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. ..

1999

3- . .
.
19972000 , No 274.
.


. 1999


1.
2.
3.
4.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
7. U (x) = 21 m 2 x2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18


8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
10. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
13. . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

--
18.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

n = 2
19.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
20. . . . . . . 58
21. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64



4


23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
24. -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
27.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

-




32. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
LS
jj
: p2
39. () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
40. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
41. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
42. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
5






45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
46. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
47. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
48. : . . . . 132


.

1.
3-
, . .
,
.
:
.., .. , .: , 1989.
.., .., .. , .: , 1981.

2.

.
,
, . ( ,
), (1900 .)
, , :
En

= h n ,

 = 1, 05 1027 .
h
+A e+ A0 , , . (1905 .)
h


2 +I,
= 12 mevmax

I , .
+ e + e (.1). ,
E

= h , p = h k
7

. 1:


h
 + E

= h 0 + E 0, h k + p = h k0 + p0

, (1924 .)

e
0 = 4

e

sin2 2 ,

2 ,
k

= 2k0 .

= mh c = 3, 86 1011
e

.
.

- (1911 .),
: R 1013 1012 , a 108 .
, .
(1923 .)

= Eh , k = hp ,

.
, , ..
| (r, t)|2 .
8

(x, t) = Aei(kxt) ,

E
.
=
k
p
, :
u=

(x, t) =

Z k +k
0

dk A(k0)ei(kxt)

k0 xk

f (x, t) =

k
dq ei(qxqvt)
k

= A(k0)ei(k0 x0t) f (x, t),

(2.1)

x vt)k ]
= 2k sin[(
(x vt)k ,

E
|k0 =
|p
=
k
p 0

. .

3. .
p = 0, x = E = 0,
t = . (2.1) , t
>
f (x, t) x
1/k,
p x > h .
 (/k )k x (2.1)
>
, f (x, t) t
1/,
E t > h .
, x p h
 ,
:
>

p2
2m

x2 x2 p2 p2

m 2 x2

2
(
p)2 m 2 (x)2 >
h

1 m2(x)2 .
+

+
E
2m
2
2m(x)2 2

E (x)

x

v
u
u
t

h
 ,
m

 ( Emin = 12 h ).
Emin h
,
me4
Emin 2 = 13, 6 .
2h

3.1. ,
( h
 ) ( E  mec2 ),

h
 0

x
= x+
1E ,

x=

4hE .
m2e c4

 0 h = 1, 2 (
h
), E = 46 ( SLAC,  = 1, 2 , E = 5 (
, 1996 .) h
-4, , 1997 .).
3.2. , 108 , , .
3.3. , , , .
3.4. ,
<
v 1 /. .
3.5. | (x, t)|2 ,
2
2
A(k ) = A0 e(kk0) /(2k) ,

= ck (

= h2km

( m).
10

3.6. , U (x) = |x|.


3.7. , .

4. .

x dW/dx
| (x, t)|2 . (x, t)
Z

dx| (x, t)|2

dW (x, t)
dx
x
hxi =

x dW

= 1,

= |(x, t)|2 .

x | (x)|2 dx =

dx (x) x (x) .

, F (x)
hF (x)i =

(x) =

dx (x) F (x) (x) .


Z

dk A(k ) eikx ,

p = h
 k
2
|A(k )| ,
dW (k )
|A(k )|2 .
dk

Z
dx | (x)|2 = 1,

dk |(k )|2

= 1.

A(k )
(k ) =
2
- (x),
Z
Z
eikx
eikx
(x) = dk (k ) ; (k ) = dx (x) .
2
2
11

(4.1)


dW
dk

hF (k )i =

= |(k)|2

dk (k ) F (k ) (k ) .

hpi (x).
hpi =

dk (k ) h
 k (k )

(k ) (x) (4.1),

ikx0
ikx
Z
Z

Z
e
e
 k dx(x) .
hpi = dk dx0 (x0) h
2
2

k eikx

d ikx
= i dx
e

x ,
Z

d
hpi = dx (x) i
h
(x ) .
dx
k
Z
0
dk eik(x x) = 2 (x0 x) .

, hpi
hpi =

dx (x) p^ (x) ,


d
.
(4.2)
dx
, , A
(x) ( (p))
p^ = i
h

hAi =

dx

(x) A^ (x) =

dp (p) A^ (p).

, x- (4.2), p-
p^ = p. , x^ = x x-
x^ = +i
h
12

d
dp

p-.
^r p
^ . ,

M^ = ^r p^ = ihr .

4.1.

U (x) =

x < 0
0 < x < a
x > a

En n (x). En
) m 1 a 1 ;
) H2 a 1 ; n,
En kT , T 300 ; (En En1)/En
;
) a 108 .
,

dW (x)
2
=
,
dx
v (x)T
T ,
dW/dx = |n (x)|2 n = 1 n  1.
dW/dp .
4.2. m,
2 2
(r, 0) = A e(r /a )+ibr .
4.3. (k)

r/a
e
(r) =

a3

, a=

h
2
me e2
13

= 0, 53 108

( ). t = 0. ,
1 .

5. .

2
p
H=
2m + U (r)

2
h

^
H =
2m  + U (r) .
En
() (1925 .)

^ n(x) = En n(x) .
H
. R
( dx|n(x)|2 = 1) n (x) 0 x .
0 (x) . x = a,
Z a+
dx 00 (x) = 0 (a + ) 0 (a ) =
a

2m Z a+ dx [U (x) E ] (x) = 2m (a) Z a+ dx U (x) ,


a
h
 2 a
h
2
0
(x) x = a,
U (x) 1- (
). , 2- , 0 (x)
(. ). U (x) =
G (x a)
2mG
(5.1)
0 (a + ) 0 (a ) = 2 (a) .
h

, . :
14

^ ,
1(x) 2 (x) H
E.
100
1

2
m
200
= 2 (U E ) =
h

2

d 0
= 0 = dx
(12 120 ).
, 10 2 120 = const. , const = 0 -
n (x) . , 1 = C2 .
100 2 1200

^ (x) = H^ (x), ,
, H
n (x) = +n (x), n (x) = n (x). ,
n (x) n (x) , En , ,
, n (x) = Cn(x). , n (x) = Cn(x) = C 2n (x), C = 1.

V 2a,

V
|x| < a
U (x) =
0 |x| > a .

E < 0,

q
 k = q2m(V |E|)
00 + k 2 = 0 |x| < a, h
00 2 = 0 |x| > a, h
 = 2m|E| .

, (x) 0 (x) ,
(x) 0 x (x) , ^ (x) = H^ (x).
, H

(x) =

A cos kx |x| < a,


B e|x| |x| > a

0 (x)/ (x) x = a
v
u
u
t

tg ka = = 2mV
h
 2k 2

15

1,

kn En ( ).
,
.
, , V  h
 2/(ma2),
h
 220 , = 2aV m
E0 =
0
2m
h
2

0 (x)

0 e0 |x| .

x p . , (5.1),
U (x) = G (x)

mG
0 = 2 .
h


n (x), (n+
1)- En ,
( x) n (. , ..).
:
5.1. En n (x)

U (x) =

x < 0
0 < x < a
x > a

5.2. - U (x) = G (x + a) G (x a)
a  h
 2/(mG).
a.
5.3. , , (x, t),
t < 0 .
16

6.

^ A,
^
B
1 2
Z

^ 2=
dx 1 A

^ 1)2 .
dx (B

^ = A^+. A^ = A^+ , B
, ( ).
Z

^ 2=
dx 1 A

^ 1) 2 .
dx (A

:
Z

A^ = ,

dx A

dx (A^ ) .

, = .
, R
dx A^ -
. .
, , . , A^ = , (A^ ) = , ,
Z
Z

dx = dx ,

dx

= 0

=
6 .

, ,

Z

dx m
n = mn .
:
f (x) =

X
n

an n (x); an

f (x) =

X
n

dx0 f (x0)

X
n

dx0 n (x0)f (x0) ,

n (x) n (x0) .

n (x) n (x0) = (x x0) .


17

.
Af i

^ .
dx f (x) A^ i (x) = hf |A|ii

^ = hi|A|f
^ i
hf |A|ii



hf |ii = f i ,

X
n

|ni hn|

= 1.

6.1. ,
A^ =

d
^
, B
dx

d
d
, C^ = mx + h
.
= i dx
 dx

^ , 6.2. C,
. ,
,
, , .
6.3. A^ , A^ = A^+ . ,
h | A^2 | i 0.
6.4. x^ x- p-.
p^.
6.5. A^ = 1/r
( 1.47 ).
7. U (x) = 21 m 2x2

 , m, .

h
q
` = h
 /(m), h .. (
18

, , , ).
x
E
x0 = , E 0 =
`
h
 ;
(x) 0 (x0)
0 (x/`)
.
(x) =
`

d2
+
(2
E 0 x02) = 0;
0
2
dx
.
2
x d2/dx2 = x2, ex /2.
,

= ex2/2v(x) ,

v 00 2xv 0 + (2E 1)v

v
v

X
n=0

= 0.

an xn


X
n

xn [(2E 1 2n) an + (n + 1)(n + 2) an+2] = 0


an+2

1 2E a .
= (n2n++1)(
n
n + 2)

, , v (x)
.

lim
n

an+2
an

= n2 0
2

x, v (x) ex x
. (x) 0 x ,
v (x) ,
2E = 2n + 1.
19


x2 /2
1
e
H (x )
n
En = n + , n (x) =
, n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .
4
2

n!2n
Hn :
H0(x) = 1, H1 (x) = 2x, Hn+1(x) = 2xHn(x) 2nHn1(x) .
,

n (x) = (1)nn (x) .



a
^=

1 (x + ip^) , a^+ = 1 (x ip^) ,


2
2

^
H

= 21 (^a+a^ + a^a^+) = a^+a^ + 12 = a^a^+ 12 .

^ a^+
H





= a^+ H^ + 1 , H^ a^ = a^ H^ 1 .

(7.1)

|ni En = n + 12 ,

^ |ni = En |ni = (n + 1/2) |ni .


H
^+ |ni a^ |ni () E +1
a

En 1 . , (7.1) ,

^ a^+ |ni = a^+(H^


H

+ 1) |ni = (En + 1) a^+ |ni,


a
^ |ni:
^ a^ |ni = (En 1) a^ |ni .
H
^+ |ni
, a
|n + 1 i, 1
( h
 ),
a^+ |n i = cn |n + 1 i ,
(7.2)
20

a
^ |ni
|n 1 i, 1.
: |n i n
() E = 1 ( h

) , a^+
, a^ . ,

n
^ = a^+a^ = H^

1
2

n, n
^ .
cn . (7.2):
cn =
:

h n| a^a
^+ |n i = h n| H^ + 1/2 |n i = n + 1 = c2n .

n + 1. , |n i n
(^
a+ )
|n i =
|0 i ,
n!

h n + 1| a
^+ |n i = h n| a^ |n + 1 i = n + 1 .

a
^ 0(x) = 0.

x2 /2
e
(x) = .

n > 0
2
n
(^
a+ ) ex /2
.
n (x) =
n! 4

7.1. n(p) .
21

7.2. dW /dx
|n (x)|2 n = 0.
dW/dp |0 (p)|2 .
,
|x| > `.
7.3. xf i, pf i, (x2)f i
.
7.4. x p n- .

8.

S (x, t)
p=

S
, E
x

.
= S
t


h
p p^ = i

,
x

,
h
E i

.
t

,
(x, t) = A ei(pxEt)/h
: i
h/t = E.
, e ,
:

2
(r, t)
h

^ (r, t) =  + U (r) (r, t) .
ih t = H
2m
:
1. : 1(r, t) 2 (r, t) , c1 1 +
c2 2 ( ).
2. , (r, t)
,
(r, t0) t0 .
22


(r, t) = n (r) eiEnt/h
| (r, t)|2 t.
X
(r, t) =
cn eiEn t/h n (r) ,
n

cn

n (r) (r, 0) d3r .

, (r, t)

(r, t) =

G(r, r0, t) (r0, 0) d3r0 , G =

n (r) n (r0 ) eiEnt/h .

