UBaTa Tl1rra perl1CTpl1.
IlpOM5IHaTa B a,nMI1HI1CTpaTI1BHI15I CTaTYT Ha ce,neMTe BaKbcpCKI1 cerra
113rrre)K,Ua 11M rrpl1,naBa rro-aTpaKTI1BeH BI1,U 11 C TeQeHl1e Ha BpeMeTO Te 3arro-
4BaT ,na rrpl1Brrl1QaT HOBI1 3aCerrHI1lJ,11 3a CMeTKa Ha cerrl1ma KaTO Pa3rror,
EaHCKO 11 EaH5I, KOI1TO OCTaBaT 113BbH BaKbcpa 11 rrrraBHO, HO Cl1rypHO, ry65IT
QaCT OT CBOI1Te )J(I1Terrl1.
36
Tarry TaXpl1pbT 11 BaKbcpcKI15IT perl1CTbp OT 1570
32 KOMnJleKCbT B I1cTaH6YJl e nOCTpoeH OT apXHTeKTa MHMap CHHaH B nepHo)],a 1550-1557
r. no nopb4Ka Ha cYJlTaH ClOJleHMaH I (1520-1566).
33 BaKqmeTo Ha ClOJleHMaHHe e ny6JlHKYBaHo OT Kiirk9iioglu, K. E. Suleymaniye Vakfiyesi
(Ankara: Vaklflar Miidiirliigii, 1962). ,[(eTaHJlHH CBe)],eHH5I 3a <PYHKu,HoHHpaHeTo Ha orpoM-
HaTa <poH)],au,H5I, 4HHTO ro)],HllIHH npHxo)],H npe3 XVI B. ca Me)l{)],Y neT H llIeCT MHJlHOHa
aK4eTa B)I{. Y Giiran, T. Ekonomik ve Mali Yonleriyle Vakiflar: Siileymaniye ve $ehzade
Siileyman P a ~ ' a Vakiflan (istanbul: Kitabevi, 2006).
34 BOA TD 498. Kiirk9iioglu, Siileymaniye Vakfiyesi, c. 66.
35 BbB BaK<pHeTO Ha ClOJleHMaHHe CeJlaTa rOpHO H ,[(OJlHO ,[(parJlHlue ca 3anHcaHH no)]' 06-
lUOTO HMe ceJlO ,[(parJlHlUe. CBe)]'eHH5ITa OT pemCTpHTe nOKa3BaT, 4e )],OKaTO C. rOpHO ,[(pa-
rJlHlUe e 6HJlO BKJl104eHO BbB BaKb<pa U,51JlOCTHO, TO npHXO)],HTe OT Cbce)],HOTO My ,[(OJlHO
,[(pafJlHlUe ca pa3)]'eJleHH Ha )],Be 4aCTH, KaTO e)],HaTa e YCB05lBaHa OT BaKb<pa, a )],pyra OCTaBa
B THMapCKaTa CHCTeMa H e nOJlY4aBaHa OT BJl<l:)],eJleu,a Ha JleHa. no Ta3H npH4HHa C. r. ,[(par-
JlHlUe ce n05lB5IBa H B THMapCKHTe Tany TaXpHpH, H BbB BaKb<pCKHTe )],e<pTepH.
36 BOA TD 492.
61
r. nOKa3BaT 06II(a TeH,L(eHIJ;lI5I 3a U5IflaTa Pa3flO)KKa 06flaCT: YBeJIHqaBaHe Ha
06II(H5I 6pOH Ha MIOCIOflMaHHTe H n05IBaTa HM B ,L(OCKOPO qHCTO XPHCTH5IHCKH
CeflHII(a. TaKa HanpHMep B Pa3flOr Te Ha6p05IBaT 12 ,L(OMaKHHCTBa, B naHcKo
3a npbB nbT ce n05IB5IBaT 5 MIOCIOflMaHCKH ,L(OMaKHHCTBa, a B naH5I npe,L(HlII-
HHTe TpH ce YBeflHqaBaT Ha 9. CXO,L(HO e H nOflO)I{eHHeTO BbB BaKbcpcKHTe
cefla Ha Pa3flO)l(KO. B naqeBO HanpHMep OT e,L(Ba TpH ,L(OMaKHHCTBa npe3
1530 r. npe3 1570 r. Te Beqe ,L(OCTHraT 17. Ta3H TeH,L(eHUH5I Ha 6bP3 paCTe)K
Ha MIOCIOflMaHHTe 3a CMeTKa Ha XPHCTH5IHHTe, npe3 XVII H XVIII B. HaMHpa
CBoeTO nbflHO pa3BHTHe H EaqeBO ce npeBPbII(a B CeflHII(e C npe06fla,L(aBaII(0
MIOCIOflMaHCKO HacefleHHe. MIOcIOflMaHH ce n05IB5IBaT 3a npbB nbT H B MaJJ-
Ka neflHua - 4 ,L(OMaKHHCTBa H fO,L(fleBO - 2, HO ,L(OKaTO B neJIHua TeXHH5IT
6pOH npO,L(bfl)l(aBa ,L(a HapaCTBa, TO B fO,L(fleBO TeH,L(eHUH5ITa He HaMHpa no-
HaTaTblliHO pa3BHTHe H ceflOTO 3ana3Ba qHCTO XPHCTH5IHCKH5I CH 06flHK.
IlO,L(xo,L(5III(HTe YCflOBH5I BbB BaKbcpCKHTe ceJIa npHBflHqaT H 3aceflHHUH OT
nO-,L(aJJeq. TaKa npe3 1570 r. B naqeBO H EeflHua ce n05IB5IBaT nbpBHTe B
Pa3flO)I{KO UHraHCKH 3aceflHHUH.
37
C TOBa B 06II(H JIHHHH ce H3qepnBaT npHflHKHTe Me)K,L(Y BaKbcpcKHTe
CeflHII(a H Te3H, KOHTO OCTaBaT B THMapcKaTa CHCTeMa. XapaKTepHo 3a TH-
MapcKHTe Pa3flOr, naHcKo H EaH5I e, qe B nepHO,L(a 1530-1570 r. Te HflH CTar-
HHpaT, HflH ,L(OpH 3ana,L(aT. 3a T03H nepHO,L( UeHTbpbT Ha perHoHa ry6H HOBH
145 ,L(OMaKHHCTBa H ce CMaJJ5IBa HanOflOBHHa B cpaBHeHHe C 1516 r.38 Hera-
THBHaTa TeH,L(eHUH5I e H3pa3eHa H OT TOBa, qe H5IKOralIIHHTe HerOBH qeTHpH
MaXaJJH ce CBHBaT Ha TpH.
39
Ilo,L(06Ha e cHTyaUH5ITa H B naHcKo, MaKap TYK
40
Cna,L(bT ,L(a He e TaKa HHTeH3HBeH. naH5I H3rJIe)I{,L(a ,L(OCTHra CB05I npe,L(eJI Ha
pa3BHTHe H 3a nOCfle,L(HHTe TpH perHCTpaUHH rpaBHTHpa OKOflO 90-95 ,L(OMa-
KHHcTBa.
41
L(pyr cpaKT, 3aCBH,L(eTeflCTBaH B perHCTpHTe, H3HCKBa cneUHaJJHO
BHHMaHHe: TBbp,L(e BHCOKH5IT 6pOH Ha He)I{eHeHHTe XPHCTH5IHH B Pa3JIor H
naHcKo. B rpa,L( Pa3flOr npe3 1570 r. He)I{eHeHHTe Mfla,L(e)KH ca 29%, a B naH-
CKO T03H npoueHT e ,L(OpH OII(e nO-BHCOK - 38. Ilo,L(06HO YBeflHqaBaHe Ha
He)KeHeHHTe B ,L(a,L(eHO CeflHII(e e HH,L(HKaUH5I 3a HeBb3MO)l(HOCTTa qfleHOBeTe
Ha e,L(HO paCT5III(0 HacefleHHe ,L(a ce peaJJH3HpaT. B T03H CMHCbfl cHTyaUH5ITa
TYK e nOKa3aTeflHa 3a TOBa, qe 06II(H5IT cna,L( Ha HacefleHHeTO B Te3H ,L(Be ce-
flHII(a He ce ,L(bfl)l(H Ha eCTeCTBeHH cpaKTopH KaTO P5I3KO 3aHH)I{eHa penpO,L(YK-
37 B)I(. OpHJIO)l(eHHe I.
38 BOA TD 492, pp. 677-681.
39 TOBa cera ca MaxanHTe "non ToLl.Op, CHH Ha non BeJIYo", "non ToLl.op" H "non HeHO",
K05lTO HeCbMHeHO e 6HBwaTa Maxana "non HHKOJIa", 3aruOTO 3a cBerueHOCJIY)I(HTeJUI HeHO,
YHeTO HMe HOCH MaxanaTa e oT6eJI5I3aHO, ye e CHH Ha non HHKOJIa.
