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CAG GGU d) (i) Alanine will be the amino acid formed for this codon instead of threonine. The quaternary structure of the protein will be affected; as in the protein will not be folded properly. (ii) It codes for a stop codon, therefore the polypeptide would not form. The chain would be one amino acid long and therefore there will be no protein produced. 2) A) mesosome bacteria capsid virus nucleic acid bacteria and virus cytoplasm bacteria ribosome bacteria

b) (i) There has been an increase in the number of new TB cases in Africa and Europe. However there has been a significant decrease in the no. of new TB cases in both Asia and South America. The highest percentage difference between these two years was shown by Europe. (ii) If they were included, the no. of new TB cases would have increased. This is because they have a very weak immune system, therefore if they encounter with the mycobacterium tuberculosis, it is very likely that they will develop active TB. c) Too many tourists crowded place - Un-noticed cattle that are affected with mycobacterium bovis spreading TB to humans through drinking their milk 3) a) Bacteriocidal antibiotics completely destroy all the bacteria present. Antibiotic C is an example of a bacteriocidal, because once the antibiotic is added, in a few hours time the whole bacteria population is destroyed. Whereas bacteriostatic antibiotics prevent any further replication/growth of bacteria. Antibiotic B is an example of a bacteriostatic one, as we can see that once the antibiotic is added, within a few hours there is no further increase in the population size of the bacteria. b) The reason is because the bacteria have developed resistance to antibiotic A, therefore the antibiotic is no longer effective in destroying the bacteria. This could have come about through a mutation that had occurred in the bacteria. Since it is constantly being exposed to antibiotic A, the bacteria have evolved accordingly to resist this, therefore have survived even if the use of the antibiotic.


1) use disinfectant to wipe the tables you are going to work on 2) Use a petri dish filled with agar nutrients 3) Inoculate known bacteria in the dish 4) Prepare a few different antibiotic discs, each of the same size and shape but with different antibiotics 5) Using sterile forceps (dip in HCl and heat it), pick up the antibiotic disc and place it in the petri dish 6) Place the five discs in equal distances from each other 7) Invert the petri dish, and seal it 8) Incubate at 35 C for three days 9) Measure the zone of inhibition around each disc 10) This shows how effective each antibiotic is (the bigger the zone of inhibition, the more effective the antibiotic)

4) a) A pathogen is any type of foreign body (eg disease-causing bacteria) that enters the human body to invade cells and cause diseases. b) (i) Inflammation This involves the release of chemicals known as histamines, which cause vasodilation and an increase in local temperature. This increase in temperature reduces the effectiveness of the pathogens reproduction in the area therefore; there are less of them, which mean there are less chances of causing diseases (ii) Lysosome These contain digestive enzymes that are capable of destroying bacteria by breaking the cross-linkage in their cell walls. (iii) Interferons These are proteins released by the cells when a virus enters, which does not allow it to replicate. 5) a) It is very objective evidence and is backed up by genetic evidence such as matching of DNA sequences etc. This is very strong because genetics cannot be forged, and if the DNA does not exactly match with the prisoner, then it is very certain that he is not the culprit. b) Fingerprints These are unique to every different individual, therefore when used for DNA profiling, this will show the exact evidence. c) Through DNA fingerprinting, where the introns are analyzed to investigate the micro and mini satellites from the DNA of the dead person. Using the process of gel electrophoresis, the DNA bands will separate out, and thus by comparing this evidence from the dead person and the DNA profiling, it is easy to identify a dead person. 6) a) Temperature affects the length of time blowflies take to grow, i.e their life cycle. Overall it is important to know the temperature because it decides when the insects arrive on the body. Using forensic entomology it is possible to find the time of death

b) It gives us a wide range of data, therefore we can look for consistencies therefore increasing the reliability. c) This is because time of death relies on many other factors such as whether the body was covered in clothes or not, when rigor mortis sets in, external temperature of where the body was found, everything has an effect on the time of death.