G(r, r0, t)

ih G
= H^ (r) G
t

G(r, r0, 0) =

hEi =

X
n

n (r) n (r0) = (r r0) .

^ (r, t) d3r
(r, t) H

X
n

En |cn |2

, cn
En . cn
.

%(r, t) = | (r, t)|2
%
t

=
t


.
t

/ t ,
%
t

h h 2
= 2im

= j ,

j = 21m [ (ih) + (ih) ] .


23

= % ei

.
j = % h m

= A ei(krt)
j = |A|2 v , v = hmk .

9.
. 2 (U (x) 0
x , U (x) V x +) E > V

. 2:

. ,
. :

eikx + A eikx , h

k = q2mE
x
i
t
e
i
k1 x
h
 k1 = 2m(E V ) x + .
Be ,
x- :
j

= hmk ,

= |A|2 hmk ,

= |B|2 hmk1 .

D R :
D=

j
j

= kk1 |B|2;

R=

|j |
j

24

= |A|2;

R+D

= 1.


.
k

2 = n,

c
n .
, , .
0 < E < V x + ,
eit B ex , h
 =

2m(V

E) ;

9.1. U (
x) = G (x). t = 0
|x|/b
/ b. ,
(x, 0) = e
t 0 (x).
9.2.
x2 /(2b2 )
e
(x, 0) =
(b2)1/4 .

9.3. .
9.4. D R . 3

U (x) =

0 x < 0
V x > 0 .

. ,
. ?
h
 0.
9.5. D
V a (. 4). D(E ),
.
. 5:

U (x) = V1

V
2

x < 0
0 < x < a
x > a ,
25

. 3:

. 4:

V1 < V2 .
9.6. D(E ) V a (. 6),
E < V, a  1.
9.7. U (x) = G (x).
E < 0.

. 5: ,

26

. 6:

10. .
.
.

A B , n , , n
^ B.
^
A,

^
A^B

X
X
X
= A^B^ cn n = cn ab n = cnB^ A^ n = B^ A^ ,
n

^ B^ ] A^B^ B^ A^ = 0.
[A,
^ B^ ] = 0, A^ B^
, [A,
^
. a A:
A^ a

= a a ,

= aB^ a = A^B^ a ,
^ a A^ B
^ a a. , , B
^ a = ba ,
a , B
^ (
a , , B
^ A^ a
B

b).
P
i ci ai
^ A,
^
B.
a = b = 0.

27

A = h(A hAi)2i .
^ , [A,
^ B^ ] = iC^
A^ B
^ = hn|B|ni
^ = 0.
hn|A|ni

^  |ni .
|mi = A^ + iB
,

^ )(A^ + iB^ )|ni =


J () = hm|mi = hn|(A^ iB
^ B^ A^) + B^ 2|ni =
hn|2 A^2 + i(A^B
= 2A2 hCi + B 2 0 .

, A2 B 2 14 hCi2 . ,

A B 12 |hCi| .


^
ddtA , ,
* ^ +
d
dA
^ .
h|A|i
dt
dt

d
^
h|A|i
dt

^
A
t


+


A


t



A

t

+
1
+ ih [A^H^ ] .

dA^ A^ i ^ ^
= t + h [H, A] .
dt
{H, A} :
i ^ ^
{H, A} [H,
h
 A] .
28

,
d
U
.
p^x =
dt
x

d2
m 2 hri = hU i .
dt
e .

:

^ B^ C^ ] = B^ [A,
^ C^ ] + [A,
^ B^ ]C^ ; [H,
^ p^] = ihU ; [H,
^ r] = ih p^ .
[A,
m
|ni ( ),

^ A^]|ni = hn|H^ A|ni


^ hn|A^H|ni
^ = (En En)hn|A|ni
^ = 0.
hn|[H,
,

^ p^r]|ni = hn|[H,
^ p^]r + p^[H,
^ r]|ni = ih
0 = hn|[H,

2 +
p
^
rU n .

p^2
2m n

= hn |rU | ni .

rU .
,
U (r) = k U (r), ,
, rU = k U ,
* 2 +
* 2 +
^
p

2 n 2m n = k hn |U | ni , n 2p^m n = k +k 2 En , hn |U | ni = k +2 2 En .

k = 2,
* 2 +
E
D
^
1
p


n m 2 x2 n = n n = h

(n + ).
m
2
29

k = 1,
* 2 +
* 2 +
^
e
p
n n = n n = 2En .
r
m

(10.1)

10.1. ,
.
10.2. x K ,
U K , K = p2/(2m).
10.3. , (x, y, z ), , x py
x1 < x < x2 , py1 < py < py2 .
^ = p^2/(2m) + U (r)
10.4. H
^ r]. , , [H,

h E | p
^ | E i = 0.

11. .
T^a
T^a (x) (x + a) .

an d n
(x) ,
(x + a) =
n=0 n! dx

T^a

= eiap^/h .

, a

T^a

= 1 + i a
h
 p^ ,

p^x x.
30

:
Z

1 (x)2(x + a) dx =
6

1 (x + a)2 (x) dx .

^ = p^2/(2m) [H,
^ T^a] = 0, H^ T^a
H
E (x) = A eikx  2k2/(2m) = eika . E = h
^ T^a h k.
H
^ T^a] = 0.
, U (x + a) = U (x), [H,

, E (x),
:
^ E
H

= E E , T^a = E .

, E (x) x ,

E (x na) = n E (x)

|| = 1,
= eiqa .

 q . ,
h
,
^ p^] =
[H,
6 0.

E (x) = eiqx uq (x) ,

E (x + a) = eiqa E (x)

uq (x): uq (x + a)
.

= uq (x). -

11.1. (x) = A cos(x/b) ^ , T^a p^, [H,


^ T^a] = [H,
^ p^] = 0. ?
H
31

11.2. E < 0
+X

(x + na) .
U (x) = G
n=
, ,
(x) = A [sh(a x) + eiqa shx] 0 < x < a ,
q

q (x) = eiqna q (x na)

na < x < (n + 1)a ,


^ T^a
H
2 2
h

E=

= eiqa .
2m
E 0 / x = 0.
0 = mGa/h
 2  1
E q. q

2q2
h

E=
2m + const ,
m . jx ,
E q jx .
?
E > 0.

12.

q
2
00
2
h
 (x) = p (x) (x) , p(x) 2m[E U (x)]

(x) = eiS (x)/h ,

(S 0(x))2 = p2(x) + ih S 00(x) .

, , S (x)
.
S

Z x

32

p(x) dx .

, ,
2

(S 0(x))

h
 |S 00(x)|

(x) = 2h
 /p(x). ,



d


dx



d


dx

(x)  1 ,
2

 ,

(x) (x)
.


Z




dx

p(x)

h
.

, ,
.
: , a, (
):

 1, ka  1 .
a

1 .
dW

dx
v (x )
U (x) = const
(x) = A eikx + B eikx , h
 k = p. ,
:
(x) =

1 C ei R
1
k (x)

k (x) dx

h
 k(x) = p(x) =

+ C2ei

Rx

k (x) dx

2m[E U (x)] .

,
h

(x) = eiS (x)/h , S (x) = S0 (x) + S1(x) + ...

33

(12.1)

h
:

(S00 )2 2ihS00 S10 ihS000 = p2(x) .

S0 (x) = S (x) =

p(x) dx ,

1
S000
1 d ln p(x) ,
S1 = 0 =
2 S0
2 dx
0

S1(x) = ln q
p(x)

+ const ,

(12.1).

R
1
(x) = q
C3 e
(x)

h
 (x) =

(x) dx

+ C4 e

Rx

(x) dx

2m[U (x) E ] .

(12.2)

-
.
7.
x < a ( A . 7) ,
x :
 Z a

A
A (x) = exp
dx ;
x

x > b ( C . 7), ,
 Z x

C
C (x) = exp
dx .
b

a < x < b

Z x

B
k dx + .
B (x) = sin
a
k

a ( , , ..
(.: , 1973; 23) :

1
2

A= B, =
34

4.

. 7:

B
B
B (x) = sin
k

Z b
a

Z b
x

k dx +

k dx +

b,
C

= (1)n 12 B ,

2,

= (n + 1) ,

n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

, :
I

!
1
p(x) dx = 2
2m[En U (x)] dx = 2h n + 2 ,
a
B (x) 4 x = a
!
Z b

3
k (x) dx + = n +
a
4
4 ,
Z bq

n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

, En , , , n .
H
p(x) dx n, 2h
 , x px

px
n = x2 
h
 .
:
!
2Zb
Z x
Z b B2

B 2h
 ,
2
1 a k sin a k dx + 4 dx B2 a kdx
=
(x) 2m
35

2 = T

Z b

dx
a v (x)

.
B

=2

v
u
u
t

= 2m
h
 .

n  1, En+n En (dEn/dn) n. n

2h =

I dx
dEn
p dEn
dx =

En dn
v (x) dn

n
.
= T dE
dn

( n = 1)

2h 1 = h .
dEn

n=
dn
T
, .
En+1 En

. 8:


. 6 D
exp(2a). . 8
D

Y
i

exp[2(xi)xi] = exp[2

Z b
a

(x) dx] .

:
Z b
a

|p(x)| dx  h
.
36


. , 3 50. , (x, t =
0) = 0(x) ( ),
iE0 t/
h

(x, t) = e

"

t
0 (x) cos

+ i 0(x) sin t

= 2
h/E. , /2
, ..

37


12.1. , . ( 9.2
9.3 ).
12.2. 2.4 . ,
U (x) = U0|x/a| ;

U0 > 0,

> 0,

, n . ?
12.3. n (x) n  1. |n (x)|2

dW(x)
dx

= v(x)T2

T = 2/ . n = 0.
12.4. E ( ).
. E 2 , E 106 /.
12.5. .
, - . 3 50, .

13. . -
, , , , .. :
38

. 9: . w0

2/( ,) E = En 12 ,

dt dN (t)
N (t) dt,
dN (t) = N (t) dt ,

N (t) = N (0) e t .

= 1 ,

, = h .


dW
dt

_
.
= N
N

dW
iE n t ,t .
=
| (r, t)|2 , exp
dt
h

2h

Z
eit
( ) = (t) dt ,
2
(. . 9)
dW
,
=
dE
2[(E En)2 + (,/2)2] ,
E ,. , 0
dW/dE (E En) .
"

39

-
- . 10,
,
. b

. 10: , -

En , = 0.
E ,.

T
,
D

Z a

dr
.
0 v (r)
. (r ) eikr .
T

=2

13.1. -
T1/2
- E ( .., .. 40

(.: , 1972 . . 208). ( )

lg T1/2 = A + B

A B , Z ( Z =
90 A = 51, 94; B = 139, 4 1/2 , T1/2 ).
, -,

0
r < a
U (r) =
/r r > a
E  /a, ,
A B .
13.2.

U (x) =

x < 0
G (x a) x > 0 .

 2/(ma)
G  h
(. 4.56 ).
14.

a = n, n , .
- r r0 .
11 , , T^a (r)
^ T^a = exp(ia^p/h ).
(r+a), p
, ,
^ (r) (r0), R
^ = r p^ R^ = exp(iM^ /h ).
M

h/z k (z ) = eikz / 2
p^z = i
h
 k. , ^
Mz = i
h/,
, m() = A eim
h
 m. , , .
41

p^z ,
< z < +, , R
k (z )k0 (z ) dz =
-:
^ z (k k 0 ). M
, 0 2, m( +2 ) =
m() m = 0, 1, 2, . . .. ^ z :
M

eim ,
m() =
2

Z 2

m () m() d = mm .
0

(14.1)

,
, k (r) = eikr /(2 )3/2
p^x , p^y p^z . , .

^l M^ = ir .
h

,

[^lj , ^lk ] = ijks^ls, [^lj , ^l2] = 0 .

(14.2)

,
^lx ^l2 ^lz ^l2 :

^l2 m = m , ^lz m = m m .