40 BOA TD 492, 665-669.
41 BOA TD 492, 686-688.
62
TlIBHOCT, a rrO-CKOpO Tp5l6Ba .ll,a ce OT.ll,a,n:e Ha T5IXHaTa HeBb3MO)KHOCT ,n:a 3a-
,n:bp)KaT HaceneHlIeTO ClI, KoeTO B pe3ynTaT ce rrpecenBa B .ll,pyrii cena 113
pallOHa lInli ce OTrrpaB5I KbM paBHlIHlITe. Tbll KaTO rrO.ll,06eH rrp06neM He
MO)Ke ,n:a ce pellill l.Jpe3 Pa3IIIlIp5lBaHe Ha 06pa60TBaeMliTe rrnOmli IInli HaMll-
paHe Ha anTepHaTlIBHlI MeTo,n:lI 3a rrperrliTaHlIe, TOBa rrpe,n:rronara 3acerHaTO-
TO cenlime ,n:a HaBne3e B rreplIO,n: Ha rrpo,n:bn)KlITenHa ,n:errpeC1I5I II OTrrpaIlla-
HeTO Ha xopa KbM ,n:pyrii cena,n:a ce rrpeBbpHe B HopManHa rrpaKTlIKa.
TIO.ll,06HO rrOBe,n:eHlIe, pa361Ipa ce, cne,n:Ba CB051 eCTeCTBeH XO;::r II
Tpy,n:HO ce rro,n:.ll,aBa Ha KaKbBTO II ,n:a e KOHTpon. To 61I Morno ,n:a rropo;UI
orraCHa TeH,n:eHIJ,1I5I, KaTO cenlimeTO ,n:a 6b,n:e HarrYCHaTO ,n:Opli OT rrOBel.Je xo-
pa, ,n:oBe)l(.ll,allKli ro ,n:o Te)KKa ,n:eMorpacKa Kp1I3a. TaKa 61IxMe MOLTIll Ja
oT6ene)l(lIM, qe rrpe3 1596 r. Pa3nor rrpo,n:bn)KaBa ,n:a cTarHlIpa ceplI03Ho II 3a
qeTBbpT BeK ry61I HOB II TplillceTliHa ,n:OMaKlIHCTBa, a rrpOIJ,eHTbT Ha He)KeHe-
HliTe HapaCTBa B cpaBHeHlIe C rrpe,n:xo,n:HaTa perlICTpaIJ,1I5I .ll,0 330/0.
42
B CaMH5I
Kpall Ha XVI B. rpa,n:bT e caMO 6ne,n:a C5IHKa Ha TOBa, KoeTO rrpe,n:cTaBn5lBa B
CBoeTO Haqano. B rrpOTliBOBec Ha T031I rrpOIJ,ec, KbM Cbm1I5I rreplIO,n: naHCKO
5IBHO ycrr5lBa ,n:a ce crrpaBli C rrOCT05lHH1I5I crra,n: Ha CBOliTe )KlITenlI, KOJ:iTO
3arrOqBa rrpe3 20-Te ro,n:lIHlI Ha XVI B. II CbYM5IBa .ll,a 3a.ll,bp)KlI II .ll,Opli Ja
YBenlIl.JlI HaceneHlIeTO ClIo TaKa crrope,n: perlIcTbpa OT 1596 r. He)KeHeHlITe B
naHcKo ca HaManenli ,n:o 19%, a 06m1I5IT 6pOll Ha HaceneHlIeTO e HapaCHa 1 C
TOqHO 100 .ll,OMaKlIHCTBa 3a ,n:Ba,n:eceT II rreTTe ro,n:lIHlI, OT.ll,en5lmli ,n:BeTe pe-
43
rlICTpaIJ,lIli.
KaTO 06Illa TeH,n:eHIJ,1I5I B ,n:BeTe cenlima MO)Ke .ll,a ce oT6ene)K1I oce3a-
eMOTO HapaCTBaHe Ha MIOCIOnMaHliTe - B Pa3nor rrpe3 1596 r. TeXH1I5IT 6poi1
,n:OCTlira 27 ,n:OMaKlIHCTBa, a B 1I3IJ,5InO 6bnrapo-XpliCT1I5IHCKOTO rro Tpa)],lIllH5I
naHcKo TpallHo ce YCTaHoB5IBa rpyrra OT OKono 10-TliHa MIOCIOnMaHCKlI ce-
MellcTBa. TpeToTo TlIMapcKo ceno B Pa3nO)KKO - naH5I, MaKap II .ll,a 3arrmBa
OTHOCliTenHO cTa61IneH 6pOll )I(lITenli rrpe3 IJ,en1I5I XVI B., Bce rraK
yqaCTBa B 06m1I5I rrpOllec 3a 1I3BeCTHO HaManeHlIe Ha XPliCT1I5IHlITe 3a CMen,a
Ha YBenlIl.JeHlIeTO Ha MIOCIOnMaHlITe.
44
Pa3BlITlieTO Ha cenaTa, KOliTO Bn1I3aT BbB BaKba Ha CIOnellMaHHe. B
rreplIO.ll,a 1530-1596 r. e KopeHHo rrpoTliBOrrOnO)KHO Ha TOBa Ha TlIMapCKIITe
cena. 06ma TeH,n:eHIJ,lIli II 3a ce,n:eMTe BaKbcKlI cena e 6bP30TO YBenHqeHlle
Ha XPliCT1I5IHCKOTO HaceneHlIe TaM. yi3rne)K,n:a rplI)I(lITe Ha a.ll,MlIHlICTpaTO-
pliTe Ha BaKba, .ll,nb)KHlI .ll,a OClIryp5lT rrpocrrepliTeTa Ha cenlimaTa, KOliTO ro
1I3xpaHBaT, ,n:OBe)K,n:aT .ll,0 TaM, l.Je cenaTa )J;06bPCKO II )J;onHO )J;parnlIIlle 3a
42 BOA TD 566, 636-640.
43 BOA TD 566, 622-626.
44 BOA TD 566, 676-677. B)lC DpHflO)l{eHHe I.
63
qeTMpM.neceT rO.nMHM y.nB05IBaT HaCerreHMeTO CM.
45
3a CMeTKa Ha 3arra.namM5I
Pa3rror, KaTO HaR-rOrr5IMO M 3HaqMMO cerrMme B paROHa rrpe3 1570 r. ce
OqepTaBa nerrMu;a, B K05ITO )KMBe5IT 435 XPMCTM5IHCKM .nOMaKMHCTBa, 1 U;MraH-
CKO M 5 BL(OBMIlIKM. AKo K'bM T5IX ce .no6aB5IT 67-Te XPMCTM5IHCKM .nOMaKMHC-
TBa OT Cbce.nHa MaJIKa nerrMIJ;a, 3ae.nHO C 4 MIOCIOrrMaHCKM, 3 U;MraHCKlI M
H5IKOrrKO He)KeHeHM Mrra.ne)KM - MIOCIOrrMaHlI II XPMCTM5IHM, TO qMCrrOTO CTa-
Ba ome rrO-M3pa3MTerrHo.
46
IIpMxo.nbT OT 63 554 aKqeTa, cb6MpaHlI rrpe3
1570 r. caMO OT nerrMIJ;a, Ha.nxBbprr51 pa3Mepa Ha L(aHbIJ;MTe, KOlITO Xa3HaTa
rrplI6lIpa OT Pa3rror M naHcKo B3eTM 3ae.nHo.
47
OCTaHaJIMTe BaKbcpcKlI cerra 6erre)KaT rro-crra6, HO oce3aeM PbCT Ha
XPMCTlI5IHCKOTO HaCerreHlIe. HapaCTBaHeTO My BOL(lI .nO YBerrMqeHMe Ha rrpo-
.nYKIJ;M5ITa, KoeTO 6M Morrro .na ce 3a6erre)KM OT 3HaqlITerrHM5I PbCT Ha o6mo
.nbrr)KMMMTe L(aHbIJ;M Ha BaKbcpcKMTe cerra. TaKa HarrpMMep rrpMXOL(bT Ha Ba-
Kbcpa Ha CIOrreRMaHlIe OT cerro L(06bPCKO ce e yTpoMrr B rrepMo.na 1530-1570
r. M e .nOCTMrHaJI 23 440 aKqeTa. IIo.no6Ho e rrOrrO)KeHMeTO II B naqeBO, qMR-
TO rrplIXOL( rrpe3 1570 r. .nOCTMra L(O 18 752 aK. rrplI e.nBa 6 221 rrpe3 1530 f.
