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ME 333 Manufacturing Process I

Lecture 09

Casting Defects
Types of Defects Inspection Methods Moulding Related Defects Filling Related Defects Solidification Related Defects Defects Analysis

2006 Prof. B. Ravi, Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay.

Types of Defects
Based on Location: External Internal Based on Type: Geometric Integrity Based on Size/Severity: Small/Minor Large/Major Based on Process: Moulding-related Filling-related Solidification-related. Based on Cause: Raw materials Product design Tooling design Process parameters Process control Based on Stage: Casting Rough machining Finish machining Service Based on Reparability: Repairable Irreparable

Inspection Methods
Destructive: Sectioning, Machining Mechanical testing Chemical testing Non-Destructive: Visual: large external defects Dimensional: size defects Pressure testing: leakage Radiography: internal holes Ultrasound: internal discontinuities Eddy current: hardness, structure Magnetic Particle: sub-surface discontinuities Dye Penetrant: defects with opening to surface.

Moulding-related Defects
Improper Closure Across parting plane: flash Along parting line: mismatch

FLASH

MISMATCH
[Atlas of Casting Defects, Institute of British Foundrymen]

Filling-related Defects
Incomplete Filling: cold shut, misrun. Gaseous Entrapments: blow hole, gas porosity. Solid Inclusions: sand inclusion, slag inclusion.
[Atlas of Casting Defects, Institute of British Foundrymen]

COLD SHUT

MISRUN

BLOW HOLE

GAS POROSITY

Solidification/Cooling-related Defects
Solidification Shrinkage: cavity, porosity, centerline, sink. Hindered Cooling Contraction: hot tear, crack, distortion.
SHRINKAGE CAVITY
[Atlas of Casting Defects, Institute of British Foundrymen]

POROSITY

SINK

CORNER SHRINKAGE

CRACK

Defects Analysis
Individual Defect: Defect identification Cause identification Remedy specification Defects over a batch/period: Quality control charts Defect frequency (histogram) Defect spectrum (pattern over time) Expert Systems for Defects Analysis Knowledge base (IF-THEN rules with confidence) Inference Engine

Summary
Casting defects are significant: typically 1-10% About 20 major types of casting defects:
Flash, mismatch, cold shut, misrun, blow hole, gas porosity, shrinkage cavity, porosity, centerline, sink, hot tear, crack, scab, swell, metal penetration, rough surface. Other defects: improper composition and properties.

Implications:
Minor defects can be repaired, with cost increase. Major defects lead to rejection, with loss of productivity.

Status and Progress:


Quality control and defects analysis: experts/systems. Quality certification and assurance gaining importance. Responsibility shifting to manufacturer; legal implications. Toward zero defects: prevention is better than cure!

Home Exercise
Draw the cause-effect (Ishikawa) diagram for the following defects: Shrinkage porosity, Blow hole, Mismatch. Include causes related to moulding, filling and solidification. For each of above group of causes, identify the sub-causes (ex. improper filling), and sub-sub-causes (ex. ingate too small). Write the IF-THEN rules for identifying and troubleshooting (cause) the following defects: shrinkage porosity, gas porosity.