(14.3)

^lz ^l2 ,

^l

= ^lx i ^ly ,


^lz ^l = l^ ^lz 1 ,

(14.4)

[^l, ^l2] = 0 ,
(14.5)
^l2 = ^l+^l + ^lz2 ^lz = ^l^l+ + ^lz2 + ^lz .
(14.6)
(14.4) ^lz ^l+ ^l ^
(7.1) H
42

a
^+ a^ . ^l+ ^l ^lz . ,
(14.45)

^l2 ^l m = ^l m , ^lz ^l m = (m 1) ^l m ,

^l m = m m1 .

(14.7)

h^lz2 i h^l2 i,
m, mmax = l. , ^l+ l = 0,
(14.6)


^l^l+ l = ^l2 ^lz2 ^lz

l2 l l

=0

= l(l + 1) .

n ^l mmax = l, (^l)n l ln . n, mmin = l, l n = l,

2l .
(14.8)
^l .
m = l(l + 1) |lmi (14.6) ,

l(l +1) = hlm|^l+ ^l |lmi + m2 m = hlm|^l+ |lm 1ihlm 1|^l|lmi + m2 m ,


|hlm|^l+ |lm 1i|2

= l2 + l m2 + m .

,
hlm| ^l+ |lm 1i = hlm 1| ^l |lmi =

(l + m)(l m + 1) .

, () , |lmi l.
C (14.7)

^l+ |lmi = q(l + m + 1)(l m) |lm + 1i ,


43

^l |lmi = q(l + m)(l m + 1) |lm 1i .

(14.9)

, (14.2):
[^l , A^ ] = i A^ , [^l , A^ 2] = 0 ,
(14.10)
j

jks

^ = r, p^ , ^l
A
A = r f1 + p^ f2 + ^l f3 , fj fj (r2 , p^2, r^p + p^r) .

^lz = i , ^l

= e i
+ i ctg
,

2
1
1

2
^l =

sin sin + sin2 .


^l2 ^lz
Ylm (, ) = lm() m(), m ()
(14.1) m = 0, 1, 2, . . . , l. lm() . ^l+ Yll = 0
!
d
l ctg ll () = 0 ,
d
Yll = const eil sinl . (14.9),

Ylm(, ) = (1)

v
u

m+|m| u
u

2l + 1 (l |m|)! P m(cos ) eim ,


4 (l + |m|)! l

Plm (x) .

Z

Yl0 m0 Ylm d
= ll0 mm0 .

r r : r r, , + .
Ylm(n) = (1)l Ylm(n) .
44


v
u
u
t

v
u
u
t

v
u
u
t

= 41 , Y10 = 43 cos = 43 nz ,
v
v
u
u
u 3
u 3
i
t
Y11 =
sin
e = t (nx iny ) .
8
8
Y00

14.1. , =
A cos2 , m z hlz i. = A ei cos2 .
14.2. , h | ^l |i
= Yll = 12 (Y11 + Y11). ,
m m z
hlx i = hly i = 0.
14.3.
, Yl,m=l Yl,m=0 , l  1.
14.4. , m m0 hm0 | xi |mi hm0 | xixj
(1/3)ij r2 |mi .
14.5. l = 1 m (m = 0, 1) z. W (m0, m) m0 z 0 ,
z. , , , z 0 z ( 3.24 ).

15.
.

2 2
h


2m r2

2^l2
2
h


+ r r + 2mr2 + U (r) (r, , ) = E (r, , ) .

45

,
h
 2^l2
r2

[^
p r] r2 [r p^]

2 2
h


2m r2

= p^2 (^p r) r12 (r p^)

= R(r) Ylm(, ),

+ 2r r
+ U(r) Rl = El Rl ,

2l(l + 1)
h

U = U (r) +
2mr2 .

r Rl = l /r.
l (r)
2
h

00l + U (r)l

2m

= El l ,

U (r), l. ,
Rl (r) , l (0) = 0. :
Z

|l (r)|2 dr

= 1.

. l = 0, 1, 2, 3, ...(s, p, d, f, . . .) , m
. nr l (r) ( r = 0 r = ).
r 0. r2 U (r) 0 r 0,
l(l + 1)
00l =
l
r2

= arl+1 ( Rl = arl )

= rbl ( Rl = rlb+1 ).

. ,
6 0 l = 0.
(0) =
r . , ,
2mE
00l = 2 l ,
h


eikr sin(kr + )
E > 0 ,
l
l r
e
E < 0 .
46


l = 0 00 + k 2 =
(0) = 0
k0 (r) = A sin kr .

- k:
(k k 0 ) =
A2 Z

= 4

k0 k dr

= A4

Z h

ei(k+k )r + ei(k+k )r (k k)

ei(k+k0)r dr + (k k) = A

dr

[2
(k + k 0 ) 2 (k k 0 ) ] ;
4


A=

k0

v
u
u
t

2.

v
u
u
t

= 2 sin kr .

(. 33), l > 0
kl (r) =

rl+1
1d

kl
r dr

kl (r)

v
u
u
t

!l

k0 (r)
r

krJl+1/2(kr) ;

)l+1
2 (2(kr
l + 1)!! 


sin kr l
2

r 0,
r .

r , E > 0
r ,
kl (r)

v
u
u
t

2 sin

kr

2 + l ;

l .

15.1. , 1 33 5.1.
15.2. 3 33.
15.3. 4.20 . Enr l :
47

) l nr ;
) nr l?
15.4. 4.21 . ,
,
) ;
)
?
15.5. 4.23 4.24 . U (r) = kr2 /2, .
.
nr , l , .
n1 n2 n3
l = 0 ( N = n1 + n2 + n3 = 2)?

16.
m = me mp /(me+
mp ) U = e2 /r, E <
0 ( ).
h
 , e, m.
( )
2
h

aB =
=
0
, 53 108 ,
2
me
( )
me4
E = 2 = 27, 2
h


h
3
me4

= 2, 4 1017 ,
2

= eh = c ,

= 2 Ry ,

e2
h
c
48

1
137

. (
, , .) r0 = r/a , E 0 = E/E ,

d2l
dr02

1 = 0.
+ 2E + r20 l(lr+
l
02
0

.
l+1

, l r r 0 l
= 2E).
l

er r (

= rl+1 er w(r) .

w(r)
rw00 + 2(l + 1 r)w0 + 2(1 l)w = 0 .
w =
:
as+1

P
s
s=0 as r .

(s + l + 1) 1 a .
= 2 (s+
1)(s + 2l + 2) s

2 a s .
s
s+1
, as (2)2/s! , ,
w e2r r . l (r) 0 r ,
s = nr . (nr + l + 1) 1 = 0
w(r) = Ln (r) nr , nr (
as+1

). ,
En

= 21n2 ,

nlm

= Rlm(r) Ylm(, ) ,

n = nr + l + 1 = 1, 2, 3, . . . , nr

Rnl

= 0, 1, 2, . . . ,

= rl er/n Ln (r) ,
r

l = 0, 1, . . . , n 1 .

. En n
n
X1
l=0

(2l + 1) = n2
49

( ).
l = n 1. nr = 0 Lnr (r) , ,
Z

xn ex dx =

n!
.
n+1

,
Rn,n1

= rn1e

v
u
u
r/n u
t

1 2 !2n+1.
(2n)! n

(16.1)

,
hri = n

!
1
r = 1 .
n+
;
2
hri
2n + 1

1s
hri =

3 , r = 1 60% .
2 hri
3

, ,
hri = 1, r = 0 ( , 1s
M = 0, M = h
 ).
l = m = n 1  1, , , . ,
:

2
hri n , : r/hri 1/ 2n, |Yn1,n1|2 sin2n2 = /2,
n2 xy.
n = 2. 2p l = 1 (. (16.1))
R21

= r er/2
24

. 2s
a1 = 12 a0 , a0 = 12 ,
!
1
1
R20 = 1 r er/2 ,
2
2

50

r = 2.

h
 = 1

n2f

1 Ry ,

2
ni

ni > nf .

nf = 1
; nf = 2 , H ,
H , H , H , ni = 3, 4, 5, 6, ; nf 3
.
.
En .

16.1. 1s dW/d3r
dW/dr r. 100(p) dW/d3p
dW/dp p. hpi, hpi p.
16.2. R20 R10 . R20 R21 ?
16.3. 2 36 . r = aB .
16.4. 2s 2p dW/d3r
r . , 2p.
16.5. , l ,
2
Za e2
Za e2
h

U (r) =
r0 2 , r0 =
,
r
r
mZa e2

. .
16.6. , -
.
51

16.7. = A 200 + B 210 A B,


h|er|i = d, d.
16.8. He+ , Li++ , e+ e , p, + , Pb+82 .

17.

^
H
^
H

= H^0 + V^ ,

H^0 , n0 (x) En0 ,


H^0n0

= En0n0 ,

V^ . , n- En0 P
0
n0 (x). = m cm m
(H^0 + V^ ) = E, (k0) x.

(E Ek0) ck =

X
m

(17.1)

Vkm cm .

= En0 + En1 + En2 + . . . , cm = c0m + c1m + . . . .


0 V^ 0, c0m = 1 m = n c0m = 0 m 6= n,
R
c0m = mn . , ||2 dx = 1
E

X 0
cm
m

+ c1m + . . . 2 = 1 + 2Re c1n + . . . = 1 ,


c1n

= 0.

, (17.1)

(En0 Ek0 + En1 + En2 + . . .)(kn + c1k + . . .) =

52

X
m

Vkm (mn + c1m + . . .) .

k = n En1
(En0 Ek0 ) c1k = Vkn ,
c1k

= E 0VknE 0
n

= Vnn . k =
6 n

k =
6 n.

,
En1

= Vnn = hn0 |V^ |n0 i,

= n0 +

X
m6=n

0
m

Vmn
0 .
En0 Em

: n0 ,
0 E 0| .
|Vmn |  |Em
n

k
E2

X
m

= n
|Vmn |2
=
0
0 .
m6=n En Em
X

Vnm c1m

,
, , E02 0.


H^0

= H (), H^ = H ( + ) = H^0 + V^ ,
^V =  H^ .

En1
, En1 = (En/),
En


+


H

n
n

^ ) n .
n ( H/

, l

2 2
2 l(l + 1)
h

2
h


H (l) =
2m r2 + r r + 2mr2 + U (r) ,

Enr l
l



+
H


nr l
nr l
l

=
53


2
h
nr l

 (2l + 1) n l+ .
2mr2 r

(Enr l /l) > 0, l ( nr ) ,


.

me4
E nr l = 2
2h (nr + l + 1)2


+


nl 2 nl
r

= a12

1 .
1
3
B n (l + 2 )

(17.2)

U = e2 /r
/r2 , n, l:
me4
Enl = 2 2
2h n

m2 e2
+ 4 3 1 .
h
 n (l + 2 )

,
:
h
4
3
1
Enl (h n l) . , .

E V^ = dE , d = ea ra (
ra ).
n0 hdi = 0, En1 = 0

En = En2 =

|hm| dE |ni|2
1 E E .

0
0
2 ij i j
m6=n En Em
X


ij

=2

hn|di |mihm|dj |ni


.
0 E0
Em
m6=n
n
X

, ij

=2

hn|dz |mihm|dz |ni


.
0 E0
Em
m6=n
n
X

, > 0.
54

= ij

.
m |mi
|nlmi = |210i. ( )
>

|z|210i|2
219 2, 96 .
2 |h100
=
18 + 12
311

0 E0 E0 E0
Em
1
2
1

<

= 38 .

16 Xh100|z|mihm|z|100i = 16 h100|z2|100i = 16 5, 33 .
3 m
3
3

= 4, 5 a3B

(. 4 76).
--
R  aB S-
-
V

= 3(d1n)(dR23n) + d1d2 = 2d1z d2z + dR13xd2x + d1y d2y .


.

2 = ,
U (R) = E00
R6

X h0|V |n1 n2 ihn1 n2 |V |0i


X |h0|d1z d2z |n1 n2 i|2
=
= 6 E + E 2E .
En1 + En2 2E0
n1 n2
n1 n2
n1
n2
0

233 2, 46
320

< 2 5 <
e aB

= 6, 5 e2a5B .

55

8.

18.