48
TeHL(eHIJ;M5ITa 3a o6mo YBerrMqaBaHe Ha HacerreHMeTO BbB BaKbcpcKlI-
Te cerra KaTO IJ;5Irro rrpOL(brr)KaBa L(O Kpa5I Ha BeKa, HO H5IKOM OT T5IX 3arrOqBaT
L(a ry65IT qaCT OT CBOMTe )KlITerrM. L(06bPCKO, KoeTO crropeL( .naHHlITe OT
rrpe.nxOL(HaTa perMCTpaU;M5I OT 1570 r. M3rrre)KL(a e.nHO OT HaR-6YPHO Pa3BlI-
BamMTe ce cerra, 5IBHO 'L(OCTMra CB05I arroreR M MHOfO OT rrpMxO.n5ImMTe B He-
ro He crreL( L(brrrO ro HarrYCKaT, TbR KaTO KbM 1596 f. TO OTHOBO ce Bpbma Ha
HMBOTO OT 1530 r. M MMa 102 XPMCTM5IHCKM M 5 U;lIraHCKlI .nOMaKMHCTBa, 3a-
eL(HO C 32-Ma He)KeHeHlI XPMCTM5IHlI.
49
HaR-rOrr5lMOTO cerrMme B perlI0Ha
OCTaBa nerrlIIJ;a, K05ITO 6e3 CbCeL(HaTa MaJIKa nerrMIJ;a KbM 1596 r. lIMa 424
4
50 H ~
XPlICTM5IHCKlI .nOMaKMHCTBa M Ha BL(OBlIIJ;M. aM-3HaqlITerrHO e HapaCTBa-
HeTO Ha HacerreHMeTO Ha rOpHO L(parrrMme, KoeTO M3frre)l(.na e rrpMBrr5lKrrO
OHe3M, KOMTO ca HarrYCHaJIM OKOrrHlITe cerra II y.nB05lBaRKM ce rrpe3 1596 r.
L(OCTMra L(O 127 XPMCTM5IHCKlI II 2 IJ;lIraHCKlI .noMaKMHcTBa.
51
45 Upe3 1570 )J;06bPCKO I1Ma 212 LJ,OMaKI1HCTBa 11 1 He)l(eHeH (BOA TD 498, pp. 331-333), a
C60PbT Ha HaCeJIeHl1eTO Ha )J;OJIHO )J;parJIl1lll.e OT TI1MapCKI151 11 BaKb<pcKI151 perl1CTpl1 OT 1570
e 157 XPI1CTI151HCKI1 LJ,OMaKI1HCTBa, 5 He)l(eHeHI1 11 1 BLJ,OBI1IlJKO LJ,OMaKI1HCTBO (BOA TD 492,
pp. 681-682 11 BOA TD 498, pp. 341-342).
46 BOA TD 498, 334-339. 8)1(. npl1JIO)l(eHI1Te CJIeLJ, TeKCTa KapTI1, KOI1TO KaTO MeTOLJ,OJIOrH5I
ca 3al1MCTBaHI1 OT pa60TI1Te Ha Maxl1eJI KI1HJI.
47 UPI1XOLJ,I1Te OT Pa3JIOr 3a 1570 r. Bb3JII13aT Ha 32 126 aKl.JeTa, a Te311 OT EaHCKO Ha 23 533
aKl.JeTa, KbM T5IX o6al.Je CJIeLJ,Ba LJ,a ce npl16aB5IT 11 npl1XOLJ,I1Te OT LJ,)I(11311eTO Ha LJ,BeTe CeJIHlll.a.
48 8)1(. Upl1JIO)l(eHl1e IV.
49 BOA TD 470, 334-335.
50 BOA TD 470, 335-336. 3aeLJ,HO C ManKa EeJII1u,a HaCeJIeHl1eTO Ha6po5lBa 536 XPI1CTH5IHC-
KI1 11 21 MlOClOJIMaHCKH LJ,OMaKI1HCTBa, nJilOC Olll.e 28 He)l(eHeHI1 XPI1CTI151HI1 11 7 BLJ,OBHUH.
51 BOA TD 470, 343-344. B)I(. TIpl1JIO)l(eHl1e I.
64
PerHCTbpbT OT 1596 r. e IIocrre,nHH5IT OT CepH5ITa TaxpHpH, IIoKpHBa-
mH IIepHo.na Ha XVI BeK. Crre.n HerOBH5I KpaH [(eHTparrHaTa a.nMHHHcTpaUH5I
IIpeKpaT5IBa IIpaKTHKaTa IIO H3rOTB5IHeTO Ha T03H BH,n .nOKYMeHTH H 3a crre.n-
BamOTO XVII CTorreTHe HMaMe Ha pa3IIOrrO)KeHHe e.nHHCTBeHO .n;aHHHTe OT
,n)KH3He .neqnepHTe. Te IIpe,nOCTaB5IT CBe,neHH5I 3a XPHCTH5IHCKOTO Hacerre-
HHe, HO B T5IX rrHIICBaT KaKBHTO H ,na ca .n;aHHH 3a MlOClOrrMaHHTe B Pa3rrO)K-
KO, TbH KaTO Te ca H3KrrlOqeHH OT IIrramaHeTO Ha IIorOrrOBHH5I ,naHbK. Crre,nBa
,na ce oT6erre)KH Cbmo, qe ce.n;eMHaHceToTo CTorreTHe e IIepHO,n Ha .neMorpa-
<pcKa KpH3a B EBpoila H OCMaHcKaTa HMIIepH5I, H Ha MHoro MeCTa HacerreHH-
eTO HaMarr5lBa qYBCTBHTerrHO. Ta3H KpH3a ce ,nbrr)KH B rOrr5IMa CTeileH Ha ec-
TeCTBeHH5I KrrHMaTHqeH IIpO[(eC, HapeqeH HaH-06mo "MarrbK rre,nHHKoB IIe-
PHO,n", IIpH KOHTO cpe,nHHTe ro,nHIIIHH TeMilepaTypH ce IIOHH)KaBaT C H5IKOrr-
KO rpa,nyca H IIpe.nH3BHKBaT IIpo6rreMH. HaH-3HaqHMOTO I10Crre.n;CTBHe OT
TOBa rrro6arrHO 3acTy,n5lBaHe e IIO-KbCHOTO Y3p5lBaHe Ha )KHTHHTe KyrrTypH H
CbOTBeTHO H3MeCTBaHeTO Ha )KbTBaTa BbB BpeMeTO. B IIrraHHHCKHTe paHOHH
Te3H <paKTOPH ce ycemaT MHoro IIO-CHrrHO H B crryqaHTe, KoraTO KbCHaTa
)KbTBa e H3IIpeBapeHa OT crraHa, qeCTO HMa IIpOBarreHH peKorrTH H KaTaCTpo-
<parrHH IIocrre,ncTBH5I 3a O[(err5lBaHeTo. ETO 3amO CbBceM OCHOBaTerrHO rorre-
MH qaCTH OT HacerreHHeTO B IIrraHHHaTa, Kb,neTo rrro6arrHOTO 3acTy,n5lBaHe
HMa IIo-oce3aeMH IIocrre.ncTBH5I, ce IIPHHY)K.naBaT ,na IIOTbPC5IT IIo-,no6po
M5ICTO 3a )KHBOT, CrrlJ;3aHKH KbM IIO-TOIIrrHTe IIpe,nI1rraHHHCKH qaCTH H IIorre-
TaTa.
52
B IIo-o6m IIrraH, HO B 6brrrapCKH KOHTeKCT, IIpe3 [(errH5I XVII B. CbmO
ce Ha6rrlO,naBa IIpouec Ha MHrpa[(H5I Ha HacerreHHe OT BHCOKOIIrraHHHCKHTe
cerra KbM fopHa TpaKH5I. CbBceM rrOrHqHO, ,nOKaTO HacerreHHeTO Ha TpaKH5I
paCTe IIOqTH IIpe3 [(errH5I XVII B., TO TOBa Ha IIrraHHHCKHTe H I10rrYIIrraHHHC-
KHTe pai1:oHH OT ceBep H lOr OT paBHHHaTa HaMarr5lBa. HacerreHHeTO Ha Pa3-
rrO)KKaTa KOTrrOBHHa He e H3KrrlOqeHHe B TOBa OTHOIIIeHHe.