En0 s 01, 02, . . . , 0s .
P
= sm=1 cm 0m ,

(E En0 ) ck =

s
X
m=1

Vkm cm ,

Vkm = h0k |V^ |0m i cm , , .


E = En0 + En1 + . . .,
cm :
s
X

(Vkm En1 km) cm = 0 .

m=1

det |Vkm En1 km| = 0 ,


, , s En1 (k ), k
cm .

= 1, 2, . . . , s

V11 E 1 V12
V21
V22 E 1

=0


E1

q
= 21 (V11 + V22) 12 (V11 V22)2 + 4|V12|2 .

E = (V11 V22)2 + 4|V12|2 .


.
, , , 1 2 ? E () V11 () = V22 (), V12 () =
56

0. , , , , , . ,
. . , V12 ()
V11() V22 () .
n = 2
4 : 2s; 2p, m = +1; 2p, 0; 2p, 1.
V = eEz lz . , 2p, +1 2p, 1 , .
,
E 1 = h2p, 1|V |2p, 1i = 0 .

01 = |2si 02 = |2p, 0i, V11


V22 = 0, V12 = V21 = 3eEa.
E1

= 3eEa,

= 1 (|2si |2p, 0i) .


2

18.1.
V = x3 +
x4 . .
18.2. , . ) R, ; ) R .
, R 1013 .
2p ?
18.3. , :
) ;
) ( );
57

) (
).
18.4. 8.9 8.10 .
) I d E ,
.
, .
)

.
. .
)
n- ? .

19.


!
e 2
1
H (r, p) =
2m p c A + e ,

p = mv + ec A ,

!2
e
1
^=
H
2m p^ c A + e , p^ = ih .


"
1
j = 2m

e
i
h A
c

+ k.c.

A A + f,

1 f , eief /(hc) .
c t

( f
).
58


19.1. . A = (0, xB, 0).
19.2. ,
^;
) v
) ;
)
dv
^
m
dt
( );
) , B

x^0

= x + 1 v^y ; y^0 = y 1 v^x;

eB
= mc

, . ( ,
).

20. .

( + k2) (r) = 2m2 U (r) (r) ,


h


(20.1)

r  a (a U (r))
, (.
11):

= +

= eikz + f

eikr , k = (0, 0, k) , k0 = k r .
r
r

= f (k, , ) .
59

(20.2)

. 11:

d ,
d

i
h
h

k |f |2
2
_
dN = (j)r dS = (j)r r d
, (j)r =
2m dr + k.c. = m r2 ,
(j)z
d

= h k/m:

_
= (jdN) = |f |2 d
.

, , , r,
a, , .
(20.1) (20.2)

m Z eik|rr |
i
kz
(r) = e
U (r0) (r0) d3r0.
2
0
2h |r r |
0

(20.3)


(. . ., .. (.: , 1988, 64). ,

2

(r, t) = 4(r, t)
c2 t2

(r, t) = (r) eit , (r, t) = (r) eit
60

( + k2)(r) = 4(r),

(20.4)

(20.1)
(r) (r), (r)

m
U (r) (r) .
2h 2

(20.4)
:
Z eikR
(r0 ) d3r0 , R = |r r0 | ,
(r) =
R
eikR /R, r0 , (r0 ) d3r0 .
r  a (20.3) (20.2). ,

k |r r | = k r2 2rr0 + r02
0

m
f =
2h 2

=k

!
r
0
r r = kr k0 r0 ,

eik r (r) U (r) d3r .

(20.5)

21. .
.

. ,
(20.5)
(r) (0) (r) = eikz

= eikr


f (q) =

m
2h 2

eiqr U (r) d3r, q = k0 k,

= 2k sin 2 .

: | (1) |  | (0) |,
m
h
 2k

U (r )


1 e2ikr dr  1 .

61


|U (a)| 

h
 2/(ma2) ka  1 ,
h
 v/a
ka  1 .

, |U (a)|
( ) E h
 2/(ma2), ( ) E ka ( |U (a)|
E ).
|U (a)|  h
 2/(ma2) ,

. |U (a)|  h
 v/a , , , ; ka  1 .

U (r) = /r  v  1.
/h
2m
f= 2 2,
h
q

2
d

= 2pv sin2(/2) = 16E 2 sin4(/2)


d

. , (
). .


(r),

(r) = Ze (r) en(r) .
62

(r) = 4(r),
(qeiqr) = q2qeiqr = 4qeiqr
, q = 4q /q 2 . ,
2
e2m
f (q) = 2 2 [Z F (q)] .
h
q
:
Z
F (q) = eiqr n(r) d3r .
qa  1,  1/(ka), |F |  Z .
: , , .
qa  1
Z
1
2
Z F (q) q
6

r2 n(r) d3r

= 16 q2 hr2i .

2 i 2
1
hr
d
= .
d
9 aB
,
( ) .

= 1, n(r) = |100(r)|2 ,
1 , u = 1 q2a2 = [ka sin(/2) ]2 ,
F (q) =
B
(1 + u)2
4 B
1 u)2
(1
+
d
7
(e2/aB ) 2
2
2
= (1 + u)4 aB , = 6 E aB .
d

. Z


!
e2
r
2r/aB
U (r) = e(r) =
1
+
e
.
r
aB
= , (!) .
63


, . U (r) /rn , n > 0.
,
,

p
F t

n , F n+1 , t .

pz
mv
E

(
>
r < ) p h
 /r >
h
 /,
h
 .
 pp > mv
z

, n > 1  > .
U (r) ,
, :
f (q)

Z
r0

eiqr rn d3r

q 3n

3n

,
d
1
2 3n
d

( )

0, n > 3,
Z
d2

(2)3n
n > 2.

. .

64

21.1. ( 1 126 ). .
21.2. U (r) = (/r) er/a .
21.3. U (r) = /r (
a ).
21.4.  v  1.
U (r) = (/r) er/a /h

22.
, (r) r , .

Yl0(, ) Pl (cos ):
(r) =

X
l=0

Al Pl (cos ) Rkl (r) .

(22.1)

(. 15),
Rkl (r)

v
u
u
t

2 1 sin

kr
r
2 + l r .
(20.2),

= 2 k1 (2l + 1) il ei .
s

Al

f (k, ) =
el

X
l

(2l + 1)fl(k)Pl (cos ) ;

X
|f |2 d
= 4 (2l + 1) |fl |2
l

fl

= Sl2ik 1 ;

= k2

X
l

Sl

= e2i ;
l

(2l + 1) |1 Sl |2 .


(22.1) r
(20.2), , :

ikr
ikr
X
1
e
e
l

(r) + =
2ik l (2l+1)Pl(cos ) Sl r (1) r r
65

(, (20.2)). (1)l+1Sl
. ,
, |Sl | = 1.
, |Sl | < 1, |Sl |2

. ,
Z
_N = (j)r r2 d
= h X(2l + 1) ,
mk l
Z
_N = (j)r r2 d
= h
mk

X
l

(2l + 1) |Sl |2 .


in

|N_ | N_

(j)z



X
2
(2l + 1) 1 |Sl | .
k2 l



. (l) ,
P
= l (l) . (l  1) M = pl = h
 kl = h l, l = l/k = l ( = /2 = 1/k),
(l)

l+1 l ,
(l) = (2 2 ) =
2 (2l + 1) .

l+1
l

, tot =
el + in
(l)
(l) |1 S |2 , (l) = (l) 1 |S |2  , (l) = (l) 2 (1 Re S ) .
el =
l
l
l
tot
in

Sl = 1 , ; |Sl |
, . |Sl | 1,
(l)
(l)
(l) , (l) (l) .
el tot 4
in

= 1

(|Sl | < 1), . Sl = 0



(l )
(l )
(l ) .
in = el =
66

,
X
tot = el + in = 2 (2l + 1) 2 (1 Re Sl )
k l

:
X
X
Im f (k, = 0) = (2l + 1)Pl (1) Im Sl2ik 1 = 21k (2l + 1)(1 Re Sl ) .
l

Im f (k, = 0) = 4k tot .
, :
, .

ka  1 l = l/k  a l 1,
s- . ,
f

= e 2ik 1 ,
2i0


d
d

= const = 4 ,

s-

= 4k2 sin2 0 .


() a. (ka  1) (: E 100
a 1012 , ka 10). . l0 = a l0 = ka  1. l > l0
67

, Sl = 1. l < l0 , Sl = 0. , l  l0 l  l0 , l l0
. ,
el

= in =

l0
X
Z l0
(2l + 1) = k2 0 2l dl
k 2 k2

= a2 ,

tot

= 2a2 ,

= a2 .

<
1/(ka):
f (k, ) =

l0
i X
i
(2
l + 1) Pl (cos ) =
2k l=0
k

del
d

= |f |2

Z l
0

lJ0(l) dl =

(ka)2
1
2
= 4 a 8 sin2 ka 
4
ka 3

ia J (ka) .

 1/(ka)
 1/(ka) .

a ka  1.
, . a2
. ,
, .
Sl = 1 l > l0 . l < l0
Rkl (r) = 0
r<a
v
!
u
u2 1
l
t
Rkl (r)
sin kr 2 + l r > a .
r
r = a l (ka 12 l).

= 2k2

l0
X

(2l + 1)(1 cos 2l ) .

l=0

, cos 2l (1)l cos(2ka), l, . = 2a2 , = a2 .


68


,  1/(ka),
<
1/(ka). ,
f

l0


X
= 2ik (2l + 1) 1 e2i Pl (cos )
l

l=0

f = f + f , f ,
f

i
=
2k

l0
X
l=0

(2l + 1) e2i Pl (cos ) 2i a e2ika sin(/2) .


l

, |f |2 a2 /4  1/(ka) (
d/d
=
a2 /4) 13.32 .
, f f ,
.
.
, m 1 , v 1 / a 1 , h
 /(mva) 1027,
a/ 1027
.

( r )

1
Rkl (r) sin
r

kr

2 + l


Rkl (r)

const ha (E ) eikr + a(E ) eikri ,


r

al (E ) =

1 ei( 12 l) .
i
l

U (r)
E = Er 2i ,, Rkl (r)
,
al

!
i
Er , = 0 .
2

69

1 e2i
fl (E ) =
2ik

1 al (E ) (1)l+1 1
1 =
2ik al (E )
E = Er 2i ,.
i
al (E ) l (E Er + ,) ,
2
l

1 (1)l+1
f l (E )
2ik

l E Er
l E Er +

i
2,
i
2,

1 fl(0) 21k

E Er + 2i ,

e2i

(0)

(0)
(0)
l fl ,
,
(0)
l l arctg
2(E Er ) .
.
:
2

,
(
l)
2
= 4 (2l + 1) |fl | 2 (2l + 1)
k
(E Er )2 + (,/2)2

= Er
4 (2l + 1).
k2

E = Er 2i ,
eikr .
Rl (r) = i, l
r
Rl (r) , v ,2 |l |2 ,/h
 .
|l |2

= h v1, .

,
k Rkl (r) fl (k )
E ( k i),
En < 0 E = En .
70


22.1.
U (r) = G (r a) s- ( 13.34
).
22.2. :
) (
. 13.35 );
) .
22.3. l (k ) U (r) = /r2 , > 0. , , m/h
 2  1 . d/d
( 13.29 ). .
22.4. ?

23.
() r p
^ =
i
h t, A^(r, p
^, t) t .
hA(t)i =

(r, t) A^ (r, t) d3r = h (t)| A^ | (t)i ,

(r, t),

ih t
(r, t) = H^ (r, t) .

(r, t) =

X
n

^
an eiEn t/h n (r) = U^ (t) (r, 0); U^ (t) = eiHt/h

| (t)i = U^ (t) | (0)i .

hA(t)i :
hA(t)i = h (0)| A^H (t) | (0)i ,
71

A^H (t) = U^ 1 (t) A^ U^ (t)

. ,
.

^H
H

= U^ 1H^ U^ = H^ .

:
dA^H
dt

h
i
i
A^H
^
^
= h H, AH + t .