Pa3I10rraraMe CbC CepH5I OT ce,neM ,n)KH3He perHCTbpa, KOHTO IIOKPH-
BaT IIepHo,na OT 1634 .no 80-Te ro,nHHH Ha XVII B. 3a cerraTa, KOHTO CIIa,naT
KbM <poH,na[(H5ITa Ha ClOrreHMaHHe, HMaMe TpH IIo,npo6HH perHcTbpa, ,naTH-
paHH CbOTBeTHO OT 1634,1640 H 1641/42 r.
53
Jl,. Jl,parrrHme, qHHTO IIpHXO,nH
H HacerreHHe cIIope,n THMapcKHTe perHcTpH ca pa3.nerreHH Ha ,nBe, cera H3-
rrre)K,na e H3KrrlOqeHO OT CIIHCbKa Ha BaKb<pCKHTe cerra H He ce II05lB5IBa B
CBe,neHH5ITa 3a cb6HpaHe Ha IIorOrrOBHH5I ,naHbK Ha HeMlOClOrrMaHHTe OT ce-
rraTa, CIIa,namH KbM <pOH.na[(H5ITa Ha ClOrreHMaHHe. To e perHcTpHpaHo 3ae,n-
HO C OCTaHarrHTe HeBaKb<pcKH cerra, 3a KOHTO pa3IIorraraMe C qeTHpH cbKpa-
52 Grove, J. M. The Little Ice Age (London: Routledge, 1988).
53 BOA MAD 1529 OT 1634 r.; BOA MAD 14917 OT 1640 r.; BOA MAD 14928 OT
1641142 r.
65
TeHll .I1)K1l311e perllCTbpa OT apXllBa Ha OplleHTaJICKll5I OT)len rrpll HapO)lHaTa
6116nllOTeKa B COCPll5I.
54
ne3 )la HaBn1l3aMe B rrO)lp06eH aHaJI1l3 Ha )laHHllTe OT Ce)leMTe perHC-
Tbpa 6H Morno )la ce oT6ene)l(ll, qe 06maTa TeH)leHIJ,H5I Ha crra)l Ha XPliCTH-
5IHCKOTO HaceneHlle B Pa3nO)KKO 113rne)K)la rrpO)lbJDKaBa rrpe3 uenH5I XVII
BeK.
55
HaH-rOn5IMOTO cenllme B perliOHa OT Kpa5I Ha XVI B. - nenllIJ,a, Bep05I-
THO rrpO)lbn)KaBa )la ce pa3paCTBa II B HaqaJIOTO Ha Cne)lBalll.OTO CToneTHe, HO
cne)l Cpe)laTa Ha 30-Te rO)lllHll Ha XVII B. 6p05IT Ha XPllCTll5IHCKOTO Hacene-
HHe TaM 3arrOqBa CTpeMliTeneH crra)l. ITO)l06Ha HeraTllBHa TeH)leHUll5I, MaKap
H He TaKa 5ICHO 113pa3eHa, ce 3a6en5I3Ba II rrpll OCTaHaJIliTe cena OT perliOHa.
T5I Bep05ITHO e cne)lCTBlie OT MlirpaIJ,ll5ITa Ha XPllCTll5IHCKOTO HaceneHlle, OT
HeraTllBHHTe rrOCne)lllUH Ha rrpeMliHaJIli errll)leMllH, a CbmO II B H5IKaKBa
CTeneH e pe3YJITaT OT 3aCllnllnaTa ce llCn5IMH3aIJ,ll5I B H5IKOH cena, KaTO Han-
pHMep naqeBo.
56
E)lHH nlO60rrllTeH )lOKYMeHT OT 1660 r. rrOCOLIBa, qe Hace-
neHlleTO Ha 06nacTTa Beqe He e B CbCT05IHlle )la 113rrnama 3arrHCaHll5I B llM-
rrepCKHTe perllCTpli 6pOH )l)I(1l311e xaHeTa, rrOpa)lH TOBa qe MH0311Ha ca Harry-
CHaJIli pO)lHllTe CH cena II ca ce pa3rrpbCHaJIli rro )lpyrll MeCTa llJIli ca 113Mpe-
nll. ITo Ta3H rrpllqllHa rronOBliHaTa OT perllCTplipaHliTe )laHbKOrrJIaTUli He ca
54 HEKM-EI1A, Op. OT)],. CM 3/2 OT 1643/44 r.; H13KM, Op. OT)],. $. 165 A, a.e. 100 OT 1650
r.; HEKM, Op. OT)],. $. 165 A, a.e. 15 OT 1675 r.; H13KM, Op. OT)],. $. 128 A, a.e. 20 OT 80-
Te ro)]'. Ha XVII B. ,n:oKYMeHTHTe ca ny6JHIKYBaHI1 B rp03)]'aHoBa, E. TypcKI1 113BOPl1 3a 6'bfl-
rapcKaTa HCTOPH5I, T. XIII, C., 2001.
55 OTHOCHO 06LUaTa npaKTHKa no cb611paHeTO Ha )J,)KH3I1eTO B)lc inalclk, H .. "Djizya", EI;
Nedkofj; B.. Die Gizya (Kopfsteuer) im Osmanischen Reich: mit besonderer
Beriicksichtigung von Bu/garien (Leipzig: Otto Harassowitz, 1942); Hamid Hadzibegic.
"Dzizja iii Harac." Prilozi za Orienta/nu Fil%gUu i !storUu lugos/ovenskih Naroda pod
Turskom Vladavikom 3-4 (1952-1953): 55-l36; 5 (1954-1955): 43-102; idem. Glavarina 11
Osmanskoj Driavi (Sarajevo: Orijentalni Institut, 1966);
TYK H5IMa )],a ce cnHpaMe no)]'p06HO BbPXY Bbnpoca 3a Ha)],e)KHOCTTa Ha )],)KH3He )]'eqJTepl1Te
3a )]'eMorpacflcKH npoy4BaHH5I H LUe ce 3a)],OBOflHM C KOHCTaTaUI151Ta, 4e Te 611xa MorJlI1 )],a ca
HH)]'HKaTop 3a no-06LUH npouecH. Pa3flH4HH rfle)],I1LUa BbPXY xapaKTepa Ha )],)l{H3He perHcT-
pHTe ca 3aCTbneHH B pa60THTe Ha rp03)]'aHoBa, E. EbflrapcKaTa Hapo)]'HocT npe3 XVII BeK.
,n:eMorpacflcKo H3CJle)],BaHe. CocflH5I, 1989; KHHJl, M. 13efle)KKH BbPXY a)]'MHHHcTpHpaHeTo Ha
nOrOJlOBHH5I )],aHbK (cizye) Ha OCMaHCKHTe l3aJlKaHH H 3Ha4eHI1eTO Ha perHcTpHTe 3a noro-
flOBHI151 )],aHbK (cizye defierleri) KaTO H3BOP 3a neMorpaq)CKH H3CJle)],BaHI151. - B: idem. Xopa
H CeJlI1LUa B EbJlrapH5I npe3 OCMaHCKI151 nepHo)],. Cb6paHH Cb4HHeHH5I. COCPH5I, 2005, 379-
420; PaoYUleB, E. LMI1CbflbT Ha HCTopl1orpacflcKI1Te MI1TOBe 3a I1CJl5lMI13aUI151Ta. - B: E. Pa-
0YUleB H CT. cfJemBaO:J/cueBCl (CbCT.), EaJlKaHCKH H)]'eHTJ11-IHOCTI1, T. III, c., 2003, 152-197;
Moacanin, N. "The Poll-Tax and Population in the Ottoman Balkans." - B: Colin Imber 11
Keiko Kiyotaki (CbCT.), Frontiers of Ottoman Studies: State, Province, and the West (Lon-
don-New York: 1. B. Tauris, 2005), 77-89; EoflKOB, rp. TaTap na3ap)]')KI1K, 82-106.
56 B)l{. npHJlO)l{eHHe II. TYK CJle)],Ba )],a oT6efle)l{HM, 4e pa3rJle)K)]'aMe I1CJl5lMH3aUI151Ta KaTO
eCTeCTBeH H npo)]'bJl)l{I1TeJleH npouec, a He KaTO pe3YJlTaT OT e)],HHH4eH HJlH Cepl151 OT Ha-
CHJlCTBeHH aKTOBe.
66
HaJIHue H a,UMHHlICTpaU1I5ITa rrp05IB5IBa CHH3XO)K.Il.eHHe KbM pa3nO)KKaTa pa5I,
HaMaJI5IBaliKH 06maTa .Il.aHbqHa Te)J{eCT CbC CTO H .Il.Ba.Il.eCeT xaHeTa.
57
TIO.Il.P06H1I5IT .II.)J{H3He perHCTbp OT 1692 r. CbmO 5ICHO CBH.Il.eTenCTBa
3a cepHo3Ho CBHBaHe Ha HaceneHHeTO B palioHa B XO.Il.a Ha XVII BeK.
58
B
ueHTbpa Ha perHOHa Pa3nor rrpe3 1692 r. ca OCTaHaJIH e.Il.Ba 124 rrnaTUH Ha
.II.)J{H3He
59
, a ,UpyrHTe 3HaqlIMH CenHma KaTO naHcKo H nenHua CbmO ca 3ary-
6HnH rronOBHHaTa HnH rrOBeqe OT XPHCTH5IHCKHTe ClI )KHTenH 3a CTOrO.Il.HllI-
HH5I rrepHO.II. cne.II. rrOCne.Il.HH5I TaxpHp perHcTbp OT 1596 r.
60
TIO-MaJIKHTe
CeJla, KaTO naqeBO, rO.Il.neBO, rOpHO H ,lJ;onHo ,lJ;parnHme H ,lJ;06bPCKO, CbmO
HMaT 3HaqHTenHH 3ary6H Ha HaceneHHe. E.Il.HHCTBeHOTO H3Me)J{.Il.Y T5IX, KoeTO
H3rne)J{.Il.a ce pa3BHBa H HapaCTBa B rrepHO.Il.a 1596-1692 r., e ceno naH5I. To,
MaKap H cna6o, Bce rraK e YBenHqHnO )KHTenHTe CH.
61
Cne.II. Te)KKaTa KpH3a OT XVII B., rrpe3 Cne.Il.BamOTO CToneTHe 3arrOqBa
rrepHO.II. Ha Bb3CTaHOB5IBaHe. HerOBaTa BTopa rronOBHHa o6aqe ,UOHaC5I HOBH
H3rrHTaHH5I 3a HaceneHHeTO Ha Pa3nor H OKonHOCTTa. Hecrroco6HOCTTa Ha
UeHTpaJIHaTa OCMaHCKa a,UMHHHCTpaUH5I .Il.a ce crrpaBH CbC cepH03HaTa CPH-
HaHCOBa KpH3a H rrO-Cna6H5IT KOHTpon BbPXY MeCTHHTe opraHH Ha BnaCTTa
BKapBaT PYMenH5I B e.Il.HH OT 6pYTaJIHHTe H Pa3MHpHHqeCKH rrepHO.Il.H, rr03HaT
,,62 TT
rro Te3H 3eMH KaTO "KbP.Il.)KaJIHHCKOTO BpeMe. Ll,eHTpaJIHaTa BnaCT rrpaBH
H5IKOH orrHTH 3a KOHTpon BbPXY aHapXH5ITa, Me)K.Il.Y KOHTO e H perHCTpaU
H5I
-
Ta Ha HaceneHHeTO no MeCTa H 3a.Il.bJI)KaBaHeTO HM rro CHnaTa Ha KoneKTHB-
HaTa OTrOBopHOCT )J,a rapaHTHpaT e.Il.HH 3a .Il.pyr, LIe H5IMa .Il.a ce aHra)KHpaT C
rrpeCTbrrHa .Il.ellHocT H me rrpe.Il.a.Il.aT Ha BnaCTTa BceKH, KOIiTo e ynHqeH B
6aH.Il.HTH3bM.
Ta3H perHcTpaUH5I HH e OCTaBHna 6e3ueHHH CBe.Il.eHH5I 3a HaceneHHe-
TO Ha Pa3nor H Pa3nO)J{KO rrpe3 1797 r., KaTO 3a pa3nHKa OT .II.)I<I13He perHcT-
pHTe, rrpe.Il.JIaramH .Il.aHHH caMO 3a XPHCTH5IHCKaTa qaCT OT HaceneHHeTO, B
He5I ca BKnlOqeHH BCHqKH, 6e3 orne.II. Ha eTHHqeCKaTa HnH penlIrHo3HaTa HM
rrpHHa,Une)KHocT.
63
3aToBa, OCBeH qe rrpe.Il.OCTaB5I Ha H3cne,UOBaTenHTe H3-
KJIlOqHTeJIHO 3HaqHMH CBe.Il.eHH5I 3a HaceneHHeTO B perHoHa, T5I e Ha rrpaKTH-
57 TeKCTbT Ha .ll,OKYMeHTa e UHTHpaH no Pa.ll,yweB, E. OOl\1aUHTe: XPHCTH51HCTBO H HCJI51M B
3ana.ll,HHTe PO.ll,OnH C .ll,OJIHHaTa Ha p. MeCTa, XV -30-Te ro.ll,HHI1 Ha XVIII BeK. qacT I, Co-
CPH51, 2005, c. 248, KOtiTO Ha6mo.ll,aBa CXO.ll,HH npouecH B CbCe.ll,HH51 HeBpoKoncKH pai1oH.
ObJIHH51T TeKCT Ha .ll,OKYMeHTa (HBKM, Op. OT.ll,. <D. 128, a.e. 9) B npeBO.ll, Ha CTp. ,nHMHT-
POB e ny6JIHKYBaH B PO.ll,OnCKH C60PHHK, T. I, c., 1965, 319-322.
58 BOA D. CMH 26677.
59 BOA D. CMH 26677, p. 2.
6U Ope3 1692 r. BaHcKo HMa 136 .ll,OMaKHHCTBa (BOA D. CMH 26677, pp. 6-7), a BeJIHUa
caMO 191 (BOA D. CMH 26677, p. 4)
')1 BOA D. CMH 26677, p. 5 .
. 0630P H aHaJIH3 Ha cb6HTH51Ta B MYTacp4HeBa, Kbp.ll,)I{aJIHi1cKo BpeMe.
']3 BOA A. DVN 841.
67
Ka H e.ll}IHCTBeHIUIT H3BOP OT XVIII B., KOHTO MO)Ke ,.ua 6b,.ue H3nOJl3BaH 3a
l(eJlHTe Ha HCTOpHqeCKaTa ,.ueMOrpa<pH5I - <paKT, HeCbMHeHO npH,.uaBaI.I( H OI.I(e
nO-rOJl5IMO 3HaqeHHe.
64
Cnope,.u .naHHHTe OT perHCTpaUH5ITa H3rJle)K.na, qe paHOHbT ce e OTbp-
CHJl OT .neMOrpa<pCKaTa KpH3a, K05ITO H3)I(HB5IBa npe3 XVII B. TaKa HanpHMep
naHcKO ce pa3paCTBa 3HaQHTeJlHO H, H3MecTBaHKH neJlHua, ce npeBPbI.I(a B
HaH-rOJl5IMOTO H CbOTBeTHO HaH-Ba)KHOTO CeJlHI.I(e B perHOHa. HaCeJleHO
e.nHHcTBeHo H caMO OT 6bJlrapH-XpHCTH5IHH 3a nepHo.n OT OKOJlO BeK, Hero-
BHTe )KHTeJlH ca ce YBeJlHQHJlH qeTHpHKpaTHO, .nocTHraHKH 592 .nOMaKHHC-
TBa.
65
DO-MaJlKHTe ceJla, KaTO rO.nJleBO, ,L(06bPCKO, rOpHO H ,L(OJlHO ,L(par-
JlHI.I(e, CbI.I(O YBeJlHqaBaT CBoeTO XPHCTH5IHCKO HaCeJleHHe, MaKap H He TaKa
eKCnJl03HBHO H .nHHaMHqHO KaTO naHCKO, npeBbpHaJlO ce B npHTeraTeJleH
UeHTbp Ha 06JlaCTTa.
,L(pyrHTe CeJlHI.I(a B paHOHa - Pa3Jlor, neJlHl(a, naH5I H naqeBO, CbI.I(O
YBeJlHqaBaT 06I.I(OTO CH HaCeJleHHe, HO TOBa CTaBa 3a CMeTKa Ha HaMaJl5IBaHe
Ha XPHCTH5IHCKH5I eJleMeHT H 3HaqHTeJlHO HapacTBaHe Ha MIOCIOJlMaHCKH5I,
KoeTO rOBopH 3a aKTHBH3HpaHe Ha HCJl5IMH3aUH5ITa npe3 XVIII B.66 CeJlO
neJlHua, KoeTO B Kpa5I Ha XVI B. e HaH-rOJl5IMOTO CeJlHI.I(e B Pa3JlO)KKO H e
HaCeJleHO H3U5IJlO C XPHCTH5IHH, B Kpa5I Ha XVIII B. ry6H nOBeLIe OT nOJlOBH-
HaTa CH HaCeJleHHe H XPHCTH5IHHTe HMaT CbBceM cJla6 npeBec B 06I.I(H5I 6pOH
Ha )I(HTeJlHTe: 108 XPl1CTH5IHCKH H 84 MIOCIOJlMaHCKH ,.uoMaKHHcTBa.