23.1. 7.29-7.31 . .
:
) , ;
) .
23.2. 7.34 . [^
p(t), x
^(t0)] : ) ; ) ; ) .
23.3. 7.36 . p^(t), x^(t), :
h x(t) i, h p(t) i, h (x(t))2 i, h (p(t))2 i
,

2
ip
x
(
x

x
)
0
0

.
(x) = A exp
2
h

2a

72

24. .

=

1 Xe r v
2c a a a a

|e|
2mec M ,

M = e re pe . B

V = B
P

F = V = ()B .
(1921 .)
.
Fz = z Bz /z
|Bz /t| Fz
+|Bz /z|, , .
^ = h L^
M

^L

= BL^ ,

h

= 2|e|
mc
e

.

^z = BL^ z
B l, B (l 1), ... , +B l ,
2l + 1 .
,
,
2l + 1 = 2, l = 1/2.

73

(1925 .): ( ) h
^s, s^z 1/2. , : re = e2 /(mec2 ) , ,
 /2 merev h
v h
 /(mere) h c2/e2 137 c !
(14.2) , 14
.
,
[^sm, s^n] = imnk s^k ,
, [^
sz , s^2 ] = 0
s^2 s^ :
z

3 |s, mi; s^ |s, mi = m |s, mi; m = s = 1 .


z
4
2
|s = 21 , m = 12 i = |+i, |s = 12 , m =
12 i = |i. | i
s^2 |s, mi = s(s +1) |s, mi =

| i = a1 |+i
|a1 |2 + |a2 |2 = 1.
s^z |+i = 12 |+i

+ a2|i ,

(24.1)

1
2

h+|s^z |+i = , h|s^z |+i = 0 ;


,

1
2

h+|s^z |i = 0, h|s^z |i = .
hs, m0 | s^z |s, mi

h+|s^z |+i, h+|s^z |i


h|s^z |+i, h|s^z |i

^l

1 1 0 .
=
2 0 1

= ^lx i^ly

^l |l, mi = q(l m)(l m + 1) |l, m 1i .


74

s^+ |+i = 0, s^+ |i = |+i,

0 1 , s^ = (^s )+ = 0 0 ,
s^+ =

+
0 0
1 0

s^+ + s^

1 0 1 , s^ = s^+ s^ = 1 0 i .
s^x =
=
y
2
2 1 0
2i
2 i 0
s^m (24.1)
,

a
1
.
=
a2

25. .
x, y , z ^s = 12 ,

0 1 ,
x =
1 0

0 i ,
y =
i 0

1 0 .
z =
0 1

:
m n

= I mn + imnk k , Sp m = 0, Sp I = 2 .

2 2 A
A = a0 I + a , a0

= 12 Sp A, a = 21 Sp (A).

, ^ l ^l ,

eh
 ^l .
^l =
2mc
^ s ^s,
,

^e

= 1, 001 159 625 B 2^s B 2^s,

^p

= 2, 79 2^s, ^ n = 1, 91 2^s,
75

h
 ,
= 2|e|
mc
e

h
 .
= 2|e|
mc
p


(, 1927 .)
!

e 2
1
^
^
ih t = H ; H = 2m p^ c A + e ^ sB ,
(25.1)

1 (r, t) ,
=
2(r, t)

:
Z 


| 1 |2 + | 2 |2 d3r

= 1.

i hH,
d^s
^ ^si = 1 ^ e B 2B ^s B .
=
dt h

h

h

,
,
e
ds

s B.
dt
mc

dv
e
=
v B.
dt
mc
, B ,
B ()
c

eB
.
= mc

v (
^ e 2B^s
).
,
!2
e
eh
1
 B = 1
^=
H
p
^
A + e
2m
c
2mc
2m
( .)
76

!!2

p^ ec A

+ e . (25.2)

26.
j1 j2 . ^j = ^j1 + ^j2 , j . : s-
( j1 = s1 = 1/2, j2 = s2 = 1/2, ^j = ^s1 + ^s2
); (j1 = l, j2 = s = 1/2, ^j = ^l +^s) ..
:
1)
^j21; ^j1z ; ^j22; ^j2z j1(j1 +1); m1; j2(j2 +1); m2 :

m1m2 = |j1m1i |j2m2i ;


N = (2j1 + 1)(2j2 + 1) .
2)
^j2; ^jz ; ^j21; ^j22 j (j +1); m; j1(j1 +1); j2(j2 +1):

jm = |jmj1 j2i .


j 2j + 1 m = j, j +
1, ...P, j, (, , N )
N = j (2j + 1),
j1 j2 j.
m1 m2 jm j1
j2 , ,
.
:
) m m1 m2 ?
) j j1 j2 ?
) , jm m1 m2 , :

jm =

X
m1 m2

jm
Cm
1 m2 m1 m2 ;

m1 m2 =

X
jm

jm
C~m
1 m2 jm .

C C~ (
)?
:
77

) ^jz

= ^j1z + ^j2z ,
m = m1 + m2 .

) j 2j1 + 1 ( j2 >j1 ) 2j2 + 1 ( j2 <j1 )

j = |j1 j2 |, |j1 j2 | + 1, . . . , j1 + j2 ,

j jmin = |j1 j2 |
jmax = j1 + j2 ,
j1 , j2 j .
)
jm
Cm
1 m2

= hjm| m1m2 i, C~mjm1m2 = h m1m2 |jmi ,

jm
C~m
1 m2

= (Cmjm1m2 ).

jm
Cm
1 m2 ,
jm
C~m
1 m2

= Cmjm1m2 .


)
.

1.

j1

= s1 = 1/2,

j2

= s2 = 1/2, ^j S^ = ^j1 + ^j2 .

21 12 = | i, 12 21 = | i, 21 12 = | i, 21 12 = | i .
max S = max m = max (m1 + m2 ) = 1,
S = 1, m = 1, 0, 1,
11 = 21 12 = | i .
10 11
S^ = s^1 + s^2 11 ,


10 = 1 12 12 + 12 12 = | i+ | i , 11 = 21 12 = | i .
2
2
78

1m 12 21 12 12 S
max (m) = 0.



00 = 1 12 21 21 12 = | i | i .
2
2
: | i | i S = 1, m = 1

.
. () m = 0

1
2

(| i + | i)

= 1,
1
(| i | i)
2
m = 0 S = 0.
S

= l, j2 = s = 12 , ^j = ^l + ^s.
(2l + 1) 2 m1 m2 = Ylm1 12 m2 :
2. j1

Yll + , Yll1+ , Yll , ... , Yl,l+1 , Yl,l + , Yl,l ,


| {z }
{z
}
|
|
{z
} | {z }
m=l+ 21
m=l 21
m=l+ 21
m=l 21

1
0
+ = 12 12 = , = 12 12 = .
0
1
jmax = max (m1 + m2 ) = l + 1/2,
2jmax + 1 = 2l + 2 l+ 21 ,m ,

Yll

l+1/2, l+1/2 = Yll + = 0

^j = ^l + s^ . ,
^j l+1/2, l+1/2 = 2l Yll1 + + Yll = 2l + 1 l+1/2, l1/2 .
m1 m2 m = l 1/2, , , l+ 21 ,l+ 21 :

Yll1 + 2l Yll .
79

, j = max (m1+
m2 ) = l 21 , 2j +1 = 2l l 21 , m . ,
2l + 2 + 2l = (2l + 1) 2
jm j = l + 1/2 j = l 1/2.
,

+m+1
l+ 21 ,m+ 21 = q 1 ll
m
2l + 1)

lm
l 21 ,m+ 21 = 1
l+m+1
2l + 1

Ylm
Ylm+1
Ylm
Ylm+1

^ Ylm+ , : 
^ )Ylm+ ,
(1 
"
!
!#
2
1
1
1
^ = 2l + 1 ^l + ^s l 2 l 2 + 1 =


1
^
^
^
= 2l + 1 s^l+ + s^+l + 2^sz lz + l + 1
j = l + 1/2.

27.

^
S,
r2, p^2, r^p, ^l2, ^l^s ..,
[J^, S^] = 0

[J^z , S^] = 0, [J^2, S^] = 0 ,

J^ . |JMi
J^2 J^z J (J +1) M , , .

^
=0
hJ 0 M 0 0 |J^z S^ S^J^z |JMi = (M 0 M )hJ 0 M 0 0 |S|JMi
80

, hJ 0 M 0 0 | S^ |JMi M 0 = M . ,
hJ 0 M 0 0 | [J^2, S^] |JMi = 0
, J 0 = J . ,
J^ S^J^+ = S^J^J^+ , , M ( M 0 = M ),

hJ 0 M 0 0 | S^ |JMi = a(J, , 0) JJ 0 M M 0 .

n = r/r. n Y1m(, ):
v
u
u
t

4 Y ,
nz =
3 10

v
u
u
t

= nx i ny = 83 Y11 .

, nz |JMi
jm m = M j = J 1, J , J + 1
J 1 j = 1/2, 3/2 J = 21 . hJ 0 M 0 0 | nz |JMi M 0 = M
J 0 = J, J 1 J 1 J 0 = 1/2, 3/2 J = 1/2. ,
hJ 0 M 0 0 | n |JMi M 0 = M 1 J .
n, ^
. V
:
hJ 0 M 0 0 | V^z |JMi

= M ,
hJ 0 M 0 0 | V^+ |JMi

M 0

= M + 1,
hJ 0 M 0 0 | V^ |JMi

M 0

M 0 = M 1, J 0
J 1, J , J + 1 J 1 J 0 = 1/2, 3/2 J = 1/2.
81

M

[J^z , V^] = V^ ,

V^ ,

[J^m, V^n ] = imnl V^l .

^ Ylm . V
^ () , hl0m0 |V^ |lmi
(1)l , V
l0 = l 1 (, V = r) l0 = l (,
^ = ^l = r p^/h ).
V
28.
[J^m, V^n ] = imnl V^l , ,


^J2 (J^2 V^ V^ ^J2)(J^2 V^ V^ ^J2) J^2 = J^2, [J^2, V^ ] = 2 ^J2 V^ + V^ J^2 4J^ (J^V^ ).
|JM 0 i
|JMi, J^z ,

1 hJM 0 |J^|JMi hJM|J^V^ |JMi ,


J (J + 1)
V
J. , M 0 = M
^ |JMi = C (0, 0, M ), C = 1 hJM| J^V^ |JMi .
hJM|V
J (J + 1)
^ |JMi =
hJM 0 |V

28.1. ( a)(b); ( a)n ; ei a ; e a ; U m U 1 , U = eiz /2 .


28.2. 5.4 .
x, y, z ?
28.3. 5.12 . , ,

cos
= ei
sin ei
82

( s = 1/2 0 /2,
0 < 2), ,
+1/2. .
28.4.
Z

^l d
,

= 1 (Y11 + Y11) ,
2

.
28.5. , s^x = 12 . s^y = 12 .
28.6. 5.15 . s = 1/2

a
b

, n.
, 1 2 a1 a2 + b1 b2 , .
28.7. , p1/2 (l =
1, s = 1/2, j = 1/2) ( n), n
-, .
28.8. ,
x z, B xy = 450 x.
28.9.  p ( . .
9, . 15, 5).
28.9. ( 7.40-7.42 7.44 ).
^ ^a (
v
) (, ), .
s = 1/2
,
B.
83

,
, . . B(t) = B (t) n0 .
s = 1/2
B(t)
Bx

= B0 cos 0t ,

By

= B0 sin 0t ,

Bz

= B1 ,

B0 , B1, 0 .
t = 0
z, sz = 1/2.
z t. , ,
, |B1/B0|  1; 0
.
28.10. 12 12 , 1 1, 1 12 (
-).
28.11.
p1/2 jz = 1/2 : )
; )
.
28.12. s1 = s2 = 1/2, K s1s2 .
B,
g1 g2 .
28.13. hl0 m0 |xj |lmi hl0 m0 |xj xk |lmi .
28.14. ( 13.43 ,
42 ,
(.: , 1989).

29.
.
(x2, x1) = ei (x1, x2).
84


,
(x2, x1) = (x1, x2).
, .

1 [ (x ) (x ) + (x ) (x )],
a 6= b ;
a 1
b 2
a 2
b 1
(x2, x1) = 2
a (x1)b (x2), a = b.
:
( 1
[a (x1 )b (x2 ) a (x2)b (x1)],
2
(x2, x1) =
0, a = b.

a 6= b ;

:
. ( 1/2).

:
, .
,
, .

30.

^
H
p^0 =
c
4-
p^

= ich t
p^ = ih

, ) = i
= ih( 1c t
h .

4-
!
e 2
p A = m2 c2 ,
c

85

A = (A0 = , A) 4- , (1926 1927 .)

!2
!2
e
e

h
i
t i
h A = m2 c2 .
(30.1)
c
c
c

!
(
e
1

j =
2 ih c A +

:
j

e
i
h A
c

= 0.

(30.1) j (
19)
A A f (x), eief (x)/h c ,
(30.2)

f (x) .
, ,
q
p2 (p2)2
V = c m2 c2 + p2 mc2
2m
8m3c2

l ,
. (. (10.1) (17.2))

1
Enl = hnl| V^ |nli = 2mc
2
1

= 2mc2




nl En




nl

2
+
me4 2
e2
nl =
r
2h2 n3

2
2
p^

nl
m

1 3 .

l + 1/2 4n

e2
1
=

h
 c 137
, .

2
l= 1
0

86

n=3

(30.2)

1
l=
0
l

=0

n=2

}n = 1

(30.2).
. , (30.1) .

31.
(. 25)
"
!#2
1
e
(iht e) = 2m p^ c A
, :
"

!
!#2

e
h

2 c2 = 0,

p
^

m
(31.1)
t
0

c
c
= (0, ) .
{...} (31.1) :
"

ih ec A

#"

+ mc

ih ec A mc .

(31.1),
!

"

ih ec A mc

= 0.

(31.2)

(1928 .).
?
2-
n
!
0

= 1 + 2i n

P - (
), , n
87

; , n .
v 2
0

= (1 + v)

P -, v , , v (
).
.
P^ = , P^ = .

0

= 12 v ,

= + 12 v

P - .
4-
,
!

= .
4 4 . ( p^
mc) = 0 p^ + mc (^
p2
m2 c2 ) = 0.

+ = 2g I.

^ . p^0 , p

P^ (0p^0 p
^) = (0p^0 + p^) P^ .

, P^
P^ 0
, 0

= 0P^ ,

= P^ .

= P^ . , ,
P^

P^

0 = P^ =

88

P^ + P^

= 0 ,

!
0
B
=
C 0 .

m n + n m

= 2mn I
= n , n

.
, Bn = Cn
,
!
!
I 0
0

0 =
0 I , = 0 .
 = +0 1

 [(i eA) m] = 0,

. 4-
j

= 

= 0.

% = + ,

j = + ,
!
0

= 0 =
.
0

.
, ,
(30.2).

C

(x) = u(p)eip x

u(p)
(p m) u(p) = 0 .
1

32 h
 = 1, c = 1.
89

,
!

,
u=

(E m) p = 0 ,

p (E + m) = 0 .

,
,
E 2 = p2 + m2 .
,
q
= + p2 + m2 .
(. 12):
1.
p
.
E = , =
+m
+ = 1, u+u = 1,
u p
2.

v
u
u
t

+m
2

v
u
u
t

, A=

+m
2

p
+m
!

A
E = , u,p =
.

.
,
. , .
. , ,
, .
-
- (, 1931 .; , 1951 .). ,
90

.

: E =
12:
2
2
4
2
2
+ m c + p c > mc E = m2 c4 + p2 c2 < mc2 . : mc2 < E < mc2

,
.
, :
E . , .
, . z F = eE = (0, 0, eE ),
U = eEz.

2 4 2
2
E = m c + p c eEz
p = (px, py , 0).
(. 12) (. 13). ,
, (. . 13)
. , , ,
.
2 4 2
2
E = m c + p c eEz
.
q
1
pz (z ) =
(
eEz + E )2 m2 c4 p2 c2
c

91

. 13:

E
m2 c4 + p2 c2

.
z1,2 =
eE
eE

z = z1 z = z2 .
Z z
(m2 c2 + p2 )c
2
S=
.
| p(z ) | dz =
z1
2
eE
W
:

2c2 + p2 )c

(
m

.
(31.3)
W e2S/h = exp
eE h

, ,

. l/
l = z2 z1 mc2 /(eE )
 = h /(mc) S

h
 , l   .

. (31.3) , ,
92

(. . 13), , , ,
.
d3p = d2p dpz , dn = 2d3 p/(2h
 )3 , 2 . dx dy dN_ = djz (z ) dx dy ,
djz (z ) = vz (z ) dn.
vz (z )dpz

E
= p
dpz = dE ,
z

z
p . , ,
dE dz , : dE =
eE dz ( ). , dV =
dx dy dz, (31.4) dN_ . , ,

2 c2 + p2 ) c
Z
dW

d2 p
(
m

.
=
2
eE
exp
P1/2
3
dt dV
(2h )
eE h

, :

2 c3
m
e2 E 2
P1/2 =
exp eE h .
(31.4)
2
3
4 h c
P , , 1/2, , . , ,
, ,
.
. , , , :

2 c3
m
e2 E 2
P0 =
exp eE h .
(31.5)
2
3
8 h c
93

2 c3
1
m
e2 E 2 X
P1/2 =
exp n eE h ,
43h 2c n=1 n2

2 c3
(1)n1
m
e2 E 2 X
n
.
P0 =
exp
2
2
3
eE h

8 h c n=1 n

, , n 2,
>
 ).
, E m2 c3 /(eh
(31.4) (31.5) .

(31.2) 0 ,

i t = H^ , H^ = (i eA) + m0 + eA0 .
x-

^ x] = x.
x_ = i [H,

x2 = I , x 1, c . x
, . ,
px
,
hx i = u+ x u =

d
(^p eA) = eE + e B
dt

d mv

= eE + ev B .
dt 1 v2

^
^l = r p
!
^s = 12 = 12 0 0
:

^ ^l] = p^, i [H,


^ ^s] = p^ .
i [H,

, , ^j = ^l + ^s.
94



(i eA ) + m , :
{(i eA )2

ie F m2} = 0 ,
2

= A A .


.
(
) . e B.
,

((^p eA))2 = (^p eA)2 eB = E 2 m2.


, , .

 (p eA) = const .

p eA mv/ 1 v 2
, , . ,
, .
.

eh
 (1 + ),  1.
=
2mc
2
:
#
"
i
e
(i eA ) m
4m F = 0.


5

I
95

,
:

^
H

^ 5 ] = 0 .
= (^p eA) + e , [H,

L,R = 12 (1 5)

L,R =

L,R
,
L,R

= 12 (1 n) n . ,
(n) L,R = L,R ,
L ( R ) ( ) L,R

. L , R . . , L,R :

^
H

L,R
L,R

eA0
(^
p eA)
(^
p eA)
eA0

(^
p eA) L,R eA0 L,R

L,R
L,R

L,R
L,R

= L,R .

, , , . .

31.1. , , ,
.
 ),
31.2. ( /) E0 = m2 c3 /(eh
?
31.3. ( 15.2, 15.3, 15.27 ).
^ ^l], [H,
^ ^s], [H,
^ ^l + ^s], H^ = p + 0m + U (r) (.
31.4. [H,
15.20 ).
96

^ p^r] |ni = 0, H^ = p + 0m
31.5. hn| [H,
Ze2/r, , En = hn| 0 |ni.
31.6. ,
( 15.25 15.26 ).
31.7. ,
( 15.21, 15.26 15.27 ).
31.8. ( 15.28
15.29 ).
31.9.
( 15.17 15.34
).
31.10. ( 15.11 15.33 ).
32. .
U (r) =
e2/r, i (r) = up exp(ipr) f (r) = up0 exp(ip0r).
- (. 21), Uf i
Uf i

f+ (r) U (r) i(r) d3r

= 4e
q2

u+
p0 u p

0
2

i[p
4
e2 +
q
= q2 f 1 4( + m) + 2(+p]m) i , q = p0 p .


{ } = A + i n B ,

0
p
p,
n = |p0
p|

n .
( z),

+
f (A + i n B ) i 6= 0,
, mi = mf .
97

.
, = m,

1
1 + i[q p]
4e2 2
q 8m2 4m2q2
( +
f i ). -
e2
e2
e2
+
r
2m2 (r) + 4m2r3 l
U (r) = e2 /r
.
, - , = e/(2m) B = v E , E = er/r3 . , , .
p4/(8m3) , :
2 2
2
2
^V = (^p )3 + e 2 (r) + e2 3 ^l .
8m 2m
4m r

l, j
,
. j, l
V^ , , . ,
.
(. 30).

l = 0:
hnjl| (r) |njli = | (0) |2 l0 .
98


l =
6 0:
# * +
^l + "
3
1 (1 ) .
njl
=
j
(
j
+
1)

l
(
l
+
1)

l0

r3
4 r3
| (0) |2 h1/r3i ,
*




njl

hnjl| C^ |njli = 0 , C^ =

"

d ^
, Hr ,
dr

2
2
^ r = 1 d 2 + 2 d l(l +2 1) e
H
2m dr r dr
r
r

.
l(l + 1) e2
1
d
^

C=
+ r2 .
mr2 dr
mr3
h1/r2i (. (17.2)).

*

d
r2 dr

Z
Z
1
= 2 d
0

1 d r2 dr
2
r dr

d||2
dr
dr
l 6= 0. ,

= 2|(0)|2.

hnjl| (r) |njli = | (0) |2


*



njl

r3


+


njl

= a13 n3 l0 ,
B

= a3 n3l(l + 11)(l + 1/2) (1 l0).

B
( )

Enj

3
me4 2 1
= 2 n3 j + 1/2 4n .
2h

3d5/2
3p3/2, 3d3/2 n = 3
3s1/2, 3p1/2
99

2p3/2 ) n = 2
2s1/2, 2p1/2
2s1/2

}n = 1

.
, n
j.

32.1. - (
n = 3 n = 2) .
32.2. Zc , .
32.3. Z1 Z2
R . Z1 < Zc , Z2 < Zc , Z1 + Z2 > Zc .
, R .

33.
B , - A = 12 B r.


V^1

h
 B = eh (^l + )B .
e
= 2mc
(^pA + A^p) 2emc
2mc


V^1

h

= 2emc

X
a

h
 (L^ + 2S^)B = eh (J^ + S^)B ,
(^la + a)B = 2emc
2mc

^ , S^, J^ , L
.
100

p 3/ 2

p1/2
p-.

lz = 1,
lz = 0,
lz = 1,
l z = 0,
lz = 1,

sz = 1/2
sz = 1/2
sz = 1/2
sz = 1/2
sz = 1/2

p-.
^2, L^ 2, J^2
S
J^z .
h
 g J B,
E = hSLJJz | V^1 |SLJJz i = 2emc
z

= 1 + J (J + 1) 2LJ((LJ ++1)1)+ S (S + 1)

(. 28).
.


h
 (L + 2S )B.
E = hSSz LLz | V^1 |SSz LLz i = 2emc
z
z
.
, - 101

, . -. Bc 104 .
L = S = 0
e2
e2
2
V2 =
B]2.
A
=
[r
2
2
2mc
8mc
(L = 0)
*
+
e2 B 2 X 2
E = 12mc2
ra .
a

*
+
X 2
2E
e2
= 6mc2
ra .
=
B 2
a

J = 0, L = S 6= 0, -
V1 . ,
.

33.1. S
( 1 113).

= 1/2

34.
1s2 . ,
, , 1 S 0 . 1s2s 3 S 1
1S . , 3 S ,
0
1
, . 1s2p 3 P
1P . 3 P , 3 P , 3 P 1
0
1
2
- .
102

1P
1

1s2p

3P
2
3P
1
3P
0

1S
0
3S
1

1S

1s2s
1s2

.
.
p1 = p2 , - , r1 = r2 .

p2
p2
2e2 2e2 + e2
H= 1 + 2
2m 2m r1 r2 |r1 r2|
:
p2

E
m

7 e2 .
2r

,
Emin

49 Ry = 6, 1 Ry.
8


Eexp

= 5.808 Ry.