67
Dpo-
ueCbT Ha HapacTBaHe Ha MIOCIOJlMaHCKOTO HaCeJleHHe 3a CMeTKa Ha XPHCTH-
5IHCKOTO HaMHpa CBoeTO HaH-5IpKO H3pa)I(eHHe B Pa3Jlor, Kb.neTO 3a npbB nbT
B HCTOpH5ITa Ha CeJlHI.I(eTO MIOCIOJlMaHCKH5IT eJleMeHT B3HMa npeBec Ha.n
XPHCTH5IHCKH5I. Cnope.n perHCTbpa OT 1797 r. B Pa3Jlor )KHBe5IT 179 MIOCIOJl-
MaHCKH, 169 XPHCTH5IHCKH H 33 UHraHCKH .noMaKHHcTBa.
68
lJ,eHTbpbT Ha
Pa3JlO)KKaTa KOTJlOBHHa ce npeBPbI.I(a B CMeceHO no OTHOIIIeHHe Ha BepoH3-
nOBe.naHHeTO CeJlHI.I(e. B Cbce.nHOTO ceJlO naH5I CbOTHOIIIeHHeTO KaTO LIe JlH
ce 3ana3Ba nOLITH HenpoMeHeHo - 70 XPHCTH5IHCKH H 49 MIOCIOJlMaHCKH .no-
69 H ~ 6 L'
MaKHHCTBa. aH-.npaMaTHQHa H3rJle)K.na e Cb.n aTa Ha vaLIeBO, KoeTO OT
H3U5IJlO XPHCTH5IHCKO B HaLIaJlOTO Ha XVI B., B TeLIeHHe Ha .nBa BeKa ce TpaH-
C<popMHpa cepH03HO: B Hero MIOCIOJlMaHCKH5IT eJleMeHT npH.n06HBa 3HaLIH-
TeJleH npeBec - 101 MIOCIOJlMaHCKH cpeI.I(y 38 XPHCTH5IHCKH .noMaKHHcTBa.
70
64 )J,aHHH 3a HaCeJIeHHeTO 6Hxa MOrJIH .lla 6'b.llaT n04epneHH H OT nO.llp06HHTe aBapH3 perHc-
TpH, HO TaKbB, o6xBamam paHOHa Ha Pa3JIOr, He 6ewe OTKpHT.
65 BOA A. DVN 841, 8-12.
66 B)K. TIpHJIO)KeHHe II.
67 BOA A. DVN 841,17-18.
68 BOA A. DVN 841,1-8. T03H npouec e HmocTpHpaH Ha KapTa III.
69 BOA A. DVN 841, p. 12.
70 BOA A. DVN 841, p. 21.
68
TeH,L1;eHIJ;lUITa 3a YBenHqaBaHe Ha HaCeneHHeTO Ha Pa3nOr H Pa3no)J(-
KO ce 3arra3Ba H rrpe3 XIX B. CepH5I OT ,n)J(H3He perHcTpH CBH,L1;eTenCTBaT 3a
eKcrrn03HBHO HapacTBaHe Ha XPHCTH5IHCKH5I eneMeHT rrpe3 TOBa cToneTHe.
71
Te CbmO TaKa ,naBaT CBe,L1;eHH5I H 3a <pHHaHCOBOTO CbCT05IHHe Ha XPHCTH5IHH-
Te, KaTO rH pa3,nen5IT Ha TpH rpyrrH, Cb06pa3HO MaTepHanHOTO HM CbCT05I-
HHe, qeCTO rrpH,L1;pY)J(eHH H C <pH3HqeCKO orrHcaHHe Ha ,L1;aHbKOrrnaTeua.
72
,[(aHHHTe OT ,n)J(H3He perHCTpHTe rrOKa3BaT, qe naHCKO 3aTBbp)J(,L1;aBa M5ICTOTO
CH Ha BO,L1;emO, HaH-rOn5IMO cenHme B perHOHa, B KoeTO 3a OKono rronOBHH
BeK XPHCTH5IHCKOTO HaceneHHe ce y,nB05IBa. BCHqKH OCTaHanH cena CbmO
HapaCTBaT 3HaQHTenHO B rrepHo,na OT 1797 ,L1;0 1842 r. Cne,L1;BamHTe perHcT-
paUHH ,neMoHcTpHpaT ,nHHaMHqHH5I xapaKTep Ha T03H paCTe)l{, rrpH KOHTO B
paMKHTe Ha 15 rO,L1;HHH 06mOTO HaceneHHe Ha Pa3no)J(Ko ce YBenHqaBa C
20%, KoeTO 03HaqaBa 1,33% ro,nHIIIeH rrpHpacT - H3KnIOQHTenHO BHCOK rro-
Ka3aTen. 5IBHO 06aQe perHOHbT He e B CbCT05IHHe ,na H3xpaHH 6bP30 yMHO-
)KaBamH5I ce 6pOH xopa, 3amOTO H3BopHTe qeCTO oT6en5I3BaT H nHua, 3aeTH
CbC ce30HHa pa60Ta B nenOMopCKa HnH rOpHa TpaKH5I.
H3rron3BaHHTe B TOBa H3cne,nBaHe H3BOPH H5IMaT rrOTeHUHana ,na
rrpe,nnO)J(aT a6conIOTHO TOQHH ,naHHH 3a HaceneHHeTO Ha Pa3nO)J(KO rrpe3
pa3rne)J(,naHH5I qeTHpHBeKOBeH rrepHO,n, HO rr03BOn5IBaT rrpH6nH3HTenHO B5Ip-
HO OQepTaBaHe Ha OCHOBHHTe TeH,L1;eHUHH B ,L1;eMOrpa<pCKHTe rrpoueCH. B Ha-
QanOTO Ha XVI B. KOTnOBHHaTa H3rne)K,na He3HaQHTenHO rrpoMeHeHa B cpaB-
HeHHe C TOBa, KoeTO rrpe,ncTaBn5IBa B rrpe,nocMaHCKH5I rrepHO,L1;. 3aceneHa C
6bnrapH-XpHCTH5IHH, B He5I HMa He3HaqHTeJIHO, rrOQTH He3a6ene)KHMO MIO-
CIOnMaHCKO ManUHHCTBO - HH,nHKaUH5I 3a HeCbCT05Ina ce TYK TypcKa KOJIO-
HH3aUH5I rro rro,n06He Ha Ta3H B TpaKH5I. rnaBHoTo cenHme - UeHTbp Ha pe-
rHOHa, e Pa3JIor, B KOHTO )J(HBe5IT - H3HeHa,L1;BamO 3a rrepHO,L1;a - MHoro xopa.
Cne,n 20-Te rO,L1;HHH Ha XVI B. cHTyaUH5ITa ce rrpOMeH5I ,npaCTHQHO H 3arrOQBa
rrOCTerreHeH OTnHB KbM paBHHHHHTe QaCTH. CJIe,L1; cpe,naTa Ha BeKa Pa3JIor
ry6H QeJIHOTO CH M5ICTO 3a CMeTKa Ha H3,nHraHeTO Ha nenHua, K05ITO KbM
Kpa5I Ha XVII B. HHTerpHpa CbCe,L1;HaTa ManKa nenHua. lJ,5InOTO XVII CTOJIe-
THe e 6en5I3aHO OT rrOCT05IHeH H KaTerOpHQeH crra,n Ha HaceneHHeTO B Pa3-
nO)KKO, Bcne,L1;CTBHe Ha He6narOrrpH5ITHHTe YCJIOBH5I, ,nOBenH ,no MHrpaUH5I
HJIH CMbpT. TIpe3 XVIII B., 3a KOHTO pa3rrOnaraMe C TBbp,L1;e OCKb,L1;HH ,naHHH,
"')'
' )J;'lKH3He perHCTpHTe He IlpeJl.JIaraT HHKaKBa HHcpopMaUH51 3a MlOClOJIMaHCKOTO HaCeJIeHHe,
3a 'meTO Jl.eMOrpacpCKO pa3BHTHe OCTaBa Jl.a raJl.aeM. neT OT H3IlOJI3BaHHTe Jl.'lKH3He pemCTpH
ca IlOJl.po6HH, a HaH-KbCHH5IT e cbKpaTeH. BOA VRD. CMH 143 OT 1842 r.; BOA VRD.
CMH 209 OT 1843 r.; BOA VRD. CMH 486 OT 1845 r. - perHCTbpbT e pa3KbcaH H H5IKOH
ceJIa OT paHoHa, Me)KJl.Y KOHTO Eal..JeBO H rOJl.JIeBO JIHIlCBa::r; BOA VRD. CMH 828 OT 1846
r.; BOA VRD. CMH 1100 OT 1848 r.; BOA VRD. CMH 1429 OT 1857 r.
-:'2 B'IK. TIpHJIO'IKeHHe III.
69
CIITyaUH5ITa ce cTa6HJIH3Hpa H BbrrpeKH rrOJIHTHqeCKHTe CbTpeCeHH5I B HMrre-
pH5ITa, BCHqKH CeJIHIII;a paCTaT, a naHCKO H3MeCTBa neJIHua OT Bo,nemOTO II
M5ICTO B Pa3JIO)KKaTa KOTJIOBHHa. rIpe3 T03H rrepHO,n MlOClOJIMaHCKH5IT eJIe-
MeHT HapaCTBa 3HaqHTeJIHO H rrporrOpUHOHaJIHO Beqe e OKOJIO e,nHa TpeTa OT
06II1;OTO HaCeJIeHHe Ha perHoHa. HaJIHqHHTe ,naHHH 3a XIX B. rrOKa3BaT, qe
TOBa e rrepHo,n Ha eKCrrJI03HBeH pacTe)J(, KOllTO rrOJIara OCHOBHTe Ha H3KJIlO-
qHTeJIHO ,nHHaMHqHOTO pa3BHTHe Ha perHoHa rrpe3 BTopaTa rrOJIOBHHa Ha
BeKa.
70
DPHAOlKEHHSI
I. HaceAeHHe Ha Pa3AO)KKO rrpe3 XVI B.
~
1516 r. 1520 r. 1525 r.
xp. Jl,. xp. BJl,. MC. MC. xp. Jl,. xp. BJl,. MC. MC. xp. Jl,. xp. BJl,. MC. MC.
ceJlo
H. Jl,. H. H. Jl,. H. H. Jl,. H.
Pa3ll0r 580 II 8 5 I 587 II 8 - - 468 71 10 8 -
baHcKo 361 - 3 - - 361* - 3* - - 361* - 3* - -
baH 122 7 8 - - 122* 7* 8* - - 94 34 2 3 3
balleBo 152 - 2 - - 152* - 2* - - 133 3 4 2 -
bemlua 342 - - 4 - 328 - - 2 - 294 39 3 2 -
belll1Ua K. 46 - - - 46* - - - - 38 3 6 - -
rOJl.JlCBO 122 - 4 - - 122 - 4
- - 85 12 7 - -
r.nparll, 88 - 3 - - 61 6 - - - 89 10 2 1 -
nnparJl. 84 2 4 - - 88 2 4 - - 69 3 6 - -
n06bpCKO 147 - 3 1 148 - 3 1 - 102 13 3 I -
0611\0 2044 20 35 10 I 2015* 26* 32* 3* - 1733* 188* 46* 17* 3*
~
1530 r. 1570 r. 1596 r.
xp. xp. BJl,. MC. MC. xp. xp. BJl,. MC. MC.
U
xp. xp. BJl,. MC. MC.
cellO
Jl,. H. Jl,. H. Jl,. H. Jl,. H. Jl,. H. Jl,. H.
Pa3ll0r
459 77 12 6 - 314 92 - 12 - - 288 97 -
27 3
baHcKo
310 21 I - - 295 115 - 5 2 395 71 6 10 -
baH
93 34 3 3 - 95 19 - 9 5 - 83 36 - II I
balleBo
133 3 4 2 - 97 3 - 17 3 2 112 28 - 21 -
beJlI1Ua
289 39 3 2 - 440 - - - - I 431 - - - -
bell. K.
38 3 7 - - 67 2 - 4 2 3 44 21 - 4
rOJl,lleBO
86 12 6 - - 93 3 - 2 - - 67 32
- I -
rnparJl.
61 6 - - 64
- - - - - 127 - - - -
Llnpam
70 21 I - - 157 5 1 - - - 163 14 - - -
Ll06bpC.
101 13 3 I - 212 1 - - - -
102 32 - - -
0611\0
1640 229 40 14 1834 240 I 49 12 6 1812 331 6 74 4
1516 r. = BOA TO 77; 1520-Te r. = BOA TO 73; 1525 r. = BOA MAD 519; 1530 r. = BOA TO 370;
1570 r. = BOA TO 492 H BOA TO 498; 1596 r. = BOA 470 H BOA TO 566
xp. ,ll. = XpHCT. ,llOMaKHHCTBa; xp. H. = XpHCT. He)i{eHeHH; B,ll. = B,llOBHUH XpHCT.; MC. n. = MIOCIOJlM.
nOMaI<HHCTBa; MC. H. = MIOCIOJlM. He)i{eHeHH; UHr. = UHraHH
* HenbnHH naHH, B 06mHTe H39HCneHH5I ca H3110Jl3BaHH ,llaHHHTe OT 1516 r.
71
U.
-
-
-
5
-
2
-
5
12
II. HaceAeHHe Ha Pa3AO)KKO rrpe3 XVII-XVIII B.
~
1634 r. 1640 r. 1641/42 r. 1643/44 r. 1650 r. 1675 r.
Pa3JIOr
62 - 55
naHCKO
202 204 172
naH5I
87 87 75
naqeBO
84 79 84
n e J I l n ~ a 530 500 425
neJIIIu;a K.
58 60 25
fOLI.JIeBO 54 54 60
f .,Z1.parJIHIne 98 92 87
,Z1.. ,Z1.par JIHIn e 74 74 63
,Z1.06bPCKO 147 177 182
06InO 971 962 863 425 365 365
~
1680-TC r. 1692 r.
1797 r.
XpHCT. MIOC. UHr. 061110
Pa3JIOr 55 124 169 179 33 381
naHCKO 172 136 592 - 592
naH5I 75 100 70 49 119
naqeBO
50 38 101 - 139
neJIlIua 191 108 84 - 192
neJIIIu;a K.
- - - -
fO,[(JIeBO
48 62 - - 62
f.,Z1.parJIHIne 74 117 - - 117
,Z1.. ,Z1.par JIHIn e 63 31 53 - - 53
,Z1.06bPCKO 57 115 - - 115
06InO 365 811 1324 413 33 1770
1634 r. = BOA MAD 1529; 1640 r. = BOA MAD 14917; 1641/42 r. = BOA MAD 14928; 1643/44 r. =
HEKM, Op. OT.ll. CM 3/2; 1650 r. = HEKM, Op. OT.ll. <1>.165 A, a.e. 100; 1675 r. = HEKM, Op. OT.ll. <1>. 165
A, a.e. 15; I 680-Te r. = HEKM, Op. OT.ll. <1>.128 A, a.e. 20; 1692 r. = BOA D.CMH 26677; 1797 r. = BOA
A.DVN 841.
72
III. HaceAeHHe Ha Pa3AO)KKO rrpe3 XIX B.
~
1842 r. 1843 r. 1845 r.
B. cpo H. o6mo B.
cJ!.
H. o6mo B. cpo H. o6mo
Pa3JIOr
44 321 88 453 42 328 92 462 43 334 87 464
BaHCKO
105 640 210 955 102 650 204 956 96 673 192 961
BaH5I
26 188 52 266 24 190 49 263 27 185 54 266
BaqeBO
7 54 15 76 7 56 16 79 7* 56* 16* 79*
BeJIlIua 49 247 97 393 43 254 93 390 46 243 95 384
rO.uJIeBO 15 78 31 124 15 85 25 125 15* 85* 25* 125*
r .,[(parJIIIIUe 27 195 54 276 26 190 52 268 25 181 51 257
,[(.,[(parJIIIIUe
16 102 31 149 16 107 29 152 14 103 29 146
,[(06bPCKO 17 130 33 180 16 136 28 180 14 133 28 175
06IUO 306 1955 611 2872 291 1996 588 2875 287* 1993* 577* 2857*
~
1846 r. 1848 r. 1857 r.
B. cpo H. o6mo B. ~ p . H. o6mo B. cpo H. o6mo
Pa3JIOr 43 364 83 490 41 372 101 514 40 433 73 546
BaHCKO
96 776 139 1011 100 782 198 1080 99 886 110 1095
BaH5I
27 208 52 287 25 215 59 299 26 298 67 391
BaqeBO
7 61 20 88 7 64 25 96 7 88 12 107
BeJIlIua 46 266 83 395 45 297 69 411 45 362 59 466
rO,nJIeBO
15 105 24 144 15 102 30 147 15 123 22 160
r. ,[(parJIIIIUe
25 199 33 257 25 210 39 274 25 226 39 290
,[(. ,[(parJIIIIUe
14 114 27 155 16 120 32 168 14 148 22 184
,[(06bPCKO 14 140 27 181 14 145 26 185 15 167 24 206
06IUO 287 2233 488 3008 288 2307 579 3174 286 2731 428 3445
1842 r. = BOA VRD. CMH 143; 1843 r. = BOA VRO. CMH 209; 1845 r. = BOA VRD. CMH 486; 1846 r. = BOA
VRD. CMH 828; 1848 r. = BOA VRD. CMH 1100; 1857 r. = BOA VRD. CMH 1429.