35.

^ = E
H

Z
^ E ) dx.
(H
103


Z
^ dx
H

Z

dx = 1,

E.
0 . 1 , 0 .
2 0 1 , ..

35.1.
.


E ( ) =

^ (x, ) dx
(x, ) H

, ,
E ( ). E , , .
. (x, )
^
H
(x, ) =

X
n

^ n(x) = En n(x) ,
cn ( ) n(x) , H

cn ( )

X
|cn ( )|2 = 1 .
n

,
E ( ) =

X
n

En |cn ( )|2 .

104

, E ( ) E0 E ( ) = E0 cn ( ) = n0 .
Ze.
2
2
Ze2 Ze2
p
^
p
^
e2
1
2
^
H=
2m + 2m r1 r2 + |r1 r2| .

(r1, r2) = (r1) (r2),

(r) =

v
u
u
u
t

3 r/aB
e
.
a3B

, ,
, Z,
.

!
5
2
E ( ) = 2 2Z + Ry .


E0

5 )2 Ry
= 2(Z 16

= Z 5/16. (Z = 2) E0 =
5, 695 Ry. (5.808 Ry)
1,9 %.
H (Z = 1) E0 = (121/128) Ry,
(Ry).
,
, (Ry), H .


(r1, r2) = 1(r1)2(r2) 1 (r2)2 r1),
, .
- :
(r1, r2) = (r1) (r2).
105

(r1)
Z

^ E )(r1)(r2) = 0 ,
dr2 (r2)(H

2
h

2
e2

 r
2m

2
h

2
e2
0 0
0
dr (r )
2m  r0

e2
0

(r
)
(r) =

|r r0|

= E (r) .
- .

35.1.
He : 1s2 , 2s2 , 1snl,
1s2s.

36.
70 .
, .
, , Z, ( ,
, , ). Z ,
aB /Z 1/3 .
( ). n(r) = Z F (rZ ).

Z

= 4

dr r2 n(r) = 4Z 3

dx x2F (x).


dr r3 n(r)
hri = R0
Z Z 1/3 .
2
0 dr r n(r)
R

106

= 1/3,
n(r) = Z 2 F (rZ 1/3).

:
U (r) =

Z
f (rZ 1/3) .
r

r < 1/Z 1/3 , f (0) =


1.

q
q

hpi 2T |U | Z/r Z 2/3


( , T
U , ).

hli hri hpi Z 1/3.

E Z Z (Z 1/3)1

= Z 7/3.

Z ,
Z , (Z 1/3)1
.
. Z 1 , Z ,
Z 2 .
Z 1/3 .

36.1. ( 11.29-11.31 11.33


).
36.2. . . , .
107

37.
. 73.

38.

2
2
2
Z
^ = X p^a + U + V^ , U = X Ze + X e ,
H
a ra
a=1 2m
a<b | ra rb |
U
, V^ .

= H^ + V^ + V^ .
^ H
V (r),
^
H

^
H

Z
X
a=1

^ a , H^ a
H

2
= 2p^ma + V(ra) .

V (r) Enl ,
. ,
.

V^

= U

X
a

V (ra)

.
L
ML , S MS .
, , , , , (
), S. , V^
ESL S L, MS
108

ML , J = L+S. ,
Ry; .
V^
. (32.1) . -
,
V^ls

X
a

A(ra ) ^la^sa ,

(38.1)

^la ^sa , A(ra)


. Ze (32.1)
Ze2h
2 1 .
A (r ) =
(38.2)
2m2c2 r3
- (v/c)2 . r3 aB /Z , v/c
Z. , - Z 2 2 . .
LS
, - , |V | 
|V |, S L.
S L
, V^ls .
LS- .
ESLJ
:
1. , S (
, 109

). ( )
, S = 0.
2. , L ( S).
p2 ,
L .
3. , J ,
( S L).
J ,
j .
- . , J . (, , ,
, - .)
-
. (38.1) S L,

^ S^ ,
hLS| V^ls |LSi = ALS L
ALS < 0 , () . , ,
J :
>

= ESL + ALS hLSJ| L^ S^ |LSJi =


= ESL + ALS 12 [J (J + 1) L(L + 1) S (S + 1)] .
ESLJ

jj
, -
, |V |  |V |.
V ,
V (ra) + A(ra) ^la^sa .
110

j = l 1/2 mj . |nljmj i
( )
J MJ .
V .
, jj , ,
V Vls .
: p2
LS . , S = 1, , L = 1.
S = 0 L = 0, 2.
3 P 0,1,2 .
, 1S 0 1 D2 ,
(
). LM . a- p-
Y1m(n(a) ) - n(a) =
ra/ra (. 14). 1S 0 , ,

3 n(1) n(2) .
00 =
4
1 D 2 , , Lz = +2, , lz = +1,
22

= Y11(n(1)) Y11(n(2)) = 83

(1)  n(2) + in(2)  .


n(1)
+
i
n
x
y
x
y

e2/|r1 r2| ,
r1 r2 . , . n(1) = n(2)
|22 |2
|00 |2

= 34 (n2x + n2y )2 .
111

, 3/4, 1. , D- ,
S, D-, , .
, LS
:
3P
1D ; 1S .
(38.3)
0,1,2;
2
0
jj . p2 Z , -
,
- , j, p- 1/2 3/2.
p- (j1 j2 )J , J = 0, 1, 2. :

1 1! ;
22 0

1 3! , 1 3! ; 3 3! , 3 3! .
(38.4)
22 1
22 2
22 0
22 2
, j1 = j2 = 1/2
J = 1, Jz = 1 . ( Jz = 3)
j1 = 3/2, j2 = 3/2 J = 3. ( 23 32 ) c Jz = +1

:
1/2 +3/2. 

3
3
J = 2, 2 2 1 .
j ,
(38.3), , .
,
J .
(38.3) (38.4) , , LS jj , :
J

= 0;

J
3P 1 S
0
0

= 1; J = 2; J = 2; J = 0.
= 0
J

1 1! 3 3! .
22 0
22 0
112

, J
3 P 2 1 D2

= 2 -

1 3! 3 3! .
22 2
22 2

38.1. nsn0 p; npn0p;


p3 ; d2 ( 11.12 11.20 ).
38.2. 2. ,
? N ( )?
38.3.
P, Cr, S, V, Al, Fe, Cl, Ti.
38.4. . ( ) , , ( ).
?

39. ()
,
, .

.
:
*
+
e p
h
 eh 1 2 m Ry.
E r3 2emc
mp c a3B
mp
, 2 , ;
, m/mp , .

e
^ + A^ p^ + h B^ ),
V^ =
(^
p
A
2mc
113

^
A^ = r3 r = 1r ^

^ . -,

^
B^ = A^ = 3n(n^r3) + 83 ^ (r), n = rr .

eh
 2^^l +
V^ =
2mc r3

3n(n)(n^) ^ + 8 ^ (r) .
r3
3

^ :

^ = 2, 79

|e|h
 ,
2mpc p

(1/2) p . s-
h
 h i .
E = 2|e|mch 83 a13 n3 2, 79 2|e|
p
mc
B

h p i = 2F (F

+ I) 3 ,

^ = 12 ( + p) . F
,
F = 1 F = 0, , ,
m
E E (F = 1) E (F = 0) = 2, 79 16
2
3 m Ry ,
p

E/(2h
 ) = 1420
21 .
Z ,
. ,
Z 2 2 . - , Z,
, Z . ,

m
Z2
.
mp
114


39.1. , B(0) , .
39.2. .
39.3. n = 1
,
.
.
39.4. D5/2 39
19 K , . ?
?

40.
M
.

=

m
mM
m(1 ).
m+M
M

E = ( m
E

mp

m
m
)
=
2 104 .
2mp 2mp

P2 /(2M ). P
P
: P = n pn .

EM = 2MM2

X
n

pn

!2

1 X p2 + X p p .
= AA2 2m
n m
n
n
p
n6=m

EM AA2 mm Ry ,
p

A .
115


. (.: 120)
R:

2 Ze2R2|(0)|2 .
5
R A1/3r0 , r0 = 1, 21013 .
!
r0 2
2
EV A A Z a Ry ,
B
e Z | (0)|2 (.: 71).
:
1/3

EV Z 2A5/3 mp r0 !2 106Z 11/3 ,


EM
m aB
, A 2Z . Z 40,
.
.

41.
(.: 40-42).
.
, R(t) , Ze. V (t) :
Ze2
V (t) =
|R(t) re|

Ze2
,
|R(t) rp|

R(t) = + vt .

,  aB .

Ze2 Rr
2 xvt + y ,
V (t) =
=
Ze
R3
(2 + v2t2)3/2
116

r = re rp . , s-
p- lz = 1. 2p
lz = +1.
1 Z dt eit V (t) = 27 Ze2 aB Z d ei i + .
21
h
 0
35 h v
(1 + 2)3/2

 = /v , = (E2 E1)/h
.
1. ,  1 , ei 1.

8 Ze2 a
2
B
i 5
3 h v .
, Ze2/(
hv )
. (
lz = 1)
17 Ze2 2 a2
2
B.

W () = 10
3
h
 v 2
,  1.

2.
, , :
17
2 2
2
Ze

W () = 9
3
h
v

1
a8B e2
e2 .
8
h
v

= 2

Z
max
min

d W ().

- max
v/.
, min  aB .
hv )  1 ( Ze2/(
hv ) v  v , e2 /(
), h
 v/e2
:
18 Ze2 2
Z v/
2
h
v .
a2 ln
d W () = 10
2
B
aB
3
h
v
e2
117

42.
, i (r) =
er/a / a3 , a = h 2/(me2) Ei = Ry, , 4-
= 0, A(r, t) = A0 ei(krt) + A0 ei(krt) , = c |k|, kA0 = 0 .
, , v = p/m ,
  v  c. : e2 /h

. 14:

, f (r)

p2 = h + E h .
Ef =
i
2m
 q = p h k p,
h
h
 k p2 = v  1 .
p
2mcp 2c

e
V^ (r, t) = A(r, t)^
p
mc

e
ikr ^ ,
V^ (r, t) = F^ eit + F^ +eit , F^ =
A
0e p
mc

= eip r/h ,

F^
2 | F |2 (E E h ) d3p .
dwf i =
f
i
h
 fi
(2h )3
118


Ff i

= ieh A
mc

r/a
e
iqr

a3

8eh
d3 r

a3 pA0
mc (pa/h
 )4 h .


d3 p = p2 dpd
= mpdEf d
,

(Ef Ei h
 ) d3p mpd
.

= 1c tA = E 0 ei(krt) + E 0 ei(krt)

E 0 = i(/c) A0 , |pA0 |2 = (c/ )2 |pE 0 |2 .



d

64
| nE 0 |2 a3
0
dwf i =

h


!
0 7/2
d
,

n = pp ,

= Ry
h
 .

d, dwf i j ,
S S =
h
 j . ,
S

= 4c |E (t)|2 = 2c |E 0|2

( ). ,

d
d

= 64 a2

!
0 7/2

cos2 ,

p
E0 . d = /2 ,
. :

256 a2
=
3
119

!
0 7/2
.

Ze
5
Z . Z 2 , ,
Z 3
(, ). Z 5
K -.
<
(
h 1
) ,
.

42.1. E (t) = E 0 e|t|/ ( ,


). :

1
dWf i = 2 2
h



Vf i it 2
e dt
t

d3 p
(2h )3 ,


e
Vf i
E (t)pf i .
=
t
m
42.2. ( 11.78 ).
42.4. , (e/mc)A^
p, erE ,

. ? ?

43.
div A(r, t) = 0, = 0, -
A(r, t)

1 2A A = 0.

c2 t2

120

, ,
3 h
Z
i
A(r, t) = (2dk)3 Ak(t) eikr + Ak(t) eikr
(43.1)
Ak(t)

A k + k2 Ak = 0,

= c| k|, .
(43.2)
, , k,
k

Ak(t) ei t , Ak(t) ei t .
k

(43.3)

(43.1) , k . . , .
V = L1L2 L3 .
( ) ki = 2 ni/Li , ni ( )
. (43.1)

A(r, t) =

X h

Ak(t) eikr + Ak(t) eikr

(43.4)

Ak (t)
(43.2) (43.3), . , (43.4),
E (r, t) B(r, t),

1 A , B = A
E =
c t

Ek

= ick Ak , Bk = ik Ak .