B.=BHcma; cp.=cpe.llHa; H.=HHcwa KaTeropHH .llaHbKOnJIaTUH
* HenbJlHH .uaHH, B 06llJ.HTe H3YHCJleHHSI ca H3nOJl3BaHH .uaHHHTe OT 1843 r.
73
IV. IIpHXo,[(H OT Pa3AO)KKO rrpe3 XVI B.
~
1516 r. 1520 r. 1525 r. 1530 r. 1570 r. 1596 r.
Pa3JIor 26343 26343 27332 26343 32 126 32 126
BaHcKo 20790 20790 20 790* 20700 23 353 23353
BaH5I 14681 14681 14681* 12900 14497 16300
BaqeBO 6221 6221 6221* 6221 18 752 18752
EeJIHua 17443 17443 17323 17443 63 554 64554
EeJIHua K. 2908 2908 2500 2908 9572 9572
r O ~ J I e B O 6589 6589 4349 6589 14497 14497
rOpHO 6 115 4 166 6 129 4 166 8958 10000
)l:parJIHm;e
)l:OJIHO 6582 6582 3 723 6582 24919 25 109
)l:parJIHm;e
)l:06npCKO 8 913 8913 8913* 8 913 23440 23440
06mo 116585 97047* 111961* 112 765 233 668 237703
1516 r. == BOA TO 77; 1520-Te r. == BOA TO 73; 1525 r. == BOA MAD 519; 1530 r. == BOA TO
370; 1570 r. = BOA TO 492 H BOA TO 498; 1596 r. = BOA 470 H BOA TO 566
* HeTIbJlHH .L{aHH, B o6111HTe H3LfHCJleHH5I ca H3TI0Jl3BaHH .L{aHHHTe OT 1516 r.
74
v. KapTa
,o06'bPCKO
f. ,oparmlIu;e 0
,0. ,oparmlIu;e 0
C) fOAJIeBO
Ba"tleBO 0
o MaJIKa BeJIlifu;a
(_') BeJIlifu;a
PA3110f G

1 K\.t
o baHCKO
:;::: 150:l0MdKHIICfBd
= 50-1 [Xl j( mil
= 100200
= 200-350 :.\O"UK"'I<TUU
= 350550 nmfaKllllITBJ
= 5501\50 ,\OMaK"IICTM
= K5[)1 OlXl ,10MdKHllrrna
= IIUJllOOO .. lO\1ill\U!I(TBCl
::; \tJOClonMWICKH
o ::; XPHl KI,UIIIC .... H Ikl
= \,,',"-'.:1(.) l'I"K. W:Uklllt>TO
75
E.leUlHI1u.a
,LJ,06pl-1lll-1ll\e
HACK'1EHVlETO HA P A3J1O>KKO TIPE3
1516 r.
VI. KapTa NQ 2
)J,06'bPCKO C)
r . .uparnwm;e 0
r-)
.u . .uparnwm;e "'-.
C) r oMeBo
o ManKa Eenw:u;a
(l) oeJIl1ua
PA3flor U
I K\{
o
C)
C)
C)
oaHcKo
'" 150 ):IOMaKHliCTlkl
'" 50-100 ):IOM<1KHIICTI3a
= 100-200 ):IOM<lKI1I1CTIk1
'" 200-350 ,cIOMaKI1IJ(TJlfl
'" 350-550
= 55085011oMaKHII(TBa
'" /l5D100D ;IDM<lKHHcrBa
= J1a;J. lOOO 1l0MaKI1J1CTBa
= MIOCIOJIMllilCKI1 ):IOMaKl1l1CT13a
o '" XplI(KH}!II(Kfl !IOMdKflIlCm<l
II = CP!lO
76
D,06pVlIIl111(e
HACETIEHVlETO HA PA3nO)KKO nPE3
1570 r.
VII. KapTa NQ 3
;::Lo6'b peKO C)
r. ;::Lparm1rn;e 0
;::L. ;::Lparm1rn;e 0
OrOAJIeBO
PA3Dor ()
1 KM
o
o
o
C)
C) EaHCKO
= 1-50 gOMm<UUCTD<1
= 50-lOll gOM,1J(UIICTIXI
= 100-200 aOM'1KUIK"J"B.;'1
= 200-350 ,10M<JKUII(TBCl
= 550-!l50 HOM"KHflCrB"
= !l50-1000nnM"KHHCt'Ba
= IIaa 1000 gOMaKl1lKTlla
= MIOCIO."IMaIICKI1 .uOMaKI1HCI"B.;'1
o = XPI1CKH'UlCKI1 :WMilKHlICI'Ba
II =n.:"'!)l() 1'138'1,11
77
OeJIl1u;a
KleWHl1ua
D,06plo111lo1l1(e
HACEnEHV1ETO HA PA3nO>KKO nPE3
1797 r.
VIII. KapTa NQ 4
Ao6'bpCKO C)
r 0 Aparm/IlIJ;e 0
Ao AparJIl1IIJ;e (J
C) r O)J)IeBO
0
PA3nor
0
,
1 KM
; 1-50 flilaTll11 lid
= SO-100 IIII<1TllH lid :J)Kl1'm
; 100-200 lI)ld1'1l11 lid )llKIOI'"
= 200-3S0 IJJI<lTLU1 fI<1 II)KI1JI1P
; 3S0-SS0 TIrraTl(l1 Hit ,'llKH111"
= 550-850 Wldl'UfllIalllKflJflC
; R50-l000 WIilTlll1l1a;I)KH"""
= 11011\ H)()(l WldT1l1< lIa :J)K":iI1
78
o 6eJUll\a
E.'TeTTIJlltllld
)J,06pltl1TltITTle
XPVlCTVl7IHCKOTO HACEnEHVlE HA
PA3J10>KKO nPE31857 ro
CONTENTS
Introduction (acad. Georgi Markov) .............................................................. 5
Chapter One
The Town of Razlog and the Razlog Region in the Ancient Times
(Vassil Markov) ............................................................................................... 9
Chapter Two
The Region of Razlog in the Middle Age (Christo Matanov) ...................... 33
Chapter Three
The Razlog Valley under the Ottoman Rule Conditions (XV -XVIII Centu-
ries) (Grigor Boykov) .................. ~ ................................................................. 53
Chapter Four
The Razlog Region and the Processes of the Bulgarian National Revival
(until 1878)
1. Struggles forJndependent Bulgarian Church and Education (Georgi
Trenchev) .... ..................................................................... '" ...... ......... 79
2. National Liberation Movement during the Bulgarian National Revival
(Georgi Trenchev) ........................................................................... 113
Chapter Five
From the Berlin Treaty to the Balkan Wars of Liberation (1878-1912)
1. Social and Economical Development and Ethnic and Demographic
Changes (Stanislava Stoycheva) ..................................................... 131
2. Church, Education and Culture (Georgi Trenchev) ........................ 153
3. National-Liberation Movement (Georgi Georgiev) ........................ 179
Chapter Six
The town of Razlog and the Wars for National Unification (1912-1918)
1. The Liberation of Razlog in 1912 r. (Georgi Lukov) ..................... 202
2. Administration between Wars and Peace (Dimitar Tjulekov) ........ 219
Chapter Seven
The Town ofRazlog as Administrative, Public and Cultural Center (1919-
1944)
1. Social and Political and Economic Development (Volodya
Milachkov) ............................................................................................. 234
385
2. Education, Culture, Church, Tourism and Charity (Aleksandar
Grebenarov) .......................................................................................... 267
3. Struggles for the Liberation of the Bulgarians in Macedonia (Dimitar
Tjulekov) .......................................................................................... 285
Chapter Eight
The Town of Razlog during the Socialist Period (1944-1989)
1. The Impact of the State and Political Changes on the Town and the
Region of Razlog (Stoyan Germanov) ........................................... 307
2. The Town of Razlog after 1948 (Stoyan Germanov) ..................... 325
Chapter Nine
Ethnic and Cultural Inheritance, Vernacular Special Features
1. The Traditional Culture of the Razlog Region (Late 19
th
- Mid 20
th
Centuries) (Rumiana Hadjieva) ...................................................... 339
2. The Vernacular of Razlog (Antony Stoilov) ................................... 362
386
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