(43.5)

- div A(r, t) = 0 k Ak = 0, Ak , k,
121

. . k , = 1, 2 (
),
: k k , : k k0 = 0 :
X

(k)i (k)j = ij kkik2 j

(43.6)

( i, j ;
, k). Ak (t)

Ak(t) = Ck

ak (t) k

Ck
v
u
u
t

2
h

c2
.
Ck =
V
k

,
E k

= h k ak ak ,

(k/k ) Ek/c.
,

A(r, t) =

v
u
X u
t

2h c2 X ha (t) eikr + a (t) eikri


k
k
k
k
V

E
d3 r

2 + B2

Ek ,
k

E

P=

d3 r
122

E B
4c

(43.7)
(43.8)


X
P = kk Eck .
k
,
p2
m 2 x2
H=
2m + 2

mx + ip mx ip
, a =
a=
2mh
2mh
 aa. (. 7) H = h
a(t) a (t) a^ a
^+ h
( ,
). H

^
H

= 12 h (^a+a^ + a^a^+ ) .

[^
a, a
^+ ]
^
H

^
H

= 1 -

= h (^n + 1/2), n^ = a^+a^ ,

^ ,
n
n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
,
ak (t) ak (t) a^+
k
a
^k , h k , h k
, (43.7)
A^ (r) =

v
u
X u
t

2h c2 a^ eikr + a^+ eikr .


k k
k k
V
k

(43.9)

E (r, t) B(r, t)

^ (r) =
E

v
u
k u
t

2h c2 a^ eikr a^+ eikr ,


k k
k k
V
k

123

(43.10)

B^ (r) =

v
u
X u
t

2h c2 ik a^


ikr a
^+kk eikr ,

k k e

k V
k
(43.8)
:

^
H

^ k , H^ k
H

= 12 h k a^+ka^k + a^ka^+k


^
X
P^ = kk Hck .

[^ak, a^+k] = kk
0

^ k
H
^ k
H

= h k (^nk + 1/2), n^ k = a^+ka^k ,

^ k ,
n
nk = 0, 1, 2, . . .
| nk , t i , nk h
 k , h k .

ik t
a^+
k | nk , t i = nk + 1 | nk + 1, t i e ,
a
^k | nk, t i = nk | nk 1, t i eikt ,

^ (r)
(43.9) (43.10) , A
^ (r) E
. , ^ (r) :
A

^ (r) | nk, t i = Af i(r) eikt ,
h nk + 1, t | A
v

u 2 h

c2 ikr
t
Af i(r) = nk + 1 V k e ,
k

^ (r) | nk, t i = Af i(r) eikt ,


h nk 1, t | A
124

(43.11)

Af i(r) =

n k

v
u
u
t

2h c2 eikr .
k
V
k

(43.12)

, , ,
nk = 0. .
. ,
. .
,
.

, . ,
.
( 1/2)
, .
. ,  N , N
, , h
.  >

N  N 1. , N N ,
>

.
z,
x.
 N .
Ex0 h
y . ,

, Ey
 .
0 h
: Ey0 /Ex0 1/ N . N .

125

44.

i f h
 = Ei Ef , h k k .
+ i | nk i f | nk + 1 i
e ^
V^ =
A(r) p^ ,
(44.1)
cm
^ (r) eikr (43.9).
A
kr

v
aB
 1,
c
c

^ (r)
r : A
A^ (0), V^
e
it ,
Vf i eit =
A
(44.2)
f i (0) pf i e
cm
^ ,
Af i (43.11). H

pf i = mr_ f i = m hi hf | H^ r rH^ | f i = irf i ,

(44.3)

(42.2)
^ (0) ,
V^ = er E
(44.4)

^ (r) (43.10).
E
. ,
er :
er d =

X
a

ea ra .

(44.5)

.
(44.2),
d

V d3 k
V 2
2
dwf i =
| Vf i | (
h + Ef Ei)
=
| Vf i |2 d

3
2
3
h

(2) (2h ) c
126

( (43.6) (44.3), (44.5))


3
dwk =
| df i k |2 (nk + 1) d

3
2h c

(44.6)

( V
). nk + 1 ,
nk , ;
, 1, ,
. , ,

. 15: ,

, k df i (. . 15).

( (43.1))

2

dwk
3
k

df i
.
=
(44.7)

3
d

2h c
k
df i (0, 0, 1),
dwk
sin2 ,
d

. , z.
df i (1, i, 0),
dwk
1 + cos2 ,
d

127

,
xy.
I h
 :
4
4
I =h
 w = 3c3 | df i |2 .
(44.8)
.
e2 4 r2
e2 2
.
I 3 r
c
c3
, , ,
,
3 2
I
3 2
2
w=
h
 e h c3 r c2 r .

 wf i
| rf i |/c , , = h

, 3 h .

= w1 31 .


, E 1, hf |d|ii: ;
J = 1, 0; 0-0 ; l = 0.
m: Ez m = 0, Ex,y E
m = 1.
v/c
M 1 E 2 . 1 (. (44.4), (44.5))
V^

h
 (L^ + 2S^) B^ (0) .
= ^ B^ (0) = 2emc

/(eaB ) , 1.
1 :
128

; J = 1, 0; 0-0 .
(, p1/2 p3/2 ).

, , .
f i
h
 = Ei Ef , h k k .
+ f | nk i i | nk 1 i
(44.1). , , , | Vf i |2 ,
wf
i , nk +1
nk .
wf
nk
i
=
.

wif
nk + 1

45.
,
. ,
,
, . ,
E B ,
. h
 /2, - E
h
 = |E |2 V ,
(45.1)
2
4
V , .
, U (r) =
e2/r, , .
129

, .

1
2

h U (r + ) i = U (r) + h i U (r) + h i k i i k U (r);


h i = 0,

h i k i =

1 h 2 i .
3 ik

, ( , U (r) = 4e2 (r))

1 h 2 i U (r) = 2 e2 (r) h 2 i .
6
3
 = eE - m
U (r) =

e
= m
2 E .

(45.1)
2

!
eE 2
m 2

e2h
= 2 m22V .

h 2 i 2 ,
, V d3 k/(2 )3
(
V )
h 2 i

V d3 k
(2)3

= 2

h
 !2 Z d .
mc

min
, , max mc2 /h
,
. ,
!2
8
1
h

2
(r) .
U (r) = ln e
3

mc

(
s-)
!2
8
1
h

16 3 ln 1 Ry .
2
| n (0) |2 =
En = ln e
3 mc
3
n3

130

2s1/2

2
3 1
E2 =
3 ln Ry .
, . , (/2 )B ,
, (/2 )2 (3 / ),
. ,
, 2s1/2
!
3
1
2
E2 =
3 ln 1, 089 Ry = 1034 ,
2s1/2 2p1/2 E2s1 2 E2p1 2 =
1057, 91 0, 01 1057, 90 0, 06 .
/

Z 4 .
Z Z 3 | (0) |2 .

45.1. ) 2pm 1s .
dw/d
, w, , ,, ( 14.1 ).
)
, , ?
45.2. n  1, n l  n.
n l
.
45.3. ( 14.2 ).
45.4. n = 3
n = 2 (- ) (
--).
45.5. ns1/2 . , ?
131

45.6.
( 14.9 ).
45.7. B. 2p1/2 1s1/2 + .
, : ) , ) ,
? ?
45.8.
( 14.7 ).
45.7. :
) 0(J P = 1) 0 (0) + ,
) A1(1+) (0) + .

45.8. ( ln (1/) 
1) , .
:
) ;
) ;
) m/M .

46.
: ( )
, , ( ). ,

v
2

u
2
u 2 h

c 2
|r0n|2
|r0n|2
t

c
E0 En + h
 + E0 En h
2h
 e2a2B

1 +
1 !.
E + h E h

2 .
2 (2k)dkd
3d(
 c3
h ) 2 h
132

2/h
 c1 :
!
!
aB 2 2
1
1
2
2
aB
(
h )
c
E + h + E h .

  E
h
!
4
2
2
aB
.

h
  E
!
(h)2 r2 ,
aB 2 2
2
(
h )2
aB
e
c
(h)4
re = e2 /(mc2 ) .
, h
 = E = En E0 ,
:
En E n

i , , , 3 h .
2

!
a2B
h

2
2
4
2 2 .
aB
,

46.1. ( 14.14 ).

47.
m/M ,
Ri . E Ri , E (Ri) .
,
s
m m
elect : osc : rot 1 :
:
M M
133

. (.: 78.)

47.1. U (R) H2+ .


"

g (r, R) = C+(R)

!
!#
1
1
r 2R + r + 2R ,

r/
e
(r) =
( )3/2 ,
R/2 .
U (R) -

"

u(r, R) = C(R)

!
!#
1
1
r 2R r + 2R .

48. :

:
) | i ;
b) F^ ;
c) F
f F^ ;
d) F
h | F^ | i;
e)
^
H

^ | i .
| i = H
ih t

134


| f i |f i , f = (f1, f2, ..., fN ), .
:
| p i |pi p;
| r i |ri , r.
, | i |i, h |i = h| i , h |
, | i.
|f i , hf |f 0i =
f f 0 . . .
.
. | i
hf | i |f i:
| i =

X
f

|f ihf | i =

X
f

|f i (f ) .

hf | i (f ), f , f -.
| f i, F^ ,
F^ | f | = f | f i ,
F , f
. F | i
X
X
h | F^ | i = h |f ihf | F^ |f 0 ihf 0 | i =
f | (f )|2 ,
ff0

F | i f F^
| (f )|2 . , | (f )|2 f . (f ) .
135


(g ) =

X
f

hg|f i (f ) ,

hg|f i = f (g ) = g (f )
2 .
:

hr|pi = p (r) =

eipr/h .
(2h )3/2

hr|pi = hp|ri

eipr/h (r) d3r ;


(2h )3/2
r
ipr/h
Z
X
e
(r) = hr| i = hr|pihp| i =
(p) d3p .
/
2
3
(2h )
p

(p) = hp| i =

hp|rihr| i =

.
,
^
| i |i, , G
^ i.
|i = G|
^
. G
^ |f i:
|f i Gf 0 f = hf 0 | G

^ i=
G|f

X
f0

^ |f i =
|f 0 ihf 0 | G

X
f0

|f 0 iGf 0 f .

^ i =
G|

X
f

^ | i =
|f ihf | G

X
ff0

^ |f 0ihf 0| i =
|f ihf | G

X
ff0

|f iGf f 0 (f 0).

^=
G

X
ff0

|f iGf f 0 hf 0 |

f ,
f f 0
R
P
0
- (f f ), f ... ...df .

136

, Gf f 0 .
,
^ i F -:
|i = G|
(f ) = hf |i =

X
f0

Gf f 0 (f 0); (f 0) = hf 0 | i.

:
Gf f 0

X
= hf | G^ |f 0i = hf |gihg| G^ |g0 ihg0 |f 0i .
gg 0

: p-

hp0 | p
^ |pi = p (p p0) ;

Z

(r r0) .
r
(r)
Z
d3r0 hr| p
^ |r0i(r0) = ih (r)
r .

hr0 | ^r |ri = r (r0 r) ; hp0 | ^r |pi = i


h (p0 p) ;
p
Z
(p)
hp| ^r |p0 i (p0 ) d3p0 = +i
h
.
p
, ^r p
^ ( ) - :
hr | p
^ |ri =
0

d3pd3 p0r0 (p0 ) p (p p0 ) r (p) = +i


h

Gf f 0

= G^ S(f ) (f 0 f ) .

^ S(f ):
G
X
f0

^ S(f ) (f ) .
Gf f 0 (f 0 ) = G

^ S(f ) f - G
( Gf f 0 ). , r-
r^S = r , p^S = ih r ;
p-
r^S = +ih p , p^S = p .
137


60x80/16

.-..

,
630090, 90. , 2